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Measuring Earths

magnetic field
using Tangent
Galvanometer
Made by: Ankita Tripathi
Roll no: 5648057

CERTIFICATE

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

This is to certify that Ankita Tripathi of class


XII-B has completed the physics project
entitled: Measuring Earths magnetic field
using a tangent galvanometer, herself and
under the guidance of Mr. Siby Sebastian.
All the work related to the thesis had been
done by the candidate herself. The
approach was sincere and scientific.

Mr. Siby Sebastian


(Subject teacher)

Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to the Almighty to give me
strength to successfully complete my
project.
This project wouldnt have been feasible
without the proper and rigorous guidance
of my Physics teacher Mr. Siby
Sebastian, who guided me throughout
this project in every possible way.
I am deeply indebted to my school for
providing the best of facilities and
environment to bring out our innovation
and spirit of inquiry through this venture.

Index
Materials Required
Principle
Diagram
Theory
Procedure
Observations
Calculations
Result
Precautions
Sources of error
Bobliography

Materials Required
Tangent galvanometer (TG),
Rheostat (R),
Battery (E),
Ammeter (A),
Key (k)
Reversing key
Connecting wires
Metre scale

Principle
When a bar magnet is suspended in two
Magnetic fields B and Bh, it comes to rest
making an angle with the direction of
Bh.

Diagram

Theory
Tangent galvanometer is an early
measuring instrument for small electric
currents. It consists of a coil of insulated
copper wire wound on a circular nonmagnetic frame. Its working is based on
the principle of the tangent law of
magnetism. When a current is passed
through the circular coil, a magnetic field
(B) is produced at the center of the coil in
a direction perpendicular to the plane of
the coil. The TG is arranged in such a way

that the horizontal component of earths


magnetic field (Bh) is in the direction of
the plane of the coil. The magnetic needle
is then under the action of two mutually
perpendicular fields. If is the deflection
of the needle, then according to tangent
law,

Let I is the current passing through the


coil of radius a with n turns, then the field
generated by the current carrying circular
coil is,

Equating (1) and (2), we get,

The left hand side of equation (4) is a


constant and is called the reduction factor
(K) of the given tangent galvanometer.

Now from equation (3) & (5), the


horizontal intensity of earths magnetic
field Bh is,

Procedure
For performing in real life
Connections are made as shown in the figure,
where K is the key, E the battery, A the ammeter,
R the rheostat, C the commutator, and T.G the
tangent galvanometer.
The commutator can reverse the current through
the T.G coil without changing the current in the
rest of the circuit.
Taking the average of the resulting two readings
for deflection averages out, any small error in
positioning the TG coil relative to the earths
magnetic field Bh .

The magnetic field can be calculated as


follows:
1. Make the circuit connections in accordance
with the circuit diagram.
2. Using a spirit level, level the base and
compass needle in compass box of tangent
galvanometer by adjusting the leveling
screw.
3. Now rotate the coil of the galvanometer
about its vertical axis, till the magnetic
needle, its image in the plane of the mirror
fixed at the base of the compass box and the
coil ie all these three lie in the same vertical
plane. In this setting, the ends of aluminum
pointer should reads zero-zero. If this is not
so, rotate the box without disturbing the
position of the coil till at least one of the
ends of the pointer stands at the zero mark.

4. By closing the key K, the current flows in the


galvanometer. Read the both ends of the
pointer. Now reverse the direction of current
by using the reserve key. when the mean
values of deflections shown by the pointer in
two cases (i.e. before and after reversing the
current) differ by more than 1o, then turn
slightly the vertical coil until the two values
agree. This will set the plane of the coil
exactly in the magnetic meridian.
5. By adjusting the rheostat, bring the
deflection in galvanometer around 45
degree. The deflection should not be outside
the range(30-60).
6. Record the reading of the ammeter and the
deflection of the compass needle in a box
shown by two ends of pointer of the scale.
7. Reverse the current in the coil of the
galvanometer and again record the current
and deflection of needle.

8. By changing the value of current, take four


more set of reading and plot the graph
between I and tan. The graph will be a
straight line.
9. Measure the inner and outer diameter of the
coil with a half metre scale at least 3 times.

Observations
Range of ammeter r=_____________A
Least count of ammeter = __________A
Zero error in ammeter = __________A
Number of turns used (N) = __________
Table for Variation of with I.
S.
No.

Value of deflection,
For direct
current
1
2

For reverse
current
3
4

Mean

Tan

Ammeter Reading
(A)
Observed Corrected

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Table for radius of tangent galvanometer


S. no. Inner
Outer
diameter diameter
d1
d2
1.
2.
3.

Mean
Mean
Diameter Radius
d

Calculations

Result
The value of earths magnetic field by using tangent
galvanometer is
H = _________, G = _________T

Precautions
1. The battery should be freshly charged.
2. The magnetic needle should swing freely in the
horizontal plane.
3. The plane of coil must be set in magnetic
meridian.
4. All the readings must be adjusted between 30o
and 600.

Sources of error
1. There may be a magnetic material around the
apparatus.
2. The plane of the coil will not be exactly in the
magnetic meridian.

Bibliography
www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galvanometer