Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Fiction Plot Structure

Exposition
________
Rising Action
Climax

The first part of the plot


Characters, setting, and basic
situation are revealed

Main part of the story


Moves the plot along
Where complications arise

The most exciting or intense


part of the story for the
protagonist
The OMG!
Usually the turning point

Falling Action

Events that follow the


climax and lead to the
resolution
Conflicts begin moving
towards resolution

Resolution

The end of the story


Loose ends of the plot are
tied up
Remaining questions are
answered
Conflicts are resolved

Story Devices

Foreshadowing

Hints or clues suggesting what


may happen later in a story

Suspense

The anxiety a reader feels


about what may happen next in
a story

Flashback

Interrupting the plot of the


story to recreate an incident
of earlier time

Cliffhanger

An ending to a section, chapter


or book that leaves the reader
in suspense

Point of View

First Person

Told from a viewpoint of one of


the characters using the
pronouns I & we

Second Person

The writing addresses the


reader using the pronouns
you, your, and yours.

Third Person
Limited

The narrator is an outside


observer that focuses on the
thoughts and feelings of only
one character

Third Person
Omniscient

The narrator is an outside


observer that focuses on the
thoughts and feelings of all
characters

Third Person
Objective

The narrator reports the facts


as a seemingly neutral and
impersonal outside observer

Authors Purpose

The main reason an author decides to write about a topic

Persuade

The author wants you to do,


buy, or believe something.
Examples- advertisements, persuasive
letters, opinions, campaign speeches

The author wants to give you


information.

Inform

Examples- textbooks, expository


essays, biographies, newspapers
articles, directions

The author wants to amuse you or


for you to enjoy the writing.

Entertain
Explain

Examples- fiction stories, poems, songs,


plays, jokes, narratives

The author wants to tell you how


to do something or how something
works.
Examples- instructions, directions,
steps, procedures, how-to recipes

Describe

The author wants you to visualize


or experience a person, place or
thing.
Examples- product descriptions,
descriptive essays, imagery

Non-Fiction Text Structures

Description
Compare & Contrast

Order & Sequence

The author provides several details of


something to give the reader a mental
picture.
Clues- many adjectives, characteristics,
or examples
The author discusses similarities and
differences between people, things,
concepts, or ideas.
Clue words: similar (compare),
differ (contrast)
The author provides readers with
chronological events or a list of steps
in a procedure.
Clues- events in order of occurrence
instructions given, step-by-step, order
words: first, next, etc.

Problem & Solution

The author gives information about a


problem and explains one or more
solutions.
Clues- a problem is solved or needs
solving, problem, solution, solve

Cause & Effect

The author describes an event or


several events (cause) and the events
that follow (effect).
Clues- cause, because, effect, as a
result of, due to reason, triggers

Non-Fiction - Features

Topic

The general subject that the passage is


about, usually one or two words.

Topic Sentence

A sentence in a passage that states the


main idea of that passage.
*Some passages may not have a topic
sentence.
A statement that tells what a passage is
mostly about.

Main Idea

The reader can determine this AFTER


reading and comprehending because it is
not always stated outright in the
passage.

Supporting Details

More narrow ideas, evidence, examples,


details, and elaboration that support
the main idea in a passage.

Fact

A statement that can be verified or


proven to be true.

Opinion

A personal belief. A statement that


cannot be proven true.

Commonplace
Assertion

An opinion. A statement that many


people assume to be true. May be true
for some people but it is not true for
others.

Loaded Terms

Words that stir up emotions in people

Fiction Features

Conflict

A struggle between opposing


forces or characters.

Internal
Conflict

Takes place inside a characters


mind or heart. Sometimes it
involves a decision.

External
Conflict

Takes place between a character


and something outside the
character.
Outside forces Nature, an
event/situation, or another character

Man vs. Self

Man vs. Nature

Man vs. Society

Man vs.
Character

A struggle between a character


and his feelings, conscience, or
fear.

A struggle between a character


and mother nature.
Mother nature weather, animals,
insects, sickness, epidemics

A struggle between a character


and the laws or beliefs of a group,
could involve poverty, politics,
social norms, expectations, or
values.

A struggle that is mental or


physical between two characters,
the other character may be the
antagonist.

Figurative Language

Simile

A comparison of two unlike things


using the words like or as

Metaphor

A comparison of two unlike things

Personification

Giving human qualities to nonhuman


things

Hyperbole

An exaggeration that cannot


possibly be true

Onomatopoeia

Words whose sound suggest their


meaning

Idiom

A group of words whose collective


meaning is quite different from
their individual, literal meaning

This pizza is cold as ice!

My love is a rose.

The cupcake was calling to her.

Im so hungry I could eat a horse.

Boom Rip Drip

Its raining cats and dogs.

Allusion

Im ready to build an ark!


Reference to the bible.

A reference to a person, place, or


event from literature, sports,
history, movies, or the arts

Poetic Terms

Alliteration

The repetition of the same initial


consonant sound in a series of
words

Repetition

The use of a word, phrase, line or


sound more than once, such as I
have a dream from Martin Luther
Kings speech.

Rhyme Scheme

The repetition of sounds at the


end of words, as in sun and one.
Rhyme scheme is the pattern that
the end rhyming words follow.
ABAB CDCD

Line

Core unit of a poem


*Compare to a sentence in a
paragraph

Stanza

Group of lines
*Compare to a paragraph in a story
*Grouping of stanzas is important
to a poem and its flow

Speaker

A voice that talks to readers in a


poem
*Compare to a narrator in a story

Lyrical Poem

Expresses the observations and


feeling of a single speaker, usually
short and has no specific pattern.
*Not necessarily musical

Narrative Poem

Tells a story that contains


characters, setting, and plot.

Epic Poem

Long narrative poem about the


adventures of gods or heroes.
They are serious in tone and broad
in theme.

Imagery/
Sensory
Details

How the author appeals to your


senses to make a story more vivid.
Imagine what they want you to
hear, smell, feel, see, taste
through the characters actions.

Mood

*Reader Centered*
The overall feeling or atmosphere
created by a work of literature.
For example calm, gloomy, peaceful,
optimistic

Tone

*Writer Centered*
The attitude a writer takes towards the
subject.
For example passive, enthusiastic,
thoughtful, judgmental, critical,
regretful

Theme

The truth or central idea a story


reveals about life. A lesson we learn
through a characters experiences.
Implied not stated.
*Moral, life-lesson, message
Such as- Never give up on your dreams

Symbolism

An object that has a deeper meaning or


represents something other than its
literal meaning. Such as the train in the
poem Midnight which represents a
schedule to keep for the speaker.

Protagonist

Good guy who is usually the main


character.

Antagonist

Bad guy creating obstacles for the


protagonist.

Dialogue

Conversation being held by the


characters in a story.

Non-Fiction Genres

Biography

A true narrative or account of a


real persons life written by
someone else.

Autobiography

A true narrative or account of a


persons life written by that
person.

Informational Text

A factual description written to


inform the reader about a topic.

Article

A short and focused factual


description often published in
newspapers, magazines, and online.

Advertisement

A notice written to persuade


readers to do, buy, or believe
something.

Speech

A spoken address often used to


inform or persuade the public.

Elements of Persuasive Techniques

Ethos

The writer provides evidence to the audience


that he/she is credible and knowledgeable
about the subject matter

Logos

The writer persuades the reader through the


use of the reasoning and providing factual
evidence to support his/her claim

Pathos

The writer appeals to the readers emotions


such as anger, love, fear, pity and even social
acceptance

Persuasion

The art of swaying others feelings, beliefs,


or actions. It appeals to both the mind and
emotions.
To have an attraction to something

Appeal
Argument
Claim
Premise
Logical Fallacy
Support
Counter-Argument
Debate
Evidence

Speaking or writing that expresses a position


on a problem, and supports it with reason and
evidence
In an argument, it is the writers position on
an issue or problem. Writers can have more
than one claim
General principle that most readers/people
would agree is true
An error of reasoningit keeps us from
getting to the truth
Any information that helps prove a claim:
facts, statistics, examples, or quotations
from experts
An argument made to oppose other
arguments
Organized exchange of opinions on an issue
Is a specific information that is used to back
up a topic

Quotation
Example
Statistic
Anecdote
Propaganda
Propaganda
Techniques
Bandwagon
Name Calling
Glittering
Generalities
Testimonial
Emotional Appeals
Logical Appeals

Documented record of someones comments


about a topic
Specific instance that illustrates a general
idea
Fact given in number form
Brief account of an event that can be used to
illustrate an idea
Any form of communication that is so
distorted that it conveys misleading or false
information to advance a specific belief or
cause
Any technique that attempts to influence the
opinions, emotions, attitudes, beliefs, or
behavior of a group in order to benefit the
sponsor
Makes the appeal that everyone else is doing
it, and so should you-Be part of the in
crowd-Dont be left out
Negative words or feelings are attached to
an idea, product, or person
Opposite of name calling-used to inspire a
positive feeling about an idea, person, or
product---glittering because words make
idea, products, or people sound great.
A famous person or celebrity who promotes
or endorses a product, policy, idea, or a
political candidate
Uses feelings rather than facts
Uses sound reasoning and facts