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# Calculus

C o n c e p t s an d Ap p l i c a t i o n s

Second Edition

Solutions Manual

P a u l A. F o e r s t e r

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## Executive Editor: Casey FitzSimons

Publisher: Steven Rasmussen

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12 11 10 09 08

ISBN: 978-1-55953-657-8

Contents

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

## The Calculus of Functions Defined by Power Series ............................. 313

iii

Overview

This Solutions Manual contains the answers to all problems in Calculus: Concepts and
Applications. Solutions or key steps in the solutions are presented for all but the simplest
problems.
In most cases the solutions are presented in the form your students would be expected to
use. For instance, decimal approximations are displayed as exact answers using ellipsis
format for a mathematical-world answer, then rounded to an appropriate number of
decimal places with units of measurement applied for the corresponding real-world
answer. An answer such as f(3) = 13.7569... 13.8 cm indicates that the precise answer,
13.7569... , has been retained in memory in the students calculator without round-off for
possible use in subsequent computations. The ellipses indicate that the student chooses not
to write all the digits on his or her paper.
Because the problems applying to the real world may be somewhat unfamiliar to both you
and your students, fairly complete solutions are presented for these. Often commentary is
included over and above what the student would be expected to write to further guide your
evaluation of students solutions, and in some cases reference is provided to later sections
in which more sophisticated solutions appear. Later in the text, the details of computing
definite integrals by the fundamental theorem are omitted because students are usually
expected to do these numerically. However, exact answers such as V = 8/3 are presented
where possible in case you choose to have your students do the algebraic integration.
Solutions are not presented for journal entries because these are highly individual for each
student. The prompts in most problems calling for journal entries should be sufficient to
guide students in making their own responses.
Where programs are called for, you may use as a model the programs in the Instructors
Resource Book. Check the publishers Web page (see the address on the copyright page of
this manual) for further information on programs for specific models of the graphing
calculator.
If you or your students find any mistakes, please report them to Key Curriculum Press by
sending in the Correction/Comment Form in the back of this book.

Paul A. Foerster

## Chapter 1Limits, Derivatives, Integrals, and Integrals

Problem Set 1-1
1. a. 95 cm
b. From 5 to 5.1: average rate 26.34 cm/s
From 5 to 5.01: average rate 27.12 cm/s
From 5 to 5.001: average rate 27.20 cm/s
So the instantaneous rate of change of d at
t = 5 is about 27.20 cm/s.
c. Instantaneous rate would involve division
by zero.
d. For t = 1.5 to 1.501, rate 31.42 cm/s.
The pendulum is approaching the wall: The
rate of change is negative, so the distance is
decreasing.
e. The instantaneous rate of change is the limit
of the average rates as the time interval
approaches zero. It is called the derivative.
f. Before t = 0, the pendulum was not yet
moving. For large values of t, the pendulums
motion will die out because of friction.
2. a. x = 5: y = 305, price is \$3.05
x = 10: y = 520, price is \$5.20
x = 20: y = 1280, price is \$12.80
b. x = 5.1, rate 46.822 /ft
x = 5.01, rate 46.9820 /ft
x = 5.001, rate 46.9982 /ft
c. 47 /ft. It is called the derivative.
d. x = 10: 44 /ft. x = 20: 128 /ft
e. The 20-ft board costs more per foot than the
10-ft board. The reason is that longer boards
require taller trees, which are harder to find.

## Problem Set 1-2

Q1. Power function, or polynomial function
Q2. f (2) = 8
Q3. Exponential function
Q4. g (2) = 9
Q5.
h (x )

3. a. Decreasing fast
4. a. Decreasing slowly
5. a. Increasing fast
c. Decreasing slowly
6. a. Decreasing fast
c. Increasing fast
7. a. Increasing slowly
c. Increasing slowly
8. a. Decreasing fast
c. Decreasing fast
9. a. Increasing fast

b.
b.
b.
d.
b.
d.
b.

Decreasing slowly
Increasing slowly
Increasing slowly
Increasing fast
Increasing slowly
Decreasing fast
Increasing slowly

b. Decreasing fast
b. Neither increasing
nor decreasing
d. Increasing slowly
b. Decreasing fast
d. Neither increasing
nor decreasing

c. Increasing fast
10. a. Decreasing slowly
c. Decreasing fast
11. a.
T(x) (C)
100

50

x (s)
100

200

## x = 40: rate 1.1/s

x = 100: rate = 0/s
x = 140: rate 0.8/s
b. Between 0 and 80 s the water is warming
up, but at a decreasing rate.
Between 80 and 120 s the water is boiling,
thus staying at a constant temperature.
Beyond 120 s the water is cooling down,
rapidly at first, then more slowly.
12. a.
v ( x ) (ft/s)

x
1

Q6.
Q8.
Q10.
1.
2.

h (5) = 25
Q7.
y=x
Q9.
Derivative
a. Increasing slowly
a. Increasing fast

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y = ax2 + bx + c, a 0
y = |x|

70
60
50
40
30
20

b. Increasing fast
b. Decreasing slowly

10

x (s)
1

## Problem Set 1-2

x = 2: rate  18 (ft/s)/s
x = 5: rate = 0 (ft/s)/s
x = 6: rate  11 (ft/s)/s
b. Units are (ft/s)/s, sometimes written as ft/s2.
The physical quantity is acceleration.
13. a.
h (x)

## c. Substituting 1 for t causes division by zero, so

r(1) is undefined.
Estimate: r approaches the average of r(0.99)
and r(1.01), 108.0586 foxes/year. (Actual
is 108.0604 .)
The instantaneous rate is called the
derivative.

f (4.01)  f (4)
= 129.9697
0.01
f (4)  f (3.99)
= 131.4833
0.01
Instantaneous rate = (129.9697 
131.4833)/2 = 130.7265 foxes/year
(actual: 130.7287)
The answer is negative because the number of
foxes is decreasing.
a(2.1)  a(2)
15. a. Average rate =
=
0.1
2
52.9902 mm /h
d.

18

2
3 4

Increasing at x = 3
Decreasing at x = 7
b. h (3) = 17, h(3.1) = 17.19
0.19
= 1.9 ft/s
Average rate =
0.1
c. From 3 to 3.01:
0. 0199
average rate =
= 1. 99 ft/s
0.01
From 3 to 3.001:
0.001999
average rate =
= 1.99 ft/s
0.001
The limit appears to be 2 ft/s.
d. h (7) = 9, h(7.001) = 8.993999
0.006001
= 6.001 ft /s
Average rate =
0.001
The derivative at x = 7 appears to be 6 ft/s.
The derivative is negative because h(x) is
decreasing at x = 7.
14. a.
f (t )

Not much

500

300
Decrease

Increase

100

t
10

b. Enter y2 =

y1 (x )  y1(1)
x 1

r(t) = y2 (foxes/year)

0.97

110.5684

0.98

109.7361

0.99

108.9001

b. r (t) =

200(1.2 t )  200(1.2 2 )
t2

r (t ) (mm2/hr)
60
40
20

t (mm)
2

r(2) is undefined.
c. r(2.01) = 52.556504
52.556504  52.508608 = 0.04789
Use the solver to find t when
r(t) = 52.508608 + 0.01 = 52.518608 .
t = 2.002088 , so keep t within
0.002 unit of 2.
4
16. a. v(x ) = x 3  v(6) = 288
3
4  (6.13  63 )
b. 6 to 6.1: average rate = 3
=
0.1
146.4133
4  (6 3  5. 93 )
5.9 to 6: average rate = 3
=
0.1
141.6133
Estimate of instantaneous rate is
(146.4133 + 141.6133)/2 =
144.0133 = 452.4312 cm3/cm.
4  x 3  4  63
3
c. r (x ) = 3
x6
r(x ) (cm3/cm)

undefined

1.01

107.2171

1.02

106.3703

1.03

105.5200

144
48

x
6

r(6) is undefined.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## d. r(6.1) = 146.4133 = 459.9710

r(6.1) is 7.5817 units from the derivative.
Use the solver feature to find x if
r(x) = 144 + 0.1.
x = 6.001326 , so keep x within 0.00132
unit of 6.
17. a. i. 1.0 in./s ii. 0.0 in./s iii. 1.15 in./s
b. 1.7 s, because y = 0 at that time

## change in f(x), then divide. Repeat, using a

smaller change in x. See what number these
average rates approach as the change in x
approaches zero.
The numerical method illustrates the fact that
the derivative is a limit.
30. Problems 13 and 14 involve estimating the value
of a limit.

## 18. a. i. 0.395 in./min ii. 0.14 in./min

iii. 0.105 in./min
b. The rate is negative, because y is decreasing
as the tire goes down.
19. a. Quadratic (or polynomial)
b. f(3) = 30
c. Increasing at about 11.0 (2.99 to 3.01)

Q1. 72 ft2

Q2. y = cos x

Q3. y = 2

Q4. y = 1/x

Q6. f(5) = 4

Q5. y = x
Q7.

Q8.
y

x

b. f(1) = 12

## c. Increasing at about 6.0 (0.99 to 1.01)

21. a. Exponential
b. Increasing, because the rate of change from
1.99 to 2.01 is positive.

Q10. x = 3

Q9.
y

22. a. Exponential
b. Increasing, because the rate of change from
3.01 to 2.99 is positive.
23. a. Rational algebraic
b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from
3.99 to 4.01 is negative.

1. f(x) = 0.1x2 + 7

## 24. a. Rational algebraic

b. Increasing, because the rate of change from
2.01 to 1.99 is positive.

2. f(x) = 0.2x2 + 8

a. Approximately 30.8

a. Approximately 22.2

b. Approximately 41.8

b. Approximately 47.1

8 f(x)

f (x)

## 25. a. Linear (or polynomial)

b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from
4.99 to 5.01 is negative.
26. a. Linear (or polynomial)
b. Increasing, because the rate of change from
7.99 to 8.01 is positive.
27. a. Circular (or trigonometric)

x
2

## 28. a. Circular (or trigonometric)

b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from
0.99 to 1.01 is negative.

## To estimate a derivative graphically: Draw a

tangent line at the point on the graph and
measure its slope.
To estimate a derivative numerically: Take a
small change in x, find the corresponding
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

4. g( x) = 2 x + 5

3. h(x) = sin x

## b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from

1.99 to 2.01 is negative.

## 29. Physical meaning of a derivative:

instantaneous rate of change

5 6

a. Approximately 2.0

a. Approximately 7.9

b. Approximately 1.0

b. Approximately 12.2
g ( x)

h(x)

x
3

## 5. There are approximately 6.8 squares between the

curve and the x-axis. Each square represents
(5)(20) = 100 feet. So the distance is about
(6.8)(100) = 680 feet.
6. There are approximately 53.3 squares between the
curve and the x-axis. Each square represents
(0.5)(10) = 5 miles. So the distance is about
(53.3)(5) = 266.5 miles.
tan 1.01 tan 0.99
= 3.42K
7. Derivative
1.01 0.99
8. Derivative = 7 (exactly, because that is the
slope of the linear function)
9. a.
v (t )

v(3.01) v(2.99)
= 1.8648K
3.01 2.99
The derivative represents the acceleration.
From t = 0 to t = 5, the object travels about
11.4 cm. From t = 5 to t = 9, the object travels
back about 4.3 cm. So the object is located about
11.4 4.3 = 7.1 cm from its starting point.
See the text for the meaning of derivative.
See the text for the meaning of definite integral.
See the text for the meaning of limit.
d. Rate

11.

12.
13.
14.

## Problem Set 1-4

Q1. y changes at 30
Q3.

100

Q4. f (3) = 9

y
60

t
5

8.7 10

## The range is 0 y 32.5660 .

b. Using the solver, x = 8.6967 8.7 s.
c. By counting squares, distance 150 ft.
The concept used is the definite integral.
v(5.01) v( 4.99)
d. Rate
= 3.1107K
5.01 4.99
The concept is the derivative.
The rate of change of velocity is called
acceleration.
10. a.
10

v (t)

t
1

## b. v(4) = 9.3203 9.3 ft/s

Domain: 0 t 4
Range: 0 v(t) 9.3203
c. By counting squares, the integral from t = 0
to t = 4 is about 21.3 ft. The units of the
integral are (ft/s) s = ft. The integral tells
the length of the slide.

## Problem Set 1-4

Q5.
Q7.
Q9.
1.

100
366 days
Definite integral
a.

## Q6. sin (/2) = 1

Q8. Derivative
Q10. f (x) = 0 at x = 4

v (t )
20,000

t
30

## b. Integral 5(0.5v(0) + v(5) + v(10) + v(15) +

v(20) + v(25) + 0.5v(30)) = 5(56269.45) =
281347.26 281,000 ft
The sum overestimates the integral because
the trapezoids are circumscribed about the
region and thus include more area.
c. The units are (ft/s)(s), which equals feet, so
the integral represents the distance the
spaceship has traveled.
d. Yes, it will be going fast enough, because
v(30) = 27,919.04 , which is greater than
27,000.
2. a. v(t) = 4 + sin 1.4t
v (t )
5

t
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

## b. A definite integral has the units of the

x-variable times the y-variable. Distance =
rate time. Because v(t) is distance/time
and t is time, their product is expressed in
units of distance.
c. See graph in part a.
Distance 0.5(0.5v(0) + v(0.5) + v(1) +
v(1.5) + v(2) + v(2.5) + 0.5v(3)) =
0.5(26.041) = 13.02064 13.0 ft
d. v(3) = 3.128 3.1 mi/h
Maximum speed was 5 mi/h at about 1.12 h.
Distance 0.6(150 + 230 + 150 + 90 + 40 + 0) =
396 ft
Volume 3(2500 + 8000 + 12000 + 13000 +
11000 + 7000 + 4000 + 6000 + 4500) =
204,000 ft3
Programs will vary depending on calculator. See
the program TRAPRULE in the Instructors
Resource Book for an example. The program
gives T20 = 23.819625.
See the program TRAPDATA in the Instructors
Resource Book for an example. The program
gives T7 = 33, as in Example 2.
a.

9.

f (x )
7

x
1

b. T10 = 18.8955
T20 = 18.898875
T50 = 18.89982
These values underestimate the integral,
because the trapezoids are inscribed in the
region.
c. T10: 0.0045 unit from the exact answer
T20: 0.001125 unit from the exact answer
T50: 0.00018 unit from the exact answer
Tn is first within 0.01 unit of 18.9 when
n = 7.
T7 = 18.8908 , which is 0.0091 unit
from 18.9.
Because Tn is getting closer to 18.9 as n
increases, Tn is within 0.01 unit of 18.9 for
all n 7.
8. a.

10.

11.

12.

13.

b. T10 = 8.6700
T20 = 8.6596
50 = 8.65672475
These values overestimate the integral,
because the trapezoids are circumscribed
c. T10: 0.01385 unit from answer
T20: 0.003465 unit from answer
T50: 0.0005545 unit from answer
Tn is first within 0.01 of 8.65617024 when
n = 12.
T12 = 8.665795 , which is 0.009624 unit
from 8.65617024 .
Because Tn is getting closer to the exact
answer as n increases, Tn is within 0.01 unit
of the answer for all n 12.
From the given equation,
y = ( 40/110) 110 2 x 2 . Using the trapezoidal
rule program on the positive branch with n = 100
increments gives 6904.190 for the top half of
the ellipse. Doubling this gives an area of
13,808.38 cm 2 . The estimate is too low
because the trapezoids are inscribed within the
ellipse. The area of an ellipse is ab, where a
and b are the x- and y-radii, respectively. So
the exact area is (110)(40) = 4400 =
13,823.007 cm 2 , which agrees both with the
answer and with the conclusion that the
trapezoidal rule underestimates the area.
Integral = 1(0.0 + 2.1 + 7.9 + 15.9 + 23.8 +
29.7 + 31.8 + 29.7 + 23.8 + 15.9 + 7.9 +
2.1 + 0) = 190.6
The integral will have the units (in.2)(in.) = in.3,
representing the volume of the football.
n = 10: integral 21.045
n = 100: integral 21.00045
n = 1000: integral 21.0000045
Conjecture: integral = 21
The word is limit.
The trapezoidal rule with n = 100 gives
integral 156.0096.
Conjecture: integral = 156
If the trapezoids are inscribed (graph concave
down), the rule underestimates the integral.
If the trapezoids are circumscribed (graph concave
up), the rule overestimates the integral.

g (x )

1
1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Concave down
Inscribed trapezoids
Underestimates integral

Concave up
Circumscribed trapezoids
Overestimates integral

## Problem Set 1-5

1. Answers will vary.

## R3. By counting squares, the integral is

approximately 23.2.
Distance 23.2 ft (exact answer: 23.2422)
Concept: definite integral
R4. a.
f (x )

Review Problems

## R1. a. When t = 4, d = 90 80 sin [1, 2(4 3)]

15.4 ft.
b. From 3.9 to 4: average rate 40.1 ft/s
From 4 to 4.1: average rate 29.3 ft/s
Instantaneous rate 34.7 ft/s
The distance from water is decreasing, so he is
going down.
d (5.01) d ( 4.99)
70.8
0.02
d. Going up at about 70.8 ft/s
e. Derivative

c. Instantaneous rate

## R2. a. Physical meaning: instantaneous rate of

change of a function
Graphical meaning: slope of a tangent line to
a function at a given point
b. x = 4: decreasing fast
x = 1: increasing slowly
x = 3: increasing fast
x = 5: neither increasing nor decreasing
c. From 2 to 2.1:
52.1 52
average rate =
= 43.6547K
0.1
From 2 to 2.01:
52.01 52
average rate =
= 40.5614K
0.01
From 2 to 2.001:
52.001 52
average rate =
= 40.2683K
0.001
Differences between average rates and
instantaneous rates, respectively:
43.6547 40.235947 = 3.4187
40.5617 40.235947 = 0.3255
40.2683 40.235947 = 0.03239
The average rates are approaching the
instantaneous rate as x approaches 2.
The concept is the derivative.
The concept used is the limit.
d. t = 2: 3.25 m/s
t = 18: 8.75 m/s
t = 24: 11.5 m/s
Her velocity stays constant, 7 m/s, from 6 s
to 16 s. At t = 24, Mary is in her final sprint
toward the finish line.

x
1

## The graph agrees with Figure 1-6c.

b. By counting squares, integral 15.0.
(Exact answer is 15.)
c. T 6 = 0.5(2.65 + 5.575 + 5.6 + 5.375 + 4.9 +
4.175 + 1.6) = 14.9375
The trapezoidal sum underestimates the
integral because the trapezoids are inscribed in
the region.
d. T50 = 14.9991; Difference = 0.0009
T100 = 14.999775; Difference = 0.000225
The trapezoidal sums are getting closer to 15.
Concept: limit
R5. Answers will vary.
Concept Problems
C1. a. f (3) = 32 7.3 + 11 1
b. f (x) f (3) = x2 7x + 11 + 1 = x 2 7x + 12
2
c. f ( x ) f (3) = x 7 x + 12 = ( x 4)( x 3) =
x3
x3
x3

x 4, if x 3
d. The limit is found by substituting 3 for x
in (x 4).
Limit = exact rate = 3 4 = 1
C2. The line through (3, f (3)) with slope 1 is
y = x + 2.
f (x )

x
3

## The line is tangent to the graph. Zooming in by

a factor of 10 on the point (3, 2) shows that the
graph becomes straighter and looks almost like
the tangent line. (Soon students will learn that
this property is called local linearity.)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## T5. Concept: definite integral

By counting squares, distance 466.
(Exact answer is 466.3496 .)
2

T6.
3
Speed (ft/s)

4 x 2 19 x + 21 ( 4 x 7)( x 3)
=
=
x 3
x 3
4x 7, x 3
When x = 3, 4x 7 = 4 3 7 = 5.

C3. a. f ( x ) =

25
20
15
10
5

b.

Time (s)
5

f (x ) (ft)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

6
5.8
5

T 7 = 5(2.5 + 5 + 5 + 10 + 20 + 25 + 20 + 5) =
462.5
Trapezoidal rule probably underestimates the
integral, but some trapezoids are inscribed and
some circumscribed.

4.2
4
3
2

## T7. Concept: derivative

1
2.8
1

x (s)

3.2
3

c. 5.8 = 4(3 + ) 7
5.8 = 12 + 4 7
4 = 0.8
= 0.2
d. 4(3 + ) 7 = 5 +
12 + 4 7 = 5 +
4 =
= 14

4.2
4.2
4

= 4(3 ) 7
= 12 4 7
= 0.8
= 0.2

## There is a positive value of , namely 14 , for

each positive value of , no matter how small
is.
e. L = 5, c = 3. . . . but not equal to 3 is
needed so that you can cancel the (x 3)
factors without dividing by zero.
Chapter Test
T1. Limit, derivative, definite integral, indefinite
integral
T2. See the text for the definition of limit.
T3. Physical meaning: instantaneous rate
T4.
y
6

Speed (ft/s)
25
20
15
10
5
Time (s)
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

## Slope 1.8 (ft/s)/s

(Exact answer is 1.8137 .)
Name: acceleration
T8. The roller coaster is at the bottom of the hill at
25 s because thats where it is going the fastest.
The graph is horizontal between 0 and 10 seconds
because the velocity stays constant, 5 ft/s, as the
roller coaster climbs the ramp.
T9. Distance = (rate)(time) = 5(10) = 50 ft
T10. T5 = 412.5; T50 = 416.3118 ;
T100 = 416.340219
T11. The differences between the trapezoidal sum and
the exact sum are:
For T5: difference = 3.8496
For T50: difference = 0.03779
For T100: difference = 0.009447
The differences are getting smaller, so Tn is
getting closer to 416.349667 .

x
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## T12. From 30 to 31:

y(31) y(30)
average rate =
= 1.9098K
1
From 30 to 30.1:
y(30.1) y(30)
= 1.8246K
0.1
From 30 to 30.01:
y(30.01) y(30)
average rate =
= 1.8148K
0.01
T13. The rates are negative because the roller coaster is
slowing down.
T14. The differences between the average rates and
instantaneous rate are:
For 30 to 31: difference = 0.096030
For 30 to 31.1: difference = 0.010833
For 30 to 30.01: difference = 0.001095
average rate =

## The differences are getting smaller, so the average

rates are getting closer to the instantaneous rate.
y( x ) y(30)
= 1.81379936 + 1, getting
x 30
x = 30.092220 . So keep x within 0.092
unit of 30, on the positive side.
T16. Concept: derivative
f ( 4.3) f (3.7) 35 29
T17. f ( 4)
=
= 10
4.3 3.7
0.6
T18. Answers will vary.
T15. Solve

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Chapter 2Properties of Limits

Problem Set 2-1

h (x )

8 10 + 2 0
=
22
0
No value for f (2) because of division by zero.

1. a. f (2) =

b.

2.7

f (x)

1.997
1.998
1.999
2
2.001
2.002
2.003

2.994
2.996
2.998
undefined
3.002
3.004
3.006

## Yes, f (x) stays close to 3 when x is kept

close to 2, but not equal to 2.
c. To keep f (x) within 0.0001 unit of 3, keep
x within 0.00005 unit of 2. To keep f (x)
within 0.00001 unit of 3, keep x within
0.000005 unit of 2. To keep f (x) arbitrarily
close to 3, keep x within 12 that distance
of 2.
d. The discontinuity can be removed by
defining f (2) to equal 3.

## There appears to be no limit, because the graph

cycles infinitely as it approaches x = 3.

Q1.

Q2.
y

Q3.

Q4.
y

y
x
2

x
6

2.
Q5.

g (x )

x
x

3
1

g (x )

x
3

3.
h (x )

x
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.
1.
2.
3.
5.
7.
9.
11.
13.

Counting squares
Slope of the tangent line
Instantaneous rate of change
B
See the text for the definition of limit.
f (x) might be undefined at x = c, or might have a
value at x = c that is different from the limit.
Has a limit, 3
4. Has a limit, 2
Has a limit, 3
6. Has a limit, 5
Has no limit
8. Has no limit
Has a limit, 7
10. Has a limit, 20
Has no limit
12. Has no limit
lim f ( x ) = 5. For = 0.5, 0.2 or 0.3.
x 3

x 2

x 6

## (The right side is more restrictive.)

16. lim f ( x ) = 2. For = 0.8, 0.7 or 0.8.
x4

## (The left side is more restrictive.)

17. lim f ( x ) = 2. For = 0.3, 0.5 or 0.6.
x 5

## (The right side is more restrictive.)

18. lim f ( x ) = 6. For = 0.4, 0.1.
x 3

## 19. a. The graph should match Problem 13.

b. lim f ( x ) = 5
x 3

## c. Graph is symmetrical about x = 3.

Let 5 2 sin (x 3) = 5 + 0.5 = 5.5.
sin (x 3) = 0.25
x = 3 + sin 1 (0.25)
Max. = 3 [3 + sin 1 (0.25)] = 0.25268
d. Let 5 2 sin (x 3) = 5 + .
sin (x 3) = /2
x = 3 + sin 1 (/2)
Max. = 3 [3 + sin 1 (/2)] =
sin 1 (/2) = sin 1 (/2), which is positive
for any positive value of .
20. a. The graph should match Problem 14.
b. lim f ( x ) = 3
x 2

## c. The graph is symmetrical about x = 2.

Let (x 2)3 + 3 = 3 + 0.5 = 3.5.
x = 2 + 3 0.5
Max. = 2 + 3 0.5 2 = 3 0.5 = 0.7937K
d. Let (x 2) + 3 = 3 + .
x = 2 + 1/3
Max. = 2 + 1/3 2 = 1/3, which is
positive for any positive value of .
21. a. The graph should match Problem 15.
b. lim f ( x ) = 4
3

x 6

## c. The right side is more restrictive.

Let 1 + 3(7 x)1/3 = 4 0.7 = 3.3.
x = 7 (2.3/3)3
Max. = [7 (2.3/3)3] 6 = 0.5493
d. Because the right side is more restrictive, set
1 + 3 3 7 x = 4 .
x = 7 [(3 )/3]3
Max. = 7 [(3 )/3)3] 6 = 1 [(3 )/3]3,
which is positive for all positive values of .
22. a. The graph should match Problem 16.
b. lim f ( x ) = 2
x4

## c. The left side is more restrictive.

Let 1 + 24 x = 2 + 0.8 = 2.8.

10

24 x = 1.8
log 1.8
x = 4
log 2

log 1.8
Max. = 4 4
= 0.84799K
log 2

## d. Because the left side is more restrictive, set

1 + 24 x = 2 + .
24 x = 1 +
x = 4

log(1 + )
log 2

log(1 + ) log(1 + )
Max. = 4 4
=
,
log 2
log 2

## which is positive for all > 0.

23. a. The graph should match Problem 17.
b. lim f ( x ) = 2
x 5

## c. The right side is more restrictive.

Let (x 5)2 + 2 = 2 + 0.3 = 2.3.
x = 5 + 0.3
Max. = (5 + 0.3 ) 5 = 0.54772 K
d. Because the right side is more restrictive, set
(x 5)2 + 2 = 2 + .
x = 5+
Max. = (5 + ) 5 = , which is
positive for all > 0.
24. a. The graph should match Problem 18.
b. lim f ( x ) = 6
x 3

## c. The graph is symmetrical about x = 3.

Let 6 2(x 3)2/3 = 6 0.4 = 5.6.
x = 3 + 0.23/2
Max. = (3 + 0.23/2) 3 = 0.08944
d. Let 6 2(x 3)2/3 = 6 .
x = 3 + (/2)3/2
Max. = [3 + (/2)3/2] 3 = (/2)3/2, which
is positive for all > 0.
25. a. f (2) =

=
=
52
0
0

## The graph has a removable discontinuity at

x = 2.
Limit = 22 6(2) + 13 = 5
b. When f (x) = 5.1, x = 1.951191 .
1 = 2 1.951191 = 0.048808
When f (x) = 4.9, x = 2.051316 .
2 = 2.051316 2 = 0.051316
max. = 0.048808

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

## e. The limit of the average velocity is the

instantaneous velocity.

f (x )
L=5

Q1. 13
Q2.

Q3.
y

x
c=2

26. a.

x
4

Q4.

Q5.
y

x
1

## The graph is linear.

There is a removable discontinuity at x = 2.
The limit appears to be 9.
4(2 2 ) 7(2) 2 0
=
22
0
Indeterminate form
( 4 x + 1)( x 2)
c. f ( x ) =
= 4 x + 1, x 2
x2
Limit = 4(2) + 1 = 9
If x 2, then (x 2) 0. Canceling is a
division process, but because (x 2) 0,
you do not risk dividing by zero.
d. If f (x) = 9.001, x = 2.00025.
If f (x) = 8.999, x = 1.99975.
1 = 2.00025 2 = 0.00025
2 = 2 1.99975 = 0.00025
Largest number is 0.00025.
e. L = 9, c = 2, = 0.001, = 0.00025

b. f (2) =

d (t ) d ( 4) 3t 2 48
=
t4
t4
b. Removable discontinuity at x = 4.

27. a. m(t ) =

m (t )
30

t
4

c. Limit = 24 ft/s
3(t 4)(t + 4)
= 3t + 12, if t 4
d. m(t ) =
t4
3t + 12 = 24.12 t = 4.04
3t + 12 = 23.88 t = 3.96
Keep t within 0.04 s of 4 s.

## Q6. (x 10)(x + 10)

Q7. 75%
Q8. Product of x and y, where x varies and y may
vary
Q9.
3 1
8
22
21
3

15

21

1
5
x 2 5x + 7
Q10. D
1.

y
g+h

10

x
2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x
1.96
1.97
1.98
1.99
2.00
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04

x 2

x 2

f (x)
9.9640
9.9722
9.9810
9.9902
10
10.0102
10.0209
10.0322
10.0439

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

11

2.

y 3 = f (x)

x
y
g

0.997

2.9739

0.998

2.9825

0.999

2.9912

1.001

3.0087

1.002

3.0174

1.003

3.0262

1.8

x 3

x 3

x 3

x 3

f (x)

2.96
2.97
2.98
2.99
3.00
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04

## All these f (x) values are close to 2(1.5) = 3.

1.75232
1.76418
1.77608
1.78802
1.8
1.81202
1.82408
1.83618
1.84832

3
6. 2 3 = 8 and sin
= 0.5
3.6
r(3) =

8
= 16
0.5

3.
f (x )
Limit = 7
7

r(x)

2.9997

15.9894

2.9998

15.9929

2.9999

15.9964

16

3.0001

16.0035

3.0002

16.0070

3.0003

16.0105

x
3

## The limit is 7 because f (x) is always close to 7,

no matter what value x takes on. (It shouldnt
bother you that f (x) = 7 for x 3 if you think of
the definition of limit for a while.)
4.

## All these r(x) values are close to 16.

2 3.6
lim f ( x )
, so the limit of a quotient
x 3.6
0
cannot be applied because of division by zero.
7. lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 9 x + 5
x 3

x 3

2

f (x) = x

x 3

Limit = 6

x 3

x 3

x 3

## lim f ( x ) = 6. The y-value equals the x-value.

x 6

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
Limit of x

= (3)(3) 9(3) + 5
= 9 27 + 5 = 13

8. lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 + 3 x 6

5.

x 1

y
5

x 1

## = lim x 2 + lim 3 x lim 6

x 1

y1
y1 y2

x 1

x 1

Limit of a sum
= lim x lim x + 3 lim x 6

y2

x 1

x 1

x 1

x
1

x 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

12

Limit of a sum
(or difference)

## Problem Set 2-3

x 1

= (1)(1) + 3(1) 6
= 1 3 6 = 8

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
Limit of x

x 1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9.

r (x )

Proof:

x 5

x 5

Limit of a sum

## = lim x lim x + 2 lim x + 6

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant

x 5

x 5

x 5

( 2) 4( 2) 12 4 + 8 12 0
=
=
0
0
( 2) + 2
( x 6)( x + 2)
r( x ) =
= x 6, x 2
x+2
lim r ( x ) = 2 6 = 8
2

x 5

x 5

x 5

r(2) =

x 2

= 5 5 + 2 5 + 6 = 41, Q .E .D .
Limit of x
12.
f (x )

Proof:

28

lim r ( x ) = lim ( x 6)

Because x 2

## = lim x + lim (6)

Limit of a sum

= 2 6 = 8, Q .E .D .

Limit of x, limit of a
constant

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

10.

x
3

f (x )
13

f (3) =

33 + 32 5(3) 21 27 + 9 15 21 0
=
=
33
0
0

f ( x) =

( x 2 + 4 x + 7)( x 3)
= x 2 + 4 x + 7, x 3
x3

lim f ( x ) = 32 + 4(3) + 7 = 28

52 + 3(5) 40 25 + 15 40 0
f (5) =
=
=
55
0
0
( x + 8)( x 5)
f ( x) =
= x + 8, x 5
x5
lim f ( x ) = 5 + 8 = 13

x 3

Proof:
lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 + 4 x + 7)
x 3

x 3

Because x 3
Limit of a sum

x 5

Proof:

## = lim x lim x + 4 lim x + 7

x 3

lim f ( x ) = lim ( x + 8)

Because x 5

= lim x + lim 8

Limit of a sum

= 5 + 8 = 13, Q .E .D .

Limit of x, limit of a
constant

x 5

x 5

x 5

x 5

11.

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant
= 3 3 + 4 3 + 7 = 28, Q .E .D .
Limit of x
x 3

x 3

x 3

13.

f (x )
41

f (x )
9
10

53 3(52 ) 4(5) 30
55
125 75 20 30 0
=
=
0
0

f ( 5) =

( x 2 + 2 x + 6)( x 5)
= x 2 + 2 x + 6, x 5
x5
lim f ( x ) = 52 + 2(5) + 6 = 41
f ( x) =

f ( 1) =
=

( 1)3 4( 1) 2 2( 1) + 3
( 1) + 1
1 4 + 2 + 3 0
=
0
0

x 5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 2-3

13

f ( x) =

( x 2 5 x + 3)( x + 1)
= x 2 5 x + 3, x 1
x +1

15.
x

lim f ( x ) = ( 1) 5( 1) + 3 = 9
2

4.990
4.991
4.992
4.993
4.994
4.995
4.996
4.997
4.998
4.999
5
5.001
5.002
5.003
5.004
5.005
5.006
5.007
5.008
5.009

x 1

Proof:
lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 5 x + 3)
x 1

x 1

Because x 1
= lim x 2 + lim (5 x ) + lim 3
x 1

x 1

x 1

Limit of a sum
= lim x lim x 5 lim x + 3
x 1

x 1

x 1

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant
= (1)(1) + (5)(1) + 3 = 9, Q.E.D.
Limit of x
14.
f (x)
2

17

2 4 11(2 3 ) + 21(2 2 ) 2 10
f (2) =
22
16 88 + 84 2 10 0
=
=
0
0

f (x)
40.8801
40.8921
40.9040
40.9160
40.9280
40.9400
40.9520
40.9640
40.9760
40.9880
undefined
41.0120
41.0240
41.0360
41.0480
41.0600
41.0720
41.0840
41.0960
41.1080

## The table shows that f (x) will be within 0.1 unit

of lim f ( x ) = 41 if we keep x within 0.008 unit
x 5

of 5.
16.
f (x )

( x 9 x + 3 x + 5)( x 2)
x2
3
2
= x 9 x + 3 x + 5, x 2
3

f ( x) =

x
1

## lim f ( x ) = 2 3 9(2 2 ) + 3(2) + 5 = 17

x 2

Proof:
lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 3 9 x 2 + 3 x + 5)
x 2

x 2

Because x 2
= lim x 3 + lim ( 9 x 2 ) + lim 3 x + lim 5
x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a sum
lim
x
lim
x
lim
x
(
9
)
lim
x lim x
=

+
x 2

x 2

+ 3 lim x + 5

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant
= 2 2 2 + (9)(2 2) + 3 2 + 5 = 17,
Q .E .D .
Limit of x

14

## When x is close to 1, f (x) is close to 9.

x 2 5 x + 6 ( x 2)( x 3) x 2
=
=
x 2 6 x + 9 ( x 3)( x 3) x 3
You cannot find the limit by substituting into
the simplified form because the denominator still
becomes zero.

17. f ( x ) =

18. f ( x ) =

( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)
x3 8
=
( x 2)( x 2)
x 4x + 4
2

x2 + 2x + 4
x2
You cannot find the limit by substituting into
the simplified form because the denominator still
goes to zero.
=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 19. a. 5(0)1/2 = 0 = v(0)

5(1)1/2 = 5 = v(1)
5(4)1/2 = 10 = v(4)
5(9)1/2 = 15 = v(9)
5(16)1/2 = 20 = v(16)

## 21. By the symmetric difference quotient,

0.75.01 0.7 4.99
derivative
= 0.05994 K .
2(0.01)

v(9.001) v(9)
= 0.8333101K
9.001 9
Conjecture: a(9) = 0.83 = 5/6
Units of a(t): (mi/h)/s

b. a(9)

## 22. By the trapezoidal rule with n = 100,

integral 11.8235K .
23. Prove that lim x n = c n for any positive integer n.
x c

Proof:
Anchor:

v(t ) v( 9)
5t 1/ 2 15
= lim
t 9
t 9
t9
t9
1/ 2
5(t 3)
= lim 1/ 2
t 9 (t
3)(t 1/ 2 + 3)
5
= lim 1/ 2
t 9 t
+3
5
= , which agrees with the conjecture.
6
d. Distance = integral of v(t) from 1 to 9. By the
trapezoidal rule with n = 100 increments,
integral 86.6657 . The units are
(mi/h) s. To convert to ft, multiply by 5280
and divide by 3600, getting 127.1111
(exact: 127 19 ) . The truck went about 127 ft.
c. a(9) = lim

Proof:
x3 8
= lim ( x 2 + 2 x + 4)
x 2 x 2
x 2
Because x 2
= lim x 2 + lim 2 x + lim 4

lim

x 2

x c

Induction Hypothesis:
Assume that the property is true for n = k.
lim x k = c k
x c

Verification for n = k + 1:
lim x k +1 = lim ( x k x )
x c

x 2

x c

= lim x lim x = c k c
k

x c

x c

By the induction
hypothesis

= c k +1
Conclusion:
lim x n = c n for all integers n 1, Q.E.D.

2.1 2
= 12.61
2.1 2
x 3 8 ( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)
b.
=
=
x2
x2
x 2 + 2 x + 4, provided x 2. This expression
approaches 12 as x approaches 2.

20. a. Derivative

x c

24.

## Problem Set 2-4

Q1. Instantaneous rate of change
Q2. Product of x and y, where x varies and y
can vary
Q3. 0.0005
Q4.

x 2

Limit of a sum
= lim x lim x + 2 lim x + 4
x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
= 2 2 + 2 2 + 4 = 12, Q .E .D .
Limit of x
c. The line through point (2, 8) with slope 12 is
y = 12x 16. The line appears to be tangent
to the graph of f at point (2, 8).
f (x )

12
8

## Q5. Exponential function

Q6.
y = cos x
x

Q7. (x + 6)(x 1)
Q8. 53
Q9. 120
Q10. 103
1. a. Has left and right limits
b. Has no limit
c. Discontinuous. Has no limit

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15

2. a.
b.
c.
3. a.
b.
c.
4. a.
b.
c.
5. a.
b.
c.
6. a.
b.
c.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

## Has left and right limits

Has a limit
Discontinuous. No f (3)
Has left and right limits
Has a limit
Continuous
Has left and right limits
Has a limit
Continuous
Has no left or right limit
Has no limit
Discontinuous. No limit or f (2)
Has left and right limits
Has a limit
Continuous (Note that the x-value 5 is not at
the discontinuity.)
a. Has left and right limits
b. Has a limit
c. Discontinuous. f (1) limit
a. Has left and right limits
b. Has no limit
c. Discontinuous. No limit
a. Has left and right limits
b. Has a limit
c. Discontinuous. No f (c)
a. Has left and right limits
b. Has no limit
c. Discontinuous. No limit, no f (c)
Answers may vary. 12. Answers may vary.
f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

f(x)

f (x )

10

5
2

x
2

## 20. Answers may vary.

f(x)

f (x )
6
5

21. Discontinuous at x = 3
22. Discontinuous at x = 11
23. Discontinuous at x = /2 + n, where n is an
integer
24. Nowhere discontinuous
25.
f (x )

3
2
1

x
2

x
4

x 2

26.
g (x )

f (x )

f (x )

2
1

f (2)
x

x
5

16

x
2

approaches 2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

27.

33. a.
d (x )

s (x )

x
2

## Discontinuous because s(x) has no limit as x

approaches 2 from the left (no real function
values to the left of x = 2)

x 2

x 2

Continuous.

28.
34. a.

p (x )

h ( x)

3
2

x
1

## Discontinuous because p(x) has no limit as x

approaches 2
b. lim h( x ) = 3, lim+ h( x ) = 2. No limit.

29.

x 1

x 1

Not continuous.

h(x )

35. a.
1

m (x )
9

30.

f(x)

x 2

x 2

Not continuous.

36. a.

q (x)

approaches 2
2

31.
c

f (c)

1
2
4
5

4
1
5
none

lim f ( x )

lim+ f ( x )

x c

x c

2
1
5
none

2
1
2
none

lim f ( x )
x c

2
1
none
none

Continuous?
removable
continuous
step
infinite

x 1

32.
c
1
2
3
5

f (c)
3
1
5
5

x 1

Continuous.
37. 9 22 = 2k
k = 2.5
g (x )

lim f ( x )

x c

2
4
5
5

lim+ f ( x )

x c

3
4
5
none

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

lim f ( x )
x c

none
4
5
none

Continuous?
step
removable
continuous
infinite

x
2

17

k = 0.6
f (x )

1.4

## 43. Let T( ) = the number of seconds it takes to

cross.
if = 90
24,
T( ) = 40
, if 0 < < 90 or 90 < < 180
sin

x
1
40

39. (32)k = 3k 3
k = 1/2.

90

u (x )
1

f (x )

44. a.

x
3

40. k + 5 = (1) k
k = 5/2
2

v (x )

x
1

## 41. a. b 1 = a(1 2)2 b 1 = a

b. a = 1 b = 0. Continuous at x = 1.
f (x )

a = 1, b = 0

at x = 1.

## b. f (x) seems to approach 4 as x approaches 1.

c. f (1.0000001) = 1.0000001 + 3 + 10 13
4.0000001, which is close to 4.
d. There is a vertical asymptote at x = 0. You
must get x much closer to 1 than x =
1.0000001 for the discontinuity to show up.
45. For any value of c, P(c) is determined by addition
and multiplication. Because the set of real
numbers is closed under multiplication and
addition, P(c) will be a unique, real number for
any real value x = c. P(c) is the limit of P(x) as
x approaches c by the properties of the limit of a
product of functions (for powers of x), the limit
of a constant times a function (for multiplication
by the coefficients), and the limit of a sum (for
the individual terms). Therefore, P is continuous
for all values of x.
46. a. lim |sgn x| = 1 but f (0) = 0
x0

## lim f ( x ) f (0), so discontinuous

f (x )

x0

b.

g(x )

x
1

e.g., a = 1, b = 2

x
2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

## For f (x) to be continuous at x = 2, these two

limits must be equal, so find k such that
k 2 4 = 3k
k 2 3k 4 = 0
(k 4)(k + 1) = 0
so k = 4 and k = 1 are the two values of k that
will make f (x) continuous at x = 2.
18

c.
h(x )

1
1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. lim+ f ( x ) = , lim f ( x ) = ,

## d. For x > 0, a(x) = x/x = 1 = sgn x.

For x < 0, a(x) = (x)/x = 1 = sgn x.
For x = 0, a(0) is not defined.
a(x) = sgn x for all x 0, Q.E.D.
e.

x 3

x 3

c. 2 +

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.
1.

No limit
4
2
No
No
lim f ( x ) =

Q2.
Q4.
Q6.
Q8.
Q10.

lim f ( x ) = 3

3
3
No
Yes
Yes
lim f ( x ) = 4

lim f ( x ) = 1

lim f ( x ) =

lim+ f ( x ) = 2

x 3

x 3

2.

exist.
lim g( x ) = 4

lim g( x ) = 2

lim+ g( x ) = 3

lim g( x ) =

x
x 2

lim g( x ) = 3

x 2
x 1

lim g( x ) = 4

x 2

x 3

f (x)
2.00099
2.00099
2.00099

## All of these f (x) values are within 0.001 unit

of 2. lim f ( x ) = 2 means that you can keep

x
2

## f (x) arbitrarily close to 2 by making the value

of x arbitrarily large. y = 2 is a horizontal
asymptote.

102
1002
10002

1004
1005
1006

f (x )

3.01
3.001
3.0001

f (x )

f (x)

## arbitrarily far from zero just by keeping x

close enough to 3 on the positive side.
There is a vertical asymptote at x = 3.
1
= 2.001
d. 2 +
x3
1
= 0.001
x3
x 3 = 1000
x = 1003

lim g( x ) = 2
3. Answers may vary.

x 3

x 1

x 2

1
= 100
x 3
1
= 98
x 3
1
x3=
98
1
x = 3 = 3.0102 K
98

## All of these f (x) values are greater than 100.

lim+ f ( x ) = means that f (x) can be kept

x 3

lim f ( x ) =

x 3+

lim f ( x ) = 2

f (x )

x 3

## 6. Answers may vary.

8. a.

f (x )

f (x )

g (x )
x

x
/2

7. a.

f (x )

b.

x
3

lim g( x ) = , lim + g( x ) =

x / 2

x / 2

## The limit is infinite because |g(x)| can be kept

arbitrarily far from zero. You cant say
lim g( x ) = because the left and right

x / 2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

19

## limits are not the same (one is positive and the

other is negative).
c. sec x = 1000
cos x = 0.001
x = arccos (0.001) = 1.57179
x

g(x)

1.5717
1.5716
1.5715

1106.5
1244.2
1421.1

x / 2

## g(x) can be kept arbitrarily far from zero in the

negative direction by keeping x close enough
to 2 on the positive side.
The line x = 2 is a vertical asymptote.
9. a.
r (x )

x
5

## b. lim r ( x ) = 2 because (sin x)/x approaches zero.

x

sin (28)
= 2.00967K , which is
28
within 0.01 unit of 2.
sin (32)
r(32) = 2 +
= 2.01723K , which is
32
more than 0.01 unit away from 2.

c. r(28) = 2 +

y
r
2.01
1.99

x
28

32

## Keeping r(x) within 0.01 unit of 2 means you

want to keep sinx x < 0.01, or |sin x| <
0.01 |x|. You are looking for a large value of
x, so you know x will be positive, so you
want |sin x| < 0.01x. You cant get rid of the
absolute value symbol on the sine because
sine will keep alternating as x gets larger.
You know |sin x| 1 for all values
of x, so you need to make 0.01x > 1, or
x > 100. So D = 100.
d. The line y = 2 is an asymptote. Even though
r (x) oscillates back and forth across this line,
the limit of r(x) is 2 as x approaches infinity,
satisfying the definition of asymptote.

20

x0

## (The exact value is e, 2.7182 .)

10. a. h( x ) = (1 + 1/ x ) x
h(x )
3
2

## All of these f (x) values are less than 1000.

lim + g( x ) = means that arbitrarily far

x
10

## b. There is a compromise number (bigger than

1, but finite) that wins. (The exact limit is e.)
11. The limit is infinite. y is unbounded as x
approaches infinity. If there were a number E
such that log x < E for all x > 0, then you could
let x = 102E so that log x = log 102E = 2E, which
is greater than E, which was assumed to be an
upper bound.
12. Wanda, heres what happens to a fraction when
the denominator gets close to zero: 01.1 = 10,
1
1
0.0001 = 10, 000, 0.00001 = 100, 000. The answers
just keep getting bigger and bigger. When the
denominators get bigger and bigger, the fraction
gets closer and closer to zero, like this:
1
1
1
10 = 0.1, 100 = 0.01, 1000 = 0.001.
13. a. The definite integral is the product of the
independent and dependent variables. Because
distance = (rate)(time), the integral represents
distance in this case.
b. T9 = 17.8060052
T45 = 17.9819616
T90 = 17.9935649
T450 = 17.9994175
c. The exact answer is 18. It is a limit because
the sums can be made as close to it as you
like, just by making the number of trapezoids
large enough (and thus keeping their widths
close to zero). The sums are smaller than the
integral because each trapezoid is inscribed
under the graph and thus leaves out a part of
its respective strip of the region.
d. Tn is 0.01 unit from 18 when it equals 17.99.
From part b, this occurs between n = 45 and n
= 90. By experimentation,
T66 = 17.9897900 and T67 = 17.9900158 .
Therefore, the approximation is within 0.01
unit of 18 for any value of n 67.
An alternative solution is to plot the graph of
the difference between 18 and Tn as a function
of the number of increments, n, or to do a
regression analysis to find an equation. The
best-fitting elementary function is an inverse
power variation function, y = (5.01004)
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## (x 1.48482). The graph of this function and three

of the four data points are shown here. Use
TRACE or the solver feature of your grapher to
find n 67.
y

67

0.1

0.01
90

Q7. 1
Q8. +
Q9. Indeterminate
Q10. C
1. IVT applies on [1, 4] because f is a polynomial
function, and polynomial functions are
continuous for all x.
f (1) = 18, f (4) = 3
There is a value x = c in (1, 4) for which
f (c) = 8.
Using the intersect or solver feature,
c = 1.4349 , which is between 1 and 4.
f (x )

## 14. a. Work = force distance. Because a definite

integral measures the y-variable times the
x-variable, it represents work in this case.
b. By the trapezoidal rule, T10 = 24.147775
and T100 = 24.004889 . The units are
foot-pounds.
c. The integer is 24.
d. By experimentation, T289 = 24.001003 and
T290 = 24.000998 .
D = 290
15. Length = 100 sec x = 100/cos x
Length > 1000 100/cos x > 1000
cos x < 0.1 (because cos x is positive)
x > cos1 0.1 (because cos is decreasing)
x > 1.4706289
/2 1.4706289 = 0.100167
x must be within 0.100167 radian of /2.
The limit is (positive) infinity.
16. a. f (2) = 5 2 0 (1/0), which has the
form 0 .
g(2) = 5 2 0 (1/0)2, which has the
form 0 .
h(2) = 5 2 02 (1/0), which has the
form 0 .
1
b. f ( x ) = 5 x ( x 2)
= 5 x, x 2
x2
lim f ( x ) = 10
x 2

1
5x
,x2
g( x ) = 5 x ( x 2)
2 =
( x 2)
x2
lim g( x ) is infinite.
x 2

h( x ) = 5 x ( x 2 ) 2
lim h( x ) = 0

1
= 5 x ( x 2), x 2
x2

x 2

## c. The indeterminate form 0 could approach

zero, infinity, or some finite number.

## Problem Set 2-6

Q1. 53
Q3. Undefined
Q5. Undefined
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q2. 53
Q4. 5
Q6. Does not exist

f (1)

f (4)

x
1 c

## 2. IVT applies on [0, 6] because f is a polynomial

function, and polynomial functions are
continuous for all x.
f (0) = 8, f (6) = 0.224
There is a value x = c in (0, 6) for which
f (c) = 1.
Using the intersect or solver feature,
c = 5.8751 , which is between 0 and 6.
f (x )
0
0.224

c6 x

## 3. a. For 1 y < 2 or for 5 < y 8, the conclusion

would be true. But for 2 y 5, it would be
false because there are no values of x in [1, 5]
that give these values for f (x).
b. The conclusion of the theorem is true because
every number y in [4, 6] is a value of g(x) for
some value of x in [1, 5].
4. a. f (2) = 4, f (3) = 8, f (0.5) = 2 = 1.414 K ,
f ( 5) = 8
b. f is continuous at x = 3 because it has a limit
and a function value and they both equal 8.
c. f is continuous nowhere else. Because the
sets of rational and irrational numbers are
dense, there is a rational number between any
two irrational numbers, and vice versa. So
there is no limit of f (x) as x approaches any
number other than 3.
d. The conclusion is not true for all values of y
between 1 and 4. For instance, if y = 3, then
c would have to equal log2 3. But log2 3 is
irrational, so f (c) = 8, which is not between
1 and 4.
Problem Set 2-6

21

## 5. Let f (x) = x2. f is a polynomial function, so it is

continuous and thus the intermediate value
theorem applies. f (1) = 1 and f (2) = 4, so there
is a number c between 1 and 2 such that f (c) = 3.
By the definition of square root, c = 3 , Q .E .D .
6. Prove that if f is continuous, and if f (a) is
positive and f (b) is negative, then there is at least
one zero of f (x) between x = a and x = b.
Proof:

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

22

## f is continuous, so the intermediate value

theorem applies. f (a) is positive and f (b) is
negative, so there is a number x = c between a
and b for which f (c) = 0. Therefore, f has at least
one zero between x = a and x = b, Q.E.D.
The intermediate value theorem is called an
existence theorem because it tells you that a
number such as 3 exists. It does not tell you
how to calculate that number.
Telephone your sweethearts house. An answer to
the call tells you the existence of the
sweetheart at home. The call doesnt tell such
things as how to get there, and so on. Also,
getting no answer does not necessarily mean that
your sweetheart is out.
Let f (t) = Jesses speed Kays speed. f (1) =
20 15 = 5, which is positive. f (3) = 17 19 =
2, which is negative. The speeds are assumed to
be continuous (because of laws of physics), so f
is also continuous and the intermediate value
theorem applies.
So there is a value of t between 1 and 3 for
which f (t) = 0, meaning that Jesse and Kay are
going at exactly the same speed at that time.
The existence of the time tells you neither what
that time is nor what the speed is. An existence
theorem, such as the intermediate value theorem,
does not tell these things.
Let f (x) = number of dollars for x-ounce letter.
f does not meet the hypothesis of the IVT on the
interval [1, 9] because there is a step
discontinuity at each integer value of x. There is
no value of c for which f (c) = 2 because f (x)
jumps from 1.98 to 2.21 at x = 8.
You must assume that the cosine is function
continuous. Techniques:
c = cos 1 0.6 = 0.9272
Using the solver feature, c = 0.9272...
Using the intersect feature, c = 0.9272...
You must assume that 2x is continuous.
f (0) = 20 = 1, because any positive number to the
0 power equals 1.

c = log 2 3 =

log 3
= 1.5849...
log 2

## Using the solver feature, c = 1.5849...

Using the intersect feature, c = 1.5849...
13. This means that a function graph has a high
point and a low point on any interval in which
the function is continuous.
f (x )

x
a

c1

c2

## If the function is not continuous, there may be a

point missing where the maximum or minimum
would have been.
f (x)

x
a

## Another possibility would be a graph with a

vertical asymptote somewhere between a and b.
14. Prove that if f is continuous on [a, b], the image
of [a, b] under f is all real numbers between the
minimum and maximum values of f (x),
inclusive.
Proof:
By the extreme value theorem, there are numbers
x1 and x2 in [a, b] such that f (x1) and f (x2) are the
minimum and maximum values of f (x) on [a, b].
Because x1 and x2 are in [a, b], f is continuous on
the interval whose endpoints are x1 and x2. Thus,
the intermediate value theorem applies on the
latter interval. Thus, for any number y between
f (x1) and f (x2), there is a number x = c between
x1 and x2 for which f (c) = y, implying that the
image of [a, b] under f is all real numbers
between the minimum and maximum values of
f (x), inclusive, Q.E.D.

## Problem Set 2-7

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
36 51 + 15 0
R1. a. f (3) =
=
33
0
Indeterminate form

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. f ( x ) = 4 x 5, x 3

## You can cancel the (x 3) because the

definition of limit says but not equal to 3.

y
9

x
9

lim g( x )
x 3

## = lim x 2 + lim (10 x ) + lim 2

x 3

x 3

x 3

Limit of a sum
= lim x lim x 10 lim x + 2

x 3

## At x = 3 there is a removable discontinuity.

c. For 0.01, keep x within 0.0025 unit of 3. For
0.0001, keep x within 0.000025 unit of 3. To
keep f (x) within unit of 7, keep x within
1
4 unit of 3.
R2. a. L = lim f ( x ) if and only if for any number
x c

## > 0, no matter how small,

there is a number > 0 such that if x is
within units of c, but x c, then f (x) is
within units of L.
b. lim f ( x ) = 2
x 1

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant
= 3 3 10(3) + 2
Limit of x
= 19, which agrees with the graph.
c.

f (x) = 2x,
x 2 8 x + 15 ( x 3)( x 5)
g( x ) =
=
3 x
3 x
= x + 5, x 3
lim f ( x ) = 8, lim g( x ) = 2
x 3

x 3

## p(x) = f (x) g(x)

lim p( x ) = 8 2 = 16

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 4

x 3

x 3

## lim f ( x ) does not exist.

x 4

lim f ( x ) = 3
x 5

2.997
2.998
2.999
3
3.001
3.002
3.003

c. lim f ( x ) = 3
x 2

## Maximum : 0.6 or 0.7

d. The left side of x = 2 is the more restrictive.
Let 2 + x 1 = 3 0.4 = 2.6.
x = 1 + 0.62 = 1.36
maximum value of is 2 1.36 = 0.64.
e. Let f ( x ) = 3 .
2 + x 1 = 3
x = (1 )2 + 1
Let = 2 [(1 )2 + 1] = 1 (1 )2,
which is positive for all positive < 1. If
1, simply take = 1. Then will be
positive for all > 0.
R3. a. See the limit property statements in the text.
b.

p(x)
15.9907
15.9938
15.9969
undefined
16.0030
16.0061
16.0092

r( x ) =

f ( x)
g( x )

lim r ( x ) =
x 3

8
=4
2

y
20
15

g (x )
20

f
10

x
3

g
19

## The limit of a quotient property does not

apply because the limit of the denominator
is zero.
( x 3)( x 2 10 x + 2)
x3
g(x) = x 2 10x + 2, x 3
g( x ) =

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## d. For 5 to 5.1 s: average velocity = 15.5 m/s.

f (t ) f (5)
Average velocity =
=
t5
35t 5t 2 50 5(t 2)(t 5)
=
=
t5
t5
Problem Set 2-7

23

## 5(t 2), for t 5. Instantaneous velocity =

limit = 5(5 2) = 15 m/s.
The rate is negative, so the distance above the
starting point is getting smaller, which
means the rock is going down.
Instantaneous velocity is a derivative.
R4. a. f is continuous at x = c if and only if
1. f (c) exists
2. lim f ( x ) exists
x c

3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)
x c

## f is continuous on [a, b] if and only if f is

continuous at every point in (a, b), and
lim+ f ( x ) = f ( a) and lim f ( x ) = f (b).

xa

4
2

x
2

## The left limit is 4 and the right limit is 2, so

f is discontinuous at x = 2, Q.E.D.
Let 22 = 22 6(2) + k.
k = 12
R5. a. lim f ( x ) = means that f (x) can be kept
x4

## arbitrarily far from 0 on the positive side just

by keeping x close enough to 4, but not equal
to 4.
lim f ( x ) = 5 means that f (x) can be made to

xb

b.
lim f ( x )

lim+ f ( x )

lim f ( x )

f (x )

d.

Continuous?

none

infinite

## stay arbitrarily close to 5 just by keeping x

large enough in the positive direction.

removable

none

step

continuous

lim f ( x ) = 1

continuous

lim f ( x ) =

f (c)

x c

x c

x c

none

none

none

4
5

## b. lim f ( x ) does not exist.

x
x 2
x 2

c. i.

lim+ f ( x ) =

ii.

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2
x

c. f (x) = 6 2 x
lim f ( x ) = 6
x

f (x) = 5.999 = 6 2 x
2 x = 0.001
log 0.001
x=
log 2
x = 9.965...

iii.

iv.
y

x
3

10
20
30

v.

vi.
y

y
f (6)

d.

x
5

5.999023
5.999999046
5.99999999907

g(x) = x 2
lim g( x ) =
x0

g(x) = 106 = x 2
x2 = 10 6
x = 10 3
x

x
1
2

24

x
6

vii.

f (x)

0.0009
0.0005
0.0001

g(x)
1.2345 106
4,000,000
1 108

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## All of these g(x) values are larger than

1,000,000.
e. v(t) = 40 + 6 t
n

Trapezoidal Rule

50
100
200
400

467.9074
467.9669
467.9882
467.9958

## The limit of these sums seems to be 468.

By exploration,
T222 = 467.98995
T223 = 467.99002
D = 223
R6. a. See the text statement of the intermediate
value theorem.
The basis is the completeness axiom.
See the text statement of the extreme value
theorem.
The word is corollary.
b. f (x) = x 3 + 5x 2 10x + 20
f (3) = 8, f (4) = 4
So f (x) = 0 for some x between 3 and 4 by
the intermediate value theorem.
The property is continuity.
The value of x is approximately 3.7553.
c.

f (x )

x
4

## f (6) = 1 and f (2) = 5 by tracing on the

graph or by simplifying the fraction to get
f (x) = x + 7, then substituting. You will not
always get a value of x if y is between 1 and
5. If you pick y = 3, there is no value of x.
This fact does not contradict the intermediate
value theorem. Function f does not meet the
continuity hypothesis of the theorem.

x 1

f is continuous at x = 4, Q.E.D.
For the derivative, from the left side,
f ( x ) f (1) x 2 + 3 4 ( x 1)( x + 1)
=
=
=
x 1
x 1
x 1
x + 1, x 1
lim f ( x ) = 1 + 1 = 2
x 1

## For the derivative, from the right side,

f ( x ) f (1) x 2 6 x + 9 4 ( x 1)( x 5)
=
=
=
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 5, x 1
lim+ f ( x ) = 1 5 = 4
x 1

## So f is continuous at x = 1, but does not have a

value for the derivative there because the rate of
change jumps abruptly from 2 to 4 at x = 1. In
general, if a function has a cusp at a point, then
the derivative does not exist, but the function is
still continuous.
C3. The graph is a y = x2 parabola with a step
discontinuity at x = 1. (Use the rise-run
property. Start at the vertex. Then run 1, rise 1;
run 1, rise 3; run 1, rise 5; . . . . Ignore the
discontinuity at first.) To create the
discontinuity, use the signum function with
argument (x 1). Because there is no value for
f (1), the absolute value form of the signum
function can be used.
| x 1|
y = x2 + 2
x 1
C4. The quantity | f ( x ) L | is the distance between
f (x) and L. If this distance is less than , then
f (x) is within units of L. The quantity |x c|
is the distance between x and c. The right part of
the inequality, |x c| < , says that x is within
units of c. The left part, 0 < |x c|, says that x
does not equal c. Thus, this definition of limit is
equivalent to the other definition.

Chapter Test

Concept Problems
C1.

C2. f (1) = 12 6 1 + 9 = 4
As x 1 from the left, f (x) 12 + 3 = 4.
As x 1 from the right, f (x) 12 6 + 9 = 4.
lim f ( x ) = 4 = f (1)

## T1. f is continuous at x = c if and only if

1. f (c) exists

2. lim f ( x ) exists

x c

3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)
x c

g
x
4

Conjecture: lim f ( x ) = 7
x4

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## f is continuous on [a, b] if and only if f is

continuous at all points in (a, b), and
lim+ f ( x ) = f ( a) and lim f ( x ) = f (b) .

xa

xb

25

T2. a.

lim f ( x ) = 3

x 2

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2

lim f ( x ) = 4

## = lim x 2 + lim ( 5 x ) + lim 8

lim f ( x ) = 2

Limit of a sum
= lim x lim x + ( 5) lim x + 8

x 2 +
x 6

## b. f is continuous on [2, 6] because it is

continuous for all values in (2, 6) and
lim+ f ( x ) = f (2) and lim f ( x ) = f (6) .
x 6

## T3. See the text statement of the quotient property.

T4. a. Left: 4; right: 4
b. Limit: 4
c. Discontinuous
T5. a. Left: none; right: none
b. Limit: none
c. Discontinuous
T6. a. Left: 6; right: 6
b. Limit: 6
c. Continuous
T7. a. Left: 2; right: 3
b. Limit: none
c. Discontinuous
T8.

x 2

T12. lim f ( x ) = k 2 2
x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2 + k

x 2 +

4k = 2 + k
k = 2/3
T13. See graph in T11.
T14. a. lim T ( x ) = 20

b.
g(x )

f (x )

1
x

d.
h(x)

s (x )
1

x
1

(0 2 5 0 + 8)(0 3) 0
= ,
03
0
an indeterminate form
b. lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 5 x + 8), x 3

T10. a. f (3) =

x 3

Definition of limit
x c
26

## Problem Set 2-7

f(x)

x 3

x 2

f is discontinuous at x = 3.

c.

x 3

x 2 ,
x2
T11. If k = 1, f ( x ) =
x + 1, x > 2
lim f ( x ) = 4, lim+ f ( x ) = 3

T9. a.

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,
limit of a constant
times a function,
limit of a constant
= 3 3 + (5) 3 + 8 Limit of x
= 2, Q .E .D .

x 6

x 2

x 3

x 3

lim f ( x ) = 2

x 6 +

x 3

## From the graph, it appears that if x > 63 ft,

then T(x) is within 1 of the limit.
The graph of T has a horizontal asymptote at
T = 20.
b. T = 20 + 8(0.97x) cos 0.5x. The amplitude of
the cosine factor is 8(0.97 x ). Make this
amplitude < 0.1.
8(0.97c) = 0.1
0.97c = 0.0125
log 0.0125
c=
log 0.97
c = 143.8654
T is within 0.1 unit of 20 whenever
x > 143.8654 .
c. The time of day would be mid-afternoon,
when the temperature of the surface is
highest.
T15. a. Use either TRACE or TABLE to show:
d(0) = 0, d(10) = 6, d(20) = 14, d(30) = 24,
d(40) = 36, and d(50) = 50.
d (20.1) d (20)
b. Average rate =
=
20.1 20
14.0901 14
= 0.901 cm/day
20.1 20
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

d (t ) d (20)
=
t 20
0.01t 2 + 0.5t 14 0.01(t + 70)(t 20)
=
=
t 20
t 20
0.01t + 0.7, t 20. The limit as t approaches
20 is 0.01(20) + 0.7, which equals
0.9 cm/day. This instantaneous rate is called
the derivative.
d. The glacier seems to be speeding up because
each 10-day period it moved farther than it had
in the preceding 10-day period.
T16. c(0) = p(0) = 10, so each has the same speed at
t = 0. lim c(t ) = 16. lim p(t ) = . Surprise for
c. Average rate =

Phoebe!
kx 2 ,
if x 2
T17. f ( x ) =
10 kx, if x > 2

at x = 2.
10

f(x)

x
2

## T18. h(x) = x3. h(1) = 1 and h(2) = 8, so 7 is between

h(1) and h(2). The intermediate value theorem
allows you to conclude that there is a real
number between 1 and 8 equal to the cube root
of 7.
T19. Answers will vary.

lim f ( x ) = k 2 2 = 4 k

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 10 2 k

x 2 +

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

27

## Chapter 3Derivatives, Antiderivatives,

and Indefinite Integrals
Problem Set 3-1

Q4.
y

## 1. The graph is correct.

f (5.1) f (5) 3.21 3
2. Average rate =
=
=
0.1
0.1
2.1 km/min
3.
y

Q5. 9x 2 42x + 49
Q6. sign
Q7.

Q8.

x
5

## 4. The graph of r has a removable discontinuity

at x = 5.
f (5) f (5) 0
=
r (5) =
55
0
f ( x ) f (5) x 2 8 x + 18 3
5. r ( x ) =
=
x5
x5
( x 5)( x 3)
=
= x 3, x 5
x5
f (5) = lim r ( x )
x 5

( x 5)( x 3)
= lim
= lim ( x 3) = 2
x 5
x 5
x5
The derivative is the velocity of the spaceship,
in km/min.
6. Find the equation of the line through (5, f (5)),
or (5, 3), with slope 2.
y 3 = 2(x 5) y = 2x 7

Q9.
Q10.
1.
2.

## Newton and Leibniz

D
See the text for the definition of derivative.
Physical: Instantaneous rate of change of the
dependent variable with respect to the
independent variable
Graphical: Slope of the tangent line to the graph
of the function at that point
0.6 x 2 5.4
x 3
x3
0.6( x 3)( x + 3)
= lim
= 3.6
x 3
x3
b. Graph of the difference quotient m(x)

3. a. f (3) = lim

m(x )
3.6

y
x

3
3

c., d.

f (x )

## This line is tangent to the graph of f (x) at (5, 3).

7. As you zoom in, the line and the graph appear to
be the same.
8. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 3-2

Q1. Instantaneous rate of change
Q2. x + 9
Q3. 18

28

## Problem Set 3-2

x
3

0.2 x 2 + 7.2
x 6
x6
0.2( x 6)( x + 6)
= lim
= 2.4
x 6
x6

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.
m (x )

x
6
2.4

c., d.

## Tangent line: y = 2.4x + 7.2

f (x)
x
6

7.2

x 2 + 5x + 1 + 5
x 2
x+2
( x + 2)( x + 3)
= lim
=1
x 2
x+2

5. f (2) = lim

x 2 + 6 x 2 + 10
x 4
x+4
( x + 4)( x + 2)
= lim
= 2
x 4
x+4

6. f ( 4) = lim

x3 4x2 + x + 8 6
7. f (1) = lim
x 1
x 1
( x 1)( x 2 3 x 2)
= lim
= 4
x 1
x 1
8.

9.

10.

11.
12.

x3 x2 4x + 6 8
f (1) = lim
x 1
x +1
( x + 1)( x 2 2 x 2)
= lim
=1
x 1
x +1
0.7 x + 2 + 0.1
f (3) = lim
x 3
x3
0.7( x 3)
= lim
= 0.7
x 3
x3
1.3 x 3 2.2
f ( 4) = lim
x4
x4
1.3( x 4)
= lim
= 1.3
x4
x4
55
f (1) = lim
=0
x 1 x + 1
2 + 2
f (3) = lim
=0
x 3 x 3

## 13. The derivative of a linear function equals the

slope. The tangent line coincides with the graph
of a linear function.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 14. The derivative of a constant function is zero.

Constant functions are horizontal and dont
change! The tangent line coincides with the
graph.
15. a. Find f ( 1) = 2, then plot a line through point
(1, f (1)) using f ( 1) as the slope. The line is
y = 2x 1.
b. Near the point (1, 1), the tangent line and the
curve appear nearly the same.
c. The curve appears to get closer and closer to
the line.
d. Near point (1, 1) the curve looks linear.
e. If a graph has local linearity, the graph near
that point looks like the tangent line.
Therefore, the derivative at that point could be
said to equal the slope of the graph at that
point.
16. a. f ( x) = x 2 + 0.1 (x 1)2/3
f ( 1) = 12 + 0.1(1 1)2/3 = 1 + 0 = 1, Q .E .D .
The graph appears to be locally linear at
(1, 1), because it looks smooth there.
b. Zoom in by a factor of 10,000.

## c. The graph has a cusp at x = 1. It changes

direction abruptly, not smoothly.
d. If you draw a secant line through (1, 1) from a
point just to the left of x = 1, it has a large
negative slope. If you draw one from a point
just to the right, it has a large positive slope.
In both cases, the secant line becomes vertical
as x approaches 1 and a vertical line has
infinite slope. So there is no real number
equal to the derivative.
17. a.
7

f (x )

x
3

x + 2, if x 3
f ( x) =
if x = 3
7,

29

( x + 2) 7 x 5
m( x ) =
=
x3
x3
m (x )

x 3

## The tangent line on the graph has slope 1.

b.
f (x)

5
Draw secant lines
from here.

x
3

c.
x

f (x)

2.997

667.66

2.998
1001
2.999
2001
3.000
undefined
3.001
1999
3.002
999
3.003
665.66
The difference quotients are all large positive
numbers on the left side of 3. On the right
side, they are large negative numbers. For a
derivative to exist, the difference quotient
must approach the same number as x gets
closer to 3.

x
3

## As the x-distance between the point and 3

decreases, the secant lines (solid) approach the
tangent line (dashed).
c. The same thing happens with secant lines
from the left of x = 3. See the graph in part b.
d.
g ( x)
4
Draw secant lines
from here.

18. a.
s (x )
x
3
2

x
1

b. m( x ) =

| sin ( x 1) |
x 1

m(x )
1

x
1

## e. A derivative is a limit. Because the left and

right limits are unequal, there is no derivative
at x = 3.

6 cos x
6
f. m( x ) =
. By table,
x3
x

## c. As x approaches 1 from the left, m(x)

approaches 1. As x approaches 1 from the
right, m(x) approaches 1. Because the left and
right limits are unequal, there is no derivative
at x = 1.
0.25 x 2 2.5 x + 7.25 2
x 3
x3
0.25( x 3)( x 7)
= lim
x 3
x3

19. a. f ( x ) = lim

30

2.9
2.99
3
3.01
3.1

m(x)
3.1401
3.1415
undefined
3.1415
3.1401

## Conjecture: The numbers are and .

20. From Problem 19, parts b and c, the tangent line
is the limit of the secant lines as x approaches c.
Because the slope of the secant line is the average

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## rate of change of f (x) for the interval from x to c

(or from c to x) and the derivative, f (c), is the
limit of this average rate, the slope of the tangent
line equals f (c).

2.
15

y
g'
x
3

Q1. 3
Q2.

## The graph does not have the high and low

points that are typical of a cubic function. As x
increases, the graph starts to roll over and form
a high point, but it starts going back up again
before that happens. This behavior is revealed by
the fact that the derivative is positive everywhere.
Between x = 0 and x = 1, the derivative reaches
a low point, indicating that the slope is a
minimum, but the slope is still positive and
the graph of g is still going up.

y
5

x
2

Q3.
y
x

3. a.
y
200

Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.

20%
3x 2 2x 8
25x2 70x + 49
log 6

h
x
2

x c

1. a.
y
f
x
2

2.5

## b. The h graph looks like a cubic function

graph. Conjecture: Seventh-degree function
has a sixth-degree function for its derivative.
c. By plotting the graph using a friendly window,
then tracing, the zeros of h are 2, 1, 2.5.
d. If h(x) = 0, the h graph has a high point or
a low point. This is reasonable because if
h(x) = 0, the rate of change of h(x) is zero,
which would happen when the graph stops
going up and starts going down, or vice
versa.
e. See the graph in part a.

Q9.

40

4.

y
f

q'

10

## b. f (x) is positive for 2 < x < 2. The graph of

f is increasing for these x-values.
c. f ( x) is decreasing for x satisfying |x| > 2.
f (x) < 0 for these values of x.
d. Where the f graph crosses the x-axis, the
f graph has a high point or a low point.
e. See the graph in part a.
f. Conjecture: f is quadratic.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The graph does not have the expected shape for a

quartic function. The two high points and the low
point all appear to occur as a high point at
x = 2. The derivative graph crosses the x-axis just
once, at x = 2, indicating that this is the only
place where the function graph is horizontal.

31

5. a.

## derivative equal the function value. So the base

must be greater than 2. By experimenting, 3 is
too large, but not by much. You can use trial
and error with bases between 2 and 3, checking
the results either by plotting the graph and the
numerical derivative or by constructing tables.
An ingenious method that some students come
up with uses the numerical derivative and
numerical solver features to solve
nDeriv(bx, x, 1) = b1 at x = 1. The answer is
about 2.718281 . (In Section 3-9, students will
learn that this number is e, the base of natural
logarithms.) The graph of f ( x) = 2.781x
and its numerical derivative are shown here.

y
f

## b. Amplitude = 1, period = 2 = 6.283

c. The graph of f also has amplitude 1 and
period 2.
d.
y
f
4

x
5
f and g

## The graphs of f and g are the same shape,

spaced 1 unit apart vertically. The graphs of
f and g are identical! This is to be expected
because the shapes of the f and g graphs are
the same.
6.
f

## The function available on the grapher is y = cos x.

The amplitude is 1, the period is 2, and the
shape is sinusoidal. cos 0 = 1, and the graph is at
a high point, y = 1, when x = 0.
7.

8.
y

y
f
3

f'

x
4

9.

10.
y
5

x
1

## 12. Answer will vary depending on calculator.

13. a. Maximum area = (12.01)2 = 144.2401 in.2
Minimum area = (11.99)2 = 143.7601 in.2
Range is 143.7601 area 144.2401.
Area is within 0.2401 in.2 of the ideal.

y
4

f and f'

y
f

f
3

f'
x

x
1

## b. Let x be the number of inches.

Area = x2.
The right side of 12 is more restrictive, so set
x2 = 144.02.
x = 144.021/2 = 12.000833
Keep the tile dimensions within 0.0008 in. of
12 in.
c. The 0.02 in part b corresponds to , and the
0.0008 corresponds to .
14. The average of the forward and backwards
difference quotients equals
1 f ( x + h) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x h)
+

2
h
h
1 f ( x + h) f ( x h)
=

2
h
f ( x + h) f ( x h)
=
, Q .E .D .
2h
15. a. f ( x) = x 3 x + 1 f ( 1) = 1
( x 3 x + 1) 1
x 1
x 1
x3 x
x ( x + 1)( x 1)
= lim
= lim
x 1 x 1
x 1
x 1
= lim x ( x + 1) = 2

f (1) = lim
11. The derivative for f ( x) = 2x is consistently below
that of the function itself. This fact implies that
f ( x) does not increase rapidly enough to make the
32

x 1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## f (1.1) f (1) 1.231 1

=
= 2.31
0.1
0.1
f (1) f (0.9) 1 0.829
Backwards:
=
= 1.71
0.1
0.1
Symmetric:

b. Forward:

## f (1.1) f (0.9) 1.231 0.829

=
= 2.01
2(0.1)
0.2
The symmetric difference quotient is closer to
the actual derivative because it is the average
of the other two, and the other two span the
actual derivative.
c. f ( 0) = 1
( x 3 x + 1) 1
f (0) = lim
x0
x0
x3 x
= lim
= lim ( x 2 1) = 1
x0
x0
x
f (0.1) f (0) 0.901 1
d. Forward:
=
= 0.99
0.1
0.1
f (0.1) f (0) 1.099 1
Backwards:
=
= 0.99
0.1
0.1
Symmetric:
f (0.1) f (0.1) 0.901 1.099
=
= 0.99
2(0.1)
0.2
All three difference quotients are equal because
f ( x) changes just as much from 0.1 to 0 as it
does from 0 to 0.1.
16.
h

Backwards

Forward

Symmetric

0.1
1.1544
3.1544
1
0.01 3.6415
5.6415
1
0.001 9
11
1
The backwards difference quotients are becoming
large and negative, while the forward difference
quotients are becoming large and positive. Their
average, the symmetric difference quotient, is
always equal to 1.
17. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 3-4

Q1. 9x 2 24x + 16
Q2. a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
Q3. See the text definition of derivative.
f ( x + h) f ( x h)
Q4.
2h
Q5. No limit (infinite) Q6. log 73
Q7. 3
Q8. Pythagorean theorem
Q9. 10
Q10. C
1. f ( x) = 5x 4 f ( x) = 20x3
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 2. y = 11x8 dy/dx = 88x7

3. v = 0.007t 83 dv/dt = 0.581t 84
x 9
1
4. v( x ) =
v ( x ) = x 10
18
2
5. M(x) = 1215 M (x) = 0 (Derivative of a
constant)
6. f (x) = 4.7723 f (x) = 0 (Derivative of a
constant)
7. y = 0.3x 2 8x + 4 dy/dx = 0.6x 8
8. r = 0.2x2 + 6x 1 dr/dx = 0.4x + 6
d
9.
(13 x ) = 1
dx
10. f (x) = 4.5x 2 x f (x) = 9x 1
11. y = x 2.3 + 5x 2 100x + 4
dy/dx = 2.3x1.3 10x 3 100
2
d 2/5
12.
( x 4 x 2 3 x 1 + 14) = x 3/ 5 8 x + 3 x 2
5
dx
13. v = (3x 4)2 = 9x2 24x + 16 dv/dx = 18x 24
14. u = (5x 7)2 = 25x 2 70x + 49
du/dx = 50x 70
15. f (x) = (2x + 5)3 = 8x3 + 60x2 + 150x + 125
f (x) = 24x2 + 120x + 150
16. f (x) = (4x 1)3 = 64x 3 48x 2 + 12x 1
f (x) = 192x2 96x + 12
x2
17. P( x ) =
x + 4 P ( x ) = x 1
2
x3 x2
x + 1 Q( x ) = x 2 + x 1
18. Q( x ) =
+
3
2
19. f (x) = 7x4
7( x + h) 4 7 x 4
f ( x ) = lim
h0
h
3
= lim (28 x + 42 x 2 h + 28 xh 2 + 7h 3 ) = 28 x 3
h 0

## By formula, f (x) = 7 4x3 = 28x3, which checks.

20. g(x) = 5x3
5( x + h)3 5 x 3
g( x ) = lim
h0
h
2
= lim (15 x + 15 xh + 5h 2 ) = 15 x 2
h 0

## By formula, g (x) = 5 3x2 = 15x2, which checks.

21. v(t) = 10t2 5t + 7
[10(t + h)2 5(t + h) + 7] (10t 2 5t + 7)
h0
h
20th + 10 h 2 5h
= lim
h0
h
= lim (20t + 10 h 5) = 20t 5

v (t ) = lim

h0

checks.

33

## 22. s(t ) = t 4 6t 2 + 3.7

[(t + h) 4 6(t + h)2 + 3.7] [t 4 6t 2 + 3.7]
s (t ) = lim
h0
h
4t 3 h + 6t 2 h 2 + 4th 3 + h 4 12th 6h 2
= lim
h0
h
= lim ( 4t 3 + 6t 2 h + 4th 2 + h 3 12t 6h)
h0
3

= 4t 12t
By formula, s(t ) = 4t 3 6 2t = 4t 3 12t , which
checks.
23. Mae should realize that you differentiate
functions, not values of functions. If you
substitute a value for x into f (x) = x4, you get
f (3) = 34 = 81, which is a new function, g(x) =
81. It is the derivative of g that equals zero.
Moral: Differentiate before you substitute for x.
24. a. v(x) = h(x) = 10x + 20
b. The book was going down at 10 m/s.
The velocity is 10, so h(x) is decreasing.
c. The book was 15 m above where he threw it.
d. 2 s. The book is at its highest point when the
velocity is zero. v(x) = 0 if and only if x = 2.

d. f (3) = 6.2
f (3) = 3.8 (by formula)
f (3) 3.8000004 (depending on grapher)
The two values of f (3) are almost identical!
28. a. g(x) = x 1. Conjecture: g(x) = 1 x 2.
Conjecture is confirmed.
y
1

y1
x
1

y 2 and y3

## b. h(x) = x1/ 2. Conjecture: g(x) = 0.5x 1/ 2.

Conjecture is confirmed.
y
2

y1

y2 and y3

25.

## c. e(x) = 2x. Conjecture: e (x) = x 2x 1.

Conjecture is refuted!

f
f

x
y

y1

26.
3

g
x
6

g'

y3
x

29. f ( x ) = x 1/ 2 + 2 x 13
f ( x ) = 12 x 1/ 2 + 2, f ( 4) = 94
Increasing by 9/4 y-units per x-unit at x = 4
30. f (x) = x 2 3x + 11
f (x) = 2x 3 3, f (1) = 5
Decreasing by 5 y-units per x-unit at x = 1

27. a.
y
10

x
f

## b. The graph of f is shown dashed in part a.

c. There appear to be only two graphs because
the exact and the numerical derivative graphs
almost coincide.
34

y2

## 31. f (x) = x1.5 6x + 30

f (x) = 1.5x0.5 6, f (9) = 1.5
Decreasing by 1.5 y-units per x-unit at x = 9
32. f ( x ) = 3 x + x + 1
f ( x ) = 23 x 1/ 2 + 1, f (2) = 0.0606K
Decreasing by approximately 0.0607 y-unit per
x-unit at x = 2
33. f ( x ) =

x3
x 2 3 x + 5, f ( x ) = x 2 2 x 3
3
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## High and low points of the f graph are at the

x-intercepts of the f graph.
y

x
1

x3
2 x 2 + 3 x + 9, f ( x ) = x 2 4 x + 3
3
High and low points of the f graph are at the
x-intercepts of the f graph.

34. f ( x ) =

y
15

f'
1

## 35. If f (x) = k g(x), then f (x) = k g(x).

Proof:
f ( x + h) f ( x )
h
k g( x + h ) k g ( x )
= lim
h0
h
g( x + h) g( x )
= lim k
h0
h
g( x + h) g( x )
= k lim
h0
h
= k g ( x ), Q .E .D .

f ( x ) = lim
h0

## Dilating a function f (x) vertically by a constant k

results in the new function g(x) = k f (x). What
has been shown is that
d
d
( k f ( x )) = k
f ( x)
dx
dx
That is, dilating a function vertically by a
constant k dilates the derivative function by a
constant factor of k.
36. If f ( x ) = x 5 , then f (c) = 5c 4 .
Proof:
f (c) = lim
x c

= lim
x c

f ( x ) f (c )
xc
x 5 c5
xc

( x c)( x 4 + x 3c + x 2 c 2 + xc 3 + c 4 )
x c
xc

= lim

= lim ( x 4 + x 3c + x 2 c 2 + xc 3 + c 4 )
x c

= c4 + c4 + c4 + c4 + c4
= 5c4, Q .E.D .
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

Proof:
( x + h) n x n
h0
h
x n + nx n1h + 12 n(n 1) x n2 h 2 + L + h n x n
= lim
h 0
h
1
= lim nx n1 + n(n 1) x n2 h + L + h n1
h 0
2

= nx n1 + 0 + 0 + L + 0
= nx n 1 , which is from the second term in the
binomial expansion of (x + h)n, Q.E.D.
38. If yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un , where the ui are
differentiable functions of x, prove that
yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un for all integers n 2.
f ( x ) = lim

## 37. If f (x) = xn, then f(x) = nxn 1.

Proof:
Anchor: For n = 2, y2 = u1 + u2 .
y2 = u1 + u2 by the derivative of a sum of the
two functions property, thus anchoring the
induction.
Induction hypothesis:
Suppose that for n = k > 2,
yk = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk .
Verification for n = k + 1:
Let yk +1 = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk + uk +1 .
Then yk +1 = (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1 , which
is a sum of two terms.
yk +1 = (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1 ,
which, by the anchor,
= (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1
= u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk + uk +1 ,
which completes the induction.
Conclusion:
yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un for all integers
n 2, Q .E .D .
39. a. f ( x ) = 3 x 2 10 x + 5 f ( x ) = x 3 5 x 2 + 5 x
b. g(x) = f (x) + 13 is also an answer to part a
because it has the same derivative as f (x). The
derivative of a constant is zero.
c. The name antiderivative is chosen because it
is an inverse operation of taking the derivative.
d
d
d.
[ g( x )] = [ f ( x ) + C] =
dx
dx
d
d
d
f ( x) + C =
f ( x)
dx
dx
dx
The word indefinite is used because of the
unspecified constant C.
40. a. f (x) = 5x 4 f (x) = x 5 + C
f(2) = 23 (2)5 + C = 23
C = 9
f (x) = x 5 9
b. f (x) = 0.12x2 f (x) = 0.04x3 + C
f (1) = 500 0.04(1)3 + C = 500
Problem Set 3-4

35

C = 499.96
f (x) = 0.04x3 + 499.96
c. f ( x ) = x 3 f ( x ) = 14 x 4 + C
f (5) = 2 14 (5) 4 + C = 2
C = 154.25
f ( x ) = 14 x 4 154.25

## Problem Set 3-5

Q1. No values of t
Q3. y = 51x

Q2. dy/dx = 10 x

## Q5. ( d/dx )(3 x + 5) = 3

Q6. f (3) = 45

Q7. f (3) = 30

Q8. 45

Q9.

Q10. C
4

2.4

1. y = 5t 3t + 7t
dy
v=
= 20t 3 7.2t 1.4 + 7,
dt
dv
a=
= 60t 2 10.08t 0.4
dt
2. y = 0.3t 4 5t
dy
dv
v=
= 1.2t 5 5, a =
= 6t 6
dt
dt
3. x = t3 + 13t2 35t + 27. The object starts out
at x = 27 ft when t = 0 s. It moves to the left to
x 0.15 ft when t 1.7 s. It turns there and
goes to the right to x = 70 ft when t = 7 s. It
turns there and speeds up, going to the left for all
higher values of t.
y
Turns at t = 7, x = 76
Turns at t = 1.7, x = 0.15
Starts at t = 0, x = 27

x
10

## 4. x = t 4 11t 3 + 38t 2 48t + 50. The object starts

at x = 50 ft when t = 0 s. It moves to the left
to x 30 ft when t 1.0 s. Then it moves to the
right to x 34.8 ft when t 2.4 s. The object
moves to the left again, turning at x 9.4 ft
when t 4.8 s and then moving back to the right
for higher values of t.
y

## 5. a. x = t 3 + 13t 2 35t + 27 (See Problem 3.)

v = 3t 2 + 26t 35, a = 6t + 26
b. v(1) = 3 + 26 35 = 12
So x is decreasing at 12 ft/s at t = 1.
a(1) = 6 + 26 = 20
So the object is slowing down at 20 (ft/s)/s
because the velocity and acceleration are in
opposite directions when t = 1.
v(6) = 3(6)2 + 26(6) 35 = 13
So x is increasing at 13 ft/s at t = 6.
a(6) = 6(6) + 26 = 10
So the object is slowing down at 10 (ft/s)/s
because the velocity and acceleration are in
opposite directions when t = 6.
v(8) = 3(8)2 + 26(8) 35 = 19
So x is decreasing at 19 ft/s at t = 8.
a(1) = 6(8) + 26 = 22
So the object is speeding up at 22 (ft/s)/s
because the velocity and acceleration are in the
same directions when t = 8.
c. At t = 7, x has a relative maximum because
v(7) = 0 at that point and is positive just
before t = 7 and negative just after. No, x is
never negative for t in [0, 9]. It starts out at
27 ft, decreases to just above zero around
t = 1.7, and does not become negative until
some time between t = 9.6 and 9.7.
6. a. x = t 4 11t 3 + 38t 2 48t + 50 (See Problem 4.)
v = 4t 3 33t 2 + 76t 48, a = 12t 2 66t + 76
b. At t = 1, v(1) = 1 and a(1) = 22. At t = 3,
v(3) = 9 and a(3) = 14 . At t = 5, v(5) = 7
and a(5) = 46 . The object is slowing down at
t = 1 because the velocity and acceleration are
in opposite directions. The object is speeding
up at t = 3 and t = 5 because velocity and
acceleration are in the same direction.
c. v = 0 when t = 1.0475 , 2.3708 ,
or 4.8315 .
d. The displacement is at a maximum or a
minimum whenever v = 0.
y

x
10

t
1

## Turns at t 2.4, x 34.8

Turns at t 1.0, x 30.0
Starts at t 0, x 50

x
10

36

## e. a = 0 when t = 1.6413 or 3.8586 .

When a = 0, v is at a maximum or minimum

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## point and the graph of x is at its steepest for

times around these values.
y

## 9. a. d (t ) = 18t 4.9t 2 d (t ) = 18 9.8t

d(1) = 18 9.8 = 8.2
d(3) = 18 9.8 3 = 11.4
d is called velocity in physics.
b. At t = 1 the football is going up at 8.2 m/s.
At t = 3 the football is going down at
11.4 m/s. The ball is going up when the
derivative is positive and coming down when
the derivative is negative. The ball is going
up when the graph slopes up and coming
down when the graph slopes down.

x
10

t
1

7. a.
y
300

t
10

## b. v = d = 30 2t. Velocity is positive for

0 t < 15. Calvin is going up the hill for
the first 15 s.
c. At 15 seconds his car stopped. d(15) = 324,
so distance is 324 feet.
d. 99 + 30t t 2 = 0 (33 t )(3 + t ) = 0 t = 33
or t = 3. Hell be back at the bottom when
t = 33 s.
e. d(0) = 99. The car runs out of gas 99 ft from
the bottom.
8. a.
y

## c. d( 4) = 21.2, which suggests that the

ball is going down at 21.2 m/s. However,
d( 4) = 6.4, which reveals that the ball
has gone underground. The function gives
meaningful answers in the real world only if
the domain of t is restricted to values that
make d(t) nonnegative.
10. a.
y
2

t
v

## b. The acceleration at the bottom of the swing

is 0. The acceleration is greatest at either end
of its swing.

v = 251

200

11.
y
a = v'

30

## b. Trace the v graph to find a(0) 32 . The

acceleration decreases because the velocity is
approaching a constant. In the real world, this
occurs because the wind resistance increases as
the velocity increases.
c. The limit is 251 ft/s as t approaches infinity.
The term 0.88t approaches zero as t gets very
large, leaving only 1 inside the parentheses.
d. 90% of terminal velocity is 0.9(251) =
225.9 ft/s.
Algebraic solution:
251(1 0.88t ) = 225.9 0.88t = 0.1
log 0.1
t=
= 18.012394... 18.0 s
log 0.88
Numerical solution gives the same answer.
Graphical solution: Trace to v(t) = 225.9.
T is between 18 and 18.5.
e. Find the numerical derivative.
v(18.0123) 3.2086 , which is
approximately 10% of the initial acceleration.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

t
5

## 12. v(t) = 15t0.6 . Because v(t ) = x (t ) , x(t) must

have had t 1.6 in it. The derivative of t1.6 can be
assumed to be 1.6t0.6 . So the coefficient of t 1.6
must be 15/1.6 , or 9.375. But x(0) was 50.
Thus, x(t) = 9.375t1.6 + 50. The derivative x(t)
really does equal v(t). Using this equation,
x(10) = 9.375(101.6 ) + 50 = 423.225K .
So the distance traveled is 423.225 50 =
373.225 , or about 373 ft.
13. The average rate is defined to be the change in
the dependent variable divided by the change in
the independent variable (such as total distance
divided by total time). Thus, the difference
quotient is an average rate. The instantaneous
rate is the limit of this average rate as the change
in the independent variable approaches zero.
Problem Set 3-5

37

m (5) = 14.6299K
m (10) = 23.5616K
Both quantities are in the units (\$/yr)yr.
The quantities represent the instantaneous rate of
change of the instantaneous rate of change of the
amount of money in the account. For example,
at t = 5, the rate of increase of the account
(153.50 \$/yr) is increasing at a rate of
14.63 (\$/yr)/yr.

14. a.
y
3

t
10

15.
16.
17.

18.

19.

38

## b. y is a relative maximum when t 0, 4,

8, .
y is a relative minimum when t 2, 6, 10, .
c. The velocity is a relative maximum when
t 3 or 7. The displacement graph at these
times appears to be increasing the fastest.
d. The equation used in the text is

y = 2 + 0.85t cos t
2
The student could observe that the period is 4,
leading to the coefficient /2. The amplitude
decreases in a way that suggests an exponential
function with base close to, but less than, 1.
The additive 2 raises the graph up two units,
as can be ascertained by the fact that the graph
seems to converge to 2 as t gets larger. The
numerical derivative of the function shown in
part a agrees with the graph of the velocity.
Note that the actual maximum and minimum
values occur slightly before the values of t
read from the graph in part a. For instance,
the maximum near t = 4 is actually at
t = 3.9343 .
dy
d2y
y = 5x 3
= 15 x 2 2 = 30 x
dx
dx
dy
d2y
y = 7x 4
= 28 x 3 2 = 84 x 2
dx
dx
dy
2
5
y = 9x + x
= 18 x + 5 x 4
dx
d2y
= 18 + 20 x 3
dx 2
y = 10 x 2 15 x + 42
dy
d2y
= 20 x 15 2 = 20
dx
dx
m(5) = 153.4979K
m(10) = 247.2100K
These numbers represent the instantaneous rate of
change of the amount of money in the account.
The second quantity is larger because the money
grows at a rate proportional to the amount of
money in the account. Because there is more
money after 10 years, the rate of increase should
also be larger.
Problem Set 3-6

p (14) = 2.4755K
p (14) = 12 p (7)
The fact that these derivatives are negative tells
us that the amount of nitrogen 17 is decreasing.
p (7) = 0.4902K
p (14) = 0.2451K
Both quantities are in units (% of nitrogen
17/s)/s. The quantities represent the rate of
change of the rate of change of the percentage of
nitrogen 17 remaining. For example, at t = 7 s,
the rate of decrease (4.95%/s) is changing at a
rate of 0.49 (%/s)/s.
21.
y
2

f
x
5

of y = cos (x).
22.
y
2

f'

of y = sin (x).

1.
y
3

x
10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y

y2 and y 3

y1
x

## e. q(x) = 1/(tan x). Inside: tangent. Outside:

reciprocal.
f. L(x) = log (sec x). Inside: secant. Outside:
logarithm.
8. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 3-7

3. g(x) = sin 3x
Conjecture: g(x) = 3 cos 3x
The graph confirms the conjecture.
3

y
g

## Q2. lim f ( x ) exists

x c
Q3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)

x c

## Q4. No (not continuous) Q5. dy/dx = 16 x 1/ 5

Q6. f (x) = 10x 3
Q7. Antiderivative
Q8.

g
x
10

y = sin x
x

4. h( x ) = sin x 2
Conjecture: h( x ) = 2 x cos x 2
The graph confirms the conjecture.

Q9.
y = cos x
x

y
h'
h

Q10. C
1. a. Let y = f (u), u = g(x).
dy dy du
=

dx du dx
b. y = f [ g( x )] g( x )

x
5

5. t ( x ) = sin x 0.7
Conjecture: t ( x ) = 0.7 x 0.3 cos x 0.7
The graph confirms the conjecture.
y

2.
1

x
t

10

## 6. f (x) = sin [g(x)]

f is a composite function.
g is the inside function.
sine is the outside function.
Differentiate the outside function with respect to
the inside function. Then multiply the answer by
the derivative of the inside function with respect
to x.
7. a. f (x) = sin 3x. Inside: 3x. Outside: sine.
b. h(x) = sin3 x. Inside: sine. Outside: cube.
c. g(x) = sin x3. Inside: cube. Outside: sine.
d. r(x) = 2cos x. Inside: cosine. Outside:
exponential.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

## c. To differentiate a composite function,

differentiate the outside function with respect to
the inside function, then multiply by the derivative of the inside function with respect to x.
f ( x ) = ( x 2 1)3
a. f (x) = 3(x2 1)2(2x) = 6x(x2 1)2
b. (x 2 1)3 = x 6 3x 4 + 3x 2 1,
so f (x) = 6x 5 12x 3 + 6x.
c. From part a, f (x) = 6x(x2 1)2 =
6x(x 4 2x 2 + 1) = 6x 5 12x 3 + 6x, so the
two answers are equivalent.
f ( x ) = cos 3 x f ( x ) = sin 3 x 3 = 3 sin 3 x
f ( x ) = sin 5 x f ( x ) = 5 cos 5 x
g( x ) = cos ( x 3 ) g( x ) = 3 x 2 sin ( x 3 )
h( x ) = sin ( x 5 ) h( x ) = 5 x 4 cos ( x 5 )
y = (cos x)3
y = 3(cos x)2 (sin x) = 3 cos2 x sin x
f ( x ) = (sin x )5
f ( x ) = 5(sin x ) 4 cos x = 5 sin 4 x cos x
y = sin 6 x y = 6 sin 5 x cos x
f ( x ) = cos 7 x
f ( x ) = 7 cos 6 x ( sin x ) = 7 cos 6 x sin x
Problem Set 3-7

39

## 11. y = 6 sin 3x y = 18 cos 3x

12. f (x) = 4 cos (5x)
f (x) = 4[sin (5x)] (5) = 20 sin (5x)
d
13.
(cos 4 7 x ) = 4 cos3 7 x ( sin 7 x ) 7
dx
= 28 cos3 7x sin 7x
d
14.
(sin 9 13 x ) = 9 sin 8 13 x cos 13 x 13
dx
= 117 sin8 13x cos 13x
15. f (x) = 24 sin5/3 4x
f (x) = 40 sin2/3 4x cos 4x 4
= 160 sin2/3 4x cos 4x
16. f (x) = 100 sin6/5 (9x)
f (x) = 120 sin1/5 (9x) cos (9x) (9)
= 1080 sin1/5 (9x) cos (9x)

y
5

x
3

## 28. y = 7 sin t + 12t1.2

dy
velocity =
= 7 cos t + 14.4t0.2
dt
Yes, there are times when the beanstalk is
shrinking. The velocity graph is negative for
brief intervals, and the y-graph is decreasing in
these intervals.

## 17. f (x) = (5x + 3)7

f (x) = 7(5x + 3)6 5 = 35(5x + 3)6
18. f (x) = (x + 8)
f (x) = 9(x2 + 8)8 2x = 18x(x2 + 8)8
2

19. y = (4x3 7) 6
y = 6(4x3 7) 7 12x2 = 72x2(4x3 7) 7
20. y = (x 2 + 3x 7) 5
y = 5(x 2 + 3x 7) 6 (2x + 3)
= 5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3x 7) 6
21. y = [cos (x2 + 3)]100
y = 100 [cos (x2 + 3)]99 [sin (x2 + 3)] 2x
= 200x cos99(x2 + 3) sin (x2 + 3)
22. y = [cos (5x + 3)4]5 y = 5[cos (5x + 3)4]4
[sin (5x + 3)4] 4(5x + 3)3 5 =
100(5x + 3)3 cos4 (5x + 3)4 sin (5x + 3)4
dy
23. y = 4 cos 5x
= 4(sin 5x)5 = 20 sin 5x
dx
d2y
= 20(cos 5x)5 = 100 cos 5x
dx 2
24. y = 7 sin (2x + 5)
dy
= 7 cos (2x + 5)(2) = 14 cos (2x + 5)
dx
2
d y
= 14[sin (2x + 5)](2) =
dx 2
28 sin (2x + 5)
1
25. f (x) = cos 5x f (x) = sin 5x + C
5
26. f (x) = 10 sin 2x f (x) = 5 cos 2x + C
27. f (x) = 5 cos 0.2x
f (x) = 5 sin 0.2x 0.2 = sin 0.2x
f (3) = sin 0.6 = 0.5646 and
f (3) = 4.1266
The line has the equation
y = 0.5646x + 5.8205 .
40

y and v

## Problem Set 3-7

50

v
t
10

4 3
dV
r
= 4r 2
3
dr
dV/dr is in (cm3/cm), or cm2.

29. a. V =

b. r = 6t + 10
dr
= 6 (not surprising!). Units: cm/min
dt
dV dV dr
d.
=

dt
dr dt
When t = 5, r = 40. So
dV
= 4 ( 40 2 ) = 6400 .
dr
dV

## = 6400 6 = 38,400 cm 3 /min.

dt
dV/dr has units cm 2, and dr/dt has units
cm
,
cm/min, so dV/dt has units cm 2
min
which becomes cm3/min, Q.E.D. This
matches the commonsense answer that rate of
volume cm 3
change of volume is
=
.
time
min
c.

4
(6t + 10)3
3
dV

## = 4 (6t + 10)2 (6) = 24 (6t + 10)2

dt
dV
When t = 5,
= 24 [6(5) + 10]2 = 38,400 .
dt

e. V =

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y(t ) = 25 + 20 cos

30. a.
u

(t 3)
10

(t 3)
10

## y (15) = 2 sin (15 3) = 3.69316 K

10
y(t) is increasing at about 3.7 ft/s.
The fastest that y(t) changes is 2, or
6.28 ft/s. The seat is at y(t) = 25 ft above
the ground then.
y = C + A cos B(x D).
B = 2 /6 = /3 rad/s
D = phase displacement = 1.3 s
A = 0.5(110 50) = 30 cm
C = 110 30 or 50 + 30, which equals 80 cm.

d = 80 + 30 cos (t 1.3)
3

d = 10 sin (t 1.3)
3

3

## d(11) = 10 sin (11 1.3) = 21.02135K

3
At both times, the pendulum is moving away
from the wall at about 21.0 cm/s. The
answers are the same because the times are
exactly one period apart.

## d(20) = 10 sin (20 1.3) = 21.02135K

3
The pendulum is moving toward the wall.
Because the derivative is negative, d is
decreasing, which in this problem implies
motion toward the wall.
The fastest is 10 31.4 cm/s, when d = 80.

## 0 = 10 sin (t 1.3) sin (t 1.3) = 0

3
3

1
(t 1.3) = sin 0 (t 1.3) = 0 + n
3
3
t 1.3 = 3n t = 1.3 + 3n.
The first positive time occurs when n = 0,
that is, when t = 1.3 s. When the velocity
is zero, the pendulum is at its maximum
height.
The curb has slope (3.25 0.75)/44 = 2.5/44.
equation is f (x) = 0.75 + (2.5/44)x.
Sinusoid has period 8 ft, so B = 2 /8 = /4.
Amplitude = 0.5(0.75 0.25) = 0.25 ft. Low
end of ramp is a low point on the sinusoid.
sinusoidal axis is at y = 0.25 when x = 0
and goes up with slope 2.5/44.
Sinusoid is at a low point when x = 0. So
phase displacement is zero if the cosine is
subtracted.

b. y (t ) = 2 sin
u

c.
x

d.

## u does not approach zero as x approaches

zero from the left side. (u does approach zero
as x approaches zero from the left side.)

2. a.

b.
u

b.

c.
u does approach zero as x approaches zero
from either side.

## Problem Set 3-8

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.

f(x) = 9x 8
y = 72x5 (5x6 + 11)1.4
12
Yes (continuous)

Q2.
Q4.
Q6.
Q8.
Q10.

dy/dx = 3 sin x
s = 0
1
f (x) = cos x 2
E

d.

f'

e.
x

f.

1. a.
45

d ( x)

25
Increasing

5
3

15

23

## y(t) = C + A cos B(t D)

Vertical displacement = 25 = C
Amplitude = 0.5(40) = 20 = A
Phase disp. (for cosine) = 3 = D
Period = 60/3 = 20, so B = 2/20 = /10.
(Note that B is the angular velocity in radians
per second.)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3. a.
b.

## Problem Set 3-8

41

equation is

2.5

x 0.25 cos x
44
4
(There are other correct forms.)

2.5
c. g ( x ) =
+ sin x
44 16
4

2.5
g ( 9) =
+ sin (9) = 0.1956 K ft/ft
44 16
4
Going up at about 0.2 vertical ft per
horizontal ft

2.5
g (15) =
+ sin (15) = 0.0820 K ft/ft
44 16
4
Going down at about 0.08 vertical ft per
horizontal ft. A positive derivative implies
g(x) is getting larger and thus the child is
going up. A negative derivative implies g(x)
is getting smaller and thus the child is going
down.
d. By tracing the g graph, maximum value of
g (x) is 0.2531 ft/ft (about 14.2 up).
Minimum is 0.1395 ft/ft (about 7.9
down).
4. a. Let d = day number and L(d) = number of
minutes.
14 hours 3 minutes is 843 minutes. 10 hours
15 minutes is 615 minutes.
amplitude = (1/2)(843 615) = 114 min.
Sinusoidal axis is at L(d) = 615 + 114 =
729 min.
Assuming a 365-day year, B = 2/365.
Phase displacement = 172
2
L( d ) = 729 + 114 cos
( d 172)
365
On August 7, d = 219.
2
L(219) = 729 + 114 cos
(219 172) =
365
807.67 , or about 13 hours 28 minutes.
228
2
b. L ( d ) =
sin
( d 172)
365
365
On August 7, d = 219.
228
2
sin
(219 172) =
L (219) =
365
365
1.42009
Rate 1.42 min/day
(Decreasing at about 1.42 min/day)
c. The greatest rate occurs when the sine is
1 or 1.
Rate is 228/365 1.96 min/day.
1/4 year is about 91 days. So greatest rate
occurs at day 172 91, which is day 263 or
day 81 (September 20 or March 22).
5. In general, the period for a pendulum formed by
a weight suspended by a string of negligible
mass is 2 L/g , where L is the length from the
pivot point to the center of mass (actually, the
center of percussion) of the weight, and g is the
g( x ) = 0.25 +

42

## gravitational acceleration, about 9.8 m/s2.

Consequently, if the pendulum is 1 meter long,
its period will be 2 1/9.8 = 2.007K , or about
2 s. This is the period for a complete back-andforth swing. You must quadruple the length of a
pendulum to double its period. A pendulum hung
from the ceiling will have a period slow enough
to measure fairly precisely. A good way to get
more accuracy is to count the total time for ten
swings, then divide by 10. The period is roughly
constant for any (moderate) amplitude, as long as
the amplitude is not too big. This fact is not
obvious to the uninitiated student and is worth
spending time showing. It is quite dramatic to
watch a pendulum take just as long to make ten
swings with amplitude 2 cm as it does with
amplitude 20 or 30 cm.
6. The following data were computed from actual
sunrise and sunset times for San Antonio for
each ten days. You can get similar information
for your locality from the local weather bureau or
newspaper office, from the Nautical Almanac
Office, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington,
D.C., 20390, or from the Internet.
Day

Min

Day

Min

Day

Min

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

617
623
632
645
660
676
693
711
729
747
764
780
797

130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250

811
823
833
840
842
842
836
828
816
803
789
772
755

260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360

738
720
703
686
669
653
639
628
620
615
615

L(d )
800

700

600
0

d
100

200

300

## The graph shows a good fit to the data. But there

is a noticeable deviation in the fall and winter,
here the day is slightly longer than predicted.
The main reason for the discrepancy, apparently,
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## is the fact that in the fall and winter, Earth is

closer to the Sun and hence moves slightly more
rapidly through its angle with the Sun than
during the spring and summer.
7. a.
y
g

x
1

## The limits are all equal to 4.

b. f (x) < g(x) and lim f ( x ) = lim g( x ) = 4
x 1
x 1
f (x) h(x) g(x)
c.
x
f(x)
h(x)
g(x)
0.95

3.795

3.8

3.805

0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05

3.8368
3.8782
3.9192
3.9598
4
4.0398
4.0792
4.1182
4.1568
4.195

3.84
3.88
3.92
3.96
4
4.04
4.08
4.12
4.16
4.2

3.8432
3.8818
3.9208
3.9602
4
4.0402
4.0808
4.1218
4.1632
4.205

## d. From the table, if x is within 0.02 unit of 2,

then both f (x) and g(x) are within 0.1 unit of
4. From the table, = 0.01 or 0.02 will
work, but 0.03 is too large. All the values of
h(x) are between the corresponding values of
f (x) and g(x), and the three functions all
approach 4 as a limit.
sin x
8. Prove that lim
= 0. See the text proof.
x0 x
9. a. The numbers are correct.
b.
x
(sin x)/x
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01

0.99958338541
0.99973335466
0.99985000674
0.99993333466
0.99998333341

## c. Answers will vary according to calculator. For

the TI-83 in TABLE mode, starting x at 0 and
using x = 107 shows that all values round
to 1 until x reaches 1.8 106, which
registers as 0.999999999999.
d. Answer will depend on calculator. For TI-83
in TABLE mode, (sin 0.001)/0.001 is
0.999999833333, which agrees exactly with
the value published by NBS to 12 places.
e. If students have studied Taylor series
(Chapter 12) before taking this course, they
will be able to see the reason. The Taylor
series for sin 0.001 is
0.0013 0.0015 0.0017
+

+L
3!
5!
7!
= 0.00100 00000 00000 00000 000
0.00000 00001 66666 66666 666
+ 0.00000 00000 00000 00833 333
_______________________________
0.001

## = 0.00099 99998 33333 34166 666

10. See the text proof.
11. See the text proof.
12. a. See the text statement of the theorem.
b. Proof:
Given any > 0, there is a f > 0 such that
0 < |x c | < f |f (x) L | < , because
lim f ( x ) = L. Similarly, there is a g > 0
x c

## such that 0 < |x c | < g |g(x) L| < .

Let be the smaller of f and g. Then 0 <
|x c | < 0 < |x c | < f = |f (x) L| <
f (x) < L + , and also 0 < |x c | <
0 < |x c | < g |g(x) L| <
L < g(x). Then L < g(x) < h(x) < f(x)
< L + , so |h(x) L | < , so lim h( x ) = L .
x c

Q.E.D.

## c. See Figure 3-8c or 3-8d.

13. a. The limit seems to equal 2.
b.
g

## c. See the graph in part b. The lines have

equations g(x) = x + 1 and h(x) = 3 x.
d. Prove that lim y = 2.
x 1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 3-8

43

Proof:
lim( x + 1) = 1 + 1 = 2
x 1

lim(3 x ) = 3 1 = 2
x 1

## For x < 1, g(x) y h(x).

the squeeze theorem applies, and lim y = 2.
x 1

## For x > 1, h(x) y g(x).

the squeeze theorem applies, and lim+ y = 2.
x 1

## Because both left- and right-hand limits equal

2, lim y = 2, Q .E.D .
x 1

## e. The word envelope (a noun) is used because

the small window formed by the two lines
envelops (a verb) the graph of the function.
1
f. As |x| becomes large, (x 1) sin
=
x 1
sin [1/( x 1)]
takes on the form
1/( x 1)
sin (argument)
as the argument approaches
(argument)
zero. Thus the limit is 1 and y approaches
2 + 1, which equals 3.
14. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 3-9

Q1. 1

Q2. sin x
2

d
d
(cos x ) =
( sin x ) = cos x
dx 2
dx
Q4. y = sin x + C
Q5. x 8
Q6. x48
Q7. log 32 = 5 log 2
Q8.
Q3.

## c. 1061.84/1000 = 1.06184, so the APR for

0 to 1 year is approximately 6.184%.
1127.50/1061.84 = 1.061836 , so the APR
for 1 to 2 years is approximately 6.184%.
1197.22/1127.50 = 1.06183 , so the APR
for 2 to 3 years is approximately 6.184%.
The APR is higher than the instantaneous
rate. Savings institutions may prefer to
advertise the APR instead of the instantaneous
rate because the APR is higher.
2. a. f (t) = 10e 0.34 t
f (t) = 10(0.34)e 0.34 t = 3.4e 0.34 t
f (0) = 3.4
f (2) = 1.7224
f (4) = 0.8726
f (6) = 0.4420
Factor of change from 0 to 2:
1.7224/3.4 = 0.5066
Factor of change from 2 to 4:
0.8726/1.7224 = 0.5066
Factor of change from 4 to 6:
0.4420/0.8726 = 0.5066
b. f (0) = 10
f (2) = 5.0661
f (4) = 2.5666
f (6) = 1.3002
Factor of change from 0 to 2:
5.0661/10 = 0.5066
Factor of change from 2 to 4:
2.5666/5.0661 = 0.5066
Factor of change from 4 to 6:
1.3002/2.5666 = 0.5066
The factors of change are the same in part a
and part b.
c.
y

10

f
t

## Q9. Cube function

Q10. C
1. M(x) = 1000e0.06 x
a. M(x) = 1000(0.06)e0.06 x = 60e0.06 x
M(1) = 63.7101 \$/yr
M(10) = 109.3271 \$/yr
M(20) = 199.2070 \$/yr
b. M(0) = \$1000
M(1) = \$1061.84
M(2) = \$1127.50
M(3) = \$1197.22
Increase from year 0 to year 1: \$61.84
Increase from year 1 to year 2: \$65.66
Increase from year 2 to year 3: \$69.72
No, the amount of money in the account does
not change by the same amount each year.
44

f'

## The values of f are negative because the

amount of 18-F is decreasing as time goes on.
23.5
3. a. A( p) = 63 23.5 ln p A( p) =
p
y

50

A
x
A

10

## b. If the pressure is increasing, then the altitude

is decreasing. A(10) = 2.35, so the altitude
is changing at 2.35 thousand feet/psi. That
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## is, a change of 1 psi would indicate that the

altitude had decreased by 2.35 thousand feet.
The negative sign means that the altitude is
decreasing.
c. A(5) = 4.7 = 4.7
A(10) = 2.35 = 2.35
This shows that the altitude is changing faster
at 5 psi than it is at 10 psi.
d. A(p) = 0
63 23.5 ln p = 0
23.5 ln p = 63
ln p = 2.6808
p = 14.5975
The fact that A(p) is negative for all values of
p greater than 14.5975 means that if the air
pressure is above 14.5975 psi, then the plane
must be beneath sea level.
4. x = 3000e0.05 y
a. ln x = ln (3000e0.05 y)
ln x = ln 3000 + ln e0.05 y
ln x ln 3000 = 0.05y
1
y=
(ln x ln 3000)
0.05
y = 20 ln x 20 ln 3000
b. y(3000) = 20 ln 3000 20 ln 3000 = 0
y(4000) = 20 ln 4000 20 ln 3000 =
5.7536
y(5000) = 20 ln 5000 20 ln 3000 =
10.2165
y(6000) = 20 ln 6000 20 ln 3000 =
13.8629
Number of years to get from \$3000 to \$4000:
5.7536
Number of years to get from \$4000 to \$5000:
4.4628
Number of years to get from \$5000 to \$6000:
3.6464
The time intervals decrease as the amount of
money increases because when there is more
money in the account, it takes less time to
earn the given amount of interest.
20
yr/\$
c. y = 20 ln x 20 ln 3000 y =
x
y(3000) = 0.0066
y(4000) = 0.005
y(5000) = 0.004
y(6000) = 0.0033
This shows that the number of years it takes
to earn each dollar decreases as the amount of
money increases.
5. f (x) = 5e3x f (x) = 15e3x
6. f (x) = 7e 6x f (x) = 42e 6x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7. g(x) = 4ecos x
g(x) = 4(ecos x)(sin x) = 4(sin x) ecos x
8. h(x) = 8e sin x
h (x) = 8e sin x (cos x) = 8(cos x)e sin x
9. y = 2 sin (e4x) y = 2 cos (e4x) 4e4x = 8e4x cos (e4x)
10. y = 6 cos (e 0.5 x)
y = 6[sin (e 0.5 x)](0.5) e 0.5 x = 3e 0.5 x sin (e 0.5 x)
10
10
11. f ( x ) = 10 ln (7 x ) f ( x ) =
7 =
7x
x
9
9
12. g( x ) = 9 ln 4 x g ( x ) =
4 =
4x
x
18
54
13. T = 18 ln x 3 T = 3 (3 x 2 ) =
x
x
1000
700
14. P = 1000 ln x 0.7 P = 0.7 0.7 x 0.3 =
x
x
15. y = 3 ln (cos 5x)
3
y =
( sin 5 x )5 = 15 tan 5 x
cos 5 x
16. y = 11 ln (sin 0.2x)
11
y =
(cos 0.2 x ) 0.2 = 2.2 cot 0.2 x
sin 0.2 x
17. u = 6 ln (sin x0.5 )
6
u =
(cos x 0.5 ) 0.5 x 0.5 = 3 x 0.5 cot x 0.5
sin x 0.5
18. v = 0.09 ln (cos x 8 )
v =

0.09
( sin x 8 )8 x 7 = 0.72x7 tan x8
cos x 8

1 x
e = 1
ex
Not surprising because we could have first used
the fact that natural log and exp are inverses:
r(x) = ln ex = x r (x) = 1
c(x) = eln x = x c (x) = 1
c (2) = 1, c (3) = 1, c (4) = 1
f (x) = 3x f ( x ) = ( ln 3 ) 3 x
g (x) = 0.007x g(x) = (ln 0.007) 0.007x
y = 1.6cos x y = (ln 1.6)1.6cos x (sin x) =
ln 1.6 sin x (1.6cos x)
y = sin 5x y = cos 5x (ln 5)5x
dy 1
5
y = ln x 5
=
5 x 4 = = 5 x 1
dx x 5
x

5
d2y
= 5 x 2 = 2
dx 2
x

19. r ( x ) = ln e x r ( x ) =

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

dy
d2y
= 7e 7 x 2 = 49e 7 x
dx
dx
0.7 x
0.7 x
27. y = e
y = 0.7e
y = 0.49e 0.7 x

26. y = e 7 x

## Problem Set 3-9

45

28. y = ln 8 x y =

1
1
8 = = x 1
8x
x

1
x2
2x
29. f (x) = 12e f ( x ) = 6 e 2 x + C

c. m( x ) =

y = 1x 2 =

30. y = 5x ln 5 y = 5x + C

0.4 x 2 x 0.6
x3

m (x )
2

x
3

Review Problems

R1. a.
x

1.97

f (2) f (1.97)
= 11.82
0.03

1.98

f (2) f (1.98)
= 11.88
0.02

1.99

f (2) f (1.99)
= 11.94
0.01

2.01

f (2.01) f (2)
= 12.06
0.01

2.02

f (2.02) f (2)
= 12.12
0.02

2.03

f (2.03) f (2)
= 12.18
0.03

## The derivative of f at x = 2 is approximately 12.

f ( x ) f (2)
b. r ( x ) =
x2
r(2) is of the form 00 .
lim r ( x ) appears to be 12.

x
3

## e. The line is tangent to the graph.

f. Yes, f does have local linearity at x = 3.
Zooming in on the point (3, 5.6) shows that
the graph looks more and more like the line.
R3. a.
y
y2

50

y1
1

## b. See the graph in part a.

c. The y1 graph has a high point or a low point
at each x-value where the y2 graph is zero.
d.
y

x 2

x 3 8 ( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)
c. r ( x ) =
=
x2
( x 2)
= x 2 + 2 x + 4, x 2
lim r ( x ) = lim x 2 + 2 x + 4 because x 2.
x 2

x 2

lim r ( x ) = 12
x 2

## d. The answers in parts a, b, and c are the same.

f ( x ) f (c )
xc
2
b. f (x) = 0.4x x + 5

## R2. a. f (c) = lim

x c

0.4 x 2 x + 5 5.6
x 3
x3
( x 3)(0.4 x + 0.2)
= lim
x 3
x3
= lim (0.4 x + 0.2) = 1.4

f (3) = lim

x 3

46

20

t
p

## Take the numerical derivative at t = 3, 6,

and 0.
p(3) 2.688 . Decreasing at about
2.69 psi/h when t = 3.
p(6) 1.959 . Decreasing at about
1.96 psi/h when t = 6.
p(0) 3.687 . Decreasing at about
3.69 psi/h when t = 0.
The units are psi/h. The sign of the pressure
change is negative because the pressure is
decreasing. Yes, the rate of pressure change is
getting closer to zero.
R4. a. See the text for the definition of derivative.
b. Differentiate
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. If y = x n, then y = nx n 1.
d. See solution to Problem 35 in Problem Set
3-4.
e. See the proof in Section 3-4.
dy
f.
is pronounced d y, d x.
dx
d
( y) is pronounced d, d x, of y.
dx
Both mean the derivative of y with respect to x.
63 4 / 5
g. i. f ( x ) = 7 x 9/ 5 f ( x ) =
x
5
x2
ii. g( x ) = 7 x 4
x+7
6
x
g( x ) = 28 x 5 1
3
iii. h(x) = 73 h (x) = 0
h. f (32) = 635 (32) 4 / 5 = 201.6 exactly. The
numerical derivative is equal to or very close
to 201.6.
i.

e.

y
f
x

## i. y = 0.01t3 + 0.9t2 25t + 250

dy
v=
= 0.03t 2 + 1.8t 25
dt
dv
a=
= 0.06t + 1.8
dt
ii. a( 15) = 0.06(15) + 1.8 = 0.9 (km/s)/s
v(15) = 0.03(152) + 1.8(15) 25
= 4.75 km/s
The spaceship is slowing down at t = 15
because the velocity and the acceleration
have opposite signs.
iii. v = 0.03t2 + 1.8t 25 = 0
By using the quadratic formula or the
solver feature of your grapher,
t = 21.835 or t = 38.164 .
The spaceship is stopped at about 21.8
and 38.2 seconds.
iv. y = 0.01t3 + 0.9t2 25t + 250 = 0
By using TRACE or the solver feature of
your grapher, t = 50.
v(50) = 10
Because the spaceship is moving at
10 km/s when it reaches the surface, it is
a crash landing!

R6. a.

derivative

cosine

x
1

R5. a. v =
a=

dx
or x (t ).
dt
dv
d2x
or v (t ), a = 2 or x (t )
dt
dt

d2y
means the second derivative of y with
dx 2
respect to x.
y = 10x 4 y = 40x 3 y = 120x 2
c. f ( x ) = 12 x 3 f ( x ) = 3 x 4 + C. f (x) is
the antiderivative, or the indefinite integral,
of f (x).
d. The slope of y = f ( x ) is determined by the
value of f ( x ). So the slope of y = f ( x ) at
x = 1 is f (1) = 1, at x = 5 is f (5) = 3, and
at x = 1 is f ( 1) = 0.
b.

x
5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## b. The graph of the derivative is the same as the

sine graph but inverted in the y-direction.
Thus, (cos x ) = sin x is confirmed.
c. sin 1 = 0.841470984
Numerical derivative 0.841470984
The two are very close!
d. Composite function
f(x) = 2x sin (x2)
dy dy du
R7. a. i.
=

dx du dx
ii. f (x) = g(h(x)) f (x) = g (h(x)) h (x)
iii. The derivative of a composite function is
the derivative of the outside function with
respect to the inside function times the
derivative of the inside function with
respect to x.
b. See the derivation in the text. This derivation
constitutes a proof. u must be nonzero
throughout the interval.

47

c.

d.

e.

f.

R8. a.

## i. f (x) = (x2 4)3

f (x) = 3(x 2 4)2 2x = 6x(x2 4)2
ii. f (x) = x 6 12x 4 + 48x 2 64
f(x) = 6x 5 48x 3 + 96x
Expanding the answer to part i gives
f(x) = 6x5 48x3 + 96x, which checks.
i. f(x) = 3x 2 sin x 3
ii. g(x) = 5 cos 5x
iii. h(x) = 6 cos5 x (sin x)
= 6 sin x cos5 x
iv. k (x) = 0
f (x) = 12 cos 3x f (x) =
12(sin 3x)3 = 36 sin 3x
f (x) = 12 cos 3x f (x) = 4 sin 3x + C
f (x) is the second derivative of f (x).
f (x) is the antiderivative, or indefinite
integral, of f (x).
W = 0.6x3 and dx/dt = 0.4
dW dW dx
=

## = 1.8 x 2 0.4 = 0.72 x 2

dt
dx dt
If x = 2, W = 0.6 23 = 4.8 lb
dW/dt = 0.72(22) = 2.88
The shark is gaining about 2.88 lb/day.
If x = 10, W = 0.6 103 = 600 lb.
dW/dt = 0.72(102) = 72
The shark is gaining about 72 lb/day.
The chain rule is used to get dW/dt from
dW/dx by multiplying the latter by dx/dt.
sin x
lim
=1
x0
x
x
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05

(sin x)/x
0.99958338541
0.99973335466
0.99985000674
0.99993333466
0.99998333341
undefined
0.99998333341
0.99993333466
0.99985000674
0.99973335466
0.99958338541

## The values of (sin x)/x approach 1 as x

approaches 0.
b. See the text for the statement of the squeeze
theorem. Squeeze (sin x)/x between cos x and
sec x.
c. See the proof in Section 3-8 of the text.

48

## Problem Set 3-10

d. cos x = sin ( /2 x)
cos x = cos (/2 x) (1)
= sin x, Q .E .D .
e. d(t) = C + A cos B(t D)
C = 180, A = 20
D = 0 for cosine because hand starts at a high
point.
B = 2/60 = /30 because period is 60 s.

d (t ) = 180 + 20 cos t
30
2

d (t ) =
sin t
3
30
At 2, t = 10: d(10) 1.81 cm/s
At 3, t = 15: d(15) 2.09 cm/s
At 7, t = 35: d(35) 1.05 cm/s
At the 2 and 3, the tip is going down, so the
distance from the floor is decreasing, which is
implied by the negative derivatives. At the 7,
the tip is going up, as implied by the positive
derivative.
R9. a. p( x ) = 100e 0.1x p ( x ) = 100( 0.1)e 0.1x
= 10e 0.1 x
p(0) = 10
p(10) = 3.6787
p(20) = 1.3533
The rates are negative because the amount of
medication in your body is decreasing.
To find the biological half-life, find x such that
1
p( x ) = p(0) = 50
2
100e 0.1x = 50
1
e 0.1x =
2
1
0.1x = ln
2
1
x = 10 ln
2
x = 6.9314
The half-life is 6.9314 h.
p(2(6.9314)) = p(13.8629) =
100e 0.1(13.8629) = 25
After two half-lives have elapsed, 25% of the
medicine remains in your body.
b. i. f (x) = 5e2x f (x) = 5(2)e2x = 10e2x
dy
ii. y = 7 x
= (ln 7)7 x
dx
d
1
iii.
[ln (cos x )] =
( sin x ) = tan x
dx
cos x
dy
1
= 8 = 8 x 1
iv. y = ln x 8 = 8 ln x
dx
x

8
d2y
= 8 x 2 = 2
dx 2
x
c. f ( x ) = 12e 3x f ( x ) = 4e 3x + C

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Chapter Test

d.
y

y1

y3

## T1. See the definition of derivative in Section 3-2

or 3-4.
T2. Prove that if f (x) = 3x4, then f (x) = 12x3.

y2
x
3

Proof:
y1 = ex is the inverse of y2 = ln x, so y1 is a
reflection of y2 across the line y = x.

f ( x + h) f ( x )
3( x + h) 4 3 x 4
= lim
h 0
h 0
h
h
4
3
2 2
3 x + 12 x h + 18 x h + 12 xh 3 + 3h 4 3 x 4
= lim
h0
h
= lim (12 x 3 + 18 x 2 h + 12 xh 2 + 3h 3 ) = 12 x 3 ,

f ( x ) = lim

Concept Problems
C1. a. f (x) = x7, g(x) = x9. So h(x) = f(x) g(x) = x 16.
b. h(x) = 16x15
c. f (x) = 7x 6, g(x) = 9x 8. So f (x) g(x) =
63x14 h (x).
d. h(x) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g(x) =
7x 6 x 9 + x 7 9x 8 = 16x 15
x sin 2 x
C2. a. f ( x ) =
. f (0) has the form 0/0,
sin x
which is indeterminate. f is discontinuous at
x = 0 because f (0) does not exist.
b. By graph (below) or by TABLE , f (x) seems to
approach 1 as x approaches zero. Define f (0)
to be 1.

h 0

Q .E .D .

## T3. If you zoom in on the point where x = 5, the

graph appears to get closer and closer to the
tangent line. The name of this property is local
linearity.
y
5

Slope = 2
x
5

f (x )
5

## T4. Amos substituted before differentiating instead

of after. Correct solution is f (x) = 7x
f (x) = 7 f (5) = 7.
T5. f (x) = (7x + 3)15 f (x) = 105(7x + 3)14
T6. g(x) = cos (x5) g (x) = 5x 4 sin x 5

## c. Conjecture: The function is differentiable at

x = 0. The derivative should equal zero
because the graph is horizontal at x = 0.
f ( x ) f (0)
d. f (0) = lim
h0
x0
x sin 2 x
(1)
= lim sin x
x0
x
x sin 2 x + sin x
= lim
x0
x sin x
Using TABLE for numerator, denominator, and
quotient shows that the numerator goes to
zero faster than the denominator. For instance,
if x = 0.001,
1.1666 K 10 9
= 0.00116 K
9.999K 10 7
Thus, the limit appears to be zero. (The limit
can be found algebraically to equal zero by
lHospitals rule after students have studied
Section 6-5.)
quotient =

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T7.

d
1
[ln (sin x )] =
cos x = cot x
dx
sin x

## T8. y = 36x y = (ln 3)36x(6) = 6(ln 3)36x

T9. f (x) = cos (sin5 7x)
f (x) = sin (sin5 7x) 5 sin4 7x cos 7x 7
= 35 sin (sin5 7x) sin4 7x cos 7x
T10. y = 60x 2/3 x + 25 y = 40x 1/3 1
T11. y = e 9x

dy
d2y
= 9e 9x 2 = 81e 9x
dx
dx

## T12. y 0.6 (Function is y = 3 + 1.5x, for which

the numerical derivative is 0.6081 .)
T13. y = 3 + 5x 1.6
v(x) = 5(1.6)x 2.6 = 8x 2.6
a(x) = 8(2.6)x 3.6 = 20.8x 3.6
Acceleration is the second derivative of the
displacement function.
T14. f (x) = 72x 5/4 f (x) = 32x 9/4

49

## T15. f (x) = 5 sin x and f (0) = 13

f (x) = 5 cos x + C
13 = 5 cos 0 + C C = 18
f (x) = 5 cos x + 18

Proof:

## T16. f (x) = cos 3x f (x) = 3 sin 3x

f (5) = 3 sin 15 = 1.95086
Decreasing at 1.95 y-units per x-unit.
T17. f ( x ) =

sin x
x
f (x )
1

x
1

## As x approaches zero, f (x) approaches 1.

The squeeze theorem states:
If (1) g(x) h(x) for all x in a neighborhood of c,
(2) lim g( x ) = lim h( x ) = L, and (3) f is a
x c

x c

## function for which g(x) f (x) h(x) for all x in

that neighborhood of c, then lim f ( x ) = L.
x c

T18.
h
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0
0.0001
0.0002
0.0003

5h 1
h
1.6090
1.6091
1.6093
undefined
1.6095
1.6097
1.6098

5h 1
lim
= ln 5.
h0
h

50

## Problem Set 3-10

5 x +h 5 x
d x
Definition of derivative.
(5 ) = lim
h 0
dx
h
5h 1
= 5 x lim
Factor out 5x.
h0
h
= 5x ln 5
Evaluate.
t
T19. v(t) = 251(1 0.88 )
a(t) = 251[ ln (0.88)] 0.88t = 251(ln 0.88)0.88t
a(10) = 251(ln 0.88)(0.88)(10) = 8.9360
Numerical derivative gives 8.9360 as well.
T20. If the velocity and the acceleration have opposite
signs for a particular value of t, then the object is
slowing down at that time.
T21. a. v(t) = t1.5 + 3 a(t) = 1.5t0.5
t 2.5
b. d (t ) =
+ 3t + C
2.5
d(1) = 20
12.5
+ 3(1) + C = 20
2.5
3.4 + C = 20
C = 16.6
d(t) = 0.4t2.5 + 3t + 16.6
c. d(9) d(1) = 120.8
This represents the displacement between the
first and ninth seconds.
2
T22. a. c(t ) = 300 + 2 cos
t
365
4
2
c (t ) =
sin
t
365
365
4
2
b. c(273) =
sin
273
365

365
= 0.03442 ppm/day
0.03442 K
1
c. Rate is (6 1015 )

=
1, 000, 000 24 60 60
2390.6627 , which is approximately 2390
tons per second!
T23. Answers will vary.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Chapter 4Products, Quotients, and Parametric Functions

Problem Set 4-1
1. f (x) = 3 cos x f (x) = 3 sin x
g(x) = 2 sin x g(x) = 2 cos x
2.
6

p (x )

## 6. Youll see in Section 4-2 that

p(x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g(x).
p(2) = (3 sin 2)(2 sin 2) + (3 cos 2)(2 cos 2) =
3.9218 , which agrees with Problem 2.
Youll see in Section 4-3 that
f ( x ) g( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )
q ( x ) =
[ g( x )]2

10

q ( 2 ) =

=
(2 sin 2)2

## 1.8141 , which agrees with Problem 3.

p(2) 3.9218
p(x) is decreasing at x = 2 because p (2) < 0.
This fact corresponds with the graph, which
slopes steeply in the negative direction at x = 2.
f (2) g(2) = (3 sin 2)(2 cos 2) = 2.2704
So p (2) f (2) g (2).
3.
6

q (x )

Q1. y =
Q3.

3 1/ 4
x
4

dy
= 30(5 x 7) 7
dx

## q is the cotangent function.

q (2) = 1.8141
q( x ) is decreasing at x = 2.
f (2)/g (2) = (3 sin 2)/(2 cos 2) = 3.2775
So q (2) f (2)/g (2).
4.
y
t = 2 here
2

x
3

## The geometric figure seems to be an ellipse.

5. See graph in Problem 4.
x = 3 cos 2.1 3 cos 1.9 = 0.54466
y = 2 sin 2.1 2 sin 1.9 = 0.16618
dy y 0.16618K

=
= 0.3051K
dx x 0.54466 K
dy/dt 2 cos 2
At t = 2,
=
= 0.3051 K ,
dx/dt 3 sin 2
which agrees with the difference quotient.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q4.

d
(sin 2 x ) = 2 cos 2 x
dx

## Q5. v = 3 cos2 t sin t

Q6. L = 2m + 5

Q7. y = sin x + C

Q8. y 3

10

Q2. y = 1/x

Q9.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Q10. B
4 ft/s
3
f ( x) = x cos x f (x) = 3x 2 cos x x 3 sin x
f ( x) = x 4 sin x f (x) = 4x 3 sin x + x 4 cos x
g(x) = x1.5 e2x g (x) = 1.5x0.5 e2x + 2x1.5 e2x
h(x) = x 6.3 ln 4x
h (x) = 6.3x 7.3 ln 4x + x 6.3 (1/4x)4
= 6.3x 7.3 ln 4x + x 7.3

5. y = x7(2x + 5)10
dy/dx = 7x6(2x + 5)10 + x7(10)(2x + 5)9 2
= x6(2x + 5)9(34x + 35)
8
6. y = x (3x + 7)9
dy/dx = 8x7(3x + 7)9 + x8(9)(3x + 7)8(3)
= x7(3x + 7)8 (51x + 56)
7. z = ln x sin 3x
z = (1/x) sin 3x + 3 ln x cos 3x
8. v = e5x cos 2x v = 5e5x cos 2x 2e5x sin 2x
9. y = (6x + 11)4(5x 9)7
y = 4(6x + 11)3(6)(5x 9)7
+ (6x + 11)4(7)(5x 9)6(5)
= (6x + 11)3(5x 9)6(330x + 169)
10. y = (7x 3)9(6x 1)5
y = 9(7x 3)8(7)(6x 1)5
+ (7x 3)9(5)(6x 1)4(6)
= (7x 3)8(6x 1)4(588x 153)

51

## 11. P = (x2 1)10(x2 + 1)15

P = 10(x2 1)9(2x)(x2 + 1)15
+ (x2 1)10(15)(x2 + 1)14(2x)
= 10x(x2 1)9(x2 + 1)14[2(x2 + 1) + 3(x2 1)]
= 10x(x2 1)9(x2 + 1)14(5x2 1)
12. P(x) = (x3 + 6)4(x3 + 4)6
P (x) = 4(x3 + 6)3(3x2)(x3 + 4)6
+ (x3 + 6)4 6(x3 + 4)5 3x2
= 6x2(x3 + 6)3(x3 + 4)5[2(x3 + 4) + 3(x3 + 6)]
= 6x2(x3 + 6)3(x3 + 4)5(5x3 + 26)
13. a( t) = 4 sin 3t cos 5t
a(t) = 12 cos 3t cos 5t + 4 sin 3t(5 sin 5t)
= 12 cos 3t cos 5t 20 sin 3t sin 5t
14. v = 7 cos 2t sin 6t
v = 14 sin 2t sin 6t + 7 cos 2t(6 cos 6t)
= 14 sin 2t sin 6t + 42 cos 2t cos 6t
15. y = cos (3 sin x)
y = sin (3 sin x) 3 cos x
= 3 sin (3 sin x) cos x
16. y = sin (5 cos x)
y = cos (5 cos x) (5 sin x)
= 5 cos (5 cos x) sin x
17. y = cos e6x
dy/dx = 6e6x(sin e6x) = 6e6x sin e6x
d2y/dx2 = 36e6x sin e6x 6e6x(6e6x cos e6x)
= 36e6x sin e6x 36e12x cos e6x
18. y = ln (sin x) dy/dx = (1/sin x) cos x
= (cos x)(sin x) 1 d 2y/dx2
= (cos x) [(sin x)] 2 (cos x) + (sin x) (sin x) 1
=

cos 2 x
+ 1 = cot 2 x + 1 = csc 2 x
sin 2 x

## 19. z = x3(5x 2)4 sin 6x

z = 3x2(5x 2)4 sin 6x + x3[(4)(5x 2)3(5) sin 6x
+ (5x 2)4(6 cos 6x)]
= 3x2(5x 2)4 sin 6x + 20x3(5x 2)3 sin 6x
+ 6x3(5x 2)4 cos 6x
20. u = 3x5(x2 4) cos 10x
u = 15x4(x2 4) cos 10x + 3x5[2x cos 10x
+ (x2 4) (10 sin 10x)]
= 15x4 (x2 4) cos 10x + 6x6 cos 10x
30x5(x2 4) sin 10x
21. If y = uvw, where u, v, and w are differentiable
functions of x, then y = uvw + uvw + uvw.
52

## Problem Set 4-2

Proof:
y = uvw = (uv)w
y = (uv)w + (uv)w = (uv + uv)w + (uv)w
= uvw + uvw + uvw, Q .E .D .
22. If yn = u1u2 u3 un where u1un are differentiable
functions of x, then
yn = u1u2 u3 Kun + u1u2 u3 Kun
+ u1u2 u3 Kun + L + u1u2 u3 Kun K .
23. z = x 5 cos6 x sin 7x
z = 5x4 cos6 x sin 7x + x5 6 cos5 x (sin x)
sin 7x + x 5 cos6 x 7 cos 7x
= 5x 4 cos6 x sin 7x 6x 5 cos5 x sin x sin 7x
+ 7x5 cos6 x cos 7x
24. y = 4x 6 sin3 x cos 5x
y = 24x5 sin3 x cos 5x + 4x6 3 sin2 x cos x
cos 5x + 4x6 sin3 x(5 sin 5x)
= 24x5 sin3 x cos 5x + 12x6 sin2 x cos x
cos 5x 20x6 sin3 x sin 5x
25. y = x4 (ln x)5 sin x cos 2x
y = 4x3(ln x)5 sin x cos 2x + x4 5(ln x)4(1/x)
sin x cos 2x + x4(ln x)5 cos x cos 2x
+ x4(ln x)5 sin x (2 sin 2x)
= 4x3(ln x)5 sin x cos 2x + 5x3(ln x)4 sin x
cos 2x + x4(ln x)5 cos x cos 2x
2x4(ln x)5 sin x sin 2x
26. u = x 5 e2x cos 2x sin 3x
u = 5x 4 e2x cos 2x sin 3x + x5 2e2x
cos 2x sin 3x + x 5 e2x(2 sin 2x) sin 3x
+ x 5 e2x cos 2x 3 cos 3x
= 5x 4 e2x cos 2x sin 3x + 2x52e2x cos 2x sin 3x
2x5 e2x sin 2x sin 3x + 3x5 e2x cos 2x cos 3x
27. a. y(t) = 4 + 3e 0.1 t cos t
v(t) = y(t) = 3(0.1)e 0.1 t cos t
+ 3e 0.1 t( sin t)
= e 0.1 t(0.3 cos t 3 sin t )
b. v(2) = e 0.2 (0.3 cos 2 3 sin 2)
= e0.2(0.3 0) = 0.2456
There is not a high point at t = 2 because
v(2) 0.
v(t) = 0 e 0.1 t(0.3 cos t 3 sin t) = 0
0.3 cos t = 3 sin t t = 1.9898
28. a. y(t) = t sin t v(t) = y(t) = sin t + t cos t
Graph confirms Figure 4-2d.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. v exceeds 25.

25

25

## c. In 1940, wind-induced vibrations in the

Tacoma Narrows Bridge increased in
amplitude until the bridge collapsed.
29. Prove that the derivative of an odd function is an
even function and that the derivative of an even
function is an odd function.

## By the derivative of a product property,

fk+1 ( x ) = ( x k )( x ) + ( x k )( x ) = ( x k )( x ) + x k .
Substituting for (xk) from the induction
hypothesis,
fk+1 ( x ) = ( kx k 1 )( x ) + x k = kx k + x k = ( k + 1) x k =
(k + 1)x ( k+ 1 ) 1, completing the induction.
fn ( x ) = nx n1 for all integers 1, Q.E.D.
32. Way 1: y = (x + 3)8(x 4)8
y = 8(x + 3)7 (x 4)8 + (x + 3)8 8(x 4)7
= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(x + 3 + x 4)
= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(2x 1)
Way 2: y = (x2 x 12)8
y = 8(x 2 x 12)7(2x 1)
= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(2x 1), which checks.
33. a.

Proof:
For any function, the chain rule gives
d
f ( x ) = f ( x ) ( 1) = f ( x ).
dx
For an odd function,
d
d
f ( x ) = [ f ( x )] = f ( x ).
dx
dx
f (x) = f (x) or f (x) = f (x),
and the derivative is an even function.
For an even function,
d
d
f ( x ) =
f ( x ) = f ( x ).
dx
dx
f (x) = f (x) or f (x) = f (x),
and the derivative is an odd function, Q.E.D.
30. f (x) = 2 sin x cos x
f (x) = 2 cos x cos x + 2 sin x(sin x)
= 2 cos2 x 2 sin2 x = 2 cos 2x
g(x) = sin 2x g(x) = 2 cos 2x = f (x), Q.E.D.
f(0) = 0 and g(0) = 0
f (x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x = g(x), by the
uniqueness theorem for derivatives, Q.E.D.
f (x) = cos2 x sin2 x
f (x) = 2 cos x(sin x) 2 sin x cos x
= 4 sin x cos x = 3 sin 2x
g(x) = cos 2x
g(x) = (2 sin 2x) = sin 2x = f (x), Q.E.D.
f(0) = 1 and g(0) = 1
f (x) = cos2 x sin2 x = cos 2x = g(x) by the
uniqueness theorem, Q.E.D.
31. Prove that if fn(x) = xn, then fn ( x ) = nx n1 for all
integers 1.
Proof (by induction on n):
If n = 1, then f1(x) = x1 = x, which implies that
f1( x ) = 1 = 1x 0, which anchors the induction.
Assume that for some integer n = k > 1,
fk ( x ) = kx k 1 .
For n = k + 1, fk+ 1(x) = xk+ 1 = (xk)(x).
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x)
5

f
x
1

## b. f (x) = 3x 2 sin x + x 3 cos x

The graph in part a is correct.
c. The numerical derivative graph duplicates the
algebraic derivative graph, as in part a, thus
showing that the algebraic derivative is right.
34. a.
f (x )
599,128
500,000

x
1.5

1.4
500,000

1/9

## b. f (x) = 4(5x 7)3(5) (2x + 3)5

+ (5x 7)4 (5)(2x + 3)4(2)
= 10(5x 7)3(2x + 3)4[2(2x + 3)
+ 5x 7]
= 10(5x 7)3(2x + 3)4(9x 1)
c. f (x) = 0 5x 7 = 0 or 2x + 3 = 0
or 9x 1 = 0
x = 7/5 = 1.4, or x = 3/2 = 1.5,
or x = 1/9
See graph in part a.
d. f (1.4) = 0, f (1.5) = 0, f (1/9) = 599,127.6 .
See graph in part a.
e. False. The graph may have a point where it
levels off and then continues changing in the
same direction, as at x = 1.5 in part a.
35. a. A = L W
dA dL
dW
=
W + L
dt
dt
dt

## Problem Set 4-2

53

dW
= 2 sin t
dt
dL
L = 3 + 2 sin 2t
= 4 cos 2t
dt
dA
= ( 4 cos 2t )(2 + 2 cos t )
dt
+ (3 + 2 sin 2t )( 2 sin t )
At t = 4, dA/dt = 7.132 , so A is increasing.
At t = 5, dA/dt = 4.949 , so A is
decreasing.

b. W = 2 + 2 cos t

## Problem Set 4-3

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.

1066x1065
f (x) = 12x5 + C
y = 3x2 sin x + x3 cos x
dy/dx = sin (x7) 7x6 = 7x6 sin (x7)
f (x) = 0 (derivative of a constant)
54e9t
See the text for the definition of derivative.
Instantaneous rate of change at a given x
(x 3)4(x 3 + 2x) = 3(x 3)4(x 1)
4

cos 12 x

sin 18 x
12 sin 12 x sin 18 x 18 cos 12 x cos 18 x
y =
sin 2 18 x

6. y =

7. y =
y =

2. f ( x ) =

3 x 2 sin x x 3 cos x
x3
f ( x ) =
sin x
sin 2 x
4 x 3 cos x + x 4 sin x
x4
f ( x ) =
cos x
cos 2 x

cos3 x

ln x
3 cos 2 x ( sin x ) ln x cos3 x (1/ x )
g ( x ) =
(ln x )2
3 ln x sin x cos 2 x (cos3 x )/ x
=
(ln x )2

3. g( x ) =

sin 5 x

e3 x
5 sin 4 x cos x e 3 x sin 5 x 3e 3 x
h ( x ) =
(e 3 x ) 2
4
5 sin x cos x 3 sin 5 x
=
e3 x
sin 10 x
5. y =

cos 20 x
10 cos 10 x cos 20 x + 20 sin 10 x sin 20 x
y =
2
cos 20 x

4. h( x ) =

54

## Problem Set 4-3

6x + 5
3(6 x + 5) (3 x 7)(6)
(6 x + 5)

57
(6 x + 5)

10 x + 9

5x 3
75
10 (5 x 3) (10 x + 9) 5
y =
=
(5 x 3) 2
(5 x 3)2

8. y =

(8 x + 1)6
dz

(5 x 2 ) 9
dx
6(8 x + 1)5 (8) (5 x 2) 9 (8 x + 1)6 (9)(5 x 2)8 (5)
=
(5 x 2)18

9. z =

(8 x + 1) 5 (120 x + 141)
(5 x 2)10

( 4 x 1) 7
dA
4
(7 x + 2)
dx
7( 4 x 1)6 ( 4) (7 x + 2) 4 ( 4 x 1) 7 4( 7 x + 2)3 ( 7)
=
( 7 x + 2 )8
6
28( 4 x 1) ( 7 x + 2)3 [(7 x + 2) ( 4 x 1)]
=
( 7 x + 2 )8

10. A =

1. f ( x ) =

3x 7

## 28( 4 x 1)6 ( 7 x + 2)3 (3 x + 3)

( 7 x + 2 )8

84( 4 x 1)6 ( x + 1)
( 7 x + 2)5
3

11. Q =

3 x 2 e x sin x e x cos x
ex
Q =
sin x
sin 2 x

ln x 4

cos x
4 x 3 (1/ x 4 )cos x (ln x 4 )( sin x )
r =
cos 2 x
( 4 cos x )/ x + (ln x 4 ) sin x 4 cos x + x ln x 4 sin x
=
=
x cos 2 x
cos 2 x
d
13.
(60 x 4 / 3 ) = 80 x 7/3
dx
12. r =

14.

d
(24 x 7/ 3 ) = 56 x 10/3
dx

## Problems 1522 and 2526 can be done using either

the power rule or the quotient rule.
12
36
= 12 x 3 r ( x ) = 36 x 4 = 4
x3
x
51
867
16. t ( x ) = 17 = 51x 17 t ( x ) = 867 x 18 = 18
x
x
15. r ( x ) =

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

14
= 14(cos 0.5 x ) 1
cos 0.5 x
v(x) = 14(cos 0.5x)2(sin 0.5x)(0.5)
7 sin 0.5 x
=
cos 2 0.5 x
20
a( x ) =
= 20(sin x ) 2
sin 2 x
a (x) = 40(sin x) 3 (cos x)
40 cos x
=
sin 3 x
1
1
r ( x ) = = x 1 r ( x ) = x 2 = 2
x
x
1
2
s( x ) = 2 = x 2 s( x ) = 2 x 3 = 3
x
x
10
3
5
W ( x) = 3
= 10( x 1)
( x 1) 5
W(x) = 150x2(x3 1)4
1
T ( x) =
= (cos x sin x ) 1
cos x sin x
T ( x ) = (cos x sin x ) 2 ( sin x sin x
sin 2 x cos 2 x
+ cos x cos x ) =
,
cos 2 x sin 2 x
which transforms to
cos 2 x
T ( x ) = 1 2
= 4 csc 2 x cot 2 x
4 sin 2 x
sin x
T ( x) =

cos x
(cos x )(cos x ) (sin x )( sin x )
T ( x ) =
cos 2 x

17. v( x ) =

18.

19.
20.
21.

22.

23.

cos 2 x + sin 2 x
1
=
= sec 2 x
cos 2 x
cos 2 x
(T is for tangent function.)
cos x

24. C( x ) =
sin x
( sin x )(sin x ) (cos x )(cos x )
C ( x ) =
sin 2 x
=

sin 2 x cos 2 x
1
=
= csc 2 x
2
sin x
sin 2 x
(C is for cotangent function.)
1
0 cos x
C ( x ) =
25. C( x ) =
sin x
sin 2 x

1000
3t
1000
v(1) =
= 500 mi/h
3 1
1000
v(2) =
= 1000 mi/h
32
1000 1000
=
v(3) =
. No value for v(3).
33
0
b. v(t) = 100(3 t) 1
1000
a(t) = 1000(3 t) 2 1 =
(3 t ) 2
1000
a(1) =
= 250 (mi/h)/h
(3 1)2
1000
a(2) =
= 1000 (mi/h)/h
(3 2 ) 2
1000
1000
=
a(3) =
. No value for a(3).
0
(3 3)2

27. a. v(t ) =

c.
a or v

a
2000

t
3

d.

28. a.

b.

c.

1
cos x
=

= csc x cot x
sin x sin x
(C is for cosecant function.)
1
= (cos x ) 1
26. S( x ) =
cos x
S(x) = (cos x) 2(sin x)
sin x
=
= sec x tan x
cos 2 x
(S is for secant function.)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

1000
= 500 2 = (3 t )2
(3 t ) 2
3t = 2 t = 3 2
t = 3 2 = 1.585K in the domain.
Range is 0 t < 1.585 .
Because they are walking in the same
direction, their relative rate is the difference
(x 5).
300
t( x ) =
, assuming Willies rate is
x5
constant.
t(6) = 300 s, t(8) = 100 s, t(10) = 60 s,
t(5) = 300/0, which is infinite, t(4) = 300,
which is not reasonable in the real world,
and t(5.1) = 3000 s. A reasonable domain
is x > 5.
t(x) = 300(x 5) 1
300
t(x) = 300(x 5) 2 =
( x 5)2
t(6) = 300 s/(ft/s)
t(5) does not exist because of division by
zero. More fundamentally, t(5) does not exist
because t(5) does not exist.

29. f ( x ) =

3x + 7

2x + 5

## Problem Set 4-3

55

3 (2 x + 5) (3 x + 7) 2
1
=
(2 x + 5)2
(2 x + 5) 2
1
f ( 4 ) =
= 0.005917159K
169
Using 4.1, f (4) 0.005827505 .
Using 4.01, f (4) 0.005908070 .
Using 4.001, f (4) 0.005916249 .
f (4) (exact) = 0.005917159
Difference quotients are approaching f (4).
30. a. Sketch. See accurate plot in part b.
f ( x ) =

x2 8

x3
2 x ( x 3) ( x 2 8)(1) x 2 6 x + 8
f ( x ) =
=
( x 3)2
( x 3)2

b. f ( x ) =

## 31. If y = xn, where n is a negative integer, then

y = nx n 1.
Proof:
Let n = p, where p is a positive integer.
1
y = xp = p
x
0 x p 1 px p1
y =
because p is a
x2p
positive integer.
px p1
= 2 p = px p12 p = px p1 .
x
Replacing p with n gives y = nxn 1, Q .E .D .
32.
y

y
y'
y'

f (x )

x
f

f'
3

## 33. Answers will vary.

y2 and y3 both agree with the graph of f .
c.
x

f (x)

2.95

14.05

2.96
2.97
2.98
2.99
3.00
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05

19.04
27.363
44.02
94.01
undefined
106.01
56.02
39.363
31.04
26.05

f (x)
399
624
1110.11
2499
9999
undefined
9999
2499
1110.11
624
399

## f ( x) changes faster and faster as x approaches

3, shooting off to negative infinity as x
approaches 3 from the negative side and to
positive infinity as x approaches 3 from the
positive side. Note that the rates are
symmetrical about x = 3.
d. There is a relative minimum at x = 4 and a
relative maximum at x = 2.
2 2 6(2) + 8
=0
(2 3)2
4 2 6( 4) + 8
f ( 4 ) =
=0
( 4 3)2
f ( 2 ) =

56

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.
Q9.

## (sin x)/(tan x) = cos x

1/(sec x) = cos x
sin2 3 + cos2 3 = 1
f (x) = ex sin x + ex cos x
cos x + x sin x
g ( x ) =
cos 2 x
h (x) = (15/7)(3x)12/7
dy/dx = 3(cos x) 4 sin x
Limit = 3
(Function is secant.)
y
y
y'
1

Q10.
1.
2.
3.
4.

C
f (x) = tan 5x f (x) = 5 sec2 5x
f (x) = sec 3x f (x) = 3 sec x tan x
y = sec x7 y = 7x6 sec x7 tan x7
z = tan x9 z = 9x8 sec2 (x9)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 5. g(x) = cot e11x g (x) = 11e11x csc2 (e11x)

6. h(x) = csc e10x h (x) = 10e10x csc (e10x) cot (e10x)
7. r(x) = ln (csc x)
1
r ( x ) =
(csc x cot x) = cot x
csc x
8. p(x) = ln (cot x)
1
1
p ( x ) =
( csc 2 x ) =
cot x
cos x sin x
9. y = tan5 4x
(d/dx)(y) = 5 tan4 4x sec2 4x 4
= 20 tan4 4x sec2 4x
10. y = tan7 9x
(d/dx)(y) = 7 tan6 9x sec2 9x 9
= 63 tan6 9x sec2 9x
11. (d/dx)(sec x tan x) = sec x tan x tan x +
sec x sec2 x = sec x tan2 x + sec3 x
12. (d/dx)(csc x cot x) = csc x cot x cot x +
csc x (csc2 x) = csc x cot2 x csc3 x
13. y = sec x csc x
y = sec x tan x csc x + sec x (csc x cot x)
= sec2 x csc2 x
14. y = tan x cot x = 1 for all x y = 0
tan x
15. y =
= sec x y = sec x tan x
sin x
cot x
16. y =
= csc x y = csc x cot x
cos x
5 ln 7 x
17. y =

cot 14 x
5 7 ( 71x )cot 14 x 5 ln 7 x ( 14 csc 2 14 x )
y =
cot 2 14 x

## 22. m(x) = cot2 x csc2 x = 1 m(x) = 0

(The differentiation formulas give the same.)
23. A(x) = sin x 2 A(x) = cos x 2 2x = 2x cos x 2
24. f (x) = cos x3 f (x) = sin x 3 3x 2
= 3x 2 sin x 3
25. F(x) = sin2 x F (x) = 2 sin x cos x
26. g(x) = cos3 x
g(x) = 3 cos2 x (sin x) = 3 cos2 x sin x
27. y = tan x dy/dx = sec2 x
d2y/dx2 = 2 sec x(sec x tan x) = 2 sec2 x tan x
28. y = sec x y = sec x tan x
y = (sec x tan x) tan x + sec x sec2 x
= sec x tan2 x + sec3 x
cos x

sin x
sin x sin x cos x cos x
y =
sin 2 x
1
=
= csc 2 x or:
sin 2 x
1
y=
= ( tan x ) 1
tan x
y = 1 (tan x) 2 sec2 x = csc2 x

29. y = cot x =

1
= (sin x ) 1
sin x
cos x
y = (sin x ) 2 cos x =
= csc x cot x
sin 2 x
31. a. See graph in part b.
b. f (x) = tan x f (x) = sec2 x. Predicted graph
should be close to actual one.
30. y = csc x =

(5 cot 14 x )/ x + 70 ln 7 x csc 2 14 x
=
cot 2 14 x
70 ln 7 x
5
=
+
x cot 14 x cos 2 14 x
18. y =

4 csc 10 x

e 40x
4( 10 csc10 x cot 10 x )e 4 csc10 x ( 40e
40x
(e ) 2
40x

y =

## 40 csc 10 x cot 10 x 160 csc 10 x

e 40x
19. w = tan (sin 3x)
w = sec2 (sin 3x) 3 cos 3x
= 3 sec2 (sin 3x) cos 3x
20. t = sec (cos 4x)
t = sec (cos 4x) tan (cos 4x) (4 sin 4x)
= 4 sec (cos 4x) tan (cos 4x) sin 4x
21. S(x) = sec2 x tan2 x = 1 S(x) = 0
(The differentiation formulas give the same.)
=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

40x

## tan 1.01 tan 0.99

= 3.42646416 K
2(0.01)
tan 1 = sec2 1 = (1/cos 1)2 = 3.42551882
Difference quotient is within 0.001 of actual.
32. a. f (x) = sec x f (x) = sec x tan x
f (1) = sec 1 tan 1 = 2.8824
b.
c.

y1

y2

57

## The formula is confirmed by the fact that the

line is tangent to the graph.
c.
y

f'

x
/2

## cannot be continuous. (Some texts restrict the

range of the inverse cosecant to 0 y /2 so
that the function will be continuous, but doing
so throws away the other half of the possible
values.)
7. sin (sin 1 0.3) = 0.3
8. cos 1 (cos 0.8) = 0.8
9. y = sin 1 x sin y = x cos y y = 1

33. a.
b.

c.

34. a.

b.
c.

35. a.
b.

## If f (x) is negative, the graph of f is

decreasing.
y/10 = tan x y = 10 tan x, Q .E .D .
y = 10 sec2 x. At x = 1, y = 10 sec2 1 =
34.2551 . y is increasing at about

(34.2551K)
= 0.5978 ft/degree
180
y = 535 x = tan 1 53.5 = 1.55210
y = 10 sec2 1.55210 = 28632.5
y is increasing at about 28,632.5 ft/radian.
opposite side
y
tan x =
=
y = 500 tan x, Q.E.D.
dy/dt = 500 sec2 x dx/dt
dx/dt = 0.3 rad/s
At y = 300, x = tan 1 (300/500) = 0.5404
dy/dt = 500 (sec2 0.5404)(0.3)
= 500(1.36)(0.3) = 204 ft/s
y = sin x + C
y = 12 cos 2 x + C

c. y = 13 tan 3 x + C
d. y = 14 cot 4 x + C
e. y = 5 sec x + C
36. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 4-5

sin x = cos x
Q2. cos x = sin x
2
tan x = sec x
Q4. cot x = csc2 x
sec x = sec x tan x Q6. csc x = csc x cot x
f (1) is infinite.
Q8. f (3) is undefined.
f (4) = 1
Q10. f (6) = 0
See Figure 4-5d.
2. See Figure 4-5d.
See Figure 4-5d.
4. See Figure 4-5d.
The principal branch of the inverse cotangent
function goes from zero to so that the function
will be continuous.
6. There are no values of the inverse secant for x
between 1 and 1, so the inverse secant function

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.
1.
3.
5.

58

1
1
=
, Q .E .D .
cos y
1 x2

y =

1 x 2

## [Because sin y = (opposite leg)/(hypotenuse), put

x on the opposite leg and 1 on the hypotenuse.
Adjacent leg = 1 x 2 , and cos y =
10. y = cos 1 x cos y = x sin y y = 1
1
1
y =
=
, Q .E .D .
sin y
1 x2

1 x 2

y
x

## [Because cos y = (adjacent leg)/(hypotenuse), put

x on the adjacent leg and 1 on the hypotenuse.
Opposite leg = 1 x 2 , and sin y =
(opposite)/(hypotenuse).]
11. y = csc 1 x csc y = x csc y cot y y
1
1
y =
=
if x > 0
csc y cot y
x x2 1
If x < 0, then y is in Quadrant IV (see Figure 4-5d). So both csc y and cot y are negative,
and thus their product must be positive.
1
y =
, Q .E .D .
| x | x2 1

x 2 1

## [Because csc y = (hypotenuse)/(opposite leg), put

x on the hypotenuse and 1 on the opposite leg.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Adjacent leg = x 2 1, and csc y = x and cot y =

12. y = cot 1 x cot y = x csc2 y y = 1
1
1
1
, Q .E .D .
y =
=
2 =
csc 2 y
1+ x2
2
1+ x

sec2 y y = l/x
1
1
1
y =
=
2 =
(
ln 2 x )
x sec 2 y
x
1
+
x 1 + ln 2 x

1 + ln2x
ln x

1 + x 2

y
1

y
x

## [Because cot y = (adjacent leg)/(opposite leg),

put x on the adjacent leg and 1 on the opposite
leg. Hypotenuse = 1 + x 2 , and csc y =
(hypotenuse)/(opposite).]
Problems 1318 are shown done from scratch, as
in Example 1. If students practice doing them this
way, they will not be dependent on memorized
formulas. Problem 13 shows how an alternate
solution could be found using the formulas and the
chain rule.
13. y = sin 1 4x sin y = 4x cos y y = 4
4
4
y =
=
cos y
1 16 x 2

17. y = sec 1

1
x
x
sec y = sec y tan y y =
3
3
3
1

y =

3 sec y tan y

=
3 (
x
3

, if x > 0

x 9) / 3

## If x < 0, then y is in Quadrant II, where both

sec y and tan y are negative. So their product is
positive.
3
y =
2
|x| x 9
x

x 2 9

y
3

4x

1 16x 2

## Alternate solution by application of the formula:

1
4
y = sin 1 4 x y =
4=
2
1 (4 x )
1 16 x 2
14. y = cos 1 10x cos y = 10x
10
10
sin y y = 10 y =
=
sin y
1 100 x 2
1

x
x
csc y =

10
10
1
csc y cot y y =

10
1
1
y =
=
10 csc y cot y
x x 2 100
10
10
100
If x < 0, then y is in Quadrant IV, where both
csc y and cot y are negative. So their product is
positive.
10
y =
| x | x 2 100

18. y = csc 1

1 100x 2

y
10x

## 15. y = cot 1 e 0.5x cot y = e 0.5x

csc 2 y y = 0.5e 0.5x
0.5e 0.5x
0.5e 0.5x
0.5e 0.5x
y =
=
2 =
2
csc y
1+ ex
1+ ex

1 + ex
1

y
e 0.5x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x 2 100

## For Problems 1924, a solution is shown using the

appropriate formula.
19. y = cos 1 5x2
1
10 x
y =
10 x =
2 2
1 (5 x )
1 25 x 4
20. f (x) = tan 1 x3
1
3x 2
2
f ( x ) =

3
x
=
1 + ( x 3 )2
1+ x6
Problem Set 4-5

59

## d. Maximum is between x = 38 and 39.

1

g ( x ) = 2 sin x

1 x2

0.5

## 22. u = (sec 1 x)2

u = 2 sec 1 x

23.

24.

25.

26.

| x | x2 1
v = x sin 1 x + (1 x2)1/ 2
1
1
+ (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x )
v = 1 sin 1 x + x
2
2
1 x
x
x
= sin 1 x +

= sin 1 x
2
2
1 x
1 x
The surprise is that you now have seen a formula
for the antiderivative of the inverse sine function.
f (x) = cot 1 (cot x) = x f (x) = 1 (Surprise!!)
Application of the formulas gives the same
result.
a. tan = x/100, so = tan 1 (x/100), Q.E.D.
1
1
100
d
b.
=

=
dx 1 + ( x/100)2 100 10000 + x 2
100
d d dx
dx
=

dt dx dt 10000 + x 2 dt
c. If x = 500 ft and d/dt = 0.04 rad/s, then
100
dx
0.04 =
2
10000 + 500 dt
dx (0.04)(260000)
=
= 104
dt
100
The truck is going 104 ft/s.
104(3600/5280) = 70.909 71 mi/h
a. = tan 1 (50/x) tan 1 (30/x) or
= cot 1 (x/50) cot 1 (x/30)
The inverse tangent equation has the
advantage that the function appears on the
calculator. The inverse cotangent equation has
the advantage that x is in the numerator of the
argument, which makes the chain rule less
complicated to use.)
b.

50 x 2
30 x 2
d
=
2
dx 1 + (50/ x )
1 + (30/ x )2
50
30
= 2
+ 2
x + 2500 x + 900
20 x 2 + 30000
= 2
( x + 2500)( x 2 + 900)

## c. d/dx = 0 20x2 + 30000 = 0

20x2 = 30000
x = 1500 = 38.729K

60

x
100

40

27.
x

Num. Deriv.*

Alg. Deriv.

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

1.666671
1.250000
1.091089
1.020620
1.000000
1.020620
1.091089
1.250000
1.666671

1.666666
1.25
1.091089
1.020620
1
1.020620
1.091089
1.25
1.666666

## *The precise value for the numerical

derivative will depend on the tolerance to
which the grapher is set. The values given
by numerical derivative and the formula are
very close.
dy
1
=
dx | x | x 2 1
dy
1
At x = 2,
=
= 0.288675K .
dx | 2 | 3
The answer is reasonable because the graph
slopes up at x = 2, with slope significantly
less than 1.
b. At x = 2, y = sec 1 2 = cos 1 (1/2) =
1.04719 .
d
(sec y) = sec y tan y
dy
At y = 1.047 ,
d
(sec y) = (sec 1.047K)(tan 1.047K) =
dy
3.464101 .
c. The answer to part b is the reciprocal of the
1
answer to part a. That is, 3.464101
K =
0.288675 . Thus, the derivative of the
inverse secant at x = c is the reciprocal of
the derivative of the secant at y = sec 1 c.
29. a. y = sin 1 x sin y = x cos y y = 1
1
y =
, Q .E .D .
cos y

28. a. y = sec 1 x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
1
=
= 1.25
cos(sin 1 x ) cos(sin 1 0.6)
1
1
1
y =
=
=
= 1.25, Q .E.D .
2
2
0.8
1 x
1 0.6
d
c. y = f 1 ( x ) f ( y) = x f ( y) ( y) = 1
dx
d
1
d
1
[ f 1 ( x )] =
( y) =
,
dx
f ( y )
dx
f [ f 1 ( x )]
Q .E .D .
d. f ( x) = x3 + x = 10 (x 2)(x2 + 2x + 5) = 0
x = 2 (only)
h(10) = 2
Because h(x) = f 1(x) and f (x) = 3x 2 + 1,
1
1
1
/ .
h (10) =
=
=
= 113
f [h(10)] f (2) 3 2 2 + 1
b. y =

## 30. The inverse trig cofunctions, cos 1, cot 1, and

csc 1, are the ones whose derivatives are preceded
by a minus sign.

14. a.
f (x)
4

x
2

b. f ( x) = x 2
15. a.
f (x )

x
6

( x 6)( x + 1)
x6

b. f ( x ) =
16. a.

f (x )

## Q1. See the text for the definition of continuity.

Q2. See the text for the definition of derivative.
Q3. y = 6x 2 + C
Q4. cos x = sin x

## Q5. dy/dx = sec2 x

Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
11.

Q6. 1 | x | x 2 1

## f (x) = 4x 3; f (x) = 12x2; f (2) = 48

dy/dx = 15x2(x3 + 1)4
Integral 5.4 (Function is y = 2 x.)
E
Continuous
2. Neither
Neither
4. Both
Neither
6. Neither
Both
8. Neither
Neither
10. Neither
Continuous
12. Both

## For Problems 1320, sample answers are given.

Equations do not necessarily correspond to the graphs
shown.
13. a.
f (x )

x
1

x 2 ( x 1) , if x 1

b. f ( x ) = x 1
5,
if x = 1
17. a.
f (x )

x
5

x, if x 5
b. f ( x ) =
3 x, if x > 5
18. a.

f (x )

x
3

b. f ( x) = x + 2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 4-6

61

b = 1 a = 1 (1.5) b = 2.5

b. f ( x) = (x + 1) 2/3 + 3
19. a.

f (x )

f (x )
7

x
1

x
4

f is differentiable at x = 1.
( x 3)2 + 7, if x 2
26. f ( x ) = 3
if x < 2
ax + b,
For f to be continuous at x = 2,
lim ( ax 3 + b) = lim+ [ ( x 3) 2 + 7]

x 2 9, if x < 4
b. f ( x ) =
11 x, if x 4
20. a. No such function

x 2

x 2

a 23 + b = 6 8a + b = 6 b = 6 8a
For f to be differentiable at x = 2,
lim 3ax 2 = lim+ [ 2( x 3)] 3a 2 2 = 2

f(x )

Not possible.
Differentiability
implies
continuity.

x 2

x 2

a = 1/6
b = 6 8(1/6) b = 14/3

f (x )
6

b. No such function
21. Continuous
22. Both
f (x )

f (x )

f is differentiable at x = 2.

x
3

x
2

23. Both

x 2

24. Neither

x 2

4 12 + b b = 4a + 18
For f to be differentiable at x = 2,
lim 2 ax = lim+ (2 x 6) 2 a 2 = 2 2 6

f (x )

ax 2 + 10,
if x < 2
27. f ( x ) = 2
x 6 x + b, if x 2
For f to be continuous at x = 2,
lim ( ax 2 + 10) = lim+ ( x 2 6 x + 6) 4 a + 10 =

x 2
x

x
/2

x 2

a = 0.5
b = 4(0.5) + 18 b = 16
f (x )

10

x ,
if x < 1
25. f ( x ) =
2
a( x 2) + b, if x 1
For f to be continuous at x = 1,
a( x 2 ) 2 + b ]
lim x 3 = lim[
+
3

x 1

x 1

1 = a(1 2) + b a + b = 1 b = 1 a
For f to be differentiable at x = 1,
lim 3 x 2 = lim+ 2 a( x 2) 3 = 2 a(1 2)
2

x 1

x 1

x
2

f is differentiable at x = 2.
if x 1
a/ x,
28. f ( x ) =
2
12 bx , if x > 1
For f to be continuous at x = 1,

a = 1.5
62

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## lim a/ x = lim+ (12 bx 2 ) a/1 = 12 b 12

x 1

f (x )

x 1

a + b = 12
For f to be differentiable at x = 1,
lim ax 2 = lim+ 2 bx a 12 = 2 b 1

x 1

0.5

x 1

a = 2b
2b + b = 12 b = 4
a=24a=8

f is differentiable at x = 2/3.
ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d , if 0 x 0.5
31. a. y =
if x > 0.5
x + k,

f (x )

10

x
1

f is differentiable at x = 1.
e ax ,
if x 1
29. f ( x ) =
b + ln x, if x > 1
For f to be continuous at x = 1,
lim e ax = lim+ (b + ln x ) e a = b
x 1

x 1

For f to be differentiable at x = 1,
lim ae ax = lim+ (1/ x ) ae a = 1

x 1

x 1

## Solve by grapher: a = 0.5671 and

b = 1.7632

lim ( 43 x 3 + 2 x 2 ) = lim + ( x + k )

x 0.5

x 0.5

## 32. Equation of the linear part of the fork is

y 20 = 5(x 10) y = 5x 30

x
1

f is differentiable at x = 1.
a sin x, if x < 2 /3
30. f ( x ) = bx
if x 2 /3
e ,
For f to be continuous at x = 2/3,
lim a sin x = lim + e bx
x ( 2 / 3)

a 3
2e 2b / 3
= e 2b / 3 a =
2
3
For f to be differentiable at x = 2/3,
lim a cos x = lim + be bx
x( 2 /3)

## For y to contain the origin,

a 03 + b 02 + c 0 + d = 0 d = 0
For y = 0 at x = 0, y = 3ax 2 + 2bx + c
0 = 3a 02 + 2b 0 + c c = 0
For y = 1 at x = 0.5, y = 3ax2 + 2bx + c
1 = 3a(0.5)2 + 2b(0.5) + c 1 = 0.75a + b
b = 1 0.75a
For y = 0 at x = 0.5, y = 6 ax + 2 b
0 = 3a + 2b
Solve for a and b:
3a + 2(1 0.75a) = 0 1.5a = 2
a = 4/3 b = 2
b. For the function to be continuous,
43 (0.5)3 + 2(0.5)2 = 0.5 + k
k = 16 = 0.1666 K

f (x )

x ( 2 / 3)

x ( 2 /3)

a
= be 2b / 3 a = 2 be 2b/3
2
2
1
2e 2b/3
So
= 2 be 2b/3
= 2 b b =
3
3
3
2 2 /( 3 3 )
= 0.5773 and a =
e
= 0.3446 K
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ax 3 + bx, if x < 10
y =
5 x 30, if x 10
For y to be continuous at x = 10,
a 10 3 + b 10 = 5 10 30
1000a + 10b = 20 b = 2 100a
For y to be differentiable at x = 10,
3a 10 2 + b = 5
300a + (2 100a) = 5
200a = 3 a = 3/200
b = 2 100(3/200) b = 0.5
2 x2
, if x 2
x
33. f ( x ) =
x2
4,
if x = 2
Simplifying the equation for f (x) gives
x 2 + 1, if x < 2

f ( x ) = x 2 1, if x > 2
4,
if x = 2

63

## Taking the derivative for each branch gives

if x < 2
2 x,

f ( x ) = 2 x,
if x > 2
undefined, if x = 2

## Taking the left and right limits gives

lim f ( x ) = 2 2 = 4; lim+ f ( x ) = 2 2 = 4.
x 2

x 2

## Using the definition of derivative, taking the

x2 +1 4
1
,
limit from the left, f ( x ) = lim
x 2
x2
0
which is infinite. The same thing happens from
the right. As the following graph shows, the
secant lines become vertical as x approaches 2
from either side.
f (x )

Secant
slope
becomes
infinite.

x
2

## Thus, f is not differentiable at x = 2, even

though the right and left limits of f (x) are equal
to each other. The function must be continuous
if it is to have a chance of being differentiable.

0.5 t
60.5 0.5 + t , if t 0.5

34. a. d (t ) =
150 2 1 ,
if t 0.5

t
2
60.5(0.5 + t ) , if t < 0.5
d (t ) =
150t 2,
if t > 0.5
The inequality signs must be < and > because
although the function is defined at x = 0.5,
the derivative is not.
b. d (1) = 150(1) 2 = 150 d is continuous at
x = 1 because it is differentiable there.
c. lim d (t ) = 60.5(0.5 + 0.5) 2 = 60.5
x 0.5

## e. A regulation baseball diamond has the

pitchers mound 60.5 feet from home plate.
Substituting zero for t gives d(0) = 60.5,
confirming that the pitcher was on the mound
at that time.
35. a. y = mx + b y = m, which is independent
of x.
linear functions are differentiable for all x.
linear functions are continuous for all x.
b. y = ax 2 + bx + c y = 2ax + b, which
exists for all x by the closure axioms.
quadratic functions are differentiable for
all x.
quadratic functions are continuous for all x.
c. y = 1/x = x1 y = x2, which exists for
all x 0 by closure and multiplicative inverse
axioms.
the reciprocal function is differentiable for
all x 0.
the reciprocal function is continuous for all
x 0.
d. y = x y = 1, which is independent of x.
the identity function is differentiable for
all x.
the identity function is continuous for
all x.
e. y = k y = 0, which is independent of x.
constant functions are differentiable for
all x.
constant functions are continuous for all x.
36. See text proof.

## Problem Set 4-7

Q1. y = 243x1214
Q2. dy/dx = 2/(x1)2
Q3. f (x) = 1 + ln x
Q4. y(x) = 5e5x cos e5x
Q5. (d/dx)(y) = 3x2, x 0; d2y/dx2 = 6x, x 0
Q7. = 1/ 1 x 2

Q6. y = 0

Q9.
Q10. E

x 0.5+

## As the ball was about to be hit, it was

approaching the plate at 60.5 ft/s.
Just after the ball was hit, it was going away
from the plate at 600 ft/s.
d. Function d is not differentiable at t = 0.5
because d (t) approaches different limits from
both sides of x = 0.5.
Function d is continuous at t = 0.5 because
you get zero as the limit of d(t) as t
approaches zero from either left or right.

64

## Problem Set 4-7

y'
1

x
/2

1. x = t4 , y = sin 3t
dy dy/dt 3 cos 3t
d 2 y d 3 cos 3t
=
=

=
dx dx/dt
dx 2 dx 4t 3
4t 3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

( 4t 3 ) 2

## 36t 3 sin 3t 36t 2 cos 3t dx

16t 6
dt

4. a. x = t 2 , y = t 3
t
x
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

## 36t 3 sin 3t 36t 2 cos 3t

64t 9
9t sin 3t 9 cos 3t
=
16t 7
=

2. x = 6 ln t, y = t 3
2

27
8
1
0
1
8
27

b.

dy dy/dt 3t
d y
=
=
= 0.5t 3 2
dx dx/dt 6/t
dx
d
dx
(0.5t 3 ) = 1.5t 2 ( dt/dx ) = 1.5t 2
=
dx
dt

9
4
1
0
1
4
9

1.5t
=
= 0.25t 3
6/t

3. a. x = 2 + t, y = 3 t 2
t
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

1
0
1
2
3
4
5

6
1
2
3
2
1
6

c.

d.

b.
y

e.

x
3

5. a.
b.
dy dy/dt 2t
=
=
= 2t
dx dx/dt
1
If t = 1, dy/dx = 2 and (x, y) = (3, 2).
Line through (3, 2) with slope 2 is tangent
to the graph. See part b.
d. x = 2 + t t = x 2 y = 3 (x 2)2
This is the Cartesian equation of a parabola
because only one of the variables is squared.
e. By direct differentiation, dy/dx = 2( x 2).
At (x, y) = (3, 2), dy/dx = 2(3 2) = 2,
which agrees with part c.
dy/dx = 2(x 2) = 2(2 + t 2) = 2t,
which agrees with part c.
c.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

dy dy/dt 3t 2
=
=
= 1.5t
dx dx/dt 2t
If t = 1, dy/dx = 1.5 and (x, y) = (1, 1).
Line through (1, 1) with slope 1.5 is tangent
to the graph. See graph in part b.
x = t 2 t = x 1/ 2 y = ( x 1/ 2 )3 y = x 1.5
The name semicubical is picked because 1.5
is half of 3, the exponent for a cubic function.
The name parabola is used because the equation
looks similar to y = x2 for a parabola.
By direct differentiation, dy/dx = 1.5x0.5 .
At (x, y) = (1, 1), dy/dx = 1.5 10.5 = 1.5,
which agrees with part c.
dy/dx = 1.5x0.5 = 1.5(t2)0.5 = 1.5t, which
agrees with part c.
The graph confirms the figure in the text.
dy 5 cos t 5
=
=
cot t
dx 3 sin t
3
If t = /4, x = 3 2 /2 and y = 5 2 /2.
(x, y) = (2.121 , 3.535)
dy 5

=
cot = 5/3
dx
3
4
y
5

x
3

Problem Set 4-7

65

## d. False. The line from (0, 0) to (2.1 , 3.5)

does not make an angle of 45 with the
x-axis. (This shows that the t in parametric
functions is not the same as the in polar
coordinates.)
e. The tangent line is horizontal if dy/dx = 0.
cos t = 0 and sin t 0.
This happens at t = /2, 3/2, .
Points are (0, 5), (0, 5).
Tangent line is vertical if dy/dx is infinite.
sin t = 0 and cos t 0.
This happens at t = 0, , 2 , .
Points are (3, 0), (3, 0). See graph in part c.
f. x/3 = cos t (x/3)2 = cos2 t
y/5 = sin t (y/5)2 = sin2 t
Adding left and right sides of the equations
gives (x/3)2 + (y/5)2 = cos2 t + sin2 t.
(x/3)2 + (y/5)2 = 1, which is a standard form
of the equation of an ellipse centered at the
origin, with x-radius 3 and y-radius 5.
6. a. The graph confirms the figure in the text.
dy
24 sin 2 t cos t
sin t
b.
=
=
= tan t
2
dx 24 cos t ( sin t )
cos t
dy/dx = tan t
c. If t = 1, x = 8 cos3 1 = 1.2618 , and
y = 8 sin3 1 = 4.7665 ,
(x, y) = (1.2618 , 4.7665).
At t = 1, dy/dx = tan 1 = 1.5574 .
y
8

x
8

## The line is tangent to the graph.

d. dx/dt = 24 cos2 t sin t
dy/dt = 24 sin2 t cos t
The cusps occur where t is a multiple of /2.
At each such value, dx/dt and dy/dt equal zero.
t = 0 gives the cusp at (8, 0).
lim ( dy/dx ) = lim ( tan t ) = tan 0 = 0
t0

t0

## So the graph becomes horizontal at (8, 0).

t = /2 gives the cusp at (0, 8).
lim ( dy/dx ) = lim ( tan t ), which is infinite.
t /2

t /2

## So the graph becomes vertical at (0, 8).

e. x/8 = cos3 t (x/8)2/3 = cos2 t
y/8 = sin3 t (y/8)3/2 = sin2 t
(x/8)2/3 + (y/8)2/3 = cos2 t + sin2 t
x 2/3 + y 2/3 = 4
66

## Problem Set 4-7

7. a. x = 6 + 5 cos t, y = 3 + 5 sin t
y
dy /dx is
infinite
here.

x
6

dy 5 cos t
=
dy/dx = cot t
dx 5 sin t

b.

## c. dy/dx = 0 if cos t = 0 and sin t 0.

t = 0.5 , 1.5 , 2.5 ,
dy/dx is infinite if sin t = 0 and cos t 0.
t = 0, , 2 ,
At a point where dy/dx is infinite, dx/dt must
be zero. This happens where t = /2 n ,
so dy/dx = 5 cos t = 0 at those points. See
graph in part a.
x6
y3
d.
= cos t and
= sin t
5
5
2
2
x 6 + y 3 = cos 2 t + sin 2 t
5
5
x 6 + y 3 = 1
5
5
This is an equation of a circle centered at
(6, 3) with radius 5.
e. The 6 and 3 added in the original equations
are the x- and y-coordinates of the center.
The coefficients, 5, for cosine and sine in the
original equations are the x- and y-radii,
respectively. Because the x- and y-radii are
equal, the graph is a circle.
8. x = cos2 t, y = sin2 t
dy 2 cos t ( sin t )
=
= 1 (cos t 0, sin t 0)
dx
2 sin t cos t
2

y
1

x
1

## The graph is a line segment with a slope of 1.

x + y = cos2 t + sin2 t x + y = 1
This is the equation of a line with slope 1,
confirming what was observed on the graph.
The parametric equations restrict the ranges of x
and y to the first quadrant, no matter what is the
domain of t. This is true because cos2 t and sin2 t
are never negative.
The Cartesian equation allows
< x < and < y < .
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 9. a. The grapher confirms the figure in the text.

b.

dy 2 cos t 2 cos 2t
cos t cos 2t
=
=
dx 2 sin t 2 sin 2t sin t sin 2t

## c. Cusps occur where both dx/dt and dy/dt = 0.

A graphical solution shows that this occurs at
t = 0, t = 2 /3, t = 4 /3, t = 2 , .
(A cusp could also happen if dx/dt = 0 and
dy/dt 0, but for this figure there is no such
place.)
dx /dt or dy /dt
dx /dt
t
__
2

4
__
3

dy /dt

## At t = 0, 2, , the tangent appears to

be horizontal. At t = 2 /3, 4 /3, 8 /3,
10 /3, , there appears to be a tangent
line but not a horizontal one.
A numerical solution shows the following
values as t approaches 2/3:
t

dy/dx

2 /3 0.1
2/3 0.01
2/3 0.001
2/3
2/3 + 0.001
2 /3 + 0.01
2 /3 + 0.1

1.547849
1.712222
1.730052
indeterminate
1.734052
1.752225
1.951213

## dy/dx seems to be approaching about 1.732

as t approaches 2/3.
[The exact answer is 3, which students
will be able to prove easily with lHospitals
rule after they have studied Section 6-5. Joan
Gell and Cavan Fang have shown clever
trigonometric transformations that remove
the removable discontinuity and lead to the
same answer. These are
1. Use the sum and product properties on
dy/dx:
dy
2 sin 1.5t sin 0.5t
=
dx 2 sin 1.5t cos 0.5t
= tan 0.5t if dx/dt 0
As t 2 /3, dy/dx tan( /3) = 3 .

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 2. Use the double argument properties on

dy/dx:
dy
cos t (2 cos 2 t 1)
=
dx (sin t + 2 sin t cos t )
(1 cos t )(1 + 2 cos t ) 1 cos t
=
=
,
(sin t )(1 + 2 cos t )
sin t
which approaches 3 as t 2/3.]
10. a. The grapher confirms the figure in the text.
dy 4 a cos t ( sin t )
b.
=
= 2 cos3 t sin t
dx
2 a sec 2 t
(The answer is independent of a.)
4 a 2 sin 2 t 4 a 2 (1 cos 2 t )
=
cos 2 t
cos 2 t
2
2
y = 2a cos t cos t = y/(2a)
4 a 2 [1 y/(2 a)] 4 a 2 (2 a y)
x2 =
=
y/(2 a)
y
x2y = 8a3 4a2y (x2 + 4a2)y = 8a3
8a 3
y= 2
x + 4a 2
216
a = 3 y = 2
x + 36
d. y = 8a 3 ( x 2 + 4 a 2 ) 1
16 a 3 x
dy
= 8a 3 ( x 2 + 4 a 2 ) 2 2 x = 2
( x + 4a 2 )2
dx

c. x 2 = 4 a 2 tan 2 t =

## e. At t = /4, x = 2a tan (/4) = 2a.

From part d,
dy
16 a 3 (2 a)
32 a 4
=
= 1/2
2
2 2 =
dx [(2 a) + 4 a ]
64 a 4
From part b,
dy
= 2 cos3 ( /4) sin ( /4)
dx
= 2( 2 /2)3 ( 2 /2) = 1/2, which agrees.
At t = /4, x = 2a tan (/4) = 2a = 6 and
y = 2a cos2 (/4) = 2a(1/2) = a = 3.
A line through (6, 3) with slope 1/2 is
tangent to the graph at that point.
10

t = /4
x

15

10

10

15

## 11. a. x = cos t + t sin t

y = sin t t cos t
The grapher confirms the figure in the text.
[Note: In the derivation of these equations
from the geometric definition of involute,

67

## x = cos t + t cos (t /2)

y = sin t + t sin (t /2)
(cos t, sin t) is the point of tangency of the
string.
Because the circle is a unit circle, the length
of the string is also t, the central angle in
The string makes an angle of (t /2) with
the positive x-axis so that
(t cos (t /2), t sin (t /2)) is a vector
representing the unwound string.
The cofunction properties and odd-even
properties from trig are used to simplify the
equations so that the calculus will be easier.]
b.

## dy cos t [cos t + t ( sin t )]

=
dx
sin t + (sin t + t cos t )
t sin t
=
= tan t
t cos t

## c. At t = , dy/dt = tan = 0. The string will

be pointing straight up from the x-axis. The
diagram shows that the tangent to the graph is
horizontal at this point.
y

( x, y)

String
1

t=

x
1

## 12. a. x starts at a middle point and increases.

y starts at a high point and decreases.
x = 25 + 15 sin Bt
y = 20 + 15 cos Bt
The period is 60 seconds.
So B = 2 /60 = /30

x = 25 + 15 sin t
30

y = 20 + 15 cos
t
30

t
b. dx/dt = cos
2
30

dy/dt = sin
t
2
30
At t = 5,

2
6

## dy/dt = sin = /4 = 0.7853K

2
6
c. The slope of the circular path is dy/dx.
At t = 5,
dy
/4
=
= 1 / 3 = 0.5773K
dx 3 /4
68

## Problem Set 4-7

x 25

x 25

= sin
= sin 2
t
t
15
15
30
30
2
y 20

y 20

= cos
= cos 2
t
t
15
15
30
30

Because sin 2
t + cos 2
= 1,
30
30
2
2
x 25 + y 20 = 1.
15 15
This is an equation of a circle centered at
(25, 20) with radius 15, confirming that the
path really is a circle.
13. The actual solutions will vary depending on the
period of the pendulum, as determined by the
length of the string. The following solution
supposes that the period turns out to be 3.1
seconds.
2
2
x = 30 cos
t
y = 20 sin
t
3.1
3.1
2
t
( 40 /3.1) cos
dy
3.1 = 2 cot 2 t
=
dx (60 /3.1) sin 2 t
3
3.1
3.1
At t = 5, x 22.8, y 13.0,
and dy/dx 0.78.
If the measurements have been accurate, the
pendulum will be above the coin when t = 5.
14. The graph looks like an ellipse that moves in the
x-direction as t increases. Because y starts at a
high point and varies between 5 and 1, the ellipse
has center at y = 3 and y-radius 2. Thus, an
equation for y would be y = 3 + 2 cos t.
x starts at 0 and increases. If the ellipse had
x-radius 0.5, an equation for x would be
x = 0.5 sin t. The graph of this ellipse is
2

d.

y
5

x
10

## The graph seems to move over 1 unit to the right

each cycle. Thus, if t increases by 2, x increases
by 1. The equations are thus
x = t/(2 ) + 0.5 sin t, y = 3 + 2 cos t
The graph here duplicates the one in the text.
y
5

x
10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d. n = 1. (x = cos t, y = sin t)

## To locate interesting features,

dy dy/dt
2 sin t
.
=
=
dx dx/dt 1/(2 ) + 0.5 cos t

1 y

## For horizontal tangents, dy/dt = 0 and dx/dt 0.

2 sin t = 0 t = 0 + n (n an integer)
Thus, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, .
For vertical tangents, dx/dt = 0 and dy/dt 0.
1/(2) + 0.5 cos t = 0 cos t = 1/
Solving numerically for t gives
t = 1.8947 + 2 n or 4.3884 + 2n.
For crossing points, x = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5,
from symmetry on the graph. If x = 0.5, then
1/(2 )t + 0.5 sin t = 0.5.
Solving numerically for the value of t closest to
0, t = 0.8278 .
y(0.8278) = 3 + 2 cos 0.8278 = 4.3529
A crossing point is (0.5, 4.3529) at t =
0.8278 .
15. a. The grapher confirms the figure in the text.
b. (x = cos 4t, y = sin t)

x
1

1 y

x
1

## If n = 1, the graph is a circle.

If n = 2, the graph is a parabola.
e. Jules Lissajous (18221880) lived in France.
Nathaniel Bowditch (17731838) lived in
Massachusetts.

1 y

x
1

## Problem Set 4-8

If n is an even number, the graph comes to
endpoints and retraces its path, making two
complete cycles as t goes from 0 to 2.
If n is an odd number, the graph does not
come to endpoints. It makes one complete
cycle as t goes from 0 to 2.
c. i. (x = cos 5t, y = sin t)

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.

y = 2001x2000
5
product
x3 + C

y = ln (2001)2001x
f (u) = csc2 u
1/(1 + 9x2)
Instantaneous rate
2.4033 ft/s

4 y

y'

1 y

Q2.
Q4.
Q6.
Q8.
Q10.

x
6

x
1

1. x 3 + 7y 4 = 13 3x 2 + 28y 3y = 0
3x 2
y =
28 y 3

## ii. (x = cos 6t, y = sin t)

2. 3x 5 y 4 = 22 15x 4 4y 3y = 0 y =

1 y

3. x ln y = 104 1 ln y + x
x
1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15 x 4
4 y3

1
y = 0
y

y ln y
x
ex
4. y = 213 p xy + yex = 0 y = y
y =

## Problem Set 4-8

69

5. x + xy + y = sin 2x
1 + y + xy + y = 2 cos 2x
y(x + 1) = 2 cos 2x 1 y
2 cos 2 x 1 y
y =
x +1
6. cos xy = x 2y
(sin xy) ( y + xy) = 1 2y
y(x sin xy + 2) = 1 + y sin xy
1 + y sin xy
y =
2 x sin xy
7. x0.5 y0.5 = 13
0.5x0.5 0.5y0.5 y = 0 y = y 0.5 /x0.5
8. x1.2 + y 1.2 = 64 1.2x0.2 + 1.2y0.2 y = 0
y = x 0.2 /y0.2
9. e xy = tan y exy(1 y + x y) = ysec2 y ye xy
+ xye xy = ysec2 y xye xy ysec2 y = ye xy
ye xy
y(xexy sec2 y) = yexy y =
xe xy sec 2 y
10. ln (xy) = tan x tan (ln xy) = x
1

1
2
sec (ln xy) (1 y + yx) = 1 y + yx =
xy
2
xy cos (ln xy) yx = xy cos2 (ln xy) y
xy cos 2 (ln xy) y
x
3 4 5
11. (x y ) = x y
5(x 3y 4)4(3x 2y 4 + x 3 4y 3y) = 1 y
y(20x15y19 + 1) = 1 15x14y20
1 15 x 14 y 20
y =
1 + 20 x 15 y19
y =

12. (xy)6 = x + y
6(xy)5(y + xy) = 1 + y
y(6x6y5 1) = 1 6x5y6
1 6 x 5 y6
y = 6 5
6x y 1
13. cos 2 x + sin2 y = 1
2 cos x (sin x) + 2 sin y cos y y = 0
cos x sin x
y =
cos y sin y
14. sec2 y tan2 x = 1
2 sec y sec y tan y y 2 tan x sec2 x = 0
sec 2 x tan x
y =
sec 2 y tan y
15. tan xy = xy
(sec 2 xy) (y + xy) = y + xy
y(x sec2 xy x) = y y sec2 xy
y(1 sec 2 xy)
y
y =
y =
2
x (sec xy 1)
x

## y(x x sin xy) = y + y sin xy

y(1 + sin xy)
y
y =
y =
x (1 sin xy)
x
17. sin y = x cos y y = 1 y = sec y
18. cos y = x sin y y = 1 y = csc y
19. csc y = x csc y cot y y = 1
y = sin y tan y
20. cot y = x csc2 y y = 1 y = sin2 y
21. y = cos 1 x cos y = x sin y y = 1
1
1
=
y =
sin y
1 x2
1 x 2

y
x

1 1
=
ey x
23. y = x 11/5 y 5 = x 11 5y 4 y = 11x 10
11x 10
11x 10
11x 10 11 6 / 5
y =
=
=
= x ,
5y 4
5( x 11/ 5 ) 4 5 x 44 / 5 5
22. y = ln x e y = x e y y = 1 y =

## which is the answer obtained using the derivative

of a power formula, Q.E.D.
24. Prove that if y = xn, where n = a/b and a and b
are integers, then y = nan 1.
Proof:
y = x n = x a/ b y b = x a.
Because a and b are integers,
byb 1 y = ax a 1
ax a 1
ax a 1
ax a 1
a a1( a a/b )
y = b 1 =
=
x
a/b b 1
a a/b =
by
b( x )
bx
b
a
= x a/b 1 = nx n 1, Q .E.D .
b
25. a. x 2 + y 2 = 100
At (6, 8), (6)2 + 82 = 100, which shows
that (6, 8) is on the graph, Q.E.D.
b. x 2 + y 2 = 100 2x + 2y dy/dx = 0
dy/dx = x/y
At (6, 8), dy/dx = (6)/8 = 0.75.
A line at (6, 8) with slope 0.75 is tangent to
the graph, showing that the answer is
reasonable.
10 y

x
10

16. cos xy = xy
(sin xy) (y + xy) = y + xy

70

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. x = 10 cos t
y = 10 sin t
dy 10 cos t
cos t
=
=
dx 10 sin t
sin t
1
At x = 6, t = cos (0.6).
sin [cos1 (0.6)] = 0.8
dy
0.6

=
= 0.75,
dx
0.8
which agrees with part b, Q.E.D.
26. a. x 2 y 2 = 36
At (10, 8), 102 (8)2 = 36, which shows
that (10, 8) is on the graph, Q.E.D.
b. x2 y2 = 36 2x 2y dy/dx = 0
dy/dx = x/y
At (10, 8), dy/dx = 10/(8) = 1.25.
A line at (10, 8) with slope 1.25 is tangent
to the graph, showing that the answer is
reasonable.
10 y

x
10

c. x = 6 sec t
y = 6 tan t
dy 6 sec t tan t tan t
=
=
dx
6 sec 2 t
sec t
1
At x = 10, t = sec (10/6).
tan [sec1 (10/6)] = 8/6.
Choose the negative value because y < 0.
dy 10/6

=
= 1.25,
dx
8/6
which agrees with part b, Q.E.D.
27. a. x 3 + y 3 = 64 3x 2 + 3y 2 dy/dx = 0
dy/dx = x2/y2
x = 0: y 3 = 64 y = 4
dy/dx = 0/16 = 0
The tangent is horizontal (see the next graph).
x = 2: 8 + y 3 = 64 y 3 = 56
y = 3.8258
dy/dx = 22/(3.8258)2 = 0.2732
The tangent line has a small negative slope,
which agrees with the graph.
x = 4: 64 + y 3 = 64 y = 0
dy/dx = 42/0, which is infinite.
The tangent line is vertical.
10 y

x
10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. y = x: x 3 + x 3 = 64 x 3 = 32
x = 3.1748
dy/dx = x2/y2 = x2/x2 = 1
c. y = (64 x 3)1/3
As x becomes infinite, (64 x3)1/3 gets closer
to (x3)1/3, which equals x. The graph has
a diagonal asymptote at y = x, and
dy/dx 1.
d. By analogy with the equation of a circle, such
as x 2 + y 2 = 64
28. a. First simplify the equation.
[(x 6)2 + y2][(x + 6)2 + y2] = 1200
(x 6)2(x + 6)2 + (x 6)2y2 + (x + 6)2y2 + y4
= 1200
(x2 36)2 + (x2 12x + 36 + x2 + 12x + 36)y2
+ y4 = 1200
4
x 72x 2 + 1296 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 1200
x 4 72x 2 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 96
Differentiate the simplified equation
implicitly.
4x 3 144x + 4xy 2 + 4x 2y dy/dx
+ 144y dy/dx + 4y3 dy/dx = 0
2
(4x y + 144y + 4y3) dy/dx = 4x3
+ 144x 4xy 2
dy x 3 + 36 x xy 2
= 2
dx
x y + 36 y + y 3
At x = 8: (4 + y2)(196 + y2) = 1200
784 + 200y2 + y4 = 1200
y 4 + 200y 2 416 = 0
200 41664
y2 =
= 2.058806 K or
2
202.0
y = 1.4348542 (No other real solutions)
At (8, 1.434), dy/dx = 1.64211 .
At (8, 1.434), dy/dx = 1.64211 .
Both answers agree with the moderately steep
negative and positive slopes, respectively.
5

x
10

b. At the x-intercepts, y = 0.
(x 6)2 (x + 6)2 = 1200
(x2 36)2 = 1200
x = 36 1200 = 8.4048K or
1.1657
Derivative appears to be infinite at each
x-intercept.
At x = 36 + 1200 = 8.4048K ,

71

## dy (8.4 K)3 + 36(8.4 K) (8.4 K)(0)

=
dx
(8.4 K)2 (0) + 36(0) + 0 3
896.29K
=
, which is infinite, as conjectured.
0
c. From part a,
x 4 72x 2 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 96
y 4 + (2x 2 + 72)y 2 + (x 4 72x 2 + 96) = 0
y2 =
(2 x 2 + 72) (2 x 2 + 72)2 4(1)( x 4 72 x 2 + 96)
2
2
2
y = x 36 144 x 2 1200
Only the positive part of the ambiguous
sign gives real solutions for y.
y = x 2 36 + 144 x 2 1200
Plot the graph letting y1 equal the positive
branch and y2 equal the negative branch. The
graph is as in the text. The two loops may
not appear to close, depending on the window
you use for x.
d. Repeating the algebra of parts a and c with
1400 in place of 1200 gives
y = x 2 36 + 144 x 2 1400
Plot the graph as in part a. The two ovals in
the original graph merge into a single closed
figure resembling an (unshelled) peanut.

A = r 2
dr /dt

r
3

dr 2
= = 0.6366 K mm/h when r = 3 mm.
dt
dr
varies inversely with the radius.
dt
dr
dV
= 2 cm/s. Want:
.
dt
dt
4
dV
dr
V = r 3
= 4r 2
3
dt
dt
dV
= 72 = 226.1946 K cm 3 /s at r = 3 cm
dt
dV
= 288 = 904.7786 K cm 3 /s at r = 6 cm
dt

2. Know:

dV/dt

500

r
3

dA
dr
dr
6
= 2r

=
dt
dt
dt r

x
10

## e. The two factors in the equation

[(x 6)2 + y2][(x + 6)2 + y2] = 1200
are the squares of the distances from (x, y) to
the points (6, 0) and (6, 0), respectively.
The product of the distances is 1200, a
constant.

Q1. y 2 + 2xyy
Q3. Product rule
Q5. Speeding up

## Q2. Implicit differentiation

Q4. Chain rule
Q6. smaller
1 dx
Q7. cos x x sin x
Q8.
x dt
x
x
Q10. E
Q9. 2e + xe
dA
dr
1. Know:
= 12 mm2/h. Want: .
dt
dt

72

## The graph shows that the larger the balloon gets,

the faster Phil must blow air to maintain the
2 cm/s rate of change of radius.
dA
da
3. Know:
= 144 cm 2 /s. Want:
.
dt
dt
1
A = ab and a = 2b A = a 2
2
dA
da
da
1 dA
= a

=
dt
dt
dt a dt
da
6
b = 12 a = 24
= = 1.9098K
dt

1.91 cm/s
The length of the major axis is 2a, so the major
axis is decreasing at 12/ cm/s.
dK
dm
4. Know:
= 100, 000 MJ/s;
= 20 kg/s.
dt
dt
dV
Want:
. (Note: 1 megaJouleMJis the
dt
energy required to accelerate a 1-kg mass by
1 km/s through a distance of 1 km; it can be
expressed 1 MJ = 1 kg km2/s2.)
1
dK 1 2 dm
dV
K = mV 2
= V
+ mV

2
dt
2
dt
dt
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

dV
1 dK
V dm
=

dt
mV dt 2 m dt
dV
100000 10(20)
=

= 2.02 (km/s)/s
dt 5000 10 2 5000
5. Let y = Milts distance from home plate.
Let x = Milts displacement from third base.
dx
dy
Know:
= 20 ft/s. Want: .
dt
dt
dy
dx
2
2
2
y = x + 90 2 y
= 2x
dt
dt
dy x dx
20 x

=
=
dt y dt
x 2 + 90 2
dy /dt
10

x
90

dy
= 8.944 K 8.9 ft/s
dt
(exact: 4 5 ).
dy
At x = 0,
= 0 ft/s, which is reasonable because
dt
Milt is moving perpendicular to his line from
home plate.
6. Let y = displacement from stern to dock along
pier. Let x = displacement from bow to pier
along dock.
dy
dx
Know:
= 3 m/s. Want:
.
dt
dt
2
2
2
x + y = 200
dx
dy
dx
y dy
3y
+ 2y
=0
=
=
2x
dt
dt
dt
x dt
200 2 y 2
At x = 45,

At y = 120,

dx 360
=
= 2.25 m/s.
dt 160

dx/dt

dH
H dW H dL
=

dt
W dt
L dt
20
20
=
(0.1) 2 (0.3)
LW 2
LW
b.

dH
20 0.1 20 0.3
+ 2
= 0.02
=
dt
5 22
5 2
Depth is increasing at 0.02 m/s.

## 8. Let L = distance between spaceships.

dx
dy
Know:
= 80 km/s;
= 50 km/s.
dt
dt
dL
Want:
.
dt
dL
dx
dy
L2 = x 2 + y 2 2 L
= 2x
+ 2y
dt
dt
dt
dL
1

=
(80 x 50 y)
dt
x 2 + y2
dL
1
200
(80 500 50 1200) =
=
=
dt 1300
13
15.3846
Distance is decreasing at about 15.4 km/s.
9. a. Let x = distance from bottom of ladder to
wall. Let y = distance from top of ladder to
floor.
dx
dy
20 2 = x 2 + y 2 0 = 2 x
+ 2y
dt
dt
dy
x dx
=
dt
y dt
Note that the velocity of the weight is dy/dt,
so
x
dx
v=
2 dt
400 x
4
6
( 3) =
= 0.6123K ft/s
4
384
dx
40
c. Here x = 20,
= 2, so v =
(!!)
dt
0
10. a.
b. v =

10

D
1200 in.2

L
y
120

200

dL
dW
. Want:
.
dt
dt
dL
dW
LW = 1200
W + L
=0
dt
dt
dW
W
dL
1
dL

=
W2
dt 1200/W dt
1200
dt
Know:

(meters).
dW
dL
Know:
= 0.1 m/s;
= 0.3 m/s.
dt
dt
dH
Want:
.
dt
LWH = 20
dL
dW
dH
WH + L
H + LW
=0
dt
dt
dt

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
W 2 (6) W = 20 in.
1200
L = 60 in.

b. 2 =

## Problem Set 4-9

73

c. D2 = L2 + W 2 2 D

dD
=
dt

dD
dL
dW
= 2L
+ 2W
dt
dt
dt
dL
dW
L

+W
dt
dt

L + W2
At L = 60 and W = 20,
dD
1
[60(6) + 20( 2)]
=
2
dt
20 + 60 2
320
=
= 1.6 10 = 5.0596 K
4000
Diagonal is increasing at about 5.06 in./min.
11. a. Let h = depth of water. Let r = radius of water
at surface. Let V = volume of water.
dh
dV
Know:
= 5 m/h. Want:
.
dt
dt
1
V = r 2 h
3
r
3
3
By similar triangles,
=
r= h
h
5
5
2
1 3
3 3
V = h h = h
3 5
25
dV
9
2 dh
= h
dt 25
dt
dV 81
At h = 3,
= = 16.2 = 50.8938K
dt
5
3
50.9 m /h.
dV
dh
b. i. Know:
= 2 m3/h. Want:
.
dt
dt
dV
9
dh
dh
25 dV
= h 2

=
dt 25
dt
dt 9h 2 dt
dh
50
=
= 0.1105K
dt 144
0.11 m/h at h = 4 m
dh
ii.
as h 0 m
dt
dV
c. i. Know:
= k h.
dt
dV
= 0.5 at h = 4 k = 0.25
dt
dV
= 0.25 h
dt
dV
ii.
= 0.25 0.64 = 0.2 m 3 /h
dt
at h = 0.64 m
dV
iii.
= 0.2 at h = 0.64 m
dt
dh
25
=
(0.2) = 0.4317K
dt 9 (0.64)2
0.43 m/h
12. Let h = altitude. Let r = radius. Let V = volume
of cone.
dh
dr
dV
= 6 ft/min;
= 7 ft/min. Want:
Know:
.
dt
dt
dt

74

## Problem Set 4-9

1
dV 2 dr
1
dh
V = r 2 h
= r h + r 2
3
dt 3 dt
3
dt
dV 2
1
2
= (8)(3)(7) + (8) ( 6) =
dt 3
3
16 ft3/min = 50.2654
Volume is decreasing at about 50.3 ft3/min.
13. a. Let = angular velocity in radians per day.
2
2
E =
, M =
365
687
1
1
d
= E M = 2

365 687
dt
644
= 0.008068K 0.00807 rad/day
250755
1

1
1
b. T =

= 778.7422 K
365 687
778.7 days
The next time after 27 Aug. 2003 when the
two planets will be closest is 779 days later,
on 14 Oct. 2005 (or 15 Oct., if the planets
were aligned later than about 6:11 a.m. back
on 27 Aug. 2003). Because the actual orbits
of Earth and Mars are not as simple as
previously assumed, the actual closest
distances are not always the same. In fact, the
approach on 27 Aug. 2003 was the closest
one in nearly 60,000 years! Nor is the period
between close approaches quite so simple.
The next close approach will actually be on
30 Oct. 2005, not 15 Oct.
c. By the law of cosines,
D 2 = 932 + 1412 2 93 141 cos
D = 28530 26226 cos million mi
d.

dD
26226 sin
d
=
dt 2 28530 26226 cos dt
1
1
26226

2 sin
365 687
=
million mi/day
2 28530 26226 cos
1
1
1, 000, 000 26226

2 sin
365 687
=
24 2 28530 26226 cos
1
1
sin

## 1, 092, 750, 000

365 687
=
mi/h
28530 26226 cos
To find out how fast D is changing today,
first determine how many days after 27 Aug.
2003 it is today, then multiply that number
d 1
1
by
=

2 to find , then
dt 365 687
substitute into the previous expressions.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dD
, plot the variable part of
dt
sin
.
28530 26226 cos

e. To maximize
dD
, y=
dt
y

0.01

dl
= 1.9963 units/s at x = 5 units.
dt
dl
= 2.6610 units/s at x = 2 units.
dt
The length of AB is at a minimum when dl/dt = 0.
Use your grapher to solve 0.8e0.8x + 2x = 0.
At x = 0.3117 , the length of AB stops
decreasing and starts increasing.

## Problem Set 4-10

From the graph, it is clear that the maximum
occurs well before = /2 (90). Using the
maximize feature, the maximum occurs at
0.8505 , or 48.7.
(The exact value is cos 1 (93/141). One can
find this by finding (d/dt)(dD/dt) and setting it
equal to zero. One can also see this by
decomposing Earths motion vector into two
componentsone toward/away from Mars and
the other perpendicular to the first. The rate of
change in D is maximized when all of Earths
motion is along the Earth-to-Mars component,
which occurs when the Earth-Mars-Sun
triangle has a right angle at Earth.
93
In this case, cos = 141
.)
1
1
2 t if t = days since
f. =

365 687
27 Aug. 2003.
1
1

2 t

365 687

D
200

t
1000

## The graph is not a sinusoid. The high and low

points are not symmetric.
14. As B moves from negative values of x to positive
values of x, the length of AB decreases to about
0.56 unit, then begins to increase when the xvalue of point B passes about 0.3.
Let l = length of AB.
dl
dx
.
= 2 units/s. Want:
Know:
dt
dt
dl
l = e 0.8 x + x 2
dt
1
dx
dx
= (e 0.8 x + x 2 ) 1/ 2 2 x
+ 0.8e 0.8 x
dt
2
dt
=

0.8e 0.8 x + 2 x
e 0.8 x + x 2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
R1. a. x = g(t) = t3 g(t) = 3t2
y = h(t) = cos t h(t) = sin t
If f (t) = g(t) h(t) = t3 cos t, then, for example,
f (1) = 0.7794 by numerical differentiation.
g(1) h(1) = 3(12) (sin 1) = 2.5244
f (t) g(t) h(t), Q.E .D.
b. If f (t) = g(t)/h(t) = t3/cos t, then, for example,
f (1) = 8.4349 by numerical differentiation.
g(1)/h(1) = 3(12)/(sin 1) = 3.5651
f (t) g(t)/h(t), Q.E .D.
c. y = cos t
x = t3 t = x1/3 y = cos (x1/3 )
dy
1
= sin ( x 1/ 3 ) x 2 / 3
dx
3
dy
1
At x = 1,
= sin 1 = 0.280490 K .
dx
3
If x = 1, then t = 11/3 = 1.
dy/dt sin t sin 1

=
=
= 0.280490 K ,
dx/dt
3t 2
3
which equals dy/dx, Q.E .D.
R2. a. If y = uv, then y = uv + uv.
b. See the proof of the product formula in the
text.
c. i. f (x) = x7 ln 3x
3
= 7x6 ln 3x + x6
f (x) = 7x6 ln 3x + x 7
3x
ii. g(x) = sin x cos 2x
g(x) = cos x cos 2x 2 sin x sin 2x
iii. h(x) = (3x 7)5(5x + 2)3
h(x) = 5(3x 7)4(3) (5x + 2)3
+ (3x 7)5(3)(5x + 2)2(5)
= 15(3x 7)4(5x + 2)2(5x + 2
+ 3x 7)
= 15(3x 7)4(5x + 2)2(8x 5)
iv. s(x) = x8e x s(x) = x8e x + 8x7e x
d. f (x) = (3x + 8)(4x + 7)
i. f (x) = 3(4x + 7) + (3x + 8)(4) = 24x + 53
ii. f (x) = 12x2 + 53x + 56
f (x) = 24x + 53, which checks.

## Problem Set 4-10

75

u v uv
.
v2
b. See proof of quotient formula in text.
sin 10 x
c. i. f ( x ) =

x5
10 cos 10 x x 5 sin 10 x 5 x 4
f ( x ) =
x 10
10 x cos 10 x 5 sin 10 x
=
x6

## R3. a. If y = u/v, then y =

(2 x + 3)9
g ( x )
(9 x 5) 4
9(2 x + 3)8 2(9 x 5) 4 (2 x + 3)9 4(9 x 5)3 9
=
(9 x 5)8
18(2 x + 3)8 (5 x 11)
=
(9 x 5)5
ii. g( x ) =

## iii. h(x) = (100x3 1) 5

h (x) = 5(100x3 1) 6 300x2
= 1500x2(100x3 1) 6
d. y = 1/x 10
As a quotient:
0 x 10 1 10 x 9 10
y =
= 11 = 10 x 11
x 20
x
As a power:
y = x 10
y = 10x 11, which checks.
sin x
= tan x
e. t ( x ) =
cos x
cos x cos x sin x ( sin x )
t ( x ) =
cos 2 x
cos 2 x + sin 2 x
1
=
=
= sec 2 x
cos 2 x
cos 2 x
t (1) = sec2 1 = 3.4255
t ( x ) t (1) tan x tan 1
f. m( x ) =
=
x 1
x 1

## The values get closer to 3.4255 as x

approaches 1 from either side, Q.E.D.
R4. a. i. y = tan 7x y = 7 sec2 7x
ii. y = cot (x4) y = 4x3 csc2 (x4)
iii. y = sec e x y = e x sec e x tan e x
iv. y = csc x y = csc x cot x
b. See derivation in text for tanx = sec2 x.
c. The graph is always sloping upward, which
is connected to the fact that tan x equals the
square of a function and is thus always
positive.
y

## d. f (t) = 7 sec t f (t) = 7 sec t tan t

f (1) = 20.17
f (1.5) = 1395.44
f (1.57) = 11038634.0
There is an asymptote in the secant graph at
t = /2 = 1.57079 . As t gets closer to this
value, secant changes very rapidly!
3
R5. a. i. y = tan 1 3 x y =
1 + 9x 2
d
1
ii.
(sec 1 x ) =
dx
| x | x2 1
iii. c( x ) = (cos 1 x )2 c( x ) =

/2

1 x2

b. y = sin 1 x y =

m (x)

2 cos 1 x

1 x2

3.42...

x
1

x
1

76

m(x)

0.997
0.998
0.999
1
1.001
1.002
1.003

3.40959
3.41488
3.42019
undefined
3.43086
3.43622
3.44160

y(0) =

1
1 02

## = 1 , which agrees with the

graph.
y(1) =

1
2

1
, which is infinite.
0

11
The graph becomes vertical as x approaches 1
from the negative side. y(2) is undefined
because y(2) is not a real number.
R6. a. Differentiability implies continuity.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## b. i. Answers may vary. ii. Answers may vary.

f (x )

f (x )

6t ( dt/dx ) 2e 2 t 3t 2 4e 2 t ( dt/dx )
(2e 2 t ) 2

3t 3t 2 dx 3t 3t 2

=
2e 4 t
e2t
dt
b. x = (t/) cos t
y = (t/ ) sin t
dy dy/dt
(1/ ) sin t + (t/ )(cos t )
=
=
dx dx/dt (1/ ) cos t + (t/ )( sin t )
sin t + t cos t
=
cos t t sin t
Where the graph crosses the positive x-axis,
t = 0, 2 , 4 , 6 , .
If t = 6 , x = 6 and y = 0.
(6, 0) is on the graph.
If t = 6, then
dy sin 6 + 6 cos 6 0 + 6
=
=
= 6 .
dx cos 6 6 sin 6
1 0
So the graph is not vertical where it crosses
the x-axis. It has a slope of 6 = 18.84 .
c. At a high point, y is a maximum and x is zero.
Use cosine for y and sine for x.
For y, the sinusoidal axis is at 25 ft.
For x, the sinusoidal axis is at 0 ft.
Both x and y have amplitude 20 ft, the radius
of the Ferris wheel.
The phase displacement is 3 seconds.
The period is 20 seconds, so the coefficient
of the arguments of sine and cosine is
2 /20 = /10.

x = 20 sin (t 3)
10

y = 25 + 20 cos (t 3)
10

dx/dt = 2 cos (t 3)
10

dy/dt = 2 sin (t 3)
10
When t = 0, dy/dt = 5.0832 .
The Ferris wheel is going up at about
5.1 ft/s.
When t = 0, dx/dt = 3.6931 .
The Ferris wheel is going right at about
3.7 ft/s.
dy dy/dt
=
dx dx/dt
dy/dx will be infinite if dx/dt = 0 and
dy/dt 0.

dx/dt = 0 if 2 cos (t 3) = 0 .
10

(t 3) = + n (where n is an integer)
10
2
t = 8 + 5n
The first positive time is t = 8 s.
=

x
c

f (x )

x
c

c. i.
f (x )

x
1

## ii. f is continuous at x = 1 because right and

left limits both equal 2, which equals f (1).
iii. f is differentiable. Left and right limits
of f (x) are both equal to 2, and f is
continuous at x = 2.
sin 1 x,
if 0 x 1
d. g( x ) = 2
x + ax + b, if x 0
(1 x ) 1/2, if 0 < x < 1
g ( x ) =
if x < 0
2 x + a,
lim g( x ) = 0 + 0 a + b = b

x0

lim g( x ) = sin 1 0 = 0

x0 +

b=0
lim g( x ) = 0 + a = a
x0

lim g( x ) = 11/2 = 1

x0 +

a=1
g (x )
1

x
0

## The graph appears to be differentiable and

continuous at x = 0.
dy dy/dt 3t 2
R7. a. x = e 2 t, y = t 3
=
=

dx dx/dt 2e 2 t
d 2 y d 3t 2
=

dx 2 dx 2e 2 t

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 4-10

77

R8. a. y = x 8/5 y 5 = x 8
8x 7
8x 7
8 3/ 5
5 y 4 y = 8 x 7 y = 4 =
x
8/ 5 4 =
5y
5( x )
5
Using the power rule directly:
y = x 8/5 y = 85 x 3/ 5
b. y3 sin xy = x4.5
3y2y sin xy + y3(cos xy)(y + xy) = 4.5x3.5
y[3y2 sin xy + xy3 cos xy]
= 4.5x 3/5 y 4 cos xy
dy
4.5 x 3.5 y 4 cos xy
y =
= 2
dx 3 y sin xy + xy 3 cos xy
c. i. 4y 2 xy 2 = x 3
8yy y 2 x 2yy = 3x 2
y(8y 2xy) = 3x 2 + y 2
dy 3 x 2 + y 2
y =
=
dx 8 y 2 xy
At (2, 2), dy/dx = 2. At (2, 2), dy/dx = 2.
Lines at these points with these slopes are
tangent to the graph (see diagram).
y
5

x
2

## ii. At (0, 0), dy/dx has the indeterminate form

0/0, which is consistent with the cusp.
iii. To find the asymptote, solve for y.
(4 x)y 2 = x 3
x3
y2 =
4x
As x approaches 4 from the negative side,
y becomes infinite. If x > 4, y2 is negative,
and thus there are no real values of y.
Asymptote is at x = 4.

At z = 200, x = 200 2 70 2 = 30 39
dz 20 30 39
=
= 3 39 = 18.7349...
dt
200
The glass moves at the same speed as the
tablecloth, or about 18.7 cm/s, which is about
1.3 cm/s slower than Rover.
Concept Problems
C1. a. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of a point on the
tangent line.
y y0
= m y = m( x x 0 ) + y0
x x0
b. Substituting (x1, 0) for (x, y) gives
y
0 = m( x1 x 0 ) + y0 x1 = x 0 0 , Q .E.D .
m
c. The tangent line intersects the x-axis at (x2, 0).
Repeating the above reasoning with x2 and x1
in place of x1 and x0 gives
y
x 2 = x1 1
m
Because y1 = f (x1) and m = f (x1),
f ( x1 )
x 2 = x1
, Q .E .D .
f ( x1 )
d. Programs will vary according to the kind of
grapher used. The following steps are needed:
Store f (x) in the Y= menu.
Input a starting value of x.
Find the new x using the numerical
derivative.
Display the new x.
Save the new x as the old x and repeat.
For f (x) = x2 9x + 14, the program should
give x = 2, x = 7.
e. For g(x) = x3 9x2 + 5x + 10, first plot the
graph to get approximations for the initial
values of x.
g (x )

R9.
20

70

x
1

## Let x = Rovers distance from the table.

Let z = slant length of tablecloth.
dx
dz
Know:
at z = 200.
= 20 cm/s. Want:
dt
dt
2
2
2
z = x + 70
dz
dx
2z
= 2x
dt
dt
dz x dx 20 x
=
=
dt z dt
z

78

## Run the program three times with x0 = 1, 1,

and 8. The values of x are
x = 0.78715388
x = 1.54050386
x = 8.24665002
The answers are the same using the built-in
solver feature. The same preliminary analysis
is needed to find starting values of x.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## f. f (x) = sec x 1.1

Starting with x0 = 1, it takes seven iterations
to get x = 0.429699666 .
C2. a. The connecting rod, the crankshaft, and the
y-axis form a triangle with angle = /2
included between sides of 6 cm and
(y 8) cm.

a
500,000

## Solving graphically and numerically,

a < 980 for (0.2712 , 2.8703). The
piston is going down (v < 0) for
( /2, 3 /2).
So the piston is going down with acceleration
greater than gravity for between /2 and
2.8703 .

y8

20

## By the law of cosines,

20 2 = (y 8)2 + 62 2 6
(y 8) cos ( /2)
202 = (y 8)2 + 62 12(y 8) sin
(y 8)2 12 sin (y 8) 364 = 0
Solve for y 8 using the quadratic formula.

Chapter Test
T1. y = uv y = uv + uv

u + u u
v + v v (v + v)v
T2. y = lim

x 0
(v + v)v
x

(u + u)v u(v + v)
= lim

x 0
x (v + v)v

## y 8 = 6 sin + (36 sin 2 + 364) . (The

solution with the negative radical gives a
triangle below the origin, which has no reallife meaning.)

uv + uv uv uv
= lim

x 0
x (v + v)v

u v uv
1
= lim

x 0 ( v + v )v
x

1
u
v

= lim

v u
x 0 ( v + v )v x
x

y = 8 + 6 sin + 2 9 sin 2 + 91
dy
d
18 sin cos d
b. v =
= 6 cos
+
dt
dt
9 sin 2 + 91 dt
v = 6 cos
c. a =

d
9 sin 2
d
+
2
dt
9 sin + 91 dt

d2y
dt 2

d
= 6 sin
dt
+ 18

91 cos 2 9 sin 4 d
(9 sin 2 + 91)3/ 2 dt

91 cos 2 9 sin 4
d 2
= 18
6

sin

(9 sin 2 + 91)3/ 2

dt
(There are many other correct forms of the
answer, depending on how you use the
double-argument properties and Pythagorean
properties from trigonometry.)
Note that the angular velocity is constant at
6000 radians per minute, so
d
dt
d. See the graph. Note that a line at a = 980
is so close to the x-axis that it does not
show up.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

1 du
dv
u v uv
vu =
2
v dx
dx
v2
[Because as x 0, u/x and v/x become
du/dx and dv/dx and v 0, so (v + v)v v 2 ].
cos x
T3. cot x =
sin x
sin x sin x cos x cos x
=
sin 2 x
(sin 2 x + cos 2 x )
1
=
= 2 = csc 2 x
sin 2 x
sin x
T4. y = sin 1 x sin y = x y cos y = 1
=

1
cos 2 y + sin 2 y = 1 cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y
cos y
1
cos y = 1 sin 2 y = 1 x 2 y =
1 x2

y =

T5.

dy dy/dt 4t 3
d2y d
(2t 2 ) =
=
=
= 2t 2 2 =
dx dx/dt 2t
dx
dx
dx 4t
4t ( dt/dx ) = 4t
=
=2
dt 2t
Problem Set 4-10

79

## T6. c(x) = cot 3x

c(x) = 3 csc2 3x, which is negative for all
permissible values of x.
c(5) = 3 csc2 15 = 3/sin2 15 = 7.0943
c(t) is decreasing at about 7.1 y-units/x-unit.
T7. f (x) = sec x f (x) = sec x tan x
f (2) = sec 2 tan 2 = 5.25064633
Use m(x) for the difference quotient.
1/cos x 1/cos 2
m( x ) =
x2
x

m(x)

1.997
1.998
1.999
2.000
2.001
2.002
2.003

5.28893631
5.27611340
5.26335022
undefined
5.23800134
5.22541482
5.21288638

f (x )
7

## T15. y = 4 sin 1 (5x3)

1
60 x 2
y = 4
15 x 2 =
1 (5 x 3 ) 2
1 25 x 6
T16. 9x 2 20xy + 25y 2 16x + 10y 50 = 0
18x 20y 20xy + 50yy 16 + 10y = 0
y (20x + 50y + 10) = 18x + 20y + 16
dy 18 x + 20 y + 16
y =
=
dx 20 x + 50 y + 10
9 x + 10 y + 8
=
10 x + 25 y + 5
If x = 2, then
36 + 40y + 25y 2 + 32 + 10y 50 = 0
25y 2 + 50y + 18 = 0
Solving numerically gives
y = 0.4708 or y = 1.5291 , both of
which agree with the graph.
(Solving algebraically by the quadratic formula,
y = 1 7 /5 , which agrees with the numerical
solutions.)
At (2, 0.4708), dy/dx = 1.60948 .
At (2, 1.5291), dy/dx = 0.80948 .
The answers are reasonable, because lines of
these slopes are tangent to the graph at the
respective points, as shown here.
5 y

x
2

1 2

T9. f (x) = mx + b
f (x) = m for all x
f is differentiable for all x.
f is continuous for all x, Q.E.D.
T10. f (x) = sec 5x f (x) = 5 sec 5x tan 5x
T11. y = tan7/3 x y = 37 tan4/3 x
T12. f (x) = (2x 5)6(5x 1)2
f (x) = 6(2x 5)5(2) (5x 1)2
+ (2x 5)6 2(5x 1) 5
= 2(2x 5)5(5x 1)[6(5x 1) + 5(2x 5)]
= 2(2x 5)5(5x 1)(40x 31)
e3 x
T13. f ( x ) =

ln x
3e 3 x ln x e 3 x (1/ x ) 3 xe 3 x ln x e 3 x
f ( x ) =
=
(ln x )2
x (ln x )2
T14. x = sec 2t
y = tan 2t3
dy dy/dt
sec 2 2t 3 6t 2
3t 2 sec 2 2t 3
=
=
=
dx dx/dt sec 2t tan 2t 2 sec 2t tan 2t

80

## Problem Set 4-10

x
5

x 3 + 1,
if x 1
T17. f ( x ) =
2
a( x 2) + b, if x > 1
3 x 2 ,
if x < 1
f ( x ) =
2 a( x 2), if x > 1
For equal derivatives on both sides of x = 1,
lim f ( x ) = 3 12 = 3
x 1

lim f ( x ) = 2 a(1 2) = 2 a

x 1+

2 a = 3 a = 1.5
For continuity at x = 1,
lim f ( x ) = 13 + 1 = 2
x 1

lim f ( x ) = a(1 2) 2 + b = a + b

x 1+

a + b = 2
Substituting a = 1.5 gives b = 3.5.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

x
1

## Values of b other than 3.5 will still cause the

two branches to have slopes approaching 4
as x approaches 1 from either side as long as
a = 1.5. However, f will not be continuous,
and thus will not be differentiable, as shown
here for b = 4.5.

## T19. cot = adjacent/opposite = x/5 = cot 1 (x/5)

1
1
1
d
T20.
=
=
1 + ( x/5)2 5
5 + 5( x 2 / 25)
dx
1
5
=
=
5 + ( x 2 / 5)
25 + x 2
dx
T21.
= 420 mi/h
dt
5
2100
d d dx
=

=
( 420) =
T22.
25 + x 2
25 + x 2
dt dx dt
T23. The plane is changing fastest when x approaches
zero, when the plane is nearest the station.
y

f (x )
25

x
30

## T24. Answers will vary.

T18. y = x 7/3 y 3 = x 7
3y 2y = 7x 6
7x 6 7 x 6
7
7
y = 2 =
= x 614 / 3 = x 4 / 3
3y
3 ( x 7/ 3 ) 2 3
3
This answer agrees with y = nxn 1. 4/3 is
7/3 1.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

81

## Chapter 5Definite and Indefinite Integrals

Problem Set 5-1
1. f (1000) = 20 + (0.000004)(10002) = 24 \$/ft
f (4000) = 20 + (0.000004)(40002) = 84 \$/ft
The price increases because it is harder and slower
to drill at increasing depths.
2. T6 = 500(24 + 29)/2 + 500(29 + 36)/2
+ 500(36 + 45)/2 + 500(45 + 56)/2
+ 500(56 + 69)/2 + 500(69 + 84)/2
= 13,250 + 16,250 + 20,250 + 25,250
+ 31,250 + 38,250 = 144,500
About \$144,500, an overestimate because the
trapezoids are circumscribed above the curve.
(Note that T6 can be found more easily by first
factoring out the 500, then adding the function
values.)
3. R6 = 500(26.25) + 500(32.25) + 500(40.25) +
500(50.25) + 500(62.25) + 500(76.25) = 143,750
(Note that R6 can be found more easily by first
factoring out the 500, then adding the function
values.)
R6 is close to T6. (They differ by less than 1%.)
4. T100 = 144,001.8, T500 = 144,000.072
Conjecture: Exact value is \$144,000.
5. g (x) = 20x + 13 (0.000004)x 3 + C
g (4,000) g (1,000) = (165,333.3333 + C)
(21,333.3333 + C) = 144,000,
which is the conjectured value of the definite
integral!
The other name for antiderivative is indefinite
integral.
6. a. f (x) = x 7 + C
b. y = cos x + C
2x
c. u = 0.5e + C
d. v = 321 (4x + 5)8 + C

Q7. 1
Q8. That constant.
Q9. 0
Q10. B
1. f (x) = 0.2x4 f (x) = 0.8x3 f (3) = 21.6;
f (3) = 0.2(34) = 16.2
y 16.2 = 21.6(x 3) y = 21.6x 48.6
x

dx

## Q2. Instantaneous rate of change

Q3. f (x) = (ln 2)2 x
Q4. y = sin x + C
Q5. y = 4 m/s
Q6. sec x tan x (derivative)
82

f (x)

Error

## 0.04 2.15068 2.13856 0.01212

0.04 1.87184 1.86143 0.01041
0.001 2.003471 2.003464 7.01 10 6
3. a. f (x) = x 2 f (x) = 2x f (1) = 2
Tangent line: y 1 = 2(x 1) y = 2x 1
The graph shows a zoom by factor of 10.

1
graph

tangent line
1

## Local linearity describes the property of the

function because if you keep x close to 1 (in
the locality of 1), the curved graph of the
function looks like the straight graph of the
tangent line.
x

x
a

Error

b.

Area = product
of x and y

3.1
18.47042
18.36
0.11042
3.001 16.22161 16.2216 0.0000108
2.999 16.17841 16.1784 0.0000107
2. g (x) = sec x g (x) = sec x tan x
g ( /3) = 2 3 = 3.464
g ( /3) = sec ( /3) = 2
Linear function is y 2 = 2 3 (x /3)
y = 2 3 (x /3) + 2.

## Problem Set 5-2

Q1. Answers may vary.

f (x)

0.97
0.98
0.99
1
1.01
1.02
1.03

f (x)

Error, f (x) y

0.9409
0.9604
0.9801
1
1.0201
1.0404
1.0609

0.94
0.96
0.98
1
1.02
1.04
1.06

0.0009
0.0004
0.0001
0
0.0001
0.0004
0.0009

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The table shows that for x-values close to 1 (the

point of tangency), the tangent line is a close
approximation to the function values.
4. f (x) = x2 0.1(x 1)1/3
Zooming in on (1, 1) shows that the graph goes
vertical at x = 1. This observation is confirmed
algebraically.
f (x) = 2x (1/3)(0.1)(x 1) 2/3
f (1) = 2 (1/3)(0.1)(0) 2/3 , which is infinite.

## V 43 (63) + 4.32 = 288 + 4.32 =

292.32 918.350 mm3
4
Actual volume is V = (6.033) =
3
292.341636 918.418 mm3.
V = 43 (6.033 ) 43 (6 3 ) = 4.341636
13.640 mm3
Error is 292.32 292.341636 = 0.021636,
or about 0.068 mm3 too low.
7. a. (6000 0.05)/365 = 0.8219 , or about
82 cents.

1
graph
tangent line
1

## f does not have local linearity at x = 1. Because

the slope of the graph becomes infinite, no linear
function can approximate the graph there. If f is
differentiable at x = c, then f is locally linear
there. The converse is also true. If f is locally
linear at x = c, then f is differentiable there.
5. a. Let A be the number of radians in degrees.
x

By trigonometry, tan A =
100
x
A = tan 1
.
100
Because 1 radian is 180/ degrees,
180
x
, Q .E . D .
=
tan 1

100
1
180
1
b. d =

dx
2
1 + ( x / 100)

100
1.8 /
=
dx
1 + ( x / 100)2
x = 0: d = 0.5729 dx
x = 10: d = 0.5672 dx
x = 20: d = 0.5509 dx
c. At x = 0, = 0. For x = 20, dx = 20.
(0 + 0.5729)(20) = 11.459
The actual value is (180/)(tan 1 0.2) =
11.309 .
The error is 0.1492, which is about 1.3%.
d. 0.5729 is approximately 0.5, so multiplying
by it is approximately equivalent to dividing
by 2. For a 20% grade, this estimate gives 10,
compared to the actual angle of 11.309, an
error of about 11.6%. For a 100% grade, this
estimate gives 50, compared to the actual
angle of 45, an error of about 11.1%.
6. dV = 4 r 2 dr
dr = 0.03 and r = 6, so dV = 4 (62)(0.03) =
4.32 13.57 mm3
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. m = 6000e (0.05/365)t
dm = 6000(0.05/365)e(0.05/365)t dt
Substituting t = 0 and dt = 1 gives dm =
0.8219 , the same as part a.
Substituting t = 0 and dt = 30 gives dm =
24.6575 \$24.66.
Substituting t = 0 and dt = 60 gives dm =
49.3150 \$49.32.
c. t = 1: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(1) 6000 =
0.8219 , almost exactly equal to dm.
t = 30: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(30) 6000 =
24.7082 , about 5 cents higher than dm.
t = 60: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(60) 6000 =
49.5182 , about 20 cents higher than dm.
As t increases, dm is a less accurate
approximation for m.
8. a. dS = 1.636 dt
March 11: dS = 1.636(10) = 16.36
minutes
Sunrise time 6:26 0:16 = 6:10 a.m.,
which agrees with the tabulated value.
March 21: dS = 1.636(20) = 32.72 minutes
Sunrise time 6:26 0:33 = 5:53 a.m.,
which agrees with the tabulated value.
b. By September 1, t = 185, giving
dS = 1.636(185) = 302.66, or 5:04 hours.
So the predicted sunrise time would be
6:26 5:04 = 1:22 a.m. Because the sunrise
reaches its earliest in mid-June, the time
predicted by dS is not reasonable.
9. y = 7x3 dy = 21x2 dx
10. y = 4x11 dy = 44x10 dx
11. y = (x4 + 1)7 dy = 28x3(x4 + 1)6 dx
12. y = (5 8x)4 dy = 32(5 8x)3 dx
13. y = 3x2 + 5x 9 dy = (6x + 5) dx
14. y = x2 + x + 9 dy = (2x + 1) dx
15. y = e 1.7x dy = 1.7e 1.7x dx
Problem Set 5-2

83

15 1 2 / 3 5
x
= dx
x 1/ 3 3
x
y = sin 3x dy = 3 cos 3x dx
y = cos 4x dy = 4 sin 4x dx
y = tan3 x dy = 3 tan2 x sec2 x dx
y = sec3 x dy = 3 sec3 x tan x dx
y = 4x cos x dy = (4 cos x 4x sin x) dx
y = 3x sin x dy = (3 sin x + 3x cos x) dx
y = x 2 /2 x/4 + 2 dy = (x 1/4) dx
y = x 3 /3 x/5 + 6 dy = (x 2 1/5) dx
sin (ln x )
y = cos (ln x) dy =
dx
x
y = sin (e0.1 x) dy = 0.1e0.1 x cos (e0.1 x) dx
dy = 20x3 dx y = 5x4 + C
dy = 36x4 dx y = 7.2x5 + C
dy = sin 4x dx y = (1/4) cos 4x + C
dy = cos 0.2x dx y = 5 sin 0.2x + C
dy = (0.5x 1)6 dx y = (2/7)(0.5x 1)7 + C
dy = (4x + 3) 6 dx y = ( 1/20)(4x + 3) 5 + C
dy = sec2 x dx y = tan x + C
dy = csc x cot x dx y = csc x + C
dy = 5 dx y = 5x + C
dy = 7 dx y = 7x + C
dy = (6x2 + 10x 4) dx y = 2x3 + 5x 2 4x + C
dy = (10x2 3x + 7) dx
y = (10/3)x3 (3/2)x 2 + 7x + C
dy = sin5 x cos x dx y = (1/6) sin6 x + C
dy = sec7 x tan x dx = sec6 x(sec x tan x dx)
y = (1/7) sec7 x + C
a. y = (3x + 4)2(2x 5)3
y = 2(3x + 4)(3)(2x 5)3
+ (3x + 4)2 3(2x 5)2 2
= 6(3x + 4)(2x 5)2[2x 5 + 3x + 4]
dy = 6(3x + 4)(2x 5)2(5x 1) dx
b. dy = 6(7)( 3)2(4)( 0.04) = 60.48
c. x = 1 y = (7)2( 3)3 = 1323
x = 0.96 y = 1383.0218
y = 1383.0218 ( 1323)
= 60.0218
d. 60.48 is close to 60.0218 .
a. y = sin 5x dy = 5 cos 5x dx
b. dy = 5 cos (5 /3) 0.06 = 0.15
c. x = /3 y = sin (5 /3) = 3 /2
= 0.86602
x = /3 + 0.06 y = 0.679585565

y = 0.679 ( 0.866)
= 0.186439
d. 0.15 is (fairly) close to 0.186439... .

16. y = 15 ln x 1/3 dy =
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.

42.

84

## Problem Set 5-3

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Antiderivative = x3 + C
Indefinite integral = (1/6)x6 + C
y = 3x 2
Q4. y = ln 3(3x)
dy = ln 3(3x) dx
Q6. y = 5 x 4
Integral = sin x + C Q8. y = sin x
1
Q10. E
1
x 10 dx = x 11 + C
11
1 21
20
x dx =
x +C
21
4
4 x 6 dx = x 5 + C
5
3 6
7
9 x dx = x + C
2

cos x dx = sin x + C
sin x dx = cos x + C
4
4 cos 7x dx = 7 sin 7x + C
20
20 sin 9 x dx = 9 cos 9 x + C
5
5e dx = 0.3 e + C
2e dx = 200e + C
0.3 x

0.3 x

0.01 x

0.01 x

4m
+C
ln 4
8.4 r
8.4 r dr =
+C
ln 8.4
1
( 4v + 9)2 dv =
( 4v + 9)2 ( 4 dv)
4
1
= ( 4 v + 9) 3 + C
12
1
(3 p + 17)5 dp =
(3 p + 17)5 (3 dp)
3
1
= (3 p + 17) 6 + C
18
1
(8 5 x )3 dx =
(8 5 x )3 ( 5 dx )
5
1
= (8 5 x ) 4 + C
20
4 m dm =

14.

15.

16.

1
= (20 x ) 5 + C
5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

## (sin x ) cos x dx = 7 sin x + C

1
(cos x ) sin x dx = 9 cos x + C
1
cos sin d = 5 cos + C
1
sin cos d = 6 sin + C
1
3
( x + 3x 5) dx = 3 x + 2 x 5x + C
1
( x 4 x + 1) dx = 3 x 2 x + x + C
( x + 5) dx = ( x + 15x + 75x + 125) dx
7

=
24.

(x

1 7
x + 3x 5 + 25x 3 + 125x + C
7

6)2 dx = ( x 6 12 x 3 + 36) dx

1
= x 7 3x 4 + 36x + C
7

25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

e
sec
csc
tan
cot
csc
e

sec x

sec x tan x dx = e

tan x

sec 2 x dx = e tan x + C

sec

Let h( x ) =

## By the derivative of a sum property,

d
d
h ( x ) =
f ( x ) dx +
g( x ) dx.
dx
dx
By the definition of indefinite integral applied
twice to the right side of the equation,
h (x) = f (x) + g (x).
By the definition of indefinite integral applied in
the other direction,

1 8
tan x + C
8
1
8
x csc 2 x dx = cot 9 x + C
9
x sec 2 x dx =

## x cot x dx = csc8 x (csc x cot x dx )

1.5
2.5
3.5
Sum:
Integral 50.75

1
sec7 x + C
7
33. v (t) = 40 + 5 t = 40 + 5t1/ 2
=

D(t ) = ( 40 + 5t 1/ 2 ) dt = 40t +

10 3/ 2
t +C
3

10 3/ 2
0 +CC=0
3

10 3/ 2
D (t) = 40t +
t
3
D (10) = 505.4092... 505 ft
34. a. f (x) = 0.3x 2 + 1
T100 = 9.300135
b. g( x ) = (0.3 x 2 + 1) dx = 0.1x 3 + x + C

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Phoebe checked this by differentiating:

d
( x sin x + cos x + C )
dx
= 1 sin x + x (cos x) sin x + 0 = x cos x
By the definition of indefinite integral, she knew
that Calvin was right.
37. a.
C
v (t)

## 36. Calvin says

x dx = cot x + C

D (0) = 0 0 = 40 0 +

f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx.

Q .E .D .

x dx = tan x + C

Proof:

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx = f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx,

1
= csc9 x + C
9

32.

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx = f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx.

h( x ) = [ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx
+C

sec x

## c. g (4) g (1) = 6.4 + 4 + C 0.1 1 C =

9.3, which is about equal to the definite
integral! It is also interesting that the constant
C drops out.
35. Prove that if f and g are functions that can be
integrated, then

12.25
16.25
22.25
50.75

b.
c

v (t)

1.25
1.75
2.25
2.75
3.25
3.75
Sum:

11.5625
13.0625
15.0625
17.5625
20.5625
24.0625
101.8750

Problem Set 5-3

85

## c. As shown in Figures 5-3c and 5-3d, the

Riemann sum with six increments has
smaller regions included above the graph and
smaller regions excluded below the graph, so
the Riemann sum should be closer to the
integral.
d. Conjecture: Exact value is 51.
By the trapezoidal rule with n = 100,
integral 51.00045, which agrees with the
conjecture.
e. The integral is the product of v (t) and t, and
thus has the units (ft/min)(min), or ft. So the
object went 51 ft. Average velocity = 51/3 =
17 ft/min.
38. Answers will vary.

3.

7.

2.

1.25
1.5625
1.75
3.0625
2.25
5.0625
2.75
7.5625
3.25 10.5625
3.75 14.0625
Sum = 41.8750
R6 = (0.5)(41.875)
= 20.9375

86

## Problem Set 5-4

f (c)

f (c)

0.1
0.995004
0.3
0.955336
0.5
0.877582
0.7
0.764842
0.9
0.621609
Sum =
4.214375
R5 = (0.2)(4.21)
= 0.842875

1.2

tan x dx

L4 = 0.73879 , U 4 = 1.16866
M 4 = 0.92270 , T4 = 0.95373
M4 and T4 are between L4 and U4, Q.E.D.

x 3 dx

8.

L4 = 9.5, U 4 = 12.8333
M 4 = 10.89754 , T4 = 11.1666
M4 and T4 are between L4 and U4, Q.E.D.

f (c)

2.25
11.390625
2.75
20.796875
3.25
34.328125
3.75
52.734375
4.25
76.765625
4.75 107.171875
5.25 144.703125
5.75 190.109375
Sum = 638.000000
R8 = (0.5)(638) = 319

10/x dx:
1

f (c)

cos x dx

0.4

## Q9. If a + b = 5, then a = 2 and b = 3.

Q10. No

0.75
0.59460
0.25
0.84089
0.25
1.18920
0.75
1.68179
1.25
2.37841
1.75
3.36358
Sum =
10.04849
R6 = (0.5)(10.04)
= 5.024249

6.

1.1
0.891207
1.3
0.963558
1.5
0.997494
1.7
0.991664
1.9
0.946300
Sum =
4.790225
R5 = (0.2)(4.79)
= 0.958045

f (c)

sin x dx

2 x dx

x 2 dx

f (c)

5.

y = sin x + x cos x
tan x + C
f (x) = sec2 x
(1/4)x4 + C
z = 7 sin 7x
cos u + C
Limit = 8

4.

0.75
0.43869
0.25
0.75983
0.25
1.31607
0.75
2.27950
1.25
3.94822
1.75
6.83852
2.25
11.84466
2.75
20.51556
Sum =
47.94108
R8 = (0.5)(47.94)
= 23.97054

1.

3 x dx

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.

9.

1

y

y
2

x
5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10.

## c. Un = (3/n)(1 3/n)2 + (3/n)(2 3/n)2

+ (3/n)(3 3/n)2 + + (3/n)(n 3/n)2
d. U n = (3/n)3(12 + 22 + 32 + + n 2)
= (3/n)3(n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1)
= (4.5/n2)(n + 1)(2n + 1)
U100 = (4.5/1002)(101)(201) = 9.13545, which
is correct.
e. Using the formula, U1000 = 9.013504 ,
which does seem to be approaching 9
n + 1 2n + 1
f. Un = 4.5

n
n
= 4.5(1 + 1/n)(2 + 1/n)
As n approaches infinity, 1/n approaches zero.
Un approaches 4.5(1 + 0)(2 + 0),
which equals 9, exactly!

y

x
1

## 11. a. h (x) = 3 + 2 sin x

For an upper sum, take sample points at x
equals 1, /2, 2, 3, 4, and 6.
b. For a lower sum, take sample points at x
equals 0, 1, 3, 4, 3/2, and 5.
c. U6 = 1[h (1) + h (/2) + h (2) + h (3) + h (4)
+ h (6)] = 21.71134
L 6 = 1[h (0) + h (1) + h (3) + h (4) + h (3/2)
+ h (5)] = 14.53372
12. Programs will vary depending on the type of
grapher used. See the program in the Programs
for Graphing Calculators section of the
Instructors Resource Book.
13. a. For

## values listed in the text.

b. L100 = 20.77545, L500 = 20.955018.
Ln seems to be approaching 21.
c. U100 = 21.22545, U500 = 21.045018.
Un also seems to be approaching 21.
f is integrable on [1, 4] if Ln and Un have the
same limit as n approaches infinity.
d. The trapezoids are circumscribed around the
region under the graph and thus contain more
area (see left diagram). For rectangles, the
triangular part of the region that is left out
has more area than the triangular part that is
added, because the triangles have equal bases
but unequal altitudes (see right diagram).

x 3 dx

## Find an upper sum using the sample points

1 2/n, 2 2/n, 3 2/n, . . . , n 2/n.
Un = (2/n)(1 2/n)3 + (2/n)(2 2/n)3
+ (2/n)(3 2/n)3 + + (2/n)(n 2/n)3
= (2/n)4(13 + 23 + 33 + + n 3)
= (2/n)4[(n/2)(n + 1)]2
= 4/n2 (n + 1)2 = 4(1 + 1/n)2
lim Un = 4(1 + 0)2 = 4
n

## Problem Set 5-5

Q1. x 2/2 + 2x + C
Q3. cot x + C
5(ln x ) 4
Q5.
+C
x

10 t
+C
ln 10
Q4. csc x cot x

Q2.

Q6.
y

x
1 2

y
Rectangle
leaves out
more area.

y
Trapezoid
includes
more area.

15.

y

y
5

x
x

14. a.

x
2

dx

## U 100 = 9.13545, L100 = 8.86545

Conjecture: Integral equals 9 exactly.
b. The sample points will be at the right of each
interval, 1 3/n, 2 3/n, 3 3/n, . . . ,
n 3/n.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Q9. No limit (infinite) Q10. D

1. See the text for the statement of the mean value
theorem.
2. See the text for the statement of Rolles
theorem.

87

## 3. g (x) = 6/x; [1, 4]

h (x) = (1/2)x 1 / 2
( 1/2)c 1/2 = 1/4 c = 4
Tangent at x = 4 parallels the secant line.
7. f (x) = x cos x on [0, /2]

g (x )
6

f (x )
x
c

6/4 6
m=
= 3/2
4 1
g (x) = 6x 2
6c 2 = 3/2 c = 2
Tangent at x = 2 parallels the secant line.
4. f (x) = x4; [ 1, 2]
f (x )

10

x
c

m=

f (x )

4c = 5 c = 3 5 / 4 = 1.077K
3

## Tangent at x = 1.077 parallels the secant line.

5. c( x ) = 2 + cos x; 0,
2
c (x )

x
c

c1

## f (x) = cos x x sin x

f is differentiable for all x.
x cos x = 0 x = 0 or cos x = 0
cos x = 0 at /2 + 2 n, where n is an integer
hypotheses are met on [0, /2].
Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0 at
c = 0.86033 .
Horizontal line at x = 0.86033 is tangent.
8. f (x) = x 2 sin x

16 1
=5
2 (1)

g (x) = 4x3

m=

/2

## cos ( /2) cos 0

= 2/ = 0.6366 K
/2 0

c(x) = sin x
sin c = 2/ c = 0.69010
Tangent at x = 0.690 parallels the secant line.

x
c

## f (x) = 2x sin x + x 2 cos x

f is differentiable for all x.
x 2 sin x = 0 x = 0 or sin x = 0
sin x = 0 at x = 0 + n , where n is an integer
Interval: [0, ]
Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0 at
c = 2.28892 .
Horizontal line at x = 2.288 is tangent.
9. f (x) = (6x x 2) 1/2
f (x )
3

6. h( x ) = 5 x ; [1, 9]

x
0

h (x)
5

x
1

m=

88

24
= 1/4
9 1

## Problem Set 5-5

f ( x ) = 12 (6 x x 2 ) 1/ 2 (6 2 x )
f is differentiable on (0, 6).
f is continuous at x = 0 and x = 6.
(6x x 2)1/2 = 0
x(6 x) = 0 x = 0 or 6
Interval: [0, 6]
(6c c2) 1/2(3 c) = 0 c = 3
Horizontal line at x = 3 is tangent.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 10. f (x) = x 4/3 4x 1/3

f (x )

x
4

f ( x ) = 43 x 1/ 3 43 x 2 / 3
f is differentiable for all x 0.
f is continuous at x = 0.
f (x) = 0 x 4/3 4x 1/3 = 0
x 1/3 (x 4) = 0 x = 0 or 4
Interval: [0, 4]
4
3

c1/ 3 43 c 2 / 3 = 0

c 2 / 3 (c 1) = 0 c = 1
Horizontal line at x = 1 is tangent.
11. a. d(t) = 1000(1.09t )
d(50) = 1000(1.0950) = 74,357.520
= \$74,357.52 (Surprising!)
74357.5K 1000
b. Average rate is
=
50
1467.150 \$1,467.15 per year.
c. d (t) = ln (1.09)1000(1.09)t
d (0) \$86.18 per year
d (50) \$6,407.96 per year
The average of these is \$3,247.07 per year,
which does not equal the average in part b.
d. Solving 1000(1.90)t ln 1.09 =
4
3

1000(1.09)50 1000
algebraically gives
50
50
1.09 1
(1.09)t =
50 ln 1.09
1.09 50 1
50 ln 1.09
= ln (1.0950 1) ln 50 ln (ln 1.09)
t ln 1.09 = ln

## intervals for which 1 is an endpoint, such

as [1, 2].
The conclusion is true if the instantaneous
velocity, d (t), ever equals the average velocity.
The average velocity equals
d (2) d ( 0)
m=
= 28.5 ft/s for [0, 2],
2
d (2) d (0.5)
m=
= 57.111K ft/s for [0.5, 2],
1.5
d (2) d (1)
m=
= 100 ft/s for [1, 2].
1
Between t = 0 and t = 1, d (t) is negative.
Above t = 1, d (t) = 200t 2.
For d(c) = 28.5 ft/s,
200c 2 = 28.5 c = 2.649 .
But 2.649 is outside (0, 2), so the conclusion
is not true. See the left graph.
For d (c) = 57.111 ft/s,
200c 2 = 57.111 c = 1.871 .
Because 1.871 is in (0.5, 2), the conclusion is
true. See the right graph.
d (t )

d (t )

200

200

c is outside
(0, 2).

c is in
(0.5, 2).

100

100

t
0.5

c?

t
0.5

c? 2

## For d (c) = 100, 200c 2 = 100 c = 1.414 .

Because 1.414 is in (1, 2), the conclusion is
true, as is guaranteed by the mean value theorem.
The fact that the conclusion is true when the
hypotheses are met illustrates the fact that the
hypotheses are sufficient. The fact that the
conclusion can be true even if the hypotheses are
not met proves that the hypotheses are not
necessary.
13. See Figure 5-5d.
14. Answers may vary.

ln 1.09
= 32.893K years.

f (x )

t=

x
a

## This time is not halfway between 0 and 50.

1 t
43 1 + t , if t 1
12. d (t ) =
1
200 1 , if t 1
t

## The hypotheses of the mean value theorem do not

apply on any interval that contains t = 1 as an
interior point, such as [0, 2] and [0.5, 2], because
d is not differentiable there. The hypotheses do
apply on any interval not containing 1 and on
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

f (x )

d
x
a

89

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )
5

x
1

x
a

## 18. Michel Rolle (1652 1719) lived in France.

Sources will vary.
19. f (x) = x 2 4x
20. f (x) = x 2 6x + 5
f (1) = 3 0
f (2) = 3 0
Conclusion is not true. Conclusion is not true.
f (2) = 0, but 2 is not
f (3) = 0, but 3 is not
in the interval (0, 1).
in the interval (1, 2).
f (x )

f (x )
x
0

## 27. f (x) = 1 (x 3)2/3 28. f ( x ) =

f is not differentiable
at x = 3.
Conclusion is
not true.
f (x) never equals 0.

x 3 6 x 2 + 11x 6
x2
f is not continuous or
differentiable at 2.
Conclusion is
not true.
There is no point at x = 2
to draw the tangent line.
f (x )

f (x )

2
1

3
1

21. f (x) = x 4x
22.
f (2) = 4 0
Conclusion is not true.
f (2) = 0, but 2 is not in
the open interval (0, 2).
2

f (x) = x 6x + 5
f (4) = 3 0
Conclusion is true.
f (3) = 0, and 3 is in
the interval (1, 4).
f (x )

f (x )
1

c
1

x
4

23. f (x) = x 2 4x
f (3) = 3 0

24. f (x) = |x 2| 1
f is not differentiable
at x = 2.
Conclusion is true.
Conclusion is not
true.
f (2) = 0, and 2 is in
f (x) never equals 0.
the interval (0, 3).
c

x 3 7 x 2 + 13 x 6
x2
( x 2)( x 2 5 x + 3)
=
= x 2 5 x + 3, x 2
x2
Thus, g is discontinuous at x = 2, and the
hypotheses of the mean value theorem are not
met. The conclusion is not true for [1, 3],
because the tangent line would have to contain
(2, g (2)), as shown in the left graph. The
conclusion is true for (1, 5), because the slope of
the secant line is 1, and g (x) = 1 at x = 3, which
is in the interval (1, 5). See the right graph.

29. g( x ) =

g (x )

g (x )

3
1

x
3

x
3

x
1

## 25. f (x) = 1/x

f (0) does not exist.
Conclusion is
not true.
90

No point of
tangency

f (x )

f (x )

## 26. f (x) = x [x]

f is discontinuous at
1 and 2.
Conclusion is
not true.

## 30. h (x) = x 2/3 h (x) = (2/3)x 1 / 3

h is differentiable for all x 0.
h (0) would be 0 1/3 = 1/(01/3) = 1/0, which is
infinite. The hypotheses of the mean value
theorem are met on the interval [0, 8], because
the function need not be differentiable at an
endpoint. The hypotheses are not met on [ 1, 8],
because the point x = 0 where h is not
differentiable is in the open interval ( 1, 8). To
see if the conclusion of the mean value theorem

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## is true anywhere, find the slope of the secant line

(see next graph).
4 1
m=
= 1/3
8 (1)
The tangent line has slope h (c) = 1/3. Therefore,
(2/3)c 1/3 = 1/3 c 1/3 = 1/2 c1/3 = 2 c = 8.
So the conclusion of the mean value theorem is
not true because 8 is at the endpoint of the
interval, not in the open interval ( 1, 8).

## 33. a. f (x) = 25 (x 5)2 + 4 cos 2 (x 5)

The graph agrees with Figure 5-5l.
b. f (x) = 2(x 5) 4 sin 2 (x 5) 2 =
2x + 10 8 sin 2 (x 5) f (5) = 0
Because the derivative at x = 5 is 0, the
tangent line at x = 5 is horizontal. This is
consistent with x = 5 being a high point on
the graph.
c.

h(x)

m (x )

y1

4
20

y2
x
4

x
1

3 x 3, if x 3
31. a. f ( x ) =
x + 3, if x < 3
f (x )

x
3

## b. f is continuous at x = 3 because the right and

left limits both equal 6. f is not differentiable
at x = 3 because the left limit of f (x) is 1
and the right limit is 3.
c. f is not differentiable at x = 3, which is in (1, 6).
The secant line has slope 11/5. The tangent line
has slope either 1 or 3, and thus is never 11/5.
d. f is integrable on [1, 6]. The integral equals
41.5, the sum of the areas of the two trapezoids
shown in this diagram.
15

f (x )

6
4

x
1

## 32. a. f (t) = number of miles in t hours

t = number of hours driven
For the mean value theorem to apply on
[a, b], f must be differentiable on (a, b) and
continuous at t = a and t = b.
b. The 60 mi/h equals the slope of the secant
line. Therefore, there must be a tangent line
at some value t = c in (a, b) with slope equal
to 60. This tangent lines slope is the
instantaneous speed at t = c. Therefore, the
speed was exactly 60 at some time between
t = a and t = b, Q .E.D .
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

m (x)

3.0
2
3.5
6.8333
4.0
1
4.5 16.5
5.0
no value

m (x)

5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0

16.5
1
6.833
2

## The difference quotient is positive when x is

less than 5 and negative when x is greater
than 5.
d. In the proof of Rolles theorem, the left limit
of the difference quotient was shown to be
positive or zero and the right limit was
shown to be negative or zero.
The unmentioned hypothesis is
differentiability on the interval (a, b). The
function f is differentiable. Because there is a
value of f (5), both the left and right limits
of the difference quotient must be equal. This
number can only be zero, which establishes
the conclusion of the theorem. The
conclusion of Rolles theorem can be true
even if the hypotheses arent met. For
instance, f (x) = 2 + cos x has zero derivatives
every units of x, although f (x) is never
equal to zero.
f ( 4.5) f (2) 5.5 4
=
= 0.6
2.5
2.5
g (x) 4 = 0.6(x 2)
g (x) = 0.6x + 2.8
Your graph should agree with Figure 5-5m.
b. f (x) = 1 sin x
Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0.6 at
c = 2.0406 , 2.9593 , and 4.0406 ,
all of which are in (2, 4.5).

34. a. m =

91

## c. h (x) = f (x) g (x)

f (c) g (c) = 0
f (c) = g (c)
f (c) = the slope of the secant line, Q.E.D.
35. The hypotheses of the mean value theorem
state that f should be differentiable on the open
interval (a, b) and continuous at x = a and x = b.
If f is differentiable on the closed interval [a, b],
it is automatically continuous at x = a and x = b,
because differentiability implies continuity.
36. a. h (x) = f (x) g (x)
The mean value theorem applies to h because
both f and g are given to be differentiable, and
a linear combination of differentiable
functions is also differentiable.
b. By the mean value theorem, there is a number
c in (a, b) for which

y
y

y1
x
2

y3

For c1 = 2.0406 :
x

h(x)

1.7906
1.8406
1.8906
1.9406
1.9906
2.0406
2.0906
2.1406
2.1906
2.2406
2.2906

0.2925
0.1865
0.1022
0.0411
0.0041
0.0081
0.0039
0.0397
0.0977
0.1760
0.2723

## For c = 2.9593 : For c = 4.0406 :

x
2.7093
2.7593
2.8093
2.8593
2.9093
2.9593
3.0093
3.0593
3.1093
3.1593
3.2093

h( b ) h( a )
.
ba
If f (a) = g (a) + D1 and f (b) = g (b) + D2,
then h (a) = D1 and h (b) = D2.
D D1
h ( c ) = 2
ba
c. If D1 D2, then h (c) 0.
But h (x) = f (x) g (x) by the derivative of
a sum, and thus h (x) = 0 for all x in the
domain.
h (c) = 0, which contradicts h (c) 0.
So the supposition that D1 D2 is false,
meaning that D1 and D2 are equal, Q.E.D.
h ( c ) =

h(x)

h(x)

1.3274
1.4237
1.5021
1.5601
1.5959
1.6081
1.5958
1.5589
1.4979
1.4136
1.3077

3.7906
3.8406
3.8906
3.9406
3.9906
4.0406
4.0906
4.1406
4.1906
4.2406
4.2906

0.5075
0.6134
0.6977
0.7588
0.7958
0.8081
0.7960
0.7602
0.7022
0.6239
0.5276

## 37. By the definition of antiderivative (indefinite

integral), g( x ) = 0 dx if and only if g (x) = 0.

## Any other function f for which f (x) = 0 differs

from g (x) by a constant. Thus the antiderivative
of zero is a constant function, Q.E.D.
38. f (x) = (cos x + sin x)2, and g (x) = sin 2x
y
f
1

x
1

## h(c1) = h(2.0406) = 0.0081

So h(c1) is an upper bound for h(x).
h (c2) = h (2.9593) = 1.60811669
So h (c2) is a lower bound for h (x).
h (c3) = h (4.0406) = 0.808116698
So h (c3) is an upper bound for h (x).
d. f meets the hypotheses of the mean value
theorem, because f is differentiable for all x.
h (x) = f (x) g (x)
h (x) = f (x) g (x)
h (c) = f (c) g (c)
For each of the values of c in part b, h (c) = 0.
92

f (x)

g (x)

0
1
2
3
4

1
1.9092
0.2431
0.7205
1.9893

0
0.9092
0.7568
0.2794
0.9893

## In each case, f (x) = g (x) + 1.

Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

Proof:
(cos x + sin x) = cos x + 2 cos x sin x + sin x
= 2 cos x sin x + 1 = sin 2x + 1, Q .E .D .
39. The hypotheses of Rolles theorem say that f
is differentiable on the open interval (a, b).
Because differentiability implies continuity,
f is also continuous on the interval (a, b).
Combining this fact with the hypothesis of
continuity at a and at b allows you to conclude
that the function is continuous on the closed
interval [a, b].
40. The intermediate value theorem applies to
continuous functions, whereas the mean value
theorem applies to differentiable functions. Both
are existence theorems, concluding that there
is a value x = c in the open interval (a, b). For
the intermediate value theorem, f (c) equals a
pre-selected number v between f ( a) and f ( b).
For the mean value theorem, f (c) equals the
slope of the secant line connecting (a, f ( a))
and (b, f ( b)).
41. Answers will vary.
2

## Problem Set 5-6

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.

r(x) = m(x)
See the text for the definition of derivative.
Increasing at 6 units/unit
dy = sec x tan x dx
y = 8x(x 2 + 3)3
d2z/dz2 = 25 sin u
f (x) = 0
4.5
See Figure 5-5b.
E

1. a. I =

10 x

1.5

dx

## = (10/0.5)(9 0.5 ) (10/0.5)(4 0.5 )

= 20/3 + 20/2 = 10/3 = 3.33333
The +C and C add up to zero.
b.
y

x
9

## c. Pick sample points at left ends of subintervals

for U5 and at right ends for L5.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f ( x)

1.25

0.89442719

0.68041381

0.53994924

0.44194173

Sum =

3.80673199

U5 = (1)(3.80673199) = 3.80673199

0.89442719

0.68041381

0.53994924

0.44194173

0.37037037

Sum =

f ( x)

2.92710236

L5 = (1)(2.92710236) = 2.92710236
Average = (U5 + L5)/2 = 3.36691717 .
Average overestimates the integral,
3.33333 .
This fact is consistent with the fact that the
graph is concave up.
d. Use sample points at the midpoints.
M10 = 3.32911229
M100 = 3.33329093
M1000 = 3.33333290
Sums are converging toward 10/3.
2. I =

1.5

## sin x dx = cos 1.5 ( cos 0)

= 0.92926279
Using sample points at the midpoints,
M10 = 0.93013455

k
2

M100 = 0.92927151
M1000 = 0.92926288
Integral = 0.92926279
The sums are converging toward the integral.
The rectangle and the region differ by the two
triangular regions. Because the sample point
is at the midpoint of the subinterval, the
triangles have equal bases. Because the graph
is concave down, the triangle below the
horizontal line has a larger altitude, and
thus a larger area, than the one above the line.
So the rectangle includes more area on the left

93

## than it leaves out on the right, and thus

overestimates the integral.
y
Rectangle
includes
more area.

## 3. See the statement of the fundamental theorem in

the text.
4. See the work in the text preceding the proof of
the fundamental theorem for a derivation of a
Riemann sum that is independent of the number
of subintervals.
5. See the text proof of the fundamental theorem.
6. If c is picked as the point in (a, b) where the
mean value theorem is true for g( x ) =

f ( x ) dx,

A(u + u) A(u)
< h(u + u)
u
But the limits of h(u) and h(u + u) both equal
h(u) because h is continuous and h(u) is
independent of u. Therefore, by the squeeze
theorem,
A(u + u) A(u)
lim
= h(u). But the limit on
u0
u
the left is defined to be dA/du.
dA/du = h(u), Q.E.D.
d. dA = h(u) du
A(u) = h(u) du = u1/2 du = (2/3)u3/2 + C
A(u) = (2/3)u3/2 16/3
e. A(9) = 12 23 , which agrees with M 10 = 12.667 .
(Note also that A(9) < M10, which is expected
because the graph of h is concave down.)
9. a. Answers may vary.
b. Answers may vary.
c. h(u) <

f (x )

f (x )

## then the exact integral equals

g(b) g( a)
(b a), which equals g(b) g(a).
(b a)
Distance =

[100 20(t + 1)

1/ 2

] dt

## d. Answers may vary.

f (x )

f (x )

40
(t + 1)3/ 2
3
0
40 3/ 2
40 3/ 2
= 800
( 9) 0 +
(1)
3
3
1
= 453 ft
3
8. a. h(x) = x 1/2
= 100t

## f. Answers may vary.

f (x )

f (x )

f ( x)

1
4.25
2.0615528
2
4.75
2.1794494
3
5.25
2.2912878
4
5.75
2.3979157
5
6.25
2.5
6
6.75
2.5980762
7
7.25
2.6925824
8
7.75
2.7838821
9
8.25
2.8722813
10
8.75
2.9580398
Sum =
25.3350679
M10 = (0.5)(25.3350679) = 12.66753
b. h(u)u and h(u + u)u are terms in a lower
sum and an upper sum, respectively, because
h(x) is increasing.
h(u)u < A(u + u) A(u) < h(u + u)u

94

Q1.

x6 + C

1
6

Q2.

Q3. 13 x 3 + C
Q5.

Q4.

sin 5 x + C

1
5

Q6. x + C

Q7. tan x + C

Q8. y = 1/x 2

Q9. definite
1.

2.

1
x dx = x 3
3

x 3 dx =

6
1
18 (3 x + 7) + C
6
1
6 sin x + C

1 4
x
4

1
5
2

Q10. indefinite
1
1
= (64) (1) = 21
3
3
=

1
1
609
1
(625) (16) =
= 152
4
4
4
4

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

4.

3
1
(1 + 3 x )3
2
9
2
1
1
= (1000) ( 125) = 125
9
9

(1 + 3 x )2 dx =

1
(5 x 2) dx = (5 x 2)3
1
15

60 x

2/3

6.

24 x

8.

3/ 2

10.

11.

50

dx = x

50

= 9.6(32 1) = 297.6

= 40 10 = 30

= 50 20 = 30

( x 2 + 3 x + 7) dx =

0
2

1 3
x + 2 x 2 + 10 x
3
3
= 0 (9 + 18 30) = 21
1
1 1
4 x + 5 dx =
( 4 x + 5)1/ 2 ( 4 dx )
1
4 1
( x 2 + 4 x + 10) dx =

1
2 x + 10 dx =
2

1
1

1
13
1
(27 1) =
=4
6
3
3

/2

15.

/3

/6

/ 2

6 cos x dx = 12 sin x

22.

23.

24.

/2

= 12(1) 0 = 12

2 dx
0

= 20 0 = 20

(cos x + 10 x 3 tan x ) dx = 2

1
0

cos x dx
0

interval.
26.

## not a real number for negative values of x.

27. Integral = (area)
28. Integral = area
f (x )

f (x )

(sec x + cos x ) dx
/6

1 4 2
sin x
4
1

( x 7 6 x 3 + 4 sin x + 2) dx = 2

= 2 sin x

= tan x + sin x

= e ln 3 + e 0

0.2

= 2( 2 x )

= 6(1) 6( 1) = 12

/3

ln 3
0

1 2 ln 4 1 0
e
e = 7.5
2
2

0.2
1
cos 3 x dx = sin 3 x
0.1
3
0.1
1
= (sin 0.6 sin 0.3) = 0.0897074 K
3
0.4
0.4
1
sin 2 x dx = cos 2 x
0
2
0
1
= (cos 0.8 cos 0) = 0.1516466K
2

21.

25.

/2

## or: Integral of an even function between

symmetric limits.

1
(sin 4 2 sin 4 1) = 0.045566 K
4
3
3
1
20.
(1 + cos x ) 4 sin x dx = (1 + cos x )5
3
5
3
1
1
= (1 + cos 3)5 + [1 + cos(3)]5 = 0
5
5
or: Integral equals zero because an odd function is
integrated between symmetric limits.

(2 x + 10) (2 dx )

6 cos x dx = 6 sin x

/2

e x dx = e x

ln 4

sin 3 x cos x dx =

1/ 2

/ 2

## 4 sin x dx = 4 cos x = 4( 1) + 4(1) = 8

14.

1 2x
e
2

e 2 x dx =

1
2
= +1 =
3
3

3
1 2
1
56
2
= (2 x + 10)3/ 2 = (64 8) =
= 18
2 3
3
3
3
3

13.

1 2
( 4 x + 5)3/ 2
4 3

ln 3

1
1 + 1 = 1.5
2

20

18.

/3

1 3 3 2
x + x + 7x
2
3
2
8
32
2
= 0 + 6 14 =
= 10
3
3
3

ln 4

5 dx = 5x

=
12.

17.

19.

## (sec x tan x + sin x ) dx = sec x cos x

= 36(32 1) = 1116

5/ 3

dx = 9.6 x 5/ 2
8

20

9.

7.

dx = 36 x

/3

=2

1
6175 1235
2
[5832 (343)] =
=
= 411
15
15
3
3

=
5.

16.

= 3 + 3 /2 1/ 3 1/2

-5

## = (7/6) 3 1/2 = 1.52072K

Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

95

## 30. Integral area

f (x )

39. Statement:
If f ( x) < g(x) for all x in [a, b],

f (x )

then

x
8

If

12

32.

f ( x ) dx =

g( x ) dx = g( x ) dx + g( x ) dx
a

= 12 + 13 = 25
34.

g( x ) dx.
a

g( x ) dx,

f ( x ) dx <

## then f ( x) < g(x) for all x in [a, b].

The converse can be shown to be false by any
counterexample in which the area of the region
under the g graph is greater than the area under
the f graph, but the g graph touches or crosses
the f graph somewhere in [a, b]. One
counterexample is
f ( x) = 1.5 and g(x) = 2 + cos x on [0, 2].

f ( x ) dx = 4(7) = 28

f ( x ) dx = 7

4 f ( x ) dx = 4
c

33.

f ( x ) dx <

Converse:

31.

y
3

f ( x ) dx cannot be determined.

35.

36.

f ( x ) dx +

g( x ) dx cannot be determined.
a

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx =

40.

f ( x ) dx +

g( x ) dx = 7 + 12 = 19
a

37.
y

x 2 dx =

1 3
x +C
3

4
1

1
1
= ( 4 3 ) + C (13 ) C = 21
3
3
The two Cs will always cancel, so it is not
necessary to write them.

f (3) = 7
7

y = f(x )

## Problem Set 5-8

Q1. 30x2.4 + C
Q2. 30(42.4 1) = 805.72

y = f' (x)
x
5

10

Q3. y = 1/ 1 x 2
Q4. f (x) = 3x2 sin x + x3 cos x
Q5.
f (x ) and f' (x )

38.

f
y
8

f (1) = 8

f'

y = f (x )

## Q6. Yes, continuous

Q7. Increasing at x = 7
x
7

y = f' ( x )

Q8. f ( a) = f ( b) = 0
Q9. v(9) = 450 ft/s
Q10. a(9) = 25 (ft/s)/s

96

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1. a.

3. a.
v

100

(x , y)

(t, v )

dx

50

dt
2

t
t=a

t=b

b. dA = y dx = 10e0. 2x dx

dy = v dt = (55 + 12t0.6 ) dt
b. Displacement =
1

(55 + 12t

0.6

(55 + 12t

c.
0.6

) dt

) dt = 55t + 7.5t

2

c.

(55 + 12t

0.6

## ) dt = 55t + 7.5t 1.6

(55 + 12t
0

55t

b
+ 7.5t 1.6 0

dx

= 300

y
300

x
4.134

e. v(4.13372) = 55 + 12(4.13372)0.6 =
83.1181 . At the end of the trip, you were
going about 83 mi/h.
2.
v

t
10

dy = v dt = 15e 0.1t dt
0

## 15e 0.1t dt = 150e 0.1t

20
0

= 129.6997 ft
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The area of the circumscribed rectangle is 6 9 =

54. The area of the parabolic region is two-thirds
this area.
5. a. dA = [x + 2 (x2 2x 2)] dx
The top and bottom of the strip are not
horizontal, so the area of the strip is slightly
different from dA. As dx approaches zero, the
differences in height at different values of x in
the strip become smaller, so the difference
between dA and the area of the strip gets
smaller.
b. y1 = y2 x + 2 = x 2 2x 2
0 = x 2 3x 4 0 = (x 4)(x + 1)
x = 4 or x = 1
4
4
1
3
( x 2 + 3 x + 4) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 4 x
1
3
2
1
1 3 3 2

= 4 + 4 + 44
3

2
1
3
( 1)3 + ( 1)2 + 4 ( 1)
2
3

125
=
= 20.83333K
6

( t, v )

dv

1
1
(6 x x 2 ) dx = 3 x 2 x 3 = 3 6 2 6 3 = 36
0
3 0
3

## 55b + 7.5b = 300

b 4.13372 4.134 h

20

( x, y )

dA = (6x x2 ) dx

) dt = 300

1.6

10

dx = 24.59123K

2
0

0.6

0.2 x

4.

## = 110 + 22.735 0 0 = 132.735 ,

which equals the sum of the two integrals
above.
d.

= 50e 0.4 50

## The region is approximately a trapezoid with

height 2 and bases 10 and y(2). y(2) =
14.9182 , so the area of the trapezoid is
2/2(10 + 14.9182) = 24.9182 .

2
0

1.6

## 10e 0.2 x dx = 50e 0.2 x

10e

d.

= 55 + 7.5 0 0 = 62.5 mi
2

= 150e 2 + 150

97

6.

9. a.
y

( x, y )

20 (x, T )

dx
( x, y )

dx

0.5

## The curves intersect at x = /4.

dA = (cos x sin x) dx

/4

/4

c. D =

0.5

0.5
0

## = 10 (6 /) sin 0.8 0 + (6 /) sin (0.2)

= 7.75482 7.75 degree-days

= 2 1
7. a.

## d. From noon to midnight,

D=

(x , F )

b. dW = F dx = 0.6x dx

0.5

## [20 12 cos 2 ( x 0.1)] dx

0.6 x dx = 0.3 x 2

9
0

## = 24.3 0 = 24.3 inch-pounds

c. The region under F from x = 0 to x = 9 is a
triangle with base 9 and height F(9) = 5.4. So
the area is 1/2 9 5.4 = 24.3.
d. dW is found by multiplying F by dx. F is
measured in pounds, and dx is measured in
inches, so the units of dW are
(pounds)(inches), or inch-pounds.

1
0.5

## = 20 (6 /) sin 1.8 10 + (6 /) sin 0.8

= 12.24517 12.25 degree-days
The total number of degree-days is
D = 7.75482 + 12.24517 =
20 degree-days.
Note that this answer can be found more
easily by observing that in one full cycle of a
sinusoid, there is just as much area above the
sinusoidal axis, T = 20, as there is below it.
So the average temperature difference for the
day is 20 degrees, making the number of
degree-days for one day equal to 20.

x
0

dx

W=

## = 20 x (6/ ) sin 2 ( x 0.1)

x
1

10. a.
C
1000

8.
F

dT

( x, F )

30
10

dx

30

dH = C dT
= (0.016T 3 + 0.678T 2 + 7.45T + 796) dT

dW = 50 cos

10

50 cos

x dx
20

1000

x dx =
sin
x
20
20

H=
10
0

1000
1000
1000
sin
sin 0 =
2

= 318.3098
The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives
318.313 , which is close to the answer found
using integration.
=

98

## Problem Set 5-8

30

10

(0.016T 3 + 0.678T 2

+ 7.45T + 796) dT
= 0.004T 4 + 0.226T 3 + 3.725T 2
30
+ 796T 10 = 3240 + 6102 + 3352.5
+ 23880 + 40 226 372.5 7960
= 21,576 Btu
b. (2000)(21576) = 43,152,000 Btu
The property is the integral of a constant

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

30

10

2000

## The graph intersects the x-axis at x = 1 and x = 5.

y = x 2 + 6x 5 = (x 1) ( x 5) = 0 x = 1,
5, which confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (y 0) dx = (x2 + 6x 5) dx

2000C dT =

30

C dT .

10

11. a.

A=

(x , P )
1000

dx
x

100

200

1
( x 2 + 6 x 5) dx = x 3 + 3 x 2 5 x
3

C=

100

(x, y )
6

## The graph intersects the x-axis at x = 2

and x = 3.
y = x 2 x 6 = (x + 2)(x 3) = 0 x = 2,
3, which confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (0 y) dx = (x2 + x + 6) dx
A=

## = 100(200) + 0.02(2003) 100(100)

0.02(1003) = 150000

200

P dx =

100

P dx +

1
1
( x 2 + x + 6) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 6 x
2
3
2
9
8
5
+ 18 2 + 12 = 20
2
3
6

(x , y )

(0, y )

100

x
2

## The graph intersects the y-axis at y = 1

and y = 4.
x = (y 1) ( y 4) = 0 y = 1, 4, which
confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (0 x) dy = (y 1) ( y 4) =
(y2 + 5y 4) dy
A=

=
5

1
5
( y 2 + 5 y 4) dy = y 3 + y 2 4 y
3
2

y
(x, y )

x
(x, 0)

64
1 5
1
+ 40 16 + + 4 = 4
3
3 2
2

(0, y )

P dx,

16.

(x , y )

15.

200

y
4

= 9 +

## which shows that the sum of integrals with

the same integrand applies.
12. Using trapezoids, the area is approximately
10(0/2 + 38 + 50 + 62 + 60 + 55 + 51 + 30 +
3/2) = 3475 ft2. The fundamental theorem cannot
be used because the function is specified only by
data, not by an equation whose antiderivative can
be found.
Plan of attack for area problems:
Do geometry to get dA in terms of sample
point (x, y).
Do algebra to get dA in terms of one variable.
Do calculus to sum the dAs and take the limit
(i.e., integrate).
13.

200
100

Thus,

x
3

= 100b + 0.02b 3 0 0
C = 100b + 0.02b3
c. b = 100: C = 100(100) + 0.02(1003) =
\$30,000
b = 200: C = 100(200) + 0.02(2003) =
\$180,000
For 100 m to 200 m, the cost should be
180,000 30,000 = \$150,000.
As a check,
200

(x, 0)

## (100 + 0.06 x 2 ) dx = 100 x + 0.02 x 3

125
1
2
+ 75 25 + 3 + 5 = 10
3
3
3

14.

b. dC = P dx = (100 + 0.06x ) dx

5
1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

99

## The graph intersects the y-axis at y = 1

and y = 5.
x = 5 + 4y y 2 = (1 + y) ( 5 y) = 0 y =
1, 5, which confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (x 0) dy = (5 + 4y y2) dy
A=

1
(5 + 4 y y 2 ) dy = 5 y + 2 y 2 y 3
1
3

= 25 + 50

## The graphs intersect at x = 2 and x = 2.

0.5x 2 + 2x = x 2 + 2x + 6 1.5x 2 = 6 x =
2, 2, which confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (y2 y1) dx = (1.5x2 + 6) dx
A=

(1.5 x 2 + 6) dx = 0.5 x 3 + 6 x

2
2

= 4 + 12 4 + 12 = 16

20.

125
1
+ 5 2 = 36
3
3

17.
5

(x, y1 )

(x, y2)

2
0

(x, y2 )

x
4

## The graphs intersect at x = 0 and x = 5.

0.2x 2 + 3 = x 2 4x + 3 0.8x 2 4x = 0
0.8x(x 4) = 0 x = 0, 5, which confirms the
graphical solution.
dA = (y1 y2) dx = (0.8x2 + 4x) dx

(x, y1 )

## The graphs intersect at x = 1 and x = 4.

x 2 2x 2 = x + 2 x 2 3x 4 = 0 x =
1, 4, which confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (y2 y1) dx = (x2 + 3x + 4) dx
A=

1
3
( x 2 + 3 x + 4) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 4 x
3
2

A=

4
1

64
1 3
5
=
+ 24 + 16 + 4 = 20
3
3 2
6

(0.8 x 2 + 4 x ) dx =

4 3
x + 2x2
15

5
0

500
2
+ 50 + 0 0 = 16
15
3

21.

18.

y
y

(x, y1 )

10
2
(x, y1)

x
0

2
(x, y2 )

## The graphs intersect at x = 2 and x = 4.

2x + 7 = x 2 4x 1 x 2 2x 8 = 0
(x + 2)(x 4) = 0 x = 2, 4, which confirms
the graphical solution.
dA = (y1 y2) dx = (x2 + 2x + 8) dx
A=

1
( x 2 + 2 x + 8) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 8 x
2
3

(x , y 2 )

## The graphs intersect at x = 0 and x = 5.

dA = (y1 y2) dx = (2e0. 2x cos x) dx
A=

## = 10e sin 5 10 + 0 = 18.1417

22.

(x, y2 )

64
8
=
+ 16 + 32 4 + 16 = 36
3
3

(x, y1 )

19.

(x , y 2 )

( x, y1 )

x
2

A=

0

2

100

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

23.

A=

( x 3 3 x 2 + 4) dx =

1 4
x x3 + 4x
4

2
1

= 48+8

(x 1 , y )

( x 2 , y)

1
3
1+ 4 = 6
4
4

26.

x
2

## The graphs intersect at y = 1 and y = 4.

Write y = x + 3 as x = y 3.
y 3 = y 2 + 6y 7 y 2 5y + 4 = 0
(y 1)(y 4) = 0 y = 1, 4, which confirms
the graphical solution.
dA = (x2 x1) dy = (y2 + 5y 4) dy
A=

( y

1
5
+ 5 y 4) dy = y 3 + y 2 4 y
3
2

4
1

64
1 5
1
+ 40 16 + + 4 = 4
3
3 2
2

24.
5

(x1 , y)

(x2 , y)

x
1

(0.25 y 2 + 6.25) dy =

1 3 25
y +
y
12
4

2
+

+
= 41
12
4
12
4
3

5
5

## The graphs intersect at x = 1 and x = 8.

x 2/3 = (x + 1)1/2 + 1 x = 1, 8 numerically,
which confirms the graphical solution.
Or x2/ 3 1 = (x + 1)1/ 2 (x2/ 3 1)2 = x + 1.
Write t = x1/ 3, so (t2 1)2 = t3 + 1
t4 t3 2t2 = t2(t + 1)(t 2) = 0
t = 0, 1, 2 x = t3 = 0, 1, 8.
But x = 0 is extraneous from the irreversible step
of squaring both sides. So x = 1, 8.
dA = (y 2 y 1) dx = [(x + 1)1/2 + 1 x 2/3] dx

## The graphs intersect at y = 5 and y = 5.

Write y = 2x 1 + 11 as x 1 = 5.5 0.5y.
5.5 0.5y = 0.25y 2 0.5y 0.75
0.25y2 = 6.25 y = 5, 5, which confirms the
graphical solution.
dA = (x1 x2) dy = (0.25y2 + 6.25) dy
5

(x, y1 )

A=

A=

(x, y2 )
2

[( x + 1)1/ 2 + 1 x 2 / 3 ] dx

2
3
( x + 1)3/ 2 + x x 5/ 3
3
5

8
1

96
3
1
0 +1 = 7
5
5
5
27. Wanda: You can always tell the right way
because the altitude of the strip should be
positive. This will happen if you take
(larger value) minus (smaller value). In this case,
if you slice vertically, its line minus curve
(see graph).
= 18 + 8

y
line

25.
y
4

curve
x

(x , y1 )

x
1

(x , y 2 )

## The graphs intersect at x = 1 and x = 2.

x 3 4x = 3x 2 4x 4 x 3 3x 2 + 4 =
(x + 1) ( x 2)2 = 0 x = 1, 2, which
confirms the graphical solution.
dA = (y1 y2) dx = (x3 3x2 + 4) dx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## For curve minus line, youd get the opposite of

the right answer. Note that if you slice
horizontally, it would be curve minus line.
28. a. Peter: Horizontal slicing would be awkward
because for some values of y the length of the
strip would be given by line minus curve, but
in others it would be boundary minus curve,
and yet elsewhere it would be curve minus
curve. If you use vertical slices, the length

101

## For y = 7 cos 5x, width is 1/5 as much and

altitude is 7 times as much.
A = (2)(1/5)(7) = 2.8

(See graphs.)
y

y
(x, y1)

31.

x
8

(x, y2 )

(x, y 2)
(x, y1 )

## b. Peter: In the graph on the right, y1 y2 will

be positive. Because y2 is negative, you will
get (pos.) (neg.), which is equivalent to
(pos.) + (pos.). Thus, the altitude for the strip
is positive.

x
3

## The graphs intersect at x = 2 and x = 3.

dA = (y2 y1) dx = (x2 + x + 6) dx

29.

A=

y
(x, ah2)

1
1
( x 2 + x + 6) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 6 x
2
3
2

3
2

9
8
5
+ 18 2 + 12 = 20 = 20.8333K
2
3
6
R 10 = 20.9375
R100 = 20.834375
R1000 = 20.83334375
The Riemann sums seem to be approaching the
= 9 +

x
h

h
(x , y )

## The graph shows the parabolic region from

x = h to x = h and a strip from the graph to a
horizontal line at y = ah2.
dA = (ah2 y) dx = (ah2 ax2) dx
h
h
1
A = ( ah 2 ax 2 ) dx = 2 ah 2 x ax 3

0
h
3
1
4
= 2 a h 3 h 3 = ah 3

3 3
Area of rectangle = 2h(ah2) = 2ah3
area of region
( 4/3)ah 3 2

=
= , Q. E . D .
area of rectangle
2 ah 3
3
2
The graph shows y = 67 0.6x and the line
y = 7, with a circumscribed rectangle.

32.
t (x )

67

sin x dx = cos x

= ( 1) + 1 = 2, which

is a rational number.
y
1

y = cos x

t(x) = 1 + cos x
t(x) = 0 cos x = 1
x = + 2 n = , , 3 , 5 ,
t(x) is never negative, so t(x) does not change
signs. These points are plateau points.

Q1.

1 3 1 2
x + x + x+C
3
2

Q3. y =

2 1/ 3
x
3

Q2.

4 7/4
x +C
7

1
Q4. e 3 x + C
3

Q5. csc x + C

Q6. x 1

Q9.

Q10.

7 y

y = 7 cos 5x
(x, y )

102

## Problem Set 5-9

7 = 67 0.6x 2 0.6x 2 = 60 x = 10
Rectangle has width 10 (10) = 20 and length
67 7 = 60. Area of region = 23 (20)(60) = 800.
30. dA = sin x dx

y=7

A=

10

x
x
/10

/10

x
1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Plan of attack for volume problems:

Do geometry to get dV in terms of sample
point (x, y).
Do algebra to get dV in terms of one variable.
Do calculus to add up the dVs and take the limit
(i.e., integrate).
1. a. dV = x 2 dy
y = 9 x2 x2 = 9 y
dV = (9 y) dy

V=

( 4 x x 2 )2 dx =

(16 x

16
1
= x3 2x4 + x5
3
5

8 x 3 + x 4 ) dx

= 30.6 = 96.132

## The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives

96.1341 , which is close to the answer found
using integration.
5. y = x 1.5 is rotated about the x-axis.
y
27

b. V =

(9 y) dy = (9 y 0.5y )

= 127.2345

(x, y )

## d. Volume of circumscribed cylinder is 9( 32)

= 254.4690 . Half of this is 127.2345 ,
equal to the volume of the paraboloid.
2. dV = x2 dy
y = 10 2x x = 5 0.5y
dV = (5 0.5y)2 dy
V=

10

dV = y 2 dx = x3 dx

2
(5 0.5 y)2 dy = (5 0.5 y)3
3

10
0

2
2
250
= (0) + (125) =
= 261.7993
3
3
3
1
1
V cylinder = r2h, so of that is V = r 2 h.
3
3
1
Here, r = 5 and h = 10, so V = (52 )(10) =
3
250
, as found by integrating.
3
3. a. dV = y 2 dx = (3e 0.2 x)2 dx = 9 e 0.4 x dx
5

b.

9e

0.4x

dx = 22.5e 0.4x

(x, y )

x
1

dV = y 2 dx = (4x x2)2 dx
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

x 3 dx =

1 4
x
4

= 1640 = 5152.2119

## 6. y = ln x x = ey is rotated about the y-axis.

y

1
(x, y )

dV = x 2 dy = e2y dy

## = 22.5 e 2 + 22.5 e0 = 61.1195

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives
61.1185 , which is close to the answer
found using integration.
c. Slice perpendicular to the axis of rotation, so
slice vertically if rotating about the x-axis and
horizontally if rotating about the y-axis.
4. y = 4x x2 is rotated about the x-axis.
y

V=

V=

e 2 y dy =

2y
e
2

1
0

2
(e 1) = 10.0359K
2

## 7. y = x 3/4 x = y 4/ 3 is rotated about the y-axis.

y

8
(x, y )
1

x
1

16

dV = x 2 dy = y 8/3 dy
8
8
3
6141
V = y 8/3 dy = y11/3 =

1
11
11
1
= 1753.8654
8. y = x14 and y = 8x2, intersecting at (0, 0) and
(2, 16), are rotated about the y-axis. Area of cross
section is x12 x 22 .

## Problem Set 5-9

103

x 1 = y 1/ 4, and x 2 =

1
y
8

dV =

1 2
dy = y1/2
y dy

64

V=

16

( x12

x 22 )

(x 1 , y )

1 2
y1/2
y dy

64

2
1 3
= y 3/2
y
3
192

16

64
= 67.0206 K
3
0
The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives V
67.0341 , which is close to the answer found
using integration.
9. y1 = e0.4 x and y2 = x + 1, from x = 0 to x = 3, are
rotated about the x-axis.
Area of cross section is y22 y12 .
dV = ( y22 y12 ) dx = [( x + 1) 2 e 0.8 x ] dx
3

[( x + 1)

V=

(x2 , y)

e 0.8 x ] dx

1
= ( x + 1)3 1.25e 0.8 x
3

64
1
= 1.25e 2.4 + 1.25
3

3
= (22.25 1.25e 2.4 ) = 26.6125 ft 3
The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives
V = 26.6127 , which is close to the answer
found using integration.
10. y1 = x1/3 and y2 = 10e 0.1 x are rotated about the
x-axis. Only the back half of the solid is shown.

x
1

dV = ( x 22 x12 ) dy = [( 4 y) ( 4 y) 2 ] dy
= (y2 + 7y 12) dy
V=

( y

+ 7 y 12) dy

1
7
= y 3 + y 2 12 y
3

4
3

64
63
=
+ 56 48 + 9
+ 36
3

2
1
= = 0.523598
6
12. y = ax2 x = (y/a)1/2, from (0, 0) to (r, h), is
rotated about the y-axis.
y
h

(x, y )

x
r

dV = x 2 dy = (y/a) dy = ( /a)y dy
h
h
1
1
V = ( /a) y dy = ( /a) y 2 = ( /a)(h) 2 0
0
2
2
0

y
10

(x, y2)
(x, y1)

x
8

## dV = ( y22 y12 ) dx = (100e 0.2 x x 2/3 ) dx

V=

(100e

0.2 x

= ( 500e
= ( 500e

x ) dx

(x, y )

0.6 x )
5/3

+ 480.8) = 1193.3394

11. y = 4 x 1 x 1 = 4 y, and y = 4 x 22 x2 =
4 y , intersecting at x = 0 and x = 1, are
rotated about the y-axis. Only the back half of
the solid is shown.

104

y
2

2/3

0.2 x

1.6

## Because y = ax2, h = ar2.

1
1
V = ( /a)( ar 2 )2 = ar 4
2
2
Volume of circumscribed cylinder is
V c = r2h = r2(ar2) = ar4.
Thus, the volume of the paraboloid is half the
volume of the circumscribed cylinder, Q.E.D.
13. a. y = 0.3x1.5 is rotated about the x-axis.

## Problem Set 5-9

dV = y 2 dx = (0.3x1.5 )2 dx = (0.09x3) dx
V=

(0.09 x 3 ) dx = 0.0225x 4

4
0

= 5.76 = 18.09557

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. R10 = 5.7312
R100 = 5.75971
R1000 = 5.7599971
Values are getting closer to V = 5.76.
14. y = 4 x 2 x = (4 y)1/2 dy
Inner radius is 3 x; outer radius is 3.
dV = [32 (3 x)2] dy
= {9 [3 (4 y)1/2]2} dy
= [6(4 y)1/2 4 + y] dy
V=

[6(4 y)

1/2

x 2 )2 dx

2/5

2 x 11/ 5 + x 4 ) dx

5
5
1
= x 7/5 x 16/5 + x 5
7
8
5

=
0

81
= 0.2892 K
280

## 17. Cross sections perpendicular to y-axis are squares

of edge 2x, where (x, y) is a sample point on the
line in the xy-plane.
15

y
y = (15/4)x + 15

(x, y)

= (0 16 + 8 + 32 + 0 0) = 24
= 75.3982
15. y = 4 x2 is rotated about the line y = 5. Only
the back half of the solid is shown.
y
(x, y )

1/ 5

4 + y] dy

= [ 4( 4 y)3/2 4 y + 0.5 y 2 ]

(x
= (x

V=

x
4

Equation of line is
15
4
y = x + 15 x = 4 y.
4
15
2
4

2
dV = (2 x ) dy = 4 4 y dy

15
2

1
= 64 1 y dy
15

y = 5

15

## dV = [(y + 5)2 52] dx

= [(9 x2)2 52] dx = (56 18x2 + x4) dx
V=

(56 18x

+ x 4 ) dx

= (56 x 6 x 3 + 0.2 x 5 )

2
0

= (112 48 + 6.4 0 + 0 0)
= 70.4 = 221.168
16. Cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are
squares with side length (y2 y1). The curves
intersect at (0, 0) and (1, 1).

(1 0.08x
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

+ 0.0016 x 4 ) dx

0.08 3 0.0016 5
= x
x +
x

3
5

3 15

= 320 cm3
The circumscribed rectangular box has volume
l w h = 8 8 15 = 960 = 3V, so the pyramid
is 1/3 the volume of the circumscribed rectangular
solid, Q.E.D.
The volume of a pyramid is one-third the volume
of the circumscribed rectangular box, just as the
volume of a cone is one-third the volume of the
circumscribed cylinder.
18. Center line: y = 0.2x2
Upper bound: y = 0.16x2 + 1
Radius of circular cross section is 1 0.04x2.
The tip of the horn is where 0.2x2 = 0.16x2 + 1
with x 0, which is at x = 5.
dV = (1 0.04x2)2 dx
= (1 0.08x2 + 0.0016x4) dx
V=

1
1
64 1 y dy = 320 1 y
15
15

5
0

10
= 5 + 1 0 + 0 0

3
8
= = 8.3775 8.4 cm 3
3
Problem Set 5-9

105

19. a. y = x 0.6
Pick sample point (x, y) on the curve within
the slice. One leg of the isosceles triangle is
y, so the other leg is also equal to y.
1
1
dV = y 2 dx = x 1.2 dx
2
2
b. V =

1 1.2
1 2.2 4
1
x dx =
x
=
4 2.2 0
2
4.4
4
.
4
0

= 4.7982
The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives
4.7981 , which is close to the answer found
using integration.
c. If the cross sections were squares, they would
have twice the area of the triangles, so dV
1
would be twice as much and V =
4 2.2 =
2.2
9.5964 .
20. y = ex, y = 3, and x = 0. Cross sections
perpendicular to the x-axis are rectangles with
height equal to 4 times the base. Each base has
length (3 y).

60
1
2b

1
1
3
bh dx = ( y2 y1 )
( y2 y1 ) dx
2
2
2
3
3
=
( y2 y1 )2 dx =
(2 x 2 x 2 )2 dx
4
4
3
=
(2 2 x 2 )2 dx
4
1 3
V=
(2 2 x 2 )2 dx
0 4
3 1
=
( 4 8 x 2 + 4 x 4 ) dx
4 0
3
8
4 1
=
4x x3 + x5
4
3
5 0
dV =

3
8 4

4 + 0+00

4
3 5
8 3
=
= 0.9237...
15

## 22. y = ln x and y = 1. Cross sections perpendicular

to the y-axis are rectangles with height equal to
1/2 the base. Each base has length x.

y
2

1
2b

## dV = (3 y)[ 4(3 y)] dx

= (3 e x )[ 4(3 e x )] dx = 4(3 e x )2 dx
V=

ln 3

4(3 e x )2 dx = 4

ln 3

(9 6e x + e 2x ) dx

ln 3

1
= 4 9 x 6e x + e 2x

2 0

1
1
= 4 9 ln 3 6 3 + 9 0 + 6

2
2
= 7.5500
21. y = x2 and y = 2 x2, intersecting at x = 1.
Cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are
equilateral triangles. Each base has length (y2 y1).

y
1

dV = x 12 x dy = 12 x 2 dy
Solve y = ln x for x, to get x = e y.
dV = 12 (e y )2 dy = 12 e 2 y dy
V=

11

2
0

e 2 y dy =

## 23. a. Line has equation y = 12 x, 0 x 6.

b. The log has radius = 6, so the circle is
x2 + z2 = 36, or z = 36 x 2 = (36 x 2 )1/2 .
1
c. dV = y 2z dx = x 2(36 x 2)1/2 dx
2
= (36 x2)1/2 (x dx)
6

(36 x ) ( x dx )
1
= (36 x ) ( 2 x dx )
2

V=

2 1/2

## Using properties of special right triangles, you

can find that an equilateral triangle with
3
base b has height
b.
2
106

## Problem Set 5-9

1 2y 1 1 2 1
e
= e = 1.5972 K
4
4
4
0

2 1/2

6
1 2
(36 x 2 )3/2 = 72 in.3
2 3
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 24. The points (0, 0) and (r, h) in xy-coordinates are

on the line running up the top surface, so the
h
line is y = x. The circle forming the boundary
r
for the bottom surface has radius = r and center
(0, 0) in xz-coordinates, so the circle is x2 + z2 =
r2, or z = r 2 x 2 . The slab at x = x0 is
hx
rectangular of height y = 0 , width
r
2 z = 2 r 2 x 02 , and thickness dx, so
2 hx 2
dV =
r x 2 dx, and
r
2h r
V=
x r 2 x 2 dx
r 0
h r 2
(r x 2 )1/ 2 ( 2 x dx )
=
r 0
r
2 h
2 h
= (r 2 x 2 )3/2 = (0 3/ 2 r 3 )
3 r
3 r
0

## Slicing perpendicular to the y-axis as in Problem

26 gives dV = x2 dy = (r2 y2) dy.
V=

1
(r 2 y 2 ) dy = r 2 y y 3

r
3

## 28. The graph shows slices perpendicular to x-axis

with sample points (x, y) and (x, z).
b

(x , y )

r2 2
x dx
h2
h
h
r 2 1
1
x 2 dx = 2 x 3 = r 2 h, Q .E.D .
0
h 3 0 3

dV = y 2 dx =

10

V=

(c/b)(b/a)2 ( a 2 x 2 ) dx

1
= (c/b)(b/a)2 a 2 x x 3

a
a

4
4
= (c/b)(b/a) a 3 = abc
3
3
Note that the volume formula for a sphere is a
special case of the volume formula for an
ellipsoid in which a = b = c = r, the radius of the
sphere.
2

10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dV = (c/b)(b/a)2(a2 x2) dx

(100 y 2 ) dy

1
= 100 y y 3

3 10
1
1
= 1000 (1000) + 1000 (1000)
3
3

4
3
= (1000) cm
3
b. Formula: V = 43 r 3 = 43 10 3 = 43 (1000) cm3,
which agrees with the answer by calculus.
27. Sphere can be generated by rotating about the
y-axis the circle x2 + y2 = r2.

## x + y = 1, from which y2 = (b/a)2(a2 x2).

a
b

r 2
h2
26. a. Equation of circle in xy-plane is x 2 + y 2 = 100.
dV = x2 dy = (100 y2) dy

## For a fixed value of x, the x-term will be

constant. Subtracting this term from both sides
of the equation gives an equation of the form
2
2
y + z = k 2 , where k2 = 1 (x/a)2.
b
c
Dividing both sides by k2 gives
2
2
y + z = 1. Thus, the y- and z-radii are
kb
kc
kb and kc, which have the original ratio b/c.
Therefore, each elliptical cross section is similar
to the ellipse at the yz-plane, Q.E.D.
dV = yz dx
Because z = (c/b)y, dV = (c/b)y2 dx.
The ellipse in the xy-plane (z = 0) has equation

V=

(x, z )

x
y
z
Equation of ellipsoid is + + = 1.
a
b
c

2 2
r h
3
25. A cone of radius r and altitude h can be generated
by rotating about the x-axis the line
r
y = x from x = 0 to h.
h

10

(x, y )

V=

x
c

1
1
4
= r 3 r 3 r 3 + r 3 = r 3, Q.E.D.

3
3 3

29.
50 + 2 L

L
y
50

107

## Note that the top of each isosceles trapezoidal

cross section has length 50 + 2L yards, where
y
52
= tan (52) L = y cot (52) = y cot
.
L
180
1
So each slab is dV = 2 (50 + 2 L + 50) y dx;
52
dV = 50 y + y 2 cot
dx, and
180
19

V=

50 y

+ yk2 cot

k =0

7.
y
2

52
30
180

sin 2 x dx = 4.9348K

## We cannot compute this integral algebraically

because we do not know an antiderivative for
sin 2 x.

## = 1, 649, 443.6 K 1, 649, 443 yd 3 .

Cost = 12 1,649,443.6 \$19,793,324
8.

Q1.

1 3
x + x+C
3

Q2. 24

Q3.

sec

x dx = tan x + C

x
5

(ln x )
2

dx = 14.6673K

## We cannot compute this integral algebraically

because we do not know an antiderivative for
(ln x)2.
9. a.

(t, v )

dt

Q8. d(disp) = v dt

## Q7. See graph in Q5.

Si x

Q9.

Q10. A
v dt
cos x dx 0.6899295233K
( x 3x + 5) dx = 13.5
2 dx 10.0988652K
tan x dx 1.76714178K

a
1.4

1.

0.3
4

2.

1
3

3.

20

0
1.4

4.

0.1

5.

1.4

0.3

cos x dx = sin x

1.4

## = sin 1.4 sin 0.3 =

0.3

0.6899295233
For the ten digits of the answer shown by
calculator, there is no difference between this
solution and the solution to Problem 1.
6.

1
3
( x 3 x + 5) dx = x 3 x 2 + 5 x
3

## b. (sin x)/(x) approaches 1 as x approaches zero.

c. Answers will vary depending on the grapher
used. The TI-83 gives Si 0.6 = 0.58812881
using TRACE or 0.588128809608 using TABLE,
both of which are correct to as many decimal
places as the NBS values.
d. By TABLE, Si x seems to be oscillating between
about 1.53 and 1.61 when x is between 20
and 30. The limit is somewhere between
these two numbers, say about 1.57. The
actual limit is /2, which equals 1.570796 .
e.

Si x

1
3
= ( 4)3 ( 4)2 + 5( 4)
2
3

1
3
(1)3 (1)2 + 5(1) = 13.5
2
3

## There is no difference between this answer and

the solution to Problem 2.
108

20

x
20

20

## The f graph is positive when x is between

and (as well as elsewhere), and has its
greatest values there, which agrees with the
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## large positive slope of the Si x graph in this

region. Each place where the Si x graph has a
high or low point, the f ( x) graph has a zero,
corresponding to the zero slope of the Si x
graph. So f ( x) is the derivative of Si x.
2 x t2
10. a. erf x =
e dt
0

## c. The answer by Simpsons rule should be

closer, because the graph is represented by
curved segments instead of straight ones.
12. (Data and CAT scans for this problem were
provided by Dr. James Stewart of San Antonio.)

## The integrand e t is an even function

integrated between symmetrical limits. Thus,
rather than using the entire interval [x, x],
one may find the integral on [0, x] and double
the result.

## + 4 25.3 + 2 29.5 + 4 34.6 + 2 38.4

+ 4 33.9 + 2 15.8 + 4 6.1 + 2.3)
= (0.8/3)(643.5) = 171.6 cm3
b. The mass will be 171.6 g, which is within
the normal range of 150 to 200 g.
13. a.

b.

a.

y = erf x

Force (lb)

1
300

Distance (in.)

0.5

x
erf x
1
2
3
4

0.842700792
0.995322265
0.999977909
0.999999984

## The values approach 1, meaning that the

fraction of the data between x and x is
virtually 100% when x is beyond 4.
d. Answers will vary depending on the
grapher used. The TI-83 gives erf 0.5 =
0.52049987781 using TABLE, which is
correct to as many decimal places as the NBS
value.
e.
y = erf x
1

x
2

## The slope of y = erf x appears to equal about

1 when x = 0 and decreases toward zero as x
increases, which agrees with the graph of f.
11. a.

12

(speed) dt [(2/60)/3](33 + 4 25 + 2 27

+ 4 13 + 2 21 + 4 5 + 9)
= (1/90)(310) = 3.444 3.4 nautical miles
b. T 6 = (1/30)(33 0.5 + 25 + 27 + 13 + 21 + 5
+ 9 0.5)
= (1/30)(112) = 3.7333 3.7 nautical miles

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

W=

0.5

F dx

## (0.05/3)(0 + 4 120 + 2 240 + 4 360

+ 2 370 + 4 330 + 2 290 + 4 280
+ 2 270 + 4 270 + 190)
= (0.05/3)(7970) = 132.8333
132.8 inch-pounds
14. Let C = heat capacity (Btu/lb mole)/F,
T = temperature (F), H = heat (Btu/lb-mole).
Approximate values of C to the nearest 0.02 are
from the given figure.
T
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500

Simpsons factor

8.44
9.24
10.08
10.84
11.48
11.98
12.36
12.68
12.94

1
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
1

4500

500
[8.44 + (9.24)( 4)
3
+ (10.08)(2) + (10.84)(4) + (11.48)(2)
+ (11.98)(4) + (12.36)(2)
+ (12.68)(4) + 12.94]
500
=
(268.18) = 44696.6666 K 44,697 Btu
3
The answers students get will vary slightly.
H=

500

C dT

109

## 15. a. Simpsons rule will give a more accurate

answer because the function y = sin x is
approximated better by quadratic functions
than by straight lines.
b. S4 = (1/3)( /4)[sin 0 + 4 sin ( /4) +
2 sin (/2) + 4 sin (3 /4) + sin ] = 2.0045
T4 = (1/2)( /4)[sin 0 + 2 sin (/4) +
2 sin ( /2) + 2 sin (3 /4) + sin ] = 1.8961

sin x dx = cos x

2 x2
e . A Simpsons rule program

## gives S50 = 0.5204998781 and S100 =

0.5204998778 . There is little difference
between the two estimations, and both are close
to the tabulated value.
19. a.
y

## As x varies, the area beneath the curve y = 1/t

from t = 1 to t = x varies also.

Review Problems

= cos cos 0 = 2

## Simpsons rule does give a better

approximation of the integral because S4 is
closer to 2 than is T4.
16. Programs will vary depending on the type of
grapher used. See the program in the Programs
for Graphing Calculators section of the
Instructors Resource Book.
17. Using a Simpsons rule program, the mass of the
spleen is 171.6 cm3.
18. Enter Y1 =

d. f (2) = 0.6931
f ( 3) = 1.0986
f ( 6) = 1.7917
f ( 2) + f ( 3) = f ( 2 3). This is a property of
logarithmic functions.

t0
.
0

## Division by zero is undefined, so this

approach does not work.
c. Graph Y1 = fnint(x 1, x, 1, x). (Entries may
be different for different calculators.) The
graph looks like y = ln x. The value of f (x)
is negative for x < 1 because for these values
the lower limit of integration is larger than the
upper limit, resulting in negative values for dx.

## R0. Answers will vary.

R1. a. The width of each region is 4. So
T3 = (4/2)[v(4) + 2v(8) + 2v(12) + v(16)] =
2[22 + 2(26.9705) + 2(30.7846) + 34] =
343.0206 . T3 underestimates the integral
because v(t) is concave down, so trapezoids
are inscribed under the curve.
b. R3 = 4[v(6) + v(10) + v(14)] = 4(24.6969 +
28.9736 + 32.4499) = 344.4821
This Riemann sum is close to the trapezoidalrule sum.
c. T50 = 343.9964 , and T100 = 343.9991
Conjecture: The exact value of the integral
is 344.
d. g ( t) = 10t + 4t1.5
g(16) g(4) = 344
This is the value the trapezoidal-rule sums are
approaching.
R2. a. The slope of the linear function is the same
as the slope of the curve at x = 1. So the
slope is
f ( x) = sin x f (x) = cos x
f ( 1) = cos =
At x = 1, y = sin = 0
y 0 = (x 1) l(x) = x +
y
l (x)

f (x)
x
1

f (x )

l (x )

0.2

0.8

1.2

x
5

## As you zoom in, you see that f ( x) is very

close to the line l(x) for values near x = 1.
110

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## For x = 1.1, the error is sin [ ( 1.1)]

[ ( 1.1) + ] = 0.0051
For x = 1.001, the error is sin [ ( 1.001)]
[(1.001) + ] = 5.1677 10 9 .

iii. M6 = 2.209073
iv. T6 = 2.359018
d. U6
L6
5

## ii. y = x 5 /5 x 3/3 dy = (x4 + x 4) dx

iii. y = (7 3x)4 dy = 12(7 3x)3 dx

x
0.2

iv. y = 5e 0. 3x dy = 1.5e 0. 3x dx

M6

1
v. y = ln (2 x ) dy =
4(2 x )3 2 dx
(2 x ) 4
4

## = 4/x dx; or y = ln ( 2x)4 = 4 ln ( 2x)

1
dy = 4
2 dx = 4/x dx
2x
c. i. dy = sec x tan x dx y = sec x + C
1
ii. dy = (3 x + 7)5 dx y = (3 x + 7)6 + C
18
iii. dy = 5 dx y = 5x + C
iv. dy = 0.2e 0.2 x y = e 0.2 x + C
v. dy = 6 x dx y =

6x
+C
ln 6

## d. i. y = (2x + 5)1/2 dy = (2x + 5) 1/2 dx

ii. x = 10 and dx = 0.3
dy = 25 1/2 0.3 = 0.06
iii. y = (2 10.3 + 5)1/2 (2 10 + 5)1/2
= 0.059644
iv. 0.06 is close to 0.059644 .
R3. a. See the text for the definition of indefinite
integral.
b. i.

12 x

ii.

sin

iii.

(x

iv.

12e

v.

7 dx = ln 7 + C

2/3

dx = 7.2 x 5/3 + C

x cos x dx =

1
sin 7 x + C
7

8 x + 3) dx =
3x

1 3
x 4 x 2 + 3x + C
3

dx = 4e 3x + C

7x

## R4. a. See the text for the definition of integrability.

b. See the text for the definition of definite
integral.
c.

1.4

sec x dx

0.2

i. U6 = 2.845333
ii. L6 = 1.872703

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1.4

0.2

1.4

T6

x
0.2

1.4

x
0.2

1.4

e.
y

f (x)

## R5. a. The hypothesis is the if part of a theorem,

and the conclusion is the then part. (Hypomeans under, and -thesis means theme.)

b. d (t ) = 20 + 3 sin t
4
d (2) d ( 0)
Average velocity =
= 1.5 m/s
20

4

4

## c = cos 1 (2/) = 0.880689

4
c = 1.12132 1.12 s
c. g(x) = x 4/3 4x 1/3 = x 1/3(x 4)
g(x) = 0 x = 0 or x = 4. Interval is [0, 4].
g(x) = (4/3)x1/3 (4/3)x 2/3 = (4/3)x 2/3(x 1)
g(c) = 0 c = 1
At x = 0, g(0) takes the form 1/0, which is
infinite.
Thus, g is not differentiable at x = 0.
However, the function need not be
differentiable at the endpoints of the interval,
just continuous at the endpoints and
differentiable at interior points.
d. For a function to be continuous on a closed
interval, the limit needs to equal the function
value only as x approaches an endpoint from
within the interval. This is true for function f

111

## at both endpoints, but not true for function g

at x = 2. The graphs show that the conclusion
of the mean value theorem is true for f but
not for g.
f (x )

b.

x
c

g (x )

(10 x 2 ) dx = 10 x (1/3) x 3

No tangent
parallels
secant

R7. a. i.

Secant

x 2 dx = x 1 = 5 1 + 11 = 4/5

1
4

(x

ii.

x
2

## = 30 9 (10) + (1/3) = 92/3 = 30.6666

c. T100 = 30.6656, which is close to 92/3.
d. M 10 = 30.72
M 100 = 30.6672
M 1000 = 30.666672
These Riemann sums are approaching 92/3.

Secant

## R3 = (1.513)1.5 + (2.508)1.5 + (3.505)1.5

= 12.4, which is the exact value of the
integral.

## (Middle branch has the equation y = 1.4

.
Point c = 4.4825 .)
e. g is the linear function containing the points
(a, f (a)) and (b, f (b)). h is the function h (x) =
f ( x) g(x). Thus, h(a) = h ( b) = 0, satisfying
one hypothesis of Rolles theorem. The other
two hypotheses are satisfied because f and g
are differentiable and continuous at the
appropriate places, and a difference of
differentiable and continuous functions also
has these properties. The c in (a, b) for which
h(c) = 0 turns out to be the c in (a, b) for
which f (c) equals the slope of the secant line,
g(c), which equals [f (b) f (a)]/(b a).
f.

= (1/2)

( x2 )

f (x )

+ 3) 5 ( x dx )
4

(x

+ 3)5 (2 x dx )
4

= (112
/ )( x 2 + 3)6 3

= (1/12)(19)6 (1/12)(12)6
= 3,671,658.08

iii.

(sin x 5) dx = cos x 5 x

= cos 5 + cos 0 + 0 = 2 5

iv.

ln 5

ln 5

4e 2 x dx = 2e 2 x
0

3
1
ln 3
= 70.9986

v.

= 2e 2 ln 5 2e 0 = 48

3 x dx =

=
1

34
31
78

=
ln 3 ln 3 ln 3

b.
y

x
5

## Points are 18 , 14 , 83 , 12 , 85 , 43 , and 87 .

g. If r(x) = s(x) for all x in an interval, then
r(x) = s(x) + C for some constant C.

## R6. a. g( x ) = x 1.5 dx = 0.4 x 2.5 + C

Without loss of generality, let C = 0.
g(2) g(1)
g(c1 ) =
= 1.862741K
2 1
c11.5 = 1.862741
c1 = (1.862741)1/1.5 = 1.513915927
Similarly, c2 = 2.50833898 .
c3 = 3.505954424
For

x 1.5 dx,

## Integral is negative, because each y-value in

the Riemann sum is negative.
c.

10

10

( 4 sin x + 6 x 7 8 x 3 + 4) dx = 2

= 8x

10
0

10

4 dx

= 80

f (x )

x
a

112

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. y = x 1 + 2 x 1 = y 2
1
y = 3x 2 6 x 2 = y + 2
3
Graphs intersect at y = 6. Diameter of circular
cross section is (x2 x1).
dV = [0.5(x2 x1)]2 dy
2
2
1

= y + 2 ( y 2) dy = 4 y dy

4 3
4
3

R8. a.
v
(t, v)

dt t

dy = v dt = 150t0.5 dt
9

150t

y=

## dt = 100t 1.5 = 2700 ft

0.5

0
4

150t
For [ 4, 9], y = 150t
For [0, 4], y =

0
9

0.5

0.5

= 1900.

V=

dt = 800.

R10. a.

## v(t ) dt = 2700 = 800 + 1900

= v(t ) dt + v(t ) dt.
0

e y dy = e y

ln 4

t
1

= e ln 4 e 0 = 4 1 = 3

the x-axis.

10

3

0.2 x

## (1000 + 50 x )(4 0.2 x ) dx = 10, 897.5

v(t ) dt = 1/3(0.2)[29 + 4(41) + 2(50) + 4(51)
2

c.

(x, y )

## + 2(44) + 4(33) + 2(28) + 4(20)

+ 2(11) + 4(25) + 39] = 67.6
Values of velocity are more likely to be
connected by smooth curves than by straight
lines, so the quadratic curves given by
Simpsons rule will be a better fit than the
straight lines given by the trapezoidal rule.

x
0

dV = y2 dx = e0.4 x dx
V=

log x dx = 6.0913K

v (t )

b. dA = x dy
y = ln x x = e y
dA = ey dy
ln 4

10

## The integral is reasonable because counting

squares gives approximately 6.

So

## The right circular cone of altitude 6 and

radius 2 also has volume 13 2 2 6 = 8 .

dt = 2700 800

dV 25.1327 (exactly 8)

## e 0.4 x dx = 2.5e 0.4 x

4
0

= 2.5 (e 1) = 31.0470
b. y = x10.25 and y = x2, intersecting at (0, 0) and
(1, 1) in Quadrant I, is rotated about the
y-axis. Only the back half of the solid is
shown.
1.6

Concept Problems
C1. a.
f (b)
5

(x 1 , y )

/2

b
1

(x 2 , y )
5

x
1

y = x10.25 x1 = y 4
y = x2 x2 = y
dV = ( x 22 x12 ) dy = ( y 2 y 8 ) dy
1
1
1
V = ( y 2 y 8 ) dy = y 3 y 9
3
0
9
2
= = 0.6981K
9

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.
f (b)

1
3

113

## The two lines are horizontal asymptotes. y4 is

the inverse of y1.
c. The graph of f in part a is a reflection of
the graph of y = tan x in part b across the line
y = x. Function f seems to be the inverse
tangent function, f (b) = tan 1 b. (In Chapter 9,
students will learn that this is actually true.)
C2. f (x) = ax2 + bx + c

Induction hypothesis:
Assume that for some integer n = k > 1,
S(k) = (k/6)(k + 1)(2k + 1).
Verification for n = k + 1:
S( k + 1) = 0 2 + 12 + L + k 2 + ( k + 1)2
= (0 2 + 12 + L + k 2 ) + ( k + 1)2
= (k/6)(k + 1)(2k + 1) + (k + 1)2
= [(k + 1)/6][k(2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)]
= [(k + 1)/6][2k2 + 7k + 6]
= [(k + 1)/6][(k + 2)(2k + 3)]
= [(k + 1)/6][(k + 1) + 1]
[2(k + 1) + 1],
which is the formula with (k + 1) in place of
k, thus completing the induction.
S(n) = (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1) for any positive
integer n, Q.E.D.

x
d

f (d) = ad2 + bd + c
f (e) = ae2 + be + c
ae 2 + be + c ( ad 2 + bd + c)
m =
ed
a( e 2 d 2 ) + b ( e d )
=
= a( e + d ) + b
ed
f (x) = 2ax + b f (k) = 2ak + b
2ak + b = a(e + d) + b
2ak = a(e + d)
k = (1/2)(e + d)
k is at the midpoint of [d, e], Q.E.D.
C3. S(n) = 0 2 + 12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2
a. S(0) = 0, S(1) = 1, S(2) = 5, S(3) = 14
S(n) = an3 + bn2 + cn + d
0=0+0+0+d
1=a+b+c+d
5 = 8a + 4b + 2c + d
14 = 27a + 9b + 3c + d
Solving this system gives a = 1/3, b = 1/2,
c = 1/6, d = 0.
S(n) = (1/3)n3 + (1/2)n2 + (1/6)n
= (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1)
b. By equation,
S(4) = (4/6)(5)(9) = 30
S(5) = (5/6)(6)(11) = 55
S(4) = 0 + 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30, which checks.
S(5) = 0 + 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 = 55, which
checks.
S(1000) = (1000/6)(1001)(2001) =
333,833,500
c. Prove that S(n) = (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1) for any
positive integer n.
Proof (by induction on n):
Anchor:
For n = 1, S(n) = (1/6)(2)(3) = 1, the correct
answer, which anchors the induction.

114

## Problem Set 5-11

d. S(n) = 0 3 + 13 + 2 3 + 33 + L + n 3
S(0) = 0
S(1) = 0 + 1 = 1
S(2) = 0 + 1 + 8 = 9
S(3) = 0 + 1 + 8 + 27 = 36
S(4) = 0 + 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 = 100
(The answers are perfect squares!)
Assume that S(n) = an4 + bn3 + cn2 + dn + e.
0=0+0+0+0+e
1=a+b+c+d+e
9 = 16a + 8b + 4c + 2d + e
36 = 81a + 27b + 9c + 3d + e
100 = 256a + 64b + 16c + 4d + e
Solving this system gives
a = 1/4, b = 1/2, c = 1/4, d = 0, e = 0.
S(n) = (1/4)n4 + (1/2)n3 + (1/4)n2
= (1/4)n2(n2 + 2n + 1)
= [(n/2)(n + 1)]2,
which agrees with the observation that S(n) is
a perfect square.
By equation,
S(5) = [(5/2)(6)]2 = 225
S(6) = [(6/2)(7)]2 = 441
S(5) = 03 + 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 = 225,
which checks.
S(6) = 03 + 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 + 63 =
441, which checks.
C4. a.

4 sin x sin 10 x dx

## [2 cos 11x + 2 cos (9 x )] dx

0

2
2
sin 11x sin ( 9 x )
11
9
0
= 0 0 + 0 + 0 = 0, Q .E .D .
There is just as much area below the x-axis as
there is above it, so the integral is 0.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

4 sin x sin nx dx

## {2 cos [(1 + n) x] + 2 cos [(1 n) x]} dx

0

2
2
sin [(1 + n) x ] +
sin [(1 n) x ]
1+ n
1 n
0
2
2
=
sin (1 + n) +
sin (1 n)
1+ n
1 n
2
2

sin 0
sin 0
1+ n
1 n
If n is an integer, the first two terms will
involve sines of integer multiples of , and
are thus equal to 0. The last two terms are 0
unless n = 1. Thus, the integral equals 0 for
any integer n > 1, Q.E.D.
C5. a. Algebraic solution:
Pick sample points ck at the right end of each
subinterval. Because f (x) is increasing on the
interval [1, 9], the high points of f (x) are
located at the right ends of the subintervals
and the low points are at the left ends.

Un =

## b. From part a, 0 U n Ln ||P|| (1.29 1.21).

As ||P|| approaches zero, the rightmost
member of the inequality goes to zero. By the
squeeze theorem, lim (Un Ln ) = 0, which
P 0

## implies lim Un = lim Ln . So f is integrable

P 0

Proof:
Partition the interval [1, 4] into n
subintervals whose widths are not necessarily
equal. Let ||P|| be the norm of the partition.
Pick sample points ck at the left end of each
subinterval. Because g (x) is decreasing on
[1, 4], the high points are located at the left
ends of the subintervals and the low points
are at the right ends (graph).
y
1

f (ck )x k and Ln =

f (c

k 1 ) x k

k =1

k =1

x
1

Un Ln =

P 0

## on [1, 9] by the definition of integrability,

Q .E .D .
c. Prove that g(x) = 1/x is integrable on [1, 4].

[ f (c ) f (c
k

k 1 )]x k

k =1

## = [ f (c1 ) f (c0 )]x1 + [ f (c2 ) f (c1 )]x 2 + L

+ [ f ( cn) f ( cn 1)]xn
[ f ( c1) f ( c0)] ||P|| + [ f ( c2) f ( c1)] ||P||
+ L + [ f (cn ) f (cn1 )] || P ||
= [ f (c1 ) f (c0 ) + f (c2 ) f (c1 ) + L + f (cn )
f ( cn 1)] ||P||
= [ f ( cn) f ( c0)] ||P|| = ||P||(1.29 1.21)
Un Ln ||P||(1.29 1.21), Q.E.D.
Graphical solution:
The difference Un Ln is equal to the area of
the spaces between the lower and upper
rectangles in Figure 5-11g. Imagine these
spaces moved over to the left so that they
align at x = 1 (graph). The spaces can be
circumscribed with a rectangle of base ||P||
and altitude (1.29 1.21). Thus, Un Ln
||P|| (1.29 1.21), Q.E.D.

## By algebraic or graphical reasoning as in

part a, Un Ln ||P||(1 1/4). As ||P||
approaches zero, Un Ln is squeezed to zero.
Thus, Un and Ln approach the same limit,
which implies that g is integrable on [1, 4],
Q .E .D .
d. This reasoning cannot be applied directly to
h (x) = sin x on the interval [0, 3] because
h (x) is both increasing and decreasing on
different parts of the interval. Thus, the high
points are not always at the same end of the
subinterval and the high point at /2 may not
be at either end of a subinterval (graph).
y = sin x
1

x
0

/2

f (x )
1.29

## The reasoning could be applied indirectly by

first splitting the interval [0, 3] into [0, /2]
and [ /2, 3] so that h(x) is increasing on one
and decreasing on the other.

Chapter Test

1.21

x
1 Norm

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Norm = largest

x 9

g( x ) =

Problem Set 5-11

115

## T2. Definite integral:

Let Ln and Un be lower and upper sums of f (x)
on the interval [a, b]. Then

f ( x ) dx = lim Ln = lim Un ,
n

## provided the two limits are equal.

T3. Fundamental theorem:
If f is an integrable function, and
g( x ) =

f ( x ) dx, then

f ( x ) dx = g(b) g( a).

T12.

(12 x 3 + 10 x 2 ) dx = 3 x 4 +

10 3
x
3

2
2

80
80
1
= 48
48
= 53
3
3
3
d

[( x )

T13.

( x 2 )2 ] dy

## T14. The slope of the linear function is the same as

the slope of the curve at x = 1. So the slope is
found by y = x3 y = 3x2 y(1) = 3.
At x = 1, y = 1.
y 1 = 3(x 1) y = 3x 2
y

## T4. The function f is continuous on the interval

[3, 8] and differentiable on (3, 8). It does not
matter that it is not differentiable at the
endpoints.
T5.

x
1

f (x )
1.2
1

(1, 1)

x
c 8

## T6. Hypotheses: f (a) = f (b) = 0

Differentiable on (a, b).
Continuous at x = a and x = b.
Conclusion: There is a c in (a, b) such that
f (c) = 0.
f(x )

T7.
f (x )

x
8

## As you zoom in on (1, 1), you see that the graph

of y = x3 is locally linear.
T15. a.

0

## = 48e 0.75 48e 0 = 53.6160 K

b. M 50 = 53.6154
T50 = 53.6170
S50 = 53.61600081
The midpoint Riemann sum error is
0.000502646712 .
The trapezoidal-rule error is 0.0010052962 .
The midpoint Riemann sum error is half of
the trapezoidal-rule error, because
2(0.000502646712) = 0.0010052962 .
The Simpsons rule error is
0.000000015077 , which is much smaller
than the error for the other two methods.
T16. a.
y
1

y = cos x

## T8. y = esin x dy = cos x esin x dx

T9.
T10.
T11.

(4 x

116

(x, y )

0.1 dx = ln 0.1 + C
x

0.1

+ 13)5 ( x 2 dx ) =

x3
x dx =
3

1.2

## Problem Set 5-11

1
( 4 x 3 + 13)6 + C
72

4 3 13
= 21
3 3

1 2
1
y dx dV = cos 2 x dx
2
2
/2 1
V=
cos 2 x dx
0
2

b. dV =

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## c. This integral cannot be evaluated algebraically

because we do not know an antiderivative for
cos2 x.
/2 1
V=
cos 2 x dx = 0.3926 K
0
2

b.
f (x )

g(x )

x
1

2.64...

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
1

2.64...

## g( 4) g(1) 6.4 0.1

=
= 2.1
4 1
3
g(x) = f ( x) = 0.3x 2
0.3c2 = 2.1 c = 7 = 2.6457513
In the right graph in part b, the tangent line at
x = 2.64 is parallel to the secant line from
x = 1 to x = 4.
d. f ( 2.645) = 0.3(2.645)2 = 2.1 (exactly)
The point is (2.645 , 2.1).
Area of region under graph equals area of
rectangle, as shown in the graph on the left in
part b.
T18. Answers will vary.
c. m =

117

## Chapter 6The Calculus of Exponential

and Logarithmic Functions
Problem Set 6-1

Q5. differentiable

## 1. The integral would be

division by zero.
N
1000
1500
2000
2500
500
100

1
0

P 0 , which involves

Integral
0
0.4054
0.6931
0.9162
0.6931
2.3205

N
2000

7.

10

0.05 dt = 0.05t

10

8.
9.

## 0.5 is between 0.4054 and 0.6931 , the

values of the left integral for N = 1500 and
N = 2000.
N 1
By solver,
dP = 0.5 when
1000 P
N = 1648.7212 , or about 1649 people.
3. At 20 years, the integral on the right equals 1. At
0 years, the integral equals 0. Solving for N at
these times gives N = 2718.2818 for 20 years,
and N = 1000 (as expected!) for 0 years.

10.

11.

Population
3000
2000

12.

1000
Time (yr)
5

10

15

20

## The graph resembles an exponential function.

4. ln 1648.7212 ln 1000 = 0.5, exactly. This
is the value of the integral on the left!

## Problem Set 6-2

1 0.7
x +C
0.7
Q3. f ( x) = 2 cos x sin x
Q1.

118

1 x2

## Q8. Riemann sum

Q7. y = csc x cot x
Q9. indefinite integral, or antiderivative
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Integral

2.

Q10. log 12

1000

Q6. y =

Q2. 9
Q4. continuous

## Answers will vary.

y = ln 7x y = 1/(7x) 7 = 1/x
y = ln 4x y = 1/(4x) 4 = 1/x
f (x) = ln x5 f (x) = 1/(x5) 5x4 = 5/x
f (x) = ln x3 f (x) = 1/(x3) 3x2 = 3/x
h (x) = 6 ln x 2 h (x) = 6/(x 2) (2x 3) = 12/x
g (x) = 13 ln x 5
g (x) = 13/(x 5) (5x 6) = 65/x
r(t) = ln 3t + ln 4t + ln 5t
r (t) = 1/(3t) 3 + 1/(4t) 4 + 1/(5t) 5 = 3/t
v (z) = ln 6z + ln 7z + ln 8z
v (z) = 1/(6z) 6 + 1/(7z) 7 + 1/(8z) 8 = 3/z
y = (ln 6x)(ln 4x)
y = 1/(6x) 6 (ln 4x) + (ln 6x)[1/(4x) 4]
ln 24 x 2
= (1/x)(ln 4x + ln 6x) or
x
z = (ln 2x)(ln 9x)
z = 1/(2x) 2 (ln 9x) + (ln 2x)[1/(9x) 9]
ln 18 x 2
= (1/x)(ln 9x + ln 2x) or
x
ln 11x
y =

ln 3 x
1/(11x ) 11 (ln 3 x ) (ln 11x )1/(3 x ) 3
y =
(ln 3 x )2
ln 3 x ln 11x
ln(3/11)
=
or
2
x (ln 3 x )2
x (ln 3 x )
ln 9 x
y=

ln 6 x
1/(9 x ) 9 (ln 6 x ) (ln 9 x ) 1/(6 x ) 6
y =
(ln 6 x )2
ln 6 x ln 9 x
ln(2/3)
or
=
x (ln 6 x )2
x (ln 6 x )2

## 13. p = (sin x)(ln x)

p = (cos x)(ln x) + (sin x)(1/x)
14. m = (cos x)(ln x)
m = (sin x)(ln x) + (cos x)(1/x)
15. y = cos (ln x) y = sin (ln x) (1/x)
16. y = sin (ln x) y = cos (ln x) (1/x)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 17. y = ln (cos x), where cos x > 0

y = (1/cos x) (sin x) = tan x (Surprise!)
18. y = ln (sin x), where sin x > 0
y = (1/sin x) (cos x) = cot x (Surprise!)
19. T (x) = tan (ln x) T (x) = sec2 (ln x) (1/x)
20. S (x) = sec (ln x)
S (x) = sec (ln x) tan (ln x) (1/x)
21. y = (3x + 5)1
y = (3x + 5)2 3 = 3(3x + 5)2
22. y = (x3 2)1
y = (x3 2)2 3x2 = 3x2(x3 2)
23. y = x 4 ln 3x
y = 4x 3 ln 3x + x 4 1/(3x) 3
= 4x 3 ln 3x + x 3
24. y = x 7 ln 5x
y = 7x 6 ln 5x + x 7 1/(5x) 5
= 7x 6 ln 5x + x 6
25. y = ln (1/x) y = 1/(1/x) (x 2) = 1/x
26. y = ln (1/x4) y = 1/(1/x)4 (4x5) = 4/x
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

32.

33.

34.

35.
36.
37.
38.

7/x dx = 7 ln | x | + C
5/x dx = 5 ln | x | + C
1
1/(3x ) dx = 3 ln | x | + C
1/(8x ) dx = 8 ln | x | + C
1

x2
1
1
(3 x 2 dx )
dx =
x +5
3 x3 + 5
1
= ln | x 3 + 5 | + C
3

x5
1
1
dx =
(6 x 5 dx )
6
x 4
6 x6 4
1
= ln | x 6 4 | + C
6
x5
1
1
dx =
(6 x 5 dx )
9 x6
6 9 x6
1
= ln | 9 x 6 | + C
6
x3
1
1
(4 x 3 dx )
4 dx =
10 x
4 10 x 4
1
= ln | 10 x 4 | + C
4
sec x tan x dx
= ln | 1 + sec x | + C
1 + sec x
sec 2 x dx
= ln | 1 + tan x | + C
1 + tan x
cos x dx
= ln | sin x | + C
sin x
sin x dx
sin x dx
=
= ln | cos x | + C
cos x
cos x

39.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

0.5

(1/w ) dw = ln | w |

= ln 4 ln 0.5

0.5

= ln 8 = 2.079441
40.

10

0.1

(1/v) dv = ln | v |

10

= ln 10 ln 0.1

0.1

= ln 100 = 4.605170
41.

0.1

(1/ x ) dx = ln | x |

3
0.1

= ln | 3 | ln | 0.1 |

= ln 3 ln 0.1 = ln 30 = 3.401197
42.

0.2

(1/ x ) dx = ln | x |

4
0.2

= ln | 4 | ln | 0.2 |

= ln 4 ln 0.2 = ln 20 = 2.995732
x 1/ 2 dx 2 9 1
3 1/ 2
x dx
3/ 2 =
3/ 2
4 1+ x
3 4 1+ x
2
9
2
2
= ln| 1 + x 3/ 2 | = (ln 28 ln 9) = 0.756653K
3
4 3

43.

44.

45.
46.

x 1/ 3 dx 3 8 1
2
x 1/ 3 dx
2/3 =
1 2+x
2 1 2 + x 2/3 3
8
3
3
= ln | 2 + x 2 / 3 | = (ln 6 ln 3) = 1.5 ln 2
2
2
1
= 1.039720
dx 1
(ln x )5
= (ln x )6 + C
x 6
ln x
dx 1
dx = (ln x )1
= (ln x )2 + C
x
x 2
8

cos 3t dt f ( x ) = cos 3x
f ( x ) = (t + 10t 17) dt

47. f ( x ) =

48.

f ( x ) = x 2 + 10 x 17
49.
50.

dx

dx

tan 3 t dt = tan 3 x

2 t dt = 2 x

g( x ) =
h( x ) =

51. f ( x ) =

x2

3t dt f ( x ) = 2 x 3 x

cos x

52.

0
3 x 5

53.

t dt g( x ) = cos x ( sin x )
1 + t 2 dt

h( x ) = 3 1 + (3 x 5)2
54. p( x ) =
55.

x3

(t 4 + 1) 7 dt p( x ) = ( x 12 + 1) 7 3 x 2

(5 / x ) dx = 5 ln | x |

= 5 ln 3 5 ln 1 = 5 ln 3

= 5.493061
Problem Set 6-2

119

## Midpoint Riemann sum: M100 = 5.492987

Trapezoidal rule: T100 = 5.493209
Numerical integration: 5.493061
56. Answers will vary.
57. a. By finding areas, g (0) 2.7, g (1) = 0,
g(2) = 1, g(3) 0.3, g(4) 0.3, g(5) 0.7,
g (6) 3.3, g (7) = 6, and g (8) = 7.
y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

b.
30

(h, F )

dh

b. h( x ) =

dW = F dh = (600/h 30) dh

f (t ) dt h ( x ) = f ( x 1) 2x

## 58. a. By finding areas, g (0) = 6, g (1) = 2.5,

g (2) = 0, g (3) = 1.5, g (4) = 2, g (5) = 1.5,
g (6) = 0.75, g (7) = 0.5, g (8) = 0.75,
g (9) = 1.5, and g (10) = 2.75.
y

x
1
2
3
4
5
6

1 2 3 4 5

b. h( x ) =

7 8 9 10

10

1000

f (t ) dt h( x ) = f (2 x ) 2

(1/ P) dP = ln | P |

0.05 dt = 0.05t

= ln N ln 1000

1000
10

= 0.5

ln N ln 1000 = 0.5
N
ln
= 0.5
1000
N
= e 0.5
1000
N = 1000e0.5 1648.721
1649 people
60. a. F + 30 = k/h
0 + 30 = k/20 k = 600
F + 30 = 600/h F = 600/h 30
120

10

(600/h 30) dh

20

10
20

## = 600 ln 10 300 600 ln 20 + 600

= 115.8883 116 inch-pounds
This number is negative because each value of
dh is negative and F is positive, making their
product negative.
e. Distance is measured in inches, force is
measured in pounds, and we are finding their
product.
61. a. d(f ) = a + b ln f
0 = a + b ln 53, 10 = a + b ln 160
10 = b ln 160 b ln 53
10
b=
= 9.050741...
ln 160 ln 53
a = 9.050741 ln 53 = 35.934084
d( f ) = 35.934084 + 9.050741 ln f
b.

2x

## h(4) = f (8) 2 = (0.5)(2) = 1

59.

= 600 ln | h | 30 h

h(2) = f (3) 4 = 1 4 = 4

4
3
2
1

20

## c. Work equals force times displacement.

Because the force varies, a definite integral
must be used.
d. The work done compressing the air a small
amount, dh, is approximately equal to the
force at the sample point (h, F ) times dh
(see part b).
W=

x 2 1

h
10

x
1
2
3

f
53
60
70
80
100
120
140
160

d cm
0
1.1227
2.5197
3.7265
5.7461
7.3962
8.7914
10.0

d (part c)
0.1707
0.1508
0.1292
0.1131
0.0905
0.0754
0.0646
0.0565

## The measured distances will vary. They

should be close to the calculated distances.
c. d ( f ) = b/f = 9.050/f. See table in part b.
d. d ( f ) is in cm/10 kHz.
e. d ( f ) decreases as f gets larger; this is
consistent with the spaces between the
numbers getting smaller as f increases.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

62. a. ln 2 = 0.693147
ln 3 = 1.098612
ln 6 = 1.791759
ln 2 + ln 3 = ln 6
Conjecture: ln (ab) = ln a + ln b
b. ln (10/2) = ln 5 = 1.609437
ln 10 = 2.302585
ln 2 = 0.693147
ln (10/2) = ln 10 ln 2
Conjecture: ln (a/b) = ln a ln b
c. ln (210) = ln 1024 = 6.931471
ln 2 = 0.6931471
ln (210) = 10 ln 2
Conjecture: ln (ab ) = b ln a
ln 2
d.
= 2.30258
log 2
ln 3
= 2.30258
log 3
They seem to be the same.
ln 10 = 2.30258
1
= 2.30258
log e
log 4 = 0.60205 and
ln 4
1.3862 K
=
= 0.60205K
ln 10 2.30258K
63. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 6-3

Q1. y = 1/(1 + x 2)
Q3. 1
Q5. 35
Q7.

1
ln | 4 x + 1 | + C
4
Q4. 1/4
Q6. 8
Q2.

y
1

x
2

## Q8. f is differentiable on (a, b).

Q9. f is continuous at x = a and x = b.
Q10. B
1. ln 6 + ln 4 = 1.79175 + 1.38629 =
3.17805
ln 24 = 3.17805
2. ln 5 + ln 7 = 1.60943 + 1.94591 =
3.55534
ln 35 = 3.55534

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 3. ln 2001 ln 667 = 7.60140 6.50279 =

1.09861
ln (2001/667) = ln 3 = 1.09861
4. ln 1001 ln 77 = 6.90875 4.34380 =
2.56494
ln (1001/77) = ln 13 = 2.56494
5. 3 ln 1776 = 3(7.48211) = 22.44635
ln (17763) = ln 5,601,816,576 = 22.44635
6. 4 ln 1066 = 4(6.97166) = 27.88667
ln (10664) = ln 1,291,304,958,736 = 27.88667
7. See the text for the proof of the uniqueness
theorem.
8. See the text for the proof.
9. Prove that ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for
all a > 0, b > 0.
Proof:
Let f (x) = ln (x/b), g(x) = ln x ln b for x, b > 0
Then f (x) = (b/x)(1/b) = 1/x, and
g (x) = (1/x) 0 = 1/x.
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0.
f (b) = ln (b/b) = ln 1 = 0
g(b) = ln b ln b = 0
f (b) = g (b).
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0 by the uniqueness
theorem.
ln (x/b) = ln x ln b for all x > 0.
ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for all a > 0 and b > 0,
Q .E .D .
10. Prove that ln (ab) = b ln a for all a > 0 and all b.
Proof:
Let f (x) = ln (xb); g (x) = b ln x for x > 0.
Then f (x) = 1/(xb) bxb 1 = b/x and
g (x) = b (1/x) = b/x.
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0.
f (1) = ln (1b) = ln 1 = 0
g(1) = b ln 1 = b 0 = 0
f (1) = g (1).
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0 by the uniqueness
theorem.
ln (xb) = b ln x for all x > 0.
ln (ab) = b ln a for all a > 0 and all b, Q.E.D.
11. Prove that ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for
all a > 0, b > 0.
Proof:
ln (a/b) = ln (a b 1) = ln a + ln b 1 =
ln a + (1) ln b = ln a ln b
ln (a/b) = ln a ln b, Q.E.D.
12. Example: ln (2 + 3) = ln 5 = 1.60943
ln 2 + ln 3 = 0.69314 + 1.09861 =
1.79175
ln (2 + 3) ln 2 + ln 3.
ln (a + b) = ln a + ln b is false, Q.E.D.

121

## 15. f (x) = log3 x f (x) = 1/(x ln 3)

f (5) = 0.182047
The graph shows a tangent line with a small
positive slope.
f (x )

x
5

## 16. f (x) = log0.8 x f (x) = 1/(x ln 0.8)

f (4) = 1.120355
The graph shows a tangent line with slope 1.
f (x )
5

4
10

## 17. g (x) = 8 ln (x5) = 40 ln x g (x) = 40/x

18. h (x) = 10 ln (x0.4 ) = 4 ln x h (x) = 4/x
19. T(x) = log5 (sin x) T ( x ) =

1
cos x
sec x ln 5

## T (x) = (cot x)/(ln 5)

20. R (x) = log4 (sec x)
1
tan x
R( x ) =
sec x tan x =
sec x ln 4
ln 4
21. p (x) = (ln x)(log5 x)
p (x) = (1/x) (log5 x) + (ln x) [1/(x ln 5)]
1 ln x
ln x
2 ln x
=
+
=
x ln 5 x ln 5 x ln 5
ln x ln 3
ln 3 1

=
=
ln 9 ln x 2 ln 3 2
q (x) = 0 because q(x) is constant.

x3
3
23. f ( x ) = ln
= ln x ln sin x
sin
x

## = 3 ln x ln sin x f (x) = 3/x cot x

24. f (x) = ln (x4 tan x) = ln x4 + ln (tan x)
= 4 ln x + ln (tan x)
4 sec 2 x 4
1
f ( x ) = +
= +
x tan x
x sin x cos x

122

## Problem Set 6-4

d
d
(ln x 3 x ) =
(3 x ln x ) =
dx
dx
3x
3 ln x +
= 3 ln x + 3
x
d
d
(ln 5sec x ) =
(sec x ln 5)
26.
dx
dx
= ln 5 sec x tan x
27. a. y = 7 (2 0.9x)
dy/dx = 7(0.9x)(ln 0.9)
dy/dx = 0.737523(0.9x)
x = 0: dy/dx = 0.737 mi/h
x = 1: dy/dx = 0.663 mi/h
x = 5: dy/dx = 0.435 mi/h
x = 10: dy/dx = 0.257 mi/h
The lava is slowing down.
b. y/7 = 2 0.9x
0.9x = 2 y/7
x ln 0.9 = ln (2 y/7)
x = (1/ln 0.9)[ln (2 y/7)]
dx
1
1
c.
= (1/ln 0.9)

dy
2 y/7 7
dx 9.491221K
=
dy
14 y
y = 10: dx/dy = 2.372 h/mi
d. If x = 10, then y = 7(2 0.910), so
dx
9.491221K
=
= 3.888651 .
dy 14 7(2 0.910 )
25.

ln x log a x
14. log b x =
=
ln b log a b

## e. 3.88 is the reciprocal of 0.257 , the

value of dy/dx when x = 10, not when y = 10.
28. a. 1000(1.06t) = M 1.06t = M/1000
log1.06 1.06t = log1.06 (M/1000)
t = log1.06 (M/1000)
1
1
b. dt/dM =

## (ln 1.06)( M/1000) 1000

1
=
M ln 1.06
1
=
c. If M = 1000, dt/dM =
1000 ln 1.06
0.01716 yr/\$. At this rate, with \$1000 in
the account, it would take 0.017 year, or
about 6 days, to earn a dollar of interest.
d. dt/dM gets smaller as M increases; more
interest is earned when M is larger, so it takes
less time to accumulate \$1000.
29. The intersection point is at x = 2.7182818 ,
which is approximately e.
30. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 6-4

Q1. y = 3/x
Q3. 15 ln 5 x + C

Q2. (1/10)(5x) 2 + C
Q4. y = 1/ 1 x 2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Q5. 5 tan (5x)

Q7.
Q9.
0.
1.

Q6.

ln 23
ln 17

36
Q8. 8
B
Q10. E
a. R(t) = aekt
60,000 = aek0 a = 60,000
2,400,000 = aek2 = 60,000e2k
40 = e2k 2k = ln 40
k = (ln 40)/2 = 1.844
(Store 1.844 without round-off as k.)
R(t) = 60,000e1.844t
b. R ( 5 ) = 60,000e1.844(5) = 607,157,310.7
About 607 million rabbits.
c. 2 = 60,000e1.844t 1/30,000 = e1.844t
ln 30,000 = 1.844t t = 5.589
So the first pair of rabbits was introduced
about 5.6 years earlier, or in about 1859.
2. a. v (t) = 20,000e 0.1 t
v(0) = 20,000e0 = 20,000
\$20,000 when built.
b. v (10) = 20,000e 1 = 7357.588
v(11) = 20,000e 1.1 = 6657.421
At 10 years, value is \$7357.59.
At 11 years, value is \$6657.42.
So depreciation is 7357.59 6657.42 =
\$700.17.
c. v (t) = 2000e 0.1 t
v (10) = 2000e 1 = 735.758 ,
or about \$736 per year.
This rate is higher than the actual depreciation
in part b because the latter rate is an average
for the year. The rate at the end will be lower
than 736 to give the average of 700.
d. 5,000 = 20,000e 0.1 t
0.25 = e 0.1 t
ln (0.25) = 0.1t
t = (ln 0.25)/(0.1) = 13.8629
14 yr.
3. a. m(t) = 1000(1.06)t
ln m(t) = ln 1000 + t ln 1.06
1/m(t) m (t) = 0 + ln 1.06
m (t) = m (t) ln 1.06
m (t) = 1000(1.06)t (ln 1.06)
m (0) = 58.27 \$/yr
m (5) = 77.98 \$/yr
m (10) = 104.35 \$/yr
b. m(0) = \$1000.00
m(5) = \$1338.23
m(10) = \$1790.85
The rates are increasing. \$338.23 is earned
between 0 and 5 years; \$452.62 is earned

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## between 5 and 10 years, which agrees with

the increasing derivatives shown in part a.
m(t ) 1000(1.06)t (ln 1.06)
c.
=
= ln 1.06
m( t )
1000(1.06)t
m (t)/m(t) = ln 1.06, a constant
d. m(1) = 1060.00. So you earn \$60.00.
The rate starts out at only \$58.27/year but
has increased enough by years end to make
the total for the year equal to \$60.00.
4. d(t) = 200t 2 t ln d(t) = ln 200t t ln 2
1
d (t ) = 1/t ln 2
d (t )
d (t ) = (200t 2 t )(1/t ln 2)
d (1) = (200 2 1)(1 ln 2) = 30.685
d (2) = (400 2 2)(1/2 ln 2) = 19.314
So the door is opening at about 30.7/s at
1 second and closing at about 19.3/s at
2 seconds, which agrees with the graph.
d (t )
100

t
1 2

## The widest opening occurs when d (t) = 0.

Solving numerically for t in
(200t 2 t)(1/t ln 2) = 0,
t = 1.44269 .
d(1.44269) = 106.147
So the widest is about 106 at t 1.4 s.
n
1
5. e = lim 1 + and e = lim(1 + n)1/ n
n
n0
n
When you substitute for n in the first equation,
you get the indeterminate form 1 . When you
substitute 0 for n in the second equation, you
also get the indeterminate form 1 .
n
(1 + 1/n)n

6.
7.
8.
9.

100
1000
10000

2.70481
2.71692
2.71814

(1 + n)1/ n

0.01
2.70481
0.001
2.71692
0.00001
2.71826
5x
y = 17e y = 85e 5x
y = 667e 3x y = 2001e 3x
h(x) = x3ex h (x) = 3x2ex + x3ex = x2ex (3 + x)
g (x) = x 6ex
g (x) = 6x 7ex + x 6ex = x 7ex (6 + x)

123

## f ( x ) = 10 0.2 x ( 0.2 ln 10)

30. g (x) = 4(7x) ln g (x) = ln 4 + x ln 7
1
g ( x ) = ln 7 g ( x ) = 4(7 x ) ln 7
g( x )

## 35. y = x ln x ln y = ln x ln x ln y = (ln x)2

1
1
2 ln x ln x
y = 2 ln x y =
x = 2 ln x xln x1

y
x
x
1
36. y = (csc 5x)2x ln y = 2x ln (csc 5x) y =
y
1
2 ln (csc 5 x ) + 2 x
(5 csc 5 x cot 5 x )
csc 5 x
y = (csc 5x)2x [2 ln (csc 5x) 10x cot 5x]
37. y = (cos 2x)3x ln y = 3x ln (cos 2x)
1
1
y = 3 ln (cos 2 x ) + 3 x
(2 sin 2 x )
y
cos 2 x
y = (cos 2x)3x [3 ln (cos 2x) 6x tan 2x]
38. Two solution methods are possible.
Differentiate directly:
5x + 2
y = ln

7x 8
7 x 8 5(7 x 8) (5 x + 2) 7
y =

(7 x 8)2
5 x + 2

54
=
(5 x + 2)(7 x 8)
Or simplify using properties of logarithms first:
y = ln (5x + 2) ln (7x 8)
5
7
54
y =

=
5 x + 2 7 x 8 (5 x + 2)(7 x 8)
39. Two solution methods are possible.
Differentiate directly:
y = ln [(4x 7)(x + 10)]
1
y =
[ 4( x + 10) + ( 4 x 7) 1]
( 4 x 7)( x + 10)
8 x + 33
=
( 4 x 7)( x + 10)
Or simplify using properties of logarithms first:
y = ln (4x 7) + ln (x + 10)
4
1
8 x + 33
y =
+
=
4 x 7 x + 10 ( 4 x 7)( x + 10)

## 31. h (x) = 1000(1.03x) ln h (x) = ln 1000 +

1
x ln 1.03
h ( x ) = ln 1.03
h( x )
h ( x ) = 1000(1.03x) ln 1.03
32. c (x) = x5 3x ln c (x) = 5 ln x + x ln 3
1
c ( x ) = 5/ x + ln 3
c( x )
c ( x ) = x5 3x(5/x + ln 3)
33. m(x) = 5x x 7 ln m(x) = x ln 5 + 7 ln x
1
m ( x ) = ln 5 + 7/ x
m( x )
m (x) = 5x x7(ln 5 + 7/x)
34. y = (ln x)0.7 x ln y = 0.7x ln (ln x)
1
1

## y = 0.7 ln (ln x ) + 0.7 x

y
x ln x

0.7
y = 0.7 ln (ln x ) +
(ln x ) 0.7 x
ln x

## 40. y = (2x + 5)3 4 x 1

1
ln y = 3 ln (2x + 5) + ln ( 4 x 1)
2
1
6
2
+

y =
y
2x + 5 4x 1
6
2
y =
+
[(2 x + 5)3 4 x 1 ]
2 x + 5 4 x 1
(28 x + 4)(2 x + 5)2
=
4x 1
(10 + 3 x )10
ln y = 10 ln (10 + 3 x )
41. y =
( 4 5 x )3
1
30
15
3 ln ( 4 5 x ) y =
+

y
10 + 3 x 4 5 x
30
15 (10 + 3 x )10
y =
+
10 + 3 x 4 5 x ( 4 5 x )3
(270 105 x )(10 + 3 x )9
=
(4 5x )4

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

## r(t) = et sin t r (t) = et sin t + et cos t

s (t) = et tan t s (t) = et tan t + et sec2 t
u = 3exe x = 3 u = 0
v = e4xe 4x = 1 v = 0
ex
e x ln x e x (1/ x )
y=
y =
ln x
(ln x )2
ln x
(1/ x )e x ln x e x
y = x y =
e
e2 x
y = 4esec x y = 4esec x sec x tan x
y = 7ecos x y = 7ecos x sin x
y = 3 ln e 2x = 6x ln e = 6x y = 6
y = 4 ln e 5x = 4 5x = 20x y = 20
y = (ln e3x)(ln e4x) = 3x 4x = 12x2 y = 24x
y = (ln e 2x)(ln e5x) = 2x 5x = 10x2
y = 20x
g(x) = 4eln 3x = 4 3x = 12x g (x) = 12
h (x) = 6eln 7x = 6 7x = 42x h (x) = 42
y = ex + e x y = ex e x
y = ex e x y = ex + e x
3

26. y = e 5 x y = e 5 x 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 e 5 x
5

27. y = 8e x y = 8e x 5 x 4 = 40 x 4 e x

## 28. f (x) = 0.42x ln f (x) = 2x ln 0.4

1
f ( x ) = 2 ln 0.4 f ( x ) = 0.4 2 x 2 ln 0.4
f ( x)
29. f (x) = 10 0.2 x ln f (x) = 0.2x ln 10
1
f ( x ) = 0.2 ln 10
f ( x)

124

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

42.
43.
44.
45.
46.

dx

10
3

dx

dx

4x

x2

dx

dt = 10 x

ln t dt = ln x

6.3

log 2 t dt = 4 log 2 ( 4 x )

## ln (cos t ) dt = 2 x (ln cos x 2 )

5
d2
d2
d 5
5
(ln
)
=
= 2
x
2
2 (5 ln x ) =
dx
dx
dx x
x

e = lim(1 + n)1/ n
n0

Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.

51.

52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.

72 x
+C
2 ln 7
1.05 x
1.05 x dx =
+C
ln 1.05
72 x dx =

6e dx = 6e + C
e dx = 5e + C
e cos x dx = e + C
e sec x dx = e + C
1
e dx = x dx = 4 x + C
60e dx = 60 5x dx = 150 x + C
1
(1 + e ) e dx = 102 (1 + e ) + C
1
(1 e ) e dx = 404 (1 e ) + C
x

3 ln x

2 x 50 2 x

2 x 51

4 x 100 4 x

61.

4 tan 3 x
0

x0
5x
0
2
12 sec 3 x 12
= lim
=
x0
5
5

2. lim

4 x 101

e ) dx = e + e
x

2
0

= e + e 1 1 = 5.524391...
Numerically: integral 5.524391... (Checks.)
2

tan x

ln 5 x

(e

x
e
ex
E

sin x

tan x

1
Q4.
x
Q6.
(ln x)/(ln b)
Q8.
x
e + C
Q10.
2 sin 5 x
0
1. lim

x0
3x
0
10 cos 5 x 10
= lim
=
x0
3
3

0.2 x

sin x

60.

0.2 x

1
Q2. e = lim 1 + or
n
n

Q1. e 2.71828

## Problem Set 6-5

n

d 2 7x
d
47.
(7e 7 x ) = 49e 7 x
2 (e ) =
dx
dx
1
48. e 5 x dx = e 5 x + C
5
1
49. e 7 x dx = e 7 x + C
7
50.

## Step 4: Write division as multiplication by the

reciprocal; distribute division over addition.
Step 6: 1/x does not depend on h, so it is a
constant with respect to h.
Step 7: Logarithm of a power, applied in reverse.
Step 9: The expression in parentheses has the form
(1 + n)1/n, whose limit is e as n approaches zero.
63. Answers will vary.
64. Answers will vary.

(e x + e x ) dx = (e x e x )

2
1

= e2 e2 e1 + e1 = 9.604123
Numerically: integral 9.604123... (Checks.)
62. Step 2: Definition of derivative.
Step 3: Logarithm of a quotient, applied in
reverse.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

tan x
0

x
0
sec 2 x
=1
= lim
x0
1
sin x
0

4. lim
x0
x
0
cos x
= 1, a well-known limit.
= lim
x0
1

3. lim
x0

## Problem Set 6-5

125

1 cos x
0

x0
x2
0
sin x
0

= lim
x0 2 x
0
cos x 1
=
= lim
x0
2
2

5. lim

6. lim
x0

x2
0

cos 3 x 1
0

2x
0

= lim
x 0 3 sin 3 x
0
= lim
x0

2
2
=
9 cos 3 x
9

sin x
0
7. lim+ 2
x0
x
0
cos x
= lim+
=
x0
2x
1 cos x
0
8. lim
2
x0 x + x
0
sin x
=0
= lim
x0 1 + 2 x
ln x

9. lim+
x 0 1/ x

= lim+
x0

x 1
= lim ( x ) = 0
x 2 x0 +

1
e3 x
10. lim 2 = Form is .

x0 x
0
ex e
0

x 1 5 ln x
0
ex
e
= lim 1 =
x 1 5 x
5

11. lim

ln x x + 1
0
12. lim 2

x 1 x 2 x + 1
0
x 1 1
0
= lim

x 1 2 x 2
0
x 2
1
= lim
=
x 1
2
2
3x + 5
11
13. lim
=
= 26.43297K
x 2 cos x
cos 2
14. lim
x 2

tan x
tan 2
.
= Form is

x2
0

e
15. lim 2
x x

ex

x 2 x

ex
= lim
=
x 2
= lim

126

## Problem Set 6-5

x3
x
x e

3x 2
= lim x
x e

6x
= lim x
x e

6
6
= lim x = 0 Form: .

x e

16. lim

3 x + 17
3 3
= lim =
4 x 11 x 4 4
2 7x
7
7
18. lim
= lim
=
x 3 + 5 x
x 5
5
17. lim

x 3 5 x 2 + 13 x 21

4 x 3 + 9 x 2 11x 17

19. lim

3 x 2 10 x + 13

2
x 12 x + 18 x 11

= lim

6 x 10

24 x + 18
6 1
= lim
=
x 24
4
= lim

3x 5 + 2

5
x 7 x 8

15 x 4
15 3
= lim
=
4 = lim
x 35 x
x 35
7

20. lim

21. L = lim+ x x 0 0
x0

ln L = lim+ ( x ln x ) = lim+
= lim+

x0
1

x0

x0

ln x

1
x

x
= lim ( x ) = 0
x 2 x0 +

L = e0 = 1
22. L = lim+ (sin x )sin x 0 0
x0

ln sin x

csc x

1/(sin x ) cos x
1
= lim+
= lim+
x0
x 0 csc x
csc x cot x

## ln L = lim+ sin x (ln sin x ) = lim+

x0

x0

= lim+ ( sin x ) = 0
x0

L = e0 = 1
23. L = lim (sin x ) tan x 1
x / 2

x / 2

ln sin x
0

x /2
cot x
0
(1/sin x ) cos x
= lim
x /2
csc 2 x
= lim

= lim
x / 2

cos x sin 2 x
sin x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

cos x 1
0

x cos x + sin x
0
sin x
= lim
=0
x 0 x sin x + 2 cos x

## = lim ( cos x sin x ) = 0

= lim

x / 2

x0

L = e0 = 1
24. L = lim+ x 1/( x 1) 1
x 1

ln L = lim+ [1/( x 1) ln x ]
= lim+
x 1

## x tan 2 x. Where secant and

2
2
tangent are defined, the Pythagorean properties
tell us that f (x) = 1.

31. f ( x ) = sec 2

x 1

ln x
0
1/ x
= lim+
=1
0 x1 1
x 1

L = e1 = e

f (x )

x

ln (1 + ax )

x
x
x

1/(1 + ax ) a
a
= lim
= lim
=0
x
x 1 + ax
1
L = e0 = 1

## 26. L = lim (1 + ax )1/ x 1

x0

ln (1 + ax )
0

x0
x0
x
0
1/(1 + ax ) a
a
= lim
= lim
=a
x0
x 0 1 + ax
1
L = ea
ln L = lim [1/ x ln (1 + ax )] = lim

x0

## ln L = lim+ [3/(ln x ) ln x ] = lim+ 3 = 3

x0
3

x0

L = e = 20.08553...
28. L = lim+ (7 x )5/(ln x ) 0 0
x0

## ln L = lim+ [5/(ln x ) ln(7 x )]

x0

= lim+

5 ln (7 x )

ln x

= lim+

5 [1/(7 x )] 7
=5
1/ x

x0

x0

L = e 5 = 148.4131...

x
1

ex 1
0
x
x 0 1(e 1) + x e
0

tan x
sec 2 x
= lim
x /2 sec x
x /2 sec x tan x
sec x
= lim
, the original expression!
x /2 tan x
= lim

## Using tan x = (sec x)/(csc x), the expression

reduces to
sec x
lim
= lim csc x = 1
x /2 (sec x )/(csc x )
x /2
33. L = lim+ x k /(ln x ) 0 0
x0

## ln L = lim+ [k/(ln x ) ln x ] = lim+ k = k

x0

ex 1
0
x
x
x 0 e 1 + xe
0
ex
1
= lim x
x
x =
x 0 e + e + xe
2
1
1
30. lim

x0 x
sin x
x0

x0

L = ek
The graph turns out to be a horizontal line,
y = ek, defined for x > 0.
y

y = ek

= lim

= lim

sec x
sec x tan x
lim
= lim
x /2 tan x
x /2
sec 2 x

1
1
29. lim x
x0 x
e 1
x
e 1 x
0
= lim

x
x 0 x (e 1)
0
= lim

sin x x
0

x sin x
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## By the definition of a power,

x k /( ln x ) = ( x k )1/ln x = (e k ln x )1/ln x = e k
g( x )
0.3 x 2 2.7
=
h( x ) 0.2 x 2 2 x + 4.2
g(3) = 0.3(9) 2.7 = 0,
h(3) = 0.2(9) 2(3) + 4.2 = 0, Q .E.D .

34. a. f ( x ) =

## b. g (x) = 0.6x g (3) = 1.8

h (x) = 0.4x 2 h (3) = 0.8

127

## Tangent lines at (3, 0) have these equations.

For g: y1 = 1.8(x 3)
For h: y2 = 0.8(x 3)
y
1.8( x 3)
c. 1 =
= 2.25, for x 3.
y2 0.8( x 3)
g(3) 1.8
=
= 2.25, which equals y1/y2,
h(3) 0.8
Q .E .D .
d. Because the ratio g (x)/h(x) approaches the
ratio y1/y2 as x approaches 3, and because
y1/y2 equals g (3)/h (3) for all x 3, the ratio
g (x)/h(x) also approaches g (3)/h (3) as x
approaches 3. This is what lHospitals rule
concludes.
If g (3) or h (3) were any number other than 0,
the canceling of the (x 3)s in part c could
not be done, and the ratio would almost
certainly not equal 1.8/(0.8).
e. The graph shows a removable discontinuity at
(3, 2.25):
f (x )

1
3

## 35. a. For yearly compounding, m(t) =

1000(1 + 0.06)t. For semiannual compounding, m ( t) = 1000(1 + 0.06/2)2t because there
are two compounding periods per year, each
of which gets half the interest rate.
b. m(t) = 1000(1 + 0.06/n)nt
lim m(t ) = lim 1000(1 + 0.06/n) nt

nt

## Let L = lim (1 + 0.06/n) nt .

c.
t
5
20
50

m(t),
m(t), Annual Continuous
1,338.23
1,349.86
3,207.14
3,320.12
18,420.15
20,085.54

Difference
11.63
112.98
1,665.38

## d. For 7% interest, compounded continuously,

m (t) = 1000e0.0 7t .
36. a. f (x) = x n, g (x) = ln x, h (x) = ex

f ( x)
xn
lim
= lim

x g( x )
x ln x

nx n 1
= lim nx n = , if n > 0
x 1/ x
x

= lim

## a power function is higher-order than the

natural log function.

f ( x)
xn
lim
= lim x
x h( x )
x e

nx n 1
, if n 1 > 0
x
x e

## Eventually, the exponent of the power will

become zero, in which case the limit takes the
form constant/, which is 0.
a power function is lower-order than an
exponential function.
Using < to represent is lower-order than,
natural log < power < exponential.
ln 3 x
x 100
b. i. lim 5 = 0
ii. lim 0.01x = 0
x x
x e
= lim

e 0.3 x
=
x 100 ln x
1
x
= lim
=0
iv. lim
x x
x x
iii. lim

ex
0.8 x
=
0.2 x = lim e
x
x e
37. Answers will vary.
v. lim

n

ln (1 + 0.06/n)
0

n
1/(nt )
0

= lim

n
n 2 /t

= lim
= lim

0.06t
= 0.06t
(1 + 0.06/n)

n

## When interest is compounded continuously,

m(t) = 1000e0. 06t .
128

## Problem Set 6-6

1. y = ln (3x + 4) y = 3/(3x + 4)
2. y = ln (3x 5) = ln 3 + 5 ln x y = 5/x
3. y = ln (e 3x) = 3x y = 3
4 cos 4 x
= 4 cot 4x
4. y = ln (sin 4x) y =
sin 4 x
5. y = ln (cos5 x) = 5 ln (cos x)
5 sin x
y =
= 5 tan x
cos x
6. y = ln (e5) = 5
y = 0 (Derivative of a constant!)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 7. y = ln [cos (tan x)]

sin (tan x )
y =
sec2 x = tan (tan x) sec2 x
cos (tan x )
1
8. y = ln x 2 2 x + 3 = ln ( x 2 2 x + 3)
2
1 2x 2
x 1

y =
=
2 x2 2x + 3 x2 2x + 3
9. y = cos (ln x) y = (1/x) sin (ln x)
10. y = sin x ln x y = cos x ln x + (1/x) sin x
11. y = e7x y = 7e7x
3
3
12. y = e x y = 3 x 2 e x
5

13. y = e 5 ln x = e ln x = x 5 y = 5 x 4
14. y = ecos x
y = ecos x (sin x) = ecos x sin x
15. y = cos (ex) y sin (ex) ex = ex sin ex
16. y = (cos3 x)(e3x)
y = 3 cos2 x (sin x) e3x + cos3 x e3x 3
= 3e3x cos2 x sin x + 3e3x cos3 x
= 3e3x cos2 x (sin x + cos x) (Factoring
optional)
5
5
17. y = e x y = 5 x 4 e x
x
x
18. y = e e y = e e e x
19. sin y = ex cos y y = ex
ex
ex
(See sketch.)
=
cos y
1 e2 x

y =

1
sin y = e x

(Showing cos y = 1 e 2 x )
20. y = e x ln x
y = ex ln x + ex (1/x) = ex (ln x + 1/x)
21. y =

1/t dt y = 1/x
1

## 22. tan y = e sec y y = e

ex
ex
y =
=
(See sketch.)
2
sec y 1 + e 2 x
x

1 + e 2x

ex

y
1

23. y = ln (e ln x) = ln x y = 1/x
24. y = 2x ln y = x ln 2 (1/y)y = ln 2
y = y ln 2 = 2x ln 2
x
25. y = e x ln 2 = e ln 2 = 2 x
y = 2x ln 2 (See Problem 24.)
2
26. y = e2 ln x = e ln x = x 2 y = 2x
27. y = x 2 y = 2x
28. y = ex ln x (which equals xx)
y = ex ln x [ln x + x (1/x)] = xx (ln x + 1)
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 29. y = xx = (eln x)x = ex ln x

y = xx (ln x + 1) (See Problem 28.)
30. y = x ln x x y = ln x + x (1/x) 1 = ln x
(Note: This answer reveals that the integral of
ln x is x ln x x.)
31. y = ex(x 1) y = ex(x 1) + ex 1 = xex
1
1
32. y = (e x + e x ) y = (e x e x )
2
2
1
1
33. y = (e x e x ) y = (e x + e x )
2
2
(Problems 32 and 33 are the hyperbolic cosine
and sine functions, respectively. See Chapter 8.)
ex

1+ ex
e x (1 + e x ) e x (e x )
y =
(1 + e x )2

34. y =

ex
(1 + e x )2

35. y = 5x ln y = x ln 5 (1/y)y = ln 5
y = y ln 5 = 5x ln 5
ln x
1/ x
1
36. y = log5 x =
y =
=
ln 5
ln 5 x ln 5
37. y = x 7 log2 x = x 7

ln x

ln 2

1
1
7 x 8 ln x + x 7
x
ln 2
8
x
(7 ln x + 1)
=
ln 2

y =

38. y = 2 x cos x
y = 2 x (ln 2) cos x + 2 x (sin x)
= 2 x(ln 2 cos x + sin x) (Factoring optional)
39. y = e 2x ln 5x
y = 2e 2x ln 5x + e 2x (1/x)
= e 2x (2 ln 5x + 1/x)
40. y =

7x
1
y =
7 x ln 7 = 7 x
ln 7
ln 7

41. y =

log 3 x
1
= log e x = ln x y =
log 3 e
x

42. y =

log10 x
1
= log e x = ln x y =
log10 e
x

## 43. y = (log 8 x )(ln 8) =

ln x
ln 8 = ln x
ln 8

1
x
44. y = (log4 x)10
y =

y = 10(log4 x)9

1
10(log 4 x )9
=
x ln 4
x ln 4

7 ln x
7
y =
ln 5
x ln 5

129

## 46. y = tan ex y = sec2 ex ex = ex sec2 ex

47. y = esin x y = esin x cos x

69.
70.

71.

72.

1

73.

54. y = tan 1

74.

1
x y =
1+ x2

75.

76.

## 56. y = cot x y = csc 2 x

57.
58.
59.
60.

e
e

4x

dx =

1 4x
e +C
4

77.

x e dx = 4 e (4 x
cos x e dx = e
1

x4

sin x

sin x

dx ) =

1 x4
e +C
4

61.
62.

79.

(ln x )
1
1
dx = (ln x )5 dx = (ln x )6 + C
x
x
6

= (1/ln 5) e
x

dx = e x ln 5 dx
x ln 5

80.

ln 5 dx

1 x ln 5
5x
e
+C=
+C
ln 5
ln 5

=
63.

x ln 5

dx = 5 x dx =

81.

5x
+C
ln 5

## (See Problem 62.)

64.
65.

x1

t
e

dt = ln x (By definition!)
83.

67.

68.

130

82.

1 x
1
(e + e x ) dx = (e x e x ) + C
2
2

66.

78.

(cos x dx )

= e sin x + C
5

dx = e

dx =

+C

(ln x ) x dx = 10 (ln x ) + C
cos x dx = sin x + C
1
e dx = x dx = 2 x + C
9

ln x

10

ln (e ) dx = 3x ln e dx = 3x dx = 2 x
0 dx = C (Integral of zero is a constant.)
cos x sec x dx = 1 dx = x + C
1
sec 2 x dx = 2 sec 2 x (2 dx )
3

3x

+C

1
ln | sec 2 x + tan 2 x | + C
2
1
tan 3 x dx =
tan 3 x (3 dx )
3
1
= ln | sec 3 x | + C
3
1
cot 4 x dx =
cot 4 x ( 4 dx )
4
1
= ln | sin 4 x | + C
4
1
csc 5 x dx =
csc 5 x (5 dx )
5
1
= ln | csc 5 x + cot 5 x | + C
5
1 cos x
0
lim

x0
x
0
sin x
=0
= lim
x0 1
x
0
lim

x 0 1 cos x
0
1
= lim
= (Reciprocal of Problem 81.)
x 0 sin x
x
/2

lim
=
=
x / 2 1 cos x
1 cos ( /2) 2

= Form:

1 + cos x
0
5 x sin 5 x
0

85. lim
3
x0
x
0
5 5 cos 5 x
0
= lim

2
x0
3x
0
x

2
+C
ln 2

84. lim

dx = e 4 x + C

3 x4

## y = (1/csc x) (csc x cot x) = cot x

1 x

48. y = ln csc x

52. y = sin 1 x y =

(3/x ) dx = 3 ln | x | + C
4
12
4 dx = ln 4 = ln 4 = 8.656170K

3x
+C
ln 3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25 sin 5 x
0

x0
6x
0
125 cos 5 x 125
= lim
=
= 20.8333K
x0
6
6
= lim

= lim
x0

= lim
x0

3(e 3 x

3 3e 3 x
0
3x
1) + 3 x 3e
0

9e 3 x

9 e 3 x
1
3x
3x =
+ 9e + 27 xe
2

x

## ln L = ln lim (1 + 0.03/ x ) x = lim ln(1 + 0.03/ x ) x

x

= lim [ x ln (1 + 0.03/ x )]
x

ln (1 + 0.03 x 1 )
0

x
x 1
0

= lim

## 1/(1 + 0.03/ x ) (0.03 x 2 )

= lim
= 0.03
x
x 2
L = e0.03 = 1.03045
87. lim (1 + 0.03 x )

1/ x

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
R1. a. dM/dt = 0.06M M 1 dM = 0.06 dt

100

## ln L = lim [(1/ x ) ln (1 + 0.03 x )] 0

x

ln (1 + 0.03 x )

x
1/(1 + 0.03 x ) 0.03
= lim
=0
x
1
L = e0 = 1
= lim

2x

88. lim 2
x x

= lim

2 ln 2

2x
2

2 (ln 2)
=
x
2
2x
or: lim 2 = by (exponential)/(power)
x x
= lim

0.06 dt = 0.06t
0

5
0

= 0.3

## b. Solving numerically for x in

M 1 dM = 0.3

gives x 134.9858 .
c. There will be \$134.99 in the account, so the
interest will be \$34.99.
R2. a. Integrating x 1 by the power rule results in
x 1+1
division by zero:
+ C.
1 + 1
b. If g( x ) =

x1
ln x =
dt
1 t
d
d x1 1
(ln x ) =
dt =

dx
dx 1 t x

M 1 dM =

100

## 89. lim (0.5 x )3/( 2 x ) 1

x 2

Let L = ln (0.5x)3/(2 x) .
3
ln L = lim
ln 0.5 x 0

x 2 2 x
3 ln 0.5 x
0

2x
0
3/(0.5 x ) 0.5
3
= lim
=
x 2
1
2
L = e 3/2 = 0.22313
= lim
x 2

1
1
90. lim 3 x

x0 e
1 3x
3 x (e 3 x 1)
0

3x
x0 3 x (e
1)
0

= lim

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## c. i. y = (ln 5x)3 y = (3/x)(ln 5x)2

ii. f (x) = ln x 9 = 9 ln x f (x) = 9/x
iii. y = csc (ln x)
y = csc (ln x) cot (ln x) (1/x)
iv. g( x ) =
d. i.

x2

csc t dt g ( x ) = 2 x csc x 2

sec x tan x
dx =
sec x
= ln | sec x | + C

3 10

## sec x sec x tan x dx

1

dx = 10 ln | x | 2
x
= 10 ln | 3 | 10 ln | 2 |
= 10(ln 3 ln 2) = 4.054651
1
iii. x 2 ( x 3 4) 1 dx =
( x 3 4) 1 (3 x 2 dx )
3
1
= ln | x 3 4 | + C
3
ii.

131

## e. By finding areas, h (1) = 2.5, h (2) = 0,

h (6) = 2.7, h (10) = 0, and h (11) = 2.5.
y

ii.
y

y = h (x )

1 2

10

x or t
11

x
2

y = f (t )

iii.

## f. i. y (100) 70 names; 70% remembered

y(1) = 1 name; 100% remembered
101
ii. y =
100 + x
y (100) = 101/(200) = 0.505 names/person
y (1) = 101/101 = 1 name/person
iii. Paula has probably not forgotten any
names as long as x y < 0.5. After
meeting 11 people, she remembers about
10.53 11 names, but after meeting
12 people, she remembers about 11.44
11 names.
R3. a. i. See the text for the definition of logarithm.
ii. See the text for the definition of ln x.
iii. See the text for the statement of the
uniqueness theorem.
iv. See the text for the proof.
v. See the solution to Problem 10 in
Lesson 6-3.
b. i. e = lim (1 + n)1/ n or e = lim (1 + 1/n) n
n0

ln x
ii. log b x =
ln b
c. i. y = log 4 x =

ln x
1
y =
ln 4
x ln 4

f ( x ) =

ln (cos x )

ln 2

1
( sin x )
(cos x )(ln 2)

x
5

## b. i. f (x) = x1.4 e5x

f (x) = 1.4x0.4 e5x + 5x1.4 e5x
ii. g (x) = sin (e 2x) g (x) = 2e 2x cos(e 2x)
d ln x
d
iii.
(e ) =
( x) = 1
dx
dx
iv. y = 100x y = (ln 100)100 x
v. f (x) = 3.7 100.2 x
f (x) = 0.74 ln 10 100.2 x
v i . r(t) = t tan t ln r = tan t ln t
tan t
1

r = sec 2 t ln t +
r
t
tan t
r = t tan t sec 2 t ln t +

t
c. y = (5x 7)3 (3x + 1)5
ln y = 3 ln (5x 7) + 5 ln (3x + 1)
1
15
15
y =
+

y
5x 7 3x + 1
15
15
y =
+
(5 x 7)3 (3 x + 1)5
5 x 7 3 x + 1
= (120x 90)(5x 7)2 (3x + 1)4
d. i.
ii.

tan x
ln 2

iii.

R4. a. i.
iv.
10

x
2

## Problem Set 6-7

2 x

cos x

dx = 5e 2 x + C

sin x dx = e cos x + C

= 10e

132

10e
e

10

0.2x

0.2

+ 10e

dx =

0.2

2
2

= 4.02672 K

0.2x

10
+C
0.2 ln 10

## e. i. The exposure is the product of C (t) and t,

where C (t) varies. Thus, a definite integral
must be used.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ii. E( x ) =

150e
0

0.16 t

dt = 937.5( e 0.16 x + 1)

## E(5) = 937.5(e 0.8 + 1) =

516.25 ppm days E (10) =
937.5(e 1.6 + 1) = 748.22 ppm days
As x grows very large, E (x) seems to
approach 937.5.
iii. E (x) = 150e 0.16 x = C (x)
E (5) = 67.39 ppm (or ppm days
per day)
E (10) = 30.28 ppm
f. i. From Figure 6-7d, the maximum
concentration is about 150 ppm at about
2 hours. (These values can be found more
precisely by setting the numerical or
algebraic derivative equal to zero, solving
to get t = 1/ln 0.6 = 1.9576 . Then
C (1.9576) = 200/(e ln 0.6) =
144.0332 .)
ii. C (t) = 200t 0.6t
C (t) = 200t 0.6t ln 0.6 + 200 0.6t
C (1) = 200 0.61(ln 0.6 + 1) = 58.70
C(5) = 200 0.65(5 ln 0.6 + 1)
= 24.16 < 0
C(t) is increasing at about 58.7 ppm/h
when t = 1 and decreasing at about
24.2 ppm/h when t = 5. The concentration
is increasing if C (t) is positive and
decreasing if it is negative.
iii. Solving 50 = 200t 0.6t numerically for t
gives t 0.2899 and t 6.3245 .
So C(t) > 50 for 6.3245 0.2899 =
6.03 , or about 6 hours.
iv. C 1(t) = 200t 0.3t

c. lim x 3e x 0
x

x3
x
x e

3x
= lim x
x e

6x
= lim x
x e

6
= lim x = 0 (Form: 6/)
x e
= lim

x 1

## ln L = lim [tan ( x/2) ln x ]

x 1

= lim

ln x
0

cot ( x/2)
0

= lim

2
1/ x
1
=
=
2
( /2)csc x/2 /2

x 1

x 1

L = e 2/ = 0.529077
e. lim 3 x 4 = 48
x 2

f.

x /2

x /2

## g. Examples of indeterminate forms:

0/0, /, 0 , 00, 1 , 0,

C (t )

100
50

t
1

## From the graph, the maximum is about

60 ppm around t = 1. (Exactly, t = 1/ln 0.3 =
0.8305 , for which C (0.8305) =
200/(e ln 0.3) = 61.11092 61.1 ppm.)
Repeating the computations of part iii
gives C (t) > 50 for 0.409 < t < 1.473 ,
or for about 1.06 hours.
In conclusion, the concentration peaks
sooner at a lower concentration and stays
above 50 ppm for a much shorter time.
ln 0.5 = 0.025t

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2x2 3

2
x 7 5 x

4x
2
= lim
=
x 10 x
5
2
x cos x + 1
0
b. lim

x
x0
e x 1
0
2 x + sin x
0
= lim

x0
ex 1
0
2 + cos x 2 + 1
= lim
=
=3
x0
ex
1

R5. a. lim

## R6. a. i. y = ln (sin4 7x) = 4 ln sin 7x

y = 4(1/sin 7x) cos 7x 7 = 28 cot 7x
ii. y = x 3e2x
y = 3x 4 e2x + x 3 2e2x
= x 4e2x (2x 3)
iii. y = cos (2x) y = sin (2x) 2x ln 2
4 ln x
4
iv. y = log 3 x 4 =
y =
ln 3
x ln 3
b. i.
ii.

e
2
= e

1.7 x

sec x

dx = ( 1 / 1.7) e 1.7 x + C

sec x tan x dx

ln 2 sec x

sec x tan x dx

## Problem Set 6-7

133

ii. E( x ) =

150e
0

0.16 t

dt = 937.5( e 0.16 x + 1)

## E(5) = 937.5(e 0.8 + 1) =

516.25 ppm days E(10) =
937.5(e 1.6 + 1) = 748.22 ppm days
As x grows very large, E(x) seems to
approach 937.5.
iii. E (x) = 150e 0.16x = C (x)
E (5) = 67.39 ppm (or ppm days
per day)
E (10) = 30.28 ppm
f. i. From Figure 6-7d, the maximum
concentration is about 150 ppm at about
2 hours. (These values can be found more
precisely by setting the numerical or
algebraic derivative equal to zero, solving
to get t = 1/ln 0.6 = 1.9576 . Then
C (1.9576) = 200/(e ln 0.6) =
144.0332 .)
ii. C (t) = 200t 0.6t
C (t) = 200t 0.6t ln 0.6 + 200 0.6t
C (1) = 200 0.61(ln 0.6 + 1) = 58.70
C(5) = 200 0.65(5 ln 0.6 + 1)
= 24.16 < 0
C(t) is increasing at about 58.7 ppm/h
when t = 1 and decreasing at about
24.2 ppm/h when t = 5. The concentration
is increasing if C (t) is positive and
decreasing if it is negative.
iii. Solving 50 = 200t 0.6t numerically for t
gives t 0.2899 and t 6.3245 .
So C(t) > 50 for 6.3245 0.2899 =
6.03 , or about 6 hours.
iv. C1(t) = 200t 0.3t
C (t )

c. lim x 3e x 0
x

x3

x
x e

2
3x

= lim x
x e

6x

= lim x
x e

6
= lim x = 0 (Form: 6/)
x e
= lim

x 1

## ln L = lim [tan ( x/2) ln x ]

x 1

= lim

0
ln x

0
cot ( x/2)

= lim

1/ x
1
2
=
=
2
( /2)csc x/2 /2

x 1

x 1

L = e 2/ = 0.529077
e. lim 3 x 4 = 48
x 2

f.

2

x /2

x /2

## g. Examples of indeterminate forms:

0/0, /, 0 , 00, 1 , 0,

100
50

t
1

## From the graph, the maximum is about

60 ppm around t = 1. (Exactly, t = 1/ln 0.3
= 0.8305 , for which C (0.8305) =
200/(e ln 0.3) = 61.11092 61.1
ppm.)
Repeating the computations of part iii
gives C (t) > 50 for 0.409 < t < 1.473
, or for about 1.06 hours.
In conclusion, the concentration peaks
sooner at a lower concentration and stays
above 50 ppm for a much shorter time.
ln 0.5 = 0.025t
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

2x2 3

2
x 7 5 x

4x
2
= lim
=
x 10 x
5
2
x cos x + 1
0
b. lim

x
x0
e x 1
0
2 x + sin x
0
= lim

x0
ex 1
0
2 + cos x 2 + 1
= lim
=
=3
x0
ex
1

R5. a. lim

## R6. a. i. y = ln (sin4 7x) = 4 ln sin 7x

y = 4(1/sin 7x) cos 7x 7 = 28 cot 7x
ii. y = x 3e2x
y = 3x 4 e 2x + x 3 2e2x
= x 4e2x (2x 3)
iii. y = cos (2x ) y = sin (2x ) 2x ln 2
4 ln x
4
iv. y = log 3 x 4 =
y =
ln 3
x ln 3
b. i.
ii.

e
2
= e

1.7 x

sec x

dx = ( 1 / 1.7) e 1.7 x + C

sec x tan x dx

ln 2 sec x

sec x tan x dx

133

## C4. a. Suppose there is a number M > 0 such that

ln x M for all x > 0. Let x = e M +1. Then
ln x = ln e M +1 = (M + 1) ln e = M + 1 > M.
This contradicts ln x M for all x > 0. Thus
the supposition is false, and there can be no
such number M that is an upper bound for
ln x, Q .E .D .
b. If M were a lower bound for ln x, then M
would be an upper bound for ln (1/x), but
part a shows no such number can exist.
c. ln x = 1/x, which shows that ln is
differentiable for all x > 0. Thus, ln is
continuous for all x > 0 because
differentiability implies continuity.
d. Because ln is continuous for all x > 0, the
intermediate value theorem applies. Thus, if k
is between ln a and ln b, there is a number c
between a and b such that ln c = k.
y = ln x
ln b

k
ln a

x
a

## e. Part a shows k cannot be an upper bound for

ln, so there must be some b > 0 such that
ln b > k. Similarly, part b shows k is not
a lower bound, so some a > 0 exists for
which ln a < k. By part d there is some
number c between a and b such that ln c = k,
Q .E .D .
f. The domain of ln is the positive reals, and the
range is all reals; the domain of the inverse to
ln (i.e., exp) is the range of ln (i.e., all reals),
and the range of the inverse is the domain of
ln (i.e., positive reals).
C5. a. g( x ) =

x2

sin t dt =

g (x) = 2x sin
b. g( x ) =
=

x2

sin t dt

x2

x2

sin t dt

x1

dt
n

1
T2. e = lim 1 + or e = lim (1 + n)1/n
n
n0
n
T3. If g (x) =

f (t ) dt and f ( t ) is continuous in a

## neighborhood of a, then g (x) = f ( x ) .

T4. If (1) f ( x ) = g (x) for all x in the domain and
(2) f ( a) = g ( a) for some a in the domain, then
f ( x ) = g ( x ) for all x in the domain.
T5. Prove that ln x = loge x for all x > 0.
Proof:
Let f ( x ) = ln x, and g (x) = loge x.
f ( x ) = 1/x and
g (x) = (1/x) loge e = (1/x) 1 = 1/x
f ( x ) = g (x) for all x > 0
f ( 1 ) = ln 1 = 0 and g (1) = loge 1 = 0
f ( 1 ) = g (1)
by the uniqueness theorem,
f ( x ) = g (x) for all x > 0.
ln x = loge x for all x > 0, Q .E .D .
T6. f ( x ) = ln (x3ex )
1
a. f ( x ) = 3 x (3 x 2 e x + x 3e x ) = 3/ x + 1
x e
b. f ( x ) = 3 ln x + x ln e = 3 ln x + x
f ( x ) = 3/x + 1 (Checks.)
T7. y = e2x ln x3 = 3e2x ln x
y = 6e 2 x ln x + 3e 2 x (1 / x )
= 3e 2 x (2 ln x + 1/x )
T8. v = ln (cos 10x)
v = 1/(cos 10x) (10 sin 10x) = 10 tan 10x
T9. f ( x ) = (log2 4x)7 = [(ln 4x)/(ln 2)]7
f ( x ) = 7[(ln 4x)/(ln 2)]6 [(1/4x) 4 (1/ln 2)]
7(log 2 4 x )6
=
x ln 2
T10. t ( x ) = ln (cos2 x + sin2 x) = ln 1 = 0
t (x) = 0

tan x

T11. p( x ) =
sin t dt

T1. ln x =

tan x

sin t dt +

c. g( x ) =

Chapter Test

v( x )

u( x )

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

e t sin t dt

T12.

T13.

T14.

f (t ) dt

## g (x) = f (v(x)) v (x) f ( u ( x ) ) u (x)

C6. log cabin
(or log cabin + C, which equals houseboat)

ln x

1 5x
e +C
5
1
(ln x )6 ( dx/x ) = (ln x ) 7 + C
7
1
sec 5 x dx = ln | sec 5 x + tan 5 x | + C
5
5x

dx =

135

1 x2
1
5 =
(25 1)
0
ln 5 0 ln 5
= 14.9120

5 3x
T16. lim

x ln 4 x

3
= lim
= lim(3 x ) =
x [1/( 4 x )] 4
x
T15.

5 x dx =

x / 2

## ln L = lim [cot x ln ( tan x )] 0

x / 2

ln (tan x )

= lim

x / 2
tan x

= lim
x / 2

L=e =1
T18. a.
0

(1 / tan x ) sec 2 x
= lim cot x = 0
x / 2
sec 2 x

## But h ( x ) = f ( x ) g (x), which equals 0 for

all values of x.
h (c) = 0
This result thus contradicts the mean value
theorem, Q.E.D.
T22. a. F ( x ) = 60e0.1 x F ( x ) = 6e0.1 x so
F ( 5 ) = 6e0.5 = 9.8923 lb/ft
F ( 1 0 ) = 6e = 16.3096 lb/ft
b. Work equals force times displacement. But the
force varies at different displacements. Thus, a
definite integral has to be used.
c.
F

100

(x, F )

y
5
4
3
2
1

dx
5

dW = F dx = 60 e0.1 x dx

t or x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

W=

60e

0.1 x

dx

## = 600e 0.1x = 600(e 0.5 1)

0

b. h( x ) =

3 x 5

W 389.23 ft-lb
f (t ) dt h ( x ) = f (3 x 5) 3,

## T23. Answers will vary.

h(3) = f (9 5) 3 = f ( 4) 3 = 1 3 = 3
T19. ln x =

x1

dt, so ln 1.8 =

1.8 1

dt
t
1
1
1
1
M4 = 0.2
+
+
+
= 0.58664 K
1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7
t

T20. g( x ) =

x2

sin t dt = cos t

x2
2

## = cos x2 + cos 2 g(x) = 2x sin x2

2

d x
g ( x ) =
sin t dt = 2 x sin x 2
dx 2
T21. Let h ( x ) = f ( x ) g (x).
Then h ( a) = f ( a) g (a) = 0 and
h ( b ) = f ( b ) g (b) 0.
h( b ) h( a )

0
ba
By the mean value theorem, there is a number c
between a and b such that
h( b ) h( a )
h ( c ) =
.
ba
h (c) 0

136

## Problem Set 6-8

1. f ( x ) = 2x
2 3.1 2 2.9
f (3)
= 5.549618K
0.2
2. There are about 10.0 squares, each 20 units.

50

10

g( x ) dx 200

## (Function is g( x ) = 2 + 0.1x + sin

2
x, so exact
15

3. L = lim
f ( x ) if and only if for any > 0, there is
x c
a > 0 such that if x is within units of c but
not equal to c, f ( x ) is within units of L.
4. Answers may vary.
f (x )
4

x
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f ( x + h) f ( x )
h
f ( x ) f (c )
or f (c) = lim
x c
xc
6. f (x) = x 3
( x + h)3 x 3
f ( x ) = lim
h0
h
3
x + 3 x 2 h + 3 xh 2 + h 3 x 3
= lim
h0
h
2
= lim(3 x + 3 xh + h 2 ) = 3 x 2 , Q.E.D.
5. f (x) = lim

h0

y=x2

10

x
1

## U 6 = 0.5(1.52 + 22 + 2.52 + 32 + 3.52 + 42)

= 24.875

x3

8. f (x) =

x 2 dx

h0

7. f (x) = f (x) = 3x 2
f (5) = 352 = 75
5.013 4.99 3
= 75.0001
f (5)
0.02
5.0013 4.999 3
f (5)
= 75.000001
0.002
The symmetric differences are getting closer to
75 as x gets closer to zero.

13. M 10 = 20.9775
M 100 = 20.999775
Sums seem to be approaching 21.
1
14. a. cos 5 x sin x dx = cos 6 x + C
6

(1/x ) dx = ln | x | + C
tan x dx = ln | sec x | + C = ln | cos x | + C
sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x | + C
1
(3x 5) dx = 3 (3x 5) (3 dx )

b.

3 x 5 = (3 x 5)
1
f (x) = (3 x 5) 1/ 2 3 = 1.5(3 x 5) 1/ 2
2
f (7) = 1.5(21 5)1/2 = 1.5/4 = 0.375 = 3/8
9. Line with slope of 3/8 is tangent to the graph at
x = 7.
1/ 2

c.
d.

1/ 2

e.

f (x )

15.
x
5

10. a. y = e 2x cos 3x
y = 2 e2x cos 3x 3e2x sin 3x
ln x
b. q( x ) =
q ( x ) =
tan x
2
(tan x )/x ln x sec x
1
ln x
=

2
2
tan x
x tan x sin x
d2 x
d
[(ln 5)5 x ] = (ln 5)2 5 x
c.
2 (5 ) =
dx
dx
11. For the function to be differentiable,
lim ( ax 2 + 1) = lim+ ( x 2 + 6 x + b) and
x 2

x 2

lim 2 ax = lim+ ( 2 x + 6) .

x 2

x 2

4a + 1 = 8 + b and 4a = 2 a =
y

1
and b = 5
2

1/ 2

2
1 2
(3 x 5)3/ 2 + C = (3 x 5)3/ 2 + C
9
3 3

1 3 4 64 1
=
= 21,
x
1
3
3 3
1
which agrees with the conjecture in Problem 13.

x 2 dx =

## 16. The graph shows a tangent line at x = c parallel

to the secant line.
f (x )

x
a

c b

Statement:
If f is differentiable on (a, b) and continuous at
x = a and x = b, then there is a number x = c in
f (b) f ( a)
(a, b) such that f ( x ) =
.
ba
17. y = x9/7
y7 = x9
7y6 y = 9x 8
9x8
9x8
9
9
9
= x 854 / 7 = x 2 / 7 = x 9/ 71
6 =
7y
7( x 9/ 7 )6 7
7
7
as from the derivative of a power formula
y =

x
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

137

## 18. If x 1 were the derivative of a power, then the

power would have to be x0. But x0 = 1, so its
derivative equals 0, not x 1. Thus, x 1 is not the
derivative of a power, Q.E.D.
19. f ( x ) =

tan x

cos 3t dt

20. f ( x ) =

1

## 21. Prove ln xa = a ln x for any constant a and all

x > 0.
Proof:
Let f (x) = ln xa and g (x) = a ln x.
1
1 a
Then f ( x ) = a ax a1 = a = and
x
x x
1 a
g ( x ) = a = .
x x
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0
f (1) = ln (1a) = ln 1 = 0 and g(1) = a ln 1 = 0
f (1) = g (1)
f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0, and thus
ln xa = a ln x for all x 0, Q .E .D .
22. x = 5 cos t, y = 3 sin t
dy dy/dt 3 cos t
3

=
=
= cos t
dx dx/dt 5 sin t
5
23. At t = 2, (x, y) = (5 cos 2, 3 sin 2)
= (2.08 , 2.72).
dy
3
At t = 2,
= cot 2 = 0.2745 .
dx
5
The graph shows that a line of slope 0.27
at point (2.08 , 2.72) is tangent to the
curve.
y

## 26. L = lim (1 + n)1/n 1

n0

1
ln L = lim ln (1 + n) 0
n0 n

ln (1 + n)
0
= lim

n0
n
0
1/(1 + n)
= lim
=1
n0
1
L = e1 = e, Q.E.D.
dx
dy
27. Know:
= 30 ft/s,
= 40 ft/s
dt
dt
dz
Want:
when x = 200 and y = 100
dt
x2 + y2 = z2
dx
dy
dz
2x
+ 2y
= 2z
dt
dt
dt
When x = 200 and y = 100, z = 50, 000 = 100 5 .
2(200)( 30) + 2(100)( 40) = 2 100 5

dz
dt

dz 20
=
= 8.94427K ft/s
dt
5
The distance z is decreasing.
28.

## 4 185 + 2 190 + 4 220 + 300)

= (1/3)(0.5)(3340) = 556 23
29. Area of cross section = y2
Because the end of the radius is on a line through
the origin with slope r/h, y = (r/h)x.
r 2
Area = [(r/h) x ]2 = 2 x 2
h
Area

x
(x, Area)

dx

x
h

24. y = tan 1 t
dy
1
v=
=
= (1 + t 2 ) 1
dt 1 + t 2
dv
2t
a=
= 1(1 + t 2 ) 2 2t =
dt
(1 + t 2 )2
3x
e 1
0

25. lim
x 0 sin 5 x
0
3e 3 x
3
= lim
=
x 0 5 cos 5 x
5

138

## Problem Set 6-8

dV = (Area) dx
V=

( Area ) dx =

h r 2

h2

x 2 dx

r 2 1 3 h 1 r 2 3
1
x =
(h 0 3 ) = r 2 h, Q .E.D .
h2 3 0 3 h2
3
30. Answers will vary.
=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Chapter 7The Calculus of Growth and Decay

Problem Set 7-1

Q9.

1. D (0) = 500
D (10) = 895.4238482
D (20) = 1603.567736
2. D (t) = 500(ln 1.06)(1.06t ) \$/yr
D (0) = 29.13445406
D (10) = 52.17536994
D (20) = 93.43814108
The rate of change, in \$/yr, increases as the
amount in the account increases.
D(t ) 500 (ln 1.06) (1.06 t )
=
D(t )
500 (1.06 t )
= ln 1.06 = 0.0582689081
R(0) = ln 1.06
R(10) = ln 1.06
R(20) = ln 1.06
4. The percent interest rate stays the same:
approximately 5.83%.
5. f (x) = a bx
f (x) = a (ln b) bx = (ln b)(a bx )
= (ln b) f (x)
So f (x) is directly proportional to f (x).
6. See Problem 11 in Section 7-2.
3. R(t ) =

Q1.

Q2.
y

Q3.

Q4.
y

Q6.
y

y
x

x
x

4
3

## 1. a. B = number of millions of bacteria;

t = number of hours

dB/dt = kB dB/ B = k dt ln | B| = kt + C
| B| = e kt +C = e kt e C B = C1e kt
b. 5 = C1e k0 C1 = 5
7 = 5e3k ln (7/5) = 3k
1
7
k = ln = 0.112157K
3
5
7
B = 5e (1/3) ln( 7/5)t = 5
5

t/3

= 5e 0.112157Kt

c.
B

5
10

d. B = 5(7/5)24/3 = 73.78945
e. 1000 = 5(7/5)t/3 ln (1000/5) = t/3 ln (7/5)
3 ln 200
t=
= 47.24001K
ln (7/5)
About 47 hours after start, so in a little less
than 2 days
2. a. N = number of units of radiation from N17;
t = number of seconds

Q5.

dN /dt = kN dN / N = k dt

x
1

Q10.
y

ln |N| = kt + C
| N | = e kt +C N = C1e kt

## b. 3 1017 = C 1ek0 C 1 = 3 1017

5.6 1013 = 3 1017e60k
ln(1.866 K 10 4 ) = 60 k
k = 0.143103
N = 3 1017 e 0.143103Kt
c.
N

Q7.

Q8.
y

3 1017

y
3

x
x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 7-2

139

d. t = 5(60) = 300 s
N = 3 1017 e ( 0.143103K)(300 ) = 0.067991K
It will not be safe because 0.067 > 0.007.
3. a. F = number of mg; t = number of minutes
dF/dt = kF dF/ F = k dt ln | F| = kt + C

| F| = e kt +C F = C1e kt
50 = C 1ek0 C 1 = 50
30 = 50e20k ln (30/50) = 20k
k = (1/20) ln (0.6) = 0.025541
F = 50e ln ( 0.6 )t / 20 = 50(0.6)t / 20 = 50e 0.025541Kt
b.
F
50

t
50

## c. F = 50(0.6)(60/20) = 10.8 mg (exactly)

d. 0.007 = 50(0.6)t/20
ln (0.007/50) = ln (0.6)t/20
t = 347.4323
About 5 h 47 min
4. a. V = number of dollars trade-in value;
t = number of months from the present

dV /dt = kV dV /V = k dt ln |V | = kt + C
|V | = e kt +C V = C1e kt

## b. 4200 = C1e k0 C1 = 4200

4700 = 4200e ( k )( 3) ln( 4700/4200) = 3k
k = (1/3) ln (4700/4200) = 0.037492
V = 4200e 0.037492Kt
c.
V

4200

t
30

30

## d. At 1 year after V = 4700, t = 9 months.

V = 4200e ( 0.037492)(9) = 2997.116
e. 1200 = 4200e 0.037492t
ln (1200/4200) = 0.037492t
t = (1/0.037492) ln (1200/4200)
= 33.4135
About 33 months from the present
f. 31 months before V = 4700, t = 34.
V = 4200e ( 0.037492K)( 34 ) = 15026.795K
g. The difference between \$16,000 and \$15,000
is the dealers profit.
140

## Problem Set 7-2

5. a. dC/dt = kC
b.

dC/C = k dt ln |C| = kt + D

| C | = e kt + D C = D1e kt
0.00372 = D1e k0 D1 = 0.00372
0.00219 = 0.00372e8k
ln (0.00219/0.00372) = 8k
k = (1/8) ln (219/372) = 0.0662277
C = 0.00372e 0.0662277t
c. Either: C = 0.015
0.015 = 0.00372e 0.0662277t
ln 4.0322 = 0.0662277t
t = 21.05 , which is before the poison was
inhaled,
or: t = 20 C = 0.00372e 0.0662277( 20)
C = 0.0139 , which is less than 0.015
the concentration never was that high.
d.
P
100

50

t
20,000

## e. (1/2)(0.00372) = 0.00372e 0.0662277t

ln (1/2) = 0.0662277t t = 10.4661
6. a. dP/dt = kP
b.

dP/P = k dt ln | P | = kt + C

| P| = e kt +C P = C1e kt
100 = C1e k0 C1 = 100
50 = 100e5750k ln 0.5 = 5750k
k = 0.0001205473
P = 100e 0.0001205473t
c. P = 100e( 0.0001205473)(4000) = 61.74301
d. 48.37 = 100e 0.0001205473Kt
ln 0.4837 = 0.0001205473t
t = 6024.939
The wood is about 6025 years old. For 1996,
the flood would have been 1996 (4004) =
6000 years ago, so the wood is old enough.
e.
100

61.7
50

t
4000 5750

20,000

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 7. dM/dt = kM M = Cekt by the techniques in

Problems 16, where C is the initial investment.
M varies exponentially with t.
Let i = the interest rate as a decimal.
dM/dt = Ck ekt
At t = 0, dM/dt = Ci.
Ci = Ck e0 k = i M = Ce it
Examples:
\$1000 at 7% for 5 yr: \$1419.07
\$1000 at 7% for 10 yr: \$2013.75
\$1000 at 14% for 5 yr: \$2013.75
\$1000 at 14% for 10 yr: \$4055.20
Leaving the money in the account twice as long
has the same effect as doubling the interest rate.
Doubling the amount invested obviously doubles
the money at any particular time, but that doesnt
tell us how that compares with doubling the time
or the interest rate.
Algebraically, Cei 2t = Ce2i t shows that doubling
the time is equivalent to doubling the interest
rate. Solving Ce2it > 2Ceit gives Ce2it 2Ceit > 0
Ceit(eit 2) > 0 eit > 2 (because Ceit > 0, so
C > 0, being an investment) it > ln 2. So
doubling either the time or the interest rate will
always eventually yield more than doubling the
investment, once t is high enough. For example,
at 7%, 0.07t > ln 2 t > (ln 2)/0.07 =
9.9021 t, so by 9 years 11 months,
doubling the time or interest rate will yield more
than doubling the investment.
8. Assume an investment of \$1000 at 7% per year.
For 5 years, as in Problem 7:
Annually: M = 1000(1.07)5 = \$1402.55
Quarterly: M = 1000(1.0175)20 = \$1414.78
Monthly: M = 1000(1.00583)60 = \$1417.63
Daily: M = 1000(1.0001917808)1825 =
\$1419.02
Continuously (Problem 7): \$1419.07
Note that compounding continuously is only
5 cents better than compounding daily for a
\$1000 investment in 5 years!
M = M 0(1 + k/n)nt
Let L = lim (1 + k/n) nt 1.
n

## ln L = lim [nt ln (1 + k/n)] 0

9.

dy
= 0.3 y
dx

20

compounding equation.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x
5
10
20

10.

dy
= 0.2 y
dx
dy
= 0.2 x dx
y
ln |y| = 0.2x + C
| y | = e 0.2 x +C = e 0.2 x e C
y = eC e 0.2 x = C1e 0.2 x
30 = C1e 1.4

30
= 7.3979K
e1.4
y = 7.3979e 0.2 x
C1 =

## 11. dy/dx = ky dy/y = k dx ln | y | = kx + C1

| y | = e kx +C1 y = Ce kx
y(0) = Ce k0 C = y(0) y = y0 e kx , Q.E.D.

## Problem Set 7-3

Q1. Cekx
Q3. kx + C

Q2. (kx2)/2 + C
Q4. cos x + C

Q5. 1/ 1 x 2

Q6. 5 cos x

Q7. tan x
Q8.

t ln (1 + k/n)
= lim

n 1
1
2
t
( kn )
1 + k /n
= lim
n
n 2
kt
= lim
= kt
n 1 + k /n
L = ekt
lim M = M0 e kt , which is the continuous

dy
= 0.3 dx
y
ln |y| = 0.3x + C
| y | = e 0.3 x +C = e 0.3 x e C
y = eC e0.3 x = C1e0.3 x
4 = C1e0 C1 = 4, showing that C1 can be
negative.
y = 4e0.3 x

y' or y
y

x
1

y'

## Q9. lim Ln = lim Un

x 0

x 0

Q10. B
1. a. dM/dt = 100 S
b. S = kM dM/dt = 100 kM
Problem Set 7-3

141

c.

k dM

100 kM = dt k 100 kM = dt
dM

1
ln |100 kM | = t + C
k
|100 kM| = e kte kC
100 km = C 1e kt kM = 100 C 1e k t
1
M = (100 C1e kt )
k
Substitute M = 0 when t = 0.
1
0 = (100 C1e 0 ) C1 = 100
k
100
M =
(1 e kt )
k
d. k = 0.02 M = 5000(1 e0.02 t)
e.
M
5000

t
30

60

90

## f. t = 30: \$2255.94 (\$3000 in, \$744.06 spent)

t = 60: \$3494.03 (\$6000 in, \$2505.97 spent)
t = 90: \$4173.51 (\$9000 in, \$4826.49 spent)
g. t = 365: (365.23 or 366 could be used.)
M = 5000(1 e 7.30 ) = 4996.622
\$4996.62 in the account
dM/dt = 100 0.02(4996.622) = 0.06755
Increasing at about \$0.07 per day
h. lim M = lim 5000(1 e 0.02 t )
t

= 5000(1 0) = 5000

## 2. dM/dt = 100 + kM (k = daily interest rate)

dM
1
k dM
= dt
= dt
100 + kM
k 100 + kM
1
ln |100 + kM | = t + C |100 + kM | = e kt e kC
k
100 + km = C 1e kt kM = 100 + C 1e kt
1
M = (C1e kt 100)
k
Substitute M = 0 when t = 0.
1
0 = (C1e 0 100) C1 = 100
k
100 kt
M =
(e 1)
k
Let k = 0.0002 (0.02% per day).
M = (500000)(e0.0002 t 1)

142

## The graph is almost straight. The \$100/day

deposits far exceed the interest for the first few
years.
M

50,000

t
500

## Make a table of M and dM/dt for various

numbers of years. Neglect leap years.
Years
0
1
10
20

dM/dt

0
37865
537540
1652980

100.00
107.57
207.51
430.60

## After 1 year, the \$100/day is putting more into

the account. After 10 years, the interest has
started putting in more than the \$100/day. After
20 years, the interest puts in about \$331 a day,
while the winnings still put in only \$100 a day.
As t approaches infinity, the amount in the
account becomes infinite!
3. a. E = RI + L(dI/dt)
b. L dI/dt = E RI
L dI
L R dI
= dt
= dt
E RI
R E RI
L
ln | E RI | = t + C
R
| E RI | = e ( R/ L )t e ( R/ L )C
1
E RI = C1e ( R/ L )t I = [ E C1e ( R/ L )t ]
R
Substitute I = 0 when t = 0.
1
0 = ( E C1e 0 ) C1 = E
R
E
I = [1 e ( R/ L )t ]
R
110
c. I =
[1 e (10 / 20 )t ]
10
I = 11(1 e 0.5 t)

I
11

t
5

10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

## i. I = 11(1 e 0.5) = 4.3281 4.33 amps

0.99 = 1 e 0.02t
e 0.02t = 0.01
0.02t = ln 0.01
t = 50 ln 0.01 = 230.258

## ii. I = 11(1 e5) = 10.9258 10.93 amps

iii. lim I = lim 11(1 e 0.5t ) = 11(1 0)
t

= 11 amps

e. I = 0.95(11) = 10.45
10.45 = 11(1 e 0.5t )

5. a.

0.95 = 1 e 0.5t
b.

e 0.5t = 0.05
0.5t = ln 0.05
t = 2 ln 0.05 = 5.9914
4. a. R = C(dT/dt) + hT
b. C dT/dt = R hT

C dT/( R hT ) = dt
h dT

C
h

C
ln | R hT | = t + D
h

R hT = dt

1/2

dV = k dt

2V 1/2 = kt + C V =

kt + C
2

## V varies quadratically with t.

c. Initial conditions t = 0; V = 196;
dV/dt = 28:
k0+C
1961/2 =
C = 28
2
and 28 = k 1961/ 2 k = 2
2

| R hT | = e
e
R hT = D1e ( h /C )t
T = (1/ h)[ R D1e ( h /C )t ]
Substitute T = 0 when t = 0.
1
0 = ( R D1e 0 ) D1 = R
h
R
T = [1 e ( h / C )t ]
h
(0.04/ 2)t

c. T = (50/0.04)[1 e
T = 1250(1 e 0.02t )
d.

## d. False. dV/dt = 2t 28, so the water flows

out at 28 ft3/min only when t = 0. For
instance, at t = 5, dV/dt = 18, which
means water flows out at only 18 ft3/min.
So it takes longer than 7 min to empty
the tub.
e. 0 = (t 14)2 the tub is empty at
t = 14 min.
f.
V

]
100

t
1250

14

t
100

200

## e. Use TRACE or TABLE.

t = 10: T = 226.586 227
t = 20: T = 412.099 412
t = 50: T = 790.150 790
t = 100: T = 1080.830 1081
t = 200: T = 1227.105 1227
f. lim T = lim 1250(1 e 0.02 t ) = 1250(1 0)
t

2 t + 28
V =
V = (14 t ) 2
2

( h / C )t ( h / C ) D

dV
= kV 1/2
dt

## g. See the solution to Problem C4 in Problem

Set 7-7.
6. The following data were gathered in the authors
class in December 1994. Times t are in seconds
and volumes V are in mL. Note that a burette
reads the amount of fluid delivered, so you
must subtract the reading from 50 to find the
volume remaining. Use food coloring in the
water to make the liquid level easier to read.
Read from the bottom of the meniscus (the
curved surface of the liquid).

= 1250
g. T = 0.99(1250) = 1237.5
1237.5 = 1250(1 e 0.02t )
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

143

Seconds

Volume

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
M
320
360

0
2.4
4.4
6.4
8.5
10.5
12.4
14.3
16.1
17.8
19.9
21.2
22.8
24.5
25.6
27.4
28.6
30.0
31.3
32.6
33.8
35.1
36.4
37.4
38.5
39.5
40.6
M
46.1
49.3

50
47.6
45.6
43.6
41.5
39.5
37.6
35.7
33.9
32.2
30.1
28.8
27.2
25.6
24.4
22.6
21.4
20.0
18.7
17.4
16.2
14.9
13.6
12.6
11.5
10.5
9.4
M
3.9
0.7

## Using quadratic regression with these data,

V = 0.000209255t2 0.20964t + 49.54 .
The data and the equation can be plotted on the
grapher, as shown.

## position of the vertex can be used to predict the

position of the stopcock and the time when the
fluid would all be gone if the burette were of
uniform diameter all the way down to the
stopcock. For the preceding data, the vertex is at
0.20964 K
t=
500 s
(2)(0.000209255K)
V 3.0 mL
So the stopcock should be found at a point
corresponding to about 3 mL below the bottom
mark.
7. a. n = 1, k = 1, C = 3:
dy/dx = y dy/ y = dx ln | y | = x 3

## |y| = e x3 = exe 3 y = 0.04978ex

y
1

x
1

b. n = 0.5, k = 1, C = 3:
dy/dx = y 0.5 y 0.5 dy = dx

1
2 y 0.5 = x 3 y = ( x 3)2
4
Note: x 3 because y0.5 is a positive number.
y

x
3

c. n = 1 dy/dx = ky 1 y dy = k dx
1
y 2 = kx + C y = 2 kx + 2C
2
k = 1, C = 3 y = 2 x 6
5

V
50

x
3

t
100

## The volume does seem to vary quadratically with

time. Because there is still fluid in the burette
when V = 0, the graph crosses the t-axis, unlike
the graphs in Problem 5 and Example 1. The
144

## Problem Set 7-3

n = 2 dy/dx = ky 2 y 2 dy = k dx
1 3
y = kx + C y = 3 3kx + 3C
3
k = 1, C = 3 y = 3 3 x 9

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## | M kB| = e kct e kcC

M kB = C1e kct

d. For n > 1,

dy
= ky n y n dy = k dx
dx

( n 1)

y
= kx + C because n > 1,
n 1
1
so y =
n 1 ( n 1) ( kx + C )
which has a vertical asymptote at x = C/k
because the denominator equals zero for this
point.
Note that the radical will involve a sign
when the root index is even (for example,
when n is odd).
For n = 2, k = 1, C = 3: y = ( x 3) 1

1
( M C1e kct )
k
Use the initial condition B = 0 when t = 0.
0 = (1/k) ( M C 1e0) C 1 = M
M
B = (1 e kct )
k
Use the initial condition kB = 80 when
B = 1000.
80 = k(1000) k = 0.08
Use the initial condition dB/dt = 500 when t = 0.
From dB/dt = c (M kB), 500 = c (M 0)
c = 500/M.
particular equation is
B=

y
2

## B = ( M/0.08)[1 e 0.08/( 500 / M )t ]

B = 12.5 M[1 e ( 40 / M )t ]
Assume various values of M:
M = 1000: B = 12500(1 e 0.04 t)
M = 5000: B = 62500(1 e 0.008 t )
M = 10000: B = 125000(1 e 0.004 t )

x
3

B
M = 10000
100,000

M = 5000

1
For n = 3, k = 1, C = 3: y =
2x 6

M = 1000
250

t
500

y
2

x
3

## Note that the graph shows two branches.

dy
e. For n = 0,
= ky 0 = k , so y = kx + C,
dx
a linear function. For k = 1, C = 3, y = x 3.

## As shown on the graph, the sales start out

increasing at the same rate (500 bottles/day). As
t increases, the number of bottles/day increases,
approaching a steady state equal to 12.5M.
To find the break-even time, first find the total
number of bottles sold as a function of time. B is
in bottles per day, so the total sales in x days,
T(x), is
T ( x) =

B dt.

T ( x) =

125000(1 e

0.004 t

) dt

x
0

## = 125000( x + 250e 0.004 x 0 250)

= 125000[ x 250(1 e 0.004 x )]
8. dB/dt = c ( M kB), where k and c are constants.
dB
1 k dB
= c dt
= c dt
M kB
k M kB
1
ln | M kB | = ct + C
k

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## For selling prices of \$0.25 and \$0.50/bottle, the

total numbers of dollars are
D25(x) = 31250[x 250(1 e 0.004 x)]
D50(x) = 62500[x 250(1 e 0.004 x)]

145

## The total amount spent on advertising is M x,

or A(x) = 10000x.
The three graphs can be plotted by grapher. For
\$0.25/bottle, the break-even time is 207 days.
For \$0.50/bottle, the break-even time is 90 days
(less than half!).
Dollars (millions)
\$0.25/bottle
\$0.50/bottle
2
1

x
90

207

## 9. The differential equation is dT/dt = k(1200 L),

and L = h (T 70), where h is a proportionality
constant.
dT/dt = k(1200 + 70h hT )

dT/(1200 + 70h hT ) = k dt
(1/h) ln |1200 + 70h hT | = kt + C
ln |1200 + 70h hT | = kht h C
|1200 + 70h hT | = e kht e hC
1200 + 70h hT = C 1e kht
hT = 1200 + 70h C 1e kht
T = 1200/h + 70 (C 1/h) e kht
Use T = 70 when t = 0.
70 = 1200/h + 70 C 1/h e kh 0
C 1 = 1200
T = 1200/h + 70 1200/h e kht
T = 70 + (1200/h)(1 e kht)
Substitute t = 0, L = 0, and dT/dt = 3 into the
original differential equation.
3 = k(1200 0) k = 0.0025
T = 70 + (1200/h)(1 e 0.0025 ht)
Using T = 96 when t = 10,
26 = (1200/h)(1 e 0.025 h).
Solving numerically gives h 11.7347 .
equation is T 70 + 102.26(1 e 0.02933t ).
Time data for various temperatures can be found
by grapher or by substituting for T and
solving for t.
T
Never reaches 180
140

160

170

100

t
39

146

72

130

140

39 min
61 min
72 min
130 min
Never!

155
160
170
180

## The limit of T as t increases is 70 +

102.26(1 + 0), which equals 172.26. Thus,
the temperature never reaches 180. When the
heater turns off, the differential equation becomes
dT
= kh (T 70) T = 70 + C2 e kht .
dt
Using T = 160 at time t = 0 when the heater
turns off, T = 70 + 90e 0.02933t.
To find the time taken to drop to 155, substitute
155 = 70 + 90e 0.02933Kt .
Solving numerically or algebraically gives
t = 1.9 . Thus, it takes only 2 minutes for the
temperature to drop 5! By contrast, from the
preceding table, it takes 11 minutes
(t = 61 to t = 72 in the table) to warm back up
from 155 to 160.
The design of the heater is inadequate because it
takes much longer to warm up by a certain
amount than it does to cool back down again.
Near 172, a slight increase in the thermostat
setting for the heater makes a great increase in
the time taken to reach that setting. For instance,
it takes an hour (72 minutes to 130 minutes) to
warm the 10 degrees from 160 to 170. These
inadequacies could be corrected most easily by
adding more insulation. The resulting decrease in
h would make the heater cool more slowly, heat
up faster, and reach the 180 degrees it currently
cannot reach. Decreasing h would also reduce the
power consumption.
10. a. dP/dT = kP/T 2
dP/P = k dT /T 2 ln | P | = kT 1 + C

| P| = e

k /T + C

P = C1e k / T

## b. 0.054 = C1e k /293

3.95 = C1e k /343
(3.95 / 0.054) = e ( k /343+ k /293)
ln (3.95/0.054) = k/343 + k/293
k = [ln (3.95 / 0.054)]/( 1/ 343 + 1/ 293)
= 8627.812641K
From ln |P| = kT 1 + C,
C = ln 0.054 + 8627.812641/293.
C = 26.52768829 C1 = e26.52768829
P = e 26.52768829e 8627.812641/T
P = e ( 26.52768829K8627.812641K/T )
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.
Temperature

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

283
293
303
313
323
333
343
353

90
100
110
200

Actual*

0.0190
0.054
0.142
0.354
0.832
1.85
3.95
8.05

363
373
383
473

## So the new equation models the data above

the melting point, but not below it.
d. Using the equation for liquid naphthalene,
760 = e(18.33140949 5734.569702/ T ) ,
ln 760 = 18.33140949 5734.569702/T
5734.569702 K
T =
= 490.214 K
18.33140949K ln 760
About 490 K, or 217C (actual: 218C)
e. Answers will vary.

15.7
29.8
54.6
3972.1

0.021
0.054
0.133
0.320
0.815
1.83
3.95
7.4
(melting
point)
12.6
18.5
27.3
496.5

## Problem Set 7-4

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.

y = 5x 4
Q2. y = 5x ln 5
8
(1/8)x + C
Q4. 7 x/ln 7 + C
y = y/x or y = 3x 2
87.5
Q8.
y

## The function models the data well up to the

melting point, but not above it. The
differences between the predicted and actual
answers are most likely due to the fact that
naphthalene changes from solid to liquid at
80C; the constants for solid and liquid
naphthalene differ.
Use initial conditions for T = 90, 110 as in
part b to get a better equation for the liquid:
12.6 = C1e k/ 363
496.5 = C1e k/ 473
k = [ln (496.5/12.6)]/(1/473 + 1/363)
= 5734.569702
C = ln 12.6 + 5734.569702/363
= 18.33140949
C1 = e18.33140949
P = e(18.33140949 5734.569702/ T )
With the new equation,
Temperature

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

283
293
303
313
323
333
343
353

90
100
110
200

363
373
383
473

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

P
0.144
0.289
0.551
1.01
1.78
3.03
5.01
8.05

12.6
19.2
28.7
496.5

## Q9. g(5) g(1)

Q10. E
1. a. dy/dx = x/(2y)
At (3, 5), dy/dx = 3/10 = 0.3.
At (5, 1), dy/dx = 5/2 = 2.5.
On the graph, the line at (3, 5) slopes upward
with a slope less than 1. At (5, 1) the line
slopes downward with a slope much steeper
than 1.
b. The figure looks like one branch of a
hyperbola opening in the y-direction. (The
lower branch shown on the graph is also part
of the solution, but students would not be
expected to find this graphically.)

Actual
0.021
0.054
0.133
0.320
0.815
1.83
3.95
7.4
(melting
point)
12.6
18.5
27.3
496.5

(3, 5)

(5, 1)

(1, 2)

(5, 1)

## c. See graph in part b. The figure looks like the

right branch of a hyperbola opening in the
x-direction. (The left branch is also part of the

147

## solution, but students would not be expected

to find this graphically.)
dy
x
1
d.
=
2 y dy = x dx y 2 = x 2 + C
dx 2 y
2
x = 5, y = 1 C = 1 12.5 = 11.5
By algebra, x2 2y2 = 23. This is the
particular equation of a hyperbola opening in
the x-direction, which confirms the
observations in part c.
2. At (3, 3), dy/dx = 0.1(3) = 0.3, which is
reasonable because the slope is positive and less
than 1. At (0, 2), dy/dx = 0.1(2) = 0.2, which
is reasonable because the slope is negative and
less than 1 in absolute value. The next graph
shows the two particular solutions. For the first,
y (6) 4.0. For the second, y (6) 3.6.
dy
= 0.1y y = C1e 0.1x
dx
For (3, 3), the particular solution is
y = 2.2224e0.1 x, giving y(6) = 4.0495 .
For (0, 2), the particular solution is
y = 2e0.1 x, giving y(6) = 3.6442 .
Both graphical answers are close to these actual

1 2
x +C
2
1
( 1)2 = (1)2 + C C = 1.5
2
2
y = 1.5 0.5x 2
y2 =

y = 1.5 0.5 x 2
(Use the negative square root because of the
initial condition.)
The graph agrees with part b.
From the next-to-last line, add 0.5x2 to both
sides, getting 0.5x2 + y2 = 1.5, which is the
equation of an ellipse because x2 and y2 have
the same sign but unequal coefficients.
dy
= 3(1 1) = 0.
dx
dy
At (1, 2),
= 1(1 2) = 1.
dx
dy
At (0, 1),
= 0(1 + 1) = 0.
dx

4. a. At (3, 1),

y
3

y
4

3
2

1
2 1
1

x
1

2
3

## b. See the graph from part a. Both graphs have a

horizontal asymptote at y = 1.

dy
3
=
= 0.75.
dx
(2)(2)
dy
1
At (1, 0),
=
, which is infinite.
dx
(2)(0)

3. a. At (3, 2),

dy

x
2

1
2

## b. See the graph from part a. The figures

resemble half-ellipses.
dy
x
c.
=
dx
2y
2y dy = x dx

2 y dy = x dx

148

## Problem Set 7-4

dy
= x (1 y)
dx
dy
= x dx
1 y

1 y = x dx

c.

ln |1 y| = 0.5x 2 + C
2
1 y = e 0.5 x e C
2
y = 1 + C1e 0.5 x (C1 can be positive or
negative.)
1 = 1 + C 1e 0 C 1 = 2
2
y = 1 2e 0.5 x
The grapher confirms the graph in part b.
2
As | x | , e 0.5 x 0. So y 1,
which agrees with the horizontal asymptote
at y = 1.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9. a.

5.
2

1.5

(3, 2)

0.5

x
2 1.5 1 0.5
0.5

0.5

1.5

(1, 2)

1
1.5
2

b.
6.
2

1.5
1
0.5

x
2 1.5 1 0.5
0.5

0.5

1.5

1
1.5

dy
= 0.2 xy
dx
Evidence: At (1, 1) the slope was given to
be 0.2, which is true for this differential
equation. As x or y increases from this
point, the slope gets steeper in the negative
direction, which is also true for this
differential equation. In Quadrants I and III the
slopes are all negative, and in Quadrants II
and IV they are all positive. (Note: The
2
algebraic solution is y = Ce 0.1x .)

y

7.
2

y
5

1.5
1

(0, 2)

0.5

x
2 1.5 1 0.5
0.5

0.5

1.5

5
(0,2.5)
(0, 5)

1.5
2

8.
2

1.5
1
0.5

x
2 1.5 1 0.5
0.5

0.5

1
1.5
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1.5

## b. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(0, 5). The graph goes toward in the
y-direction instead of toward +.
c. If a ruler is aligned with the slope lines, the
lines that form a straight line are the ones
crossing the y-axis at 2.5 with slope 1/2.
(In courses on differential equations, students
will learn that the given equation is a firstorder linear equation that can be solved using
an integrating factor. The general solution is
y = Ce0.2 x 0.5x 2.5. For C = 0, the curve
is the line y = 0.5x 2.5, which intersects
the y-axis at (0, 2.5).)

149

P
(0, 18)

d.

10.5

e.

f.
(0, 2)

(4, 2)

## b. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(4, 2). The graph is the same as that in part a
but shifted over 4 months. This behavior is
to be expected because dP/dt depends only on
P, not on t, and both initial conditions have
the same value of P.
c. See the graph in part a with initial condition
(0, 18). The population is decreasing to the
same asymptote, P = 10.5, as in parts a
and b.
d. The asymptote at P = 10.5 indicates that the
island can sustain only 1050 rabbits. If the
population is lower than that, it increases. If
the population is higher than that, it
decreases. The number 10.5 is a value of P
that makes dP/dt equal zero. Note that there is
another asymptote at P = 0, which also
makes dP/dt equal zero.
12. a. dv/dt = 32.16 0.0015v2
The slope at (5, 120) appears to be about 1,
but dv/dt actually equals 32.16
0.0015(120)2 = 10.56. The answers are
different because the graph is scaled by a
factor of 10.
b. Initial condition (0, 0)
v
(0,180)

146.4...

13. a.

b.

c.

## The graph shows this velocity for times

above about 15 seconds.
See the graph in part b with initial condition
(5, 0). The graph is identical to the one in
part b except shifted 5 seconds to the right.
This behavior is to be expected because the
differential equation is independent of t.
See the graph in part b. This graph decreases
to the terminal velocity because the diver
starts out going faster.
Similarities include: Both models have a
horizontal asymptote that the particular
solutions approach from above or below.
Both models decrease rapidly and gradually
level off for values above the asymptotic
limit.
Differences include: For values below the
asymptotic limit, one model starts with rapid
increase and gradually slows its growth,
whereas the other starts with a slow increase
that becomes more rapid growth before
slowing toward the asymptote.
mg
ma = 2
By hypothesis
r
dv
dv g
Divide by m; a =
.
= 2
dt
dt r
dv dr g
Chain rule

=
dr dt r 2
dr
dv
g
v=
(r = distance)
v = 2
dt
dr
r
dv
g
Divide by v.
= 2
dr r v
dv
(5, 2) = 1.2488
dr
dv
(1, 10) = 6.244
dr
dv
(10, 4) = 0.1561
dr
These slopes agree with those shown.
Initial condition (r, v) = (1, 10)
From the graph, the velocity is zero at r 5.
So the spaceship is about 4 Earth radii, or
about 25,000 km, above the surface.
v

(5,120)

(1,18)

14.11...
(1,12)
50
(1,10)

t
(0, 0)

(5, 0)

## c. Terminal velocity occurs when dv/dt = 0.

0 = 32.16 0.0015v2
v = (32.16/0.0015)1/2 = 146.424 146 ft/s
150

(2,10)

6.12...
5 4.37...
(10,4)
(5,2)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The precise value of r can be found

algebraically.
dv 62.44
62.44
=
v dv =
dr
dr
r 2v
r2
v 2 62.44

=
+C
r
2
For the solution through (1, 10), C = 50
62.44 = 12.44, so the ship starts falling
when v = 0 at r = 62.44/12.44 5.
d. See the graph in part c with initial condition
(r, v) = (1, 12). The graph levels off between
4 and 5 km/s. The precise value of v can be
found algebraically.
v 2 62.44
C = 72 62.44 = 9.56
=
+ 9.56
2
r
Because r > 0, v is never zero, so the
spaceship never stops and falls back.
As r approaches infinity, v2/2 approaches
9.56, and thus v approaches
(2)(9.56) = 4.37 km/s.

## f. See the graph in part c with initial condition

(r, v) = (2, 10). The graph levels off at
about 6 km/s, so the spaceship does escape.
Alternatively, note that the solution through
(2, 10) lies above the solution through
(1, 12). The precise value of v can be found
algebraically as in parts d and e. For the
solution through (2, 10), C = 50 31.22 =
18.78. As r , v (2)(18.78) =
6.12 km/s.
14. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators
section of the Instructors Resource Book.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## e. See the graph in part c with initial condition

(r, v) = (1, 18). The graph levels off at
v 14 km/s. Here the spaceship loses about
4 km/s of velocity, whereas it loses 7 or
8 km/s when starting at 12 km/s. Both cases
lose the same amount of kinetic energy,
which is proportional to v2 (the change in v2
is the same in both cases). The precise value
of v can be found algebraically as in part d.
For the solution through (1, 18),
C = 162 62.44 = 99.56. As r ,
v (2)(99.56) = 14.11 km/s.

Q1. k y
Q3. 4.8
Q5. ln |1 v| + C

Q7.

Q2. y = Ce3x
Q4. 100
Q6. sec x tan x

y'

y'

Q8. 3x 2y 5 + 5x 3y 4y = 1 + y
Q9. continuous
Q10. A
1. a. dy = (x/y) dy
For (1, 3), dy = (1/3)(0.5) = 0.1666 ,
so new y 3 0.1666 = 2.8333 at
x = 1.5.
For (1.5, 2.8333), dy =
(1.5/2.8333)(0.5) = 0.2647 ,
so new y 2.8333 0.2647 = 2.5686
at x = 2.
x
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3

y
3.2456
3.1666
3
2.8333
2.5686
2.1793
1.6057

## The Eulers y-values overestimate the actual

values because the tangent lines are on the
convex side of the graph and the convex side
is upward.
b. dy = (x/y) dy

y dy = x dx

0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + C
0.5(32) = 0.5(12) + C C = 5
0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + 5
y = 10 x 2 (Use the positive square root.)

At x = 3, y = 10 32 = 1.
The particular solution stops at the x-axis
because points on the circle below the x-axis
would lead to two values of y for the same
value of x, making the solution not a
function.
The Eulers value of 1.6057 overestimates
the actual value by 0.6057 .
2. a. dy = (x/y) dy
For (1, 2), dy = (1/2)(0.5) = 0.25, so new
y 2 + 0.25 = 2.25 at x = 1.5.
For (1.5, 2.25), dy = (1.5/2.25)(0.5) =
0.3333 , so new y 2.25 + 0.3333 =
2.5833 at x = 2.

151

1.6071

0.5

1.75

1.5

2.25

2.5833

2.5

2.9704

3.3912

4
3
2
1

x
1

## The Eulers y-values underestimate the actual

values because the tangent lines are on the
convex side of the graph and the convex side
is downward. The error is greater at x = 0
because the graph is more sharply curved
between x = 0 and x = 1 than it is between
x = 1 and x = 3.
b. dy = x/y dy

y dy = x dx

0.5y = 0.5x 2 + C
0.5(22) = 0.5(12) + C C = 1.5
0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + 1.5
y = x 2 + 3 (Use the positive square root.)
At x = 0, y = 0 + 3 = 3 = 1.7320 .
The particular solution stops at the x-axis
because points on the circle below the x-axis
would lead to two values of y for the same
value of x, making the solution not a
function.
The Eulers value of 1.6071 underestimates
the actual value by 0.1249 unit.
3. dx = 0.2. Make a table showing values of dy =
0.2(dy/dx) and new y = old y + dy.
x

152

dy/dx

dy

0.6

2.2

1.0

1.6

2.4

0.8

2.6

2.6

0.2

3.4

2.8

0.6

3.6

1.2

3.0

3.2

1.0

1.8

3.4

0.6

0.8

3.6

0.2

0.2

3.8

0.2

0.0

0.4

0.2

## You cannot tell whether the last value of y is an

overestimate or an underestimate because the
convex side of the graph is downward in some
places and upward in other places.
4. dx = 0.3. Make a table showing values of dy =
0.3(dy/dx) and new y = old y + dy.
x

dy/dx

dy

0.9

1.3

0.6

1.1

1.6

0.3

0.5

1.9

0.2

2.2

0.3

0.2

2.5

0.6

0.5

2.8

0.9

1.1

3.1

1.2

3.4

1.5

3.2

3.7

1.8

4.7

3.9

2.1

6.5

y
5
4
3
2
1

x
1

## The approximate values of y underestimate the

actual values of y because the convex side of the
graph is down.
5. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators
section of the Instructors Resource Book.
6. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators
section of the Instructors Resource Book.
dy
7. a. and b.
= 0.2 xy
dx
y
(3, 2)

(1, 2)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

8. a. and b.

dy
= 0.1x + 0.2 y
dx

## putting the graph into a region of the slope

field from which the spacecraft would not
escape Earths gravity.

## d. Let v1 be the initial velocity at r = 1.

Solving for C gives
0.5v12 = 62.44 + C
C = 0.5v12 62.44

5
(0, 4)
(0, 2)

## making v = 128.88r + C an imaginary

number when r is large enough. If
v1 > 2(62.44), then C is positive, making v
a positive real number for all positive
values of r. (The asymptote is v = C .)
1

## c. When the graph is observed, the slope lines

seem to follow a straight path using (0, 2.5)
as an initial condition. Eulers method
confirms this.
(In differential equations, students will learn
how to solve such first-order linears by
multiplying both sides by the integrating
factor e 0.2x . The general solution is
y = Ce 0.2x + 0.5x 2.5. For C = 0, the
particular solution is y = 0.5x + 2.5.)
9. a. Using dr = 0.6, v(13.6) 0.1414 and
v(14.2) 1.2900 , so the spacecraft seems
to reverse direction somewhere between these
two values of r, as shown in the graph in
part b.
b. Using dr = 0.1, v(20) 4.5098 , and the
values are leveling off, as shown in the
graph.

## 10. a. v(2) = 61.6831 , v(4) = 106.2850 ,

v(6) = 129.7139 , v(8) = 139.9323 ,
v(10) = 143.9730 , v(20) = 146.4066
These values will be overestimates because
the graph is concave down (convex side up),
so the Eulers tangent lines will be above the
actual graph, as in the next graph.
200 v

Euler

100

Actual

20 v

10

10

20

Actual

dr = 0.1
dr = 0.6

r
10

c.

20

dv 62.44
=
dr
r 2v

v dv = 62.44 r

dr

0.5v = 62.44r + C
0.5(12)2 = 62.44(1) 1 + C C = 9.56
0.5v 2 = 62.4r 1 + 9.56
2

v = 124.88r 1 + 19.12
When r = 20, v = 5.0362 .
Because the graph is concave up (convex side
down), the Eulers solution underestimates
the actual velocity. The first increment, where
the graph is so steep, makes a large error that
accumulates as the iterations continue,
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## b. v(2) = 157.7979 , v(4) = 150.5128 ,

v(6) = 147.9234 , v(8) = 146.9777 ,
v(10) = 146.6290 , v(20) = 146.4254
These values will be underestimates because
the graph is concave up (convex side down),
so the Eulers tangent lines will be below the
actual graph.
c.

dv
= 0 0.0015v 2 = 32.16
dt
32.16
v=
= 146.42404 K(store)
0.0015
The terminal velocity is about 146.4 ft/s.

## d. The table shows the values of v and the

errors, Euler minus actual. The errors increase
only for a while, then approach zero because
both the Eulers solution and the actual
solution approach the same asymptote. (It is
not always true that values farther from the
Problem Set 7-5

153

## initial condition have a greater error in their

Eulers approximation.)
t

Eulers v

Actual v

Error

2
4
6
8
10
20

61.6831
106.2850
129.7139
139.9323
143.9730
146.4066

60.4791
103.3298
126.8383
137.9573
142.8466
146.3792

1.2040
2.9552
2.8756
1.9749
1.1264
0.0274

## The graph in part a shows the Eulers

solutions from parts a and b, and the actual
solution from part c, thus confirming
graphically the numerical answers to this
problem.
11. a. For x 5, the radicand 25 x2 is nonnegative, giving a real-number answer for y.
For x > 5, the radicand is negative, giving no
real solution.
b. The slope field shows that the graph will be
concave up (convex side down), making the
Eulers tangent lines lie below the graph,
leading to an underestimate.
At x = 4.9, y = 0.6 25 4.9 2 = 0.5969 .
The Eulers solution at x = 4.9 is
0.8390 , which is an underestimate
because 0.8390 < 0.5969 but is
reasonably close to the actual value.
c. The Eulers solutions for the given points are

Q1.
Q2.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q9.
1.

## definition of definite integral

fundamental theorem of calculus
definition of indefinite integral
the intermediate value theorem
Rolles theorem
the mean value theorem
the chain rule
Q8. general
particular
Q10. initial
a. dB/dt is proportional to B, which means that
the larger the population is, the faster it
grows. But dB/dt is also proportional to
(30 B)/30, which means that the closer B is
to 30, the slower it grows. dB/dt > 0 when
0 < B < 30 because when the population is
less than 30 million the population will
increase until it reaches the carrying capacity.
dB/dt < 0 when B > 30 because when the
population is greater than 30 million, the
population will decrease until it reaches the
carrying capacity.
b.
B

40

30
Actual
20
Euler

5.1
5.2
5.3
6.6

0.3425
0.1935
0.7736
26.9706

(9)(5.1)
(0.1)
(25)(0.3425K)
= 0.5360 , indicating that the graph is still
taking upward steps.
(9)(5.2)
(0.1)
From 5.2 to 5.3, dy =
(25)(0.1935K)
= 0.9672 , indicating that the graph takes
a relatively large downward step. The sign
change in dy happens whenever the prior
Eulers y-value changes sign. The graph starts
over on another ellipse representing a different
particular solution.
d. Eulers method can predict values that are
outside the domain, which are inaccurate.

10

t
10

30

40

## For the initial condition (0, 3), the population

grows, leveling off at B = 30. For the initial
condition (10, 40), the population drops
because it is starting out above the maximum
sustainable value (carrying capacity).

154

20

c.
t

0
10
20
30
40

3
13.8721
26.4049
29.5565
29.9510

## See the graph in part b. The graph shows that

the Eulers points and graphical solution are
close to each other.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

dB
30 B
= 0.21B
dt
30
30
dB = 0.21 dt
B(30 B)
Separate the variables.
1
1
+
dB = 0.21 dt
B 30 B
By partial fractions
(see Example 1).
ln |B| ln |30 B| = 0.21t + C
Why the sign?
ln |B| + ln |30 B| = 0.21t C
To simplify later
steps.
30 B
= C1e 0.21t
B
C1 = e C
27
= C1e 0 C1 = 9
3
Substitute the initial
condition (0, 3) to
find C1.
30 B
= 9e 0.21t
B
30 B = 9 Be 0.21t
30
Solve for B explicitly
B =
in terms of t.
1 + 9e 0.21t
30
At t = 20, B =
= 26.4326 K .
1 + 9e 4.2
The Eulers value, B 26.4049 , is very
close to this precise value.

e.

d dB
= 0.014 B + 30(0.007)
dB dt
Derivative = 0 if 0.014B + 30(0.007) = 0,
which is true if and only if B = 15.
This value is halfway between B = 0 and
B = 30.
30
15 =
t 10.4629
1 + 9e 0.21t
The point of inflection is (10.4629 , 15).

## 2. a. A logistic function is reasonable because the

number of houses grows at an increasing rate
for a while, then slows down as the number
approaches 120, the carrying capacity of the
subdivision.
b.

dy
120 y
= 0.9 y
dx
120
120
dy = 0.9 dx
y(120 y)
1
1
+
dy = 0.9 dx
y 120 y

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## ln |y| ln |120 y| = 0.9x + C

ln |y| + ln |120 y| = 0.9x C
120 y
= C1e 0.9 x
C1 = e C
y
115
= C 1e0 C 1 = 23
5
Substitute the initial
condition (0, 5) to
find C1.
120 y
= 23e 0.9 x
y
120 y = 23 ye 0.9 x
120
1 + 23e 0.9 x
The graph confirms that the particular
solution follows the slope lines.

y=

y (houses)
100

50

x (years)
5

10

## c. 70% of 120 is 84.

120
84 =
x 4.4253K , or about
1 + 23e 0.9 x
4 years 5 months
Solve numerically
for x.
1 lot left means 119 lots built on.
120
119 =
x 8.7940 , or about
1 + 23e 0.9 x
8 years 10 months.
dy
120 y 0.9
d.
(120 y y 2 )
= 0.9 y
=
dx
120
120
d dy 0.9
=
(120 2 y)
dy dx 120
The derivative is zero if 120 2y = 0, which
is true if and only if y = 60. This value is
halfway between y = 0 and y = 120.
If y < 60, the derivative is positive, so dy/dx
is increasing. If y > 60, the derivative is
negative, so dy/dx is decreasing. Therefore,
dy/dx is a maximum when y = 60, and the
number of houses is increasing the most
rapidly at this point of inflection.

## Problem Set 7-6

155

3. a.

dy
My
= ky
dx
M
k
k
0.5
(10)( M 10)
=
M
M 10( M 10)
k
k
1.1
1.1 = (24)( M 24)
=
M
M 24( M 24)

0.5 =

0.5
1.1
=
10( M 10) 24( M 24)
Eliminate k by
equating the two
values of k/M.
12(M 24) = 11.0(M 10)
12M 11M = 288 110 M = 178
Solve for M.

k
0.5
89
=
k=
=
178 10(178 10)
1680
0.05297 (Store this.)
Ajax expects to sell 178,000 CDs based on
this mathematical model.
dy
89
178 y
b.
=
y
dx 1680
178
200

y (thousand CDs)

178

100

x (days)
50

100

## The slope field has horizontal slope lines at

about y = 178, thus confirming M = 178.
M
c. The general solution is y =
.
1 + ae kx
Substitute M = 178 and k = 89/1680 =
0.05297 and the initial condition y = 10 at
x = 0.
178
10 =
a = 16.8
1 + ae 0
178
The equation is y =
.
1 + 16.8e 0.05297Kx
See the graph in part b. The graph follows the
slope lines.
d. At x = 50, y = 81.3396 .
At x = 51, y = 83.6844 .
83.6844 81.3396 = 2.35447
They expect to sell about 2354 CDs on the
51st day.
e. The point of inflection is halfway between
y = 0 and y = 178, that is, at y = 89.
156

## Problem Set 7-6

178
1 + 16.8e 0.05297Kx
Solving numerically gives x 53.2574 ,
or on the 54th day.
dy
My
4.
= ky
dx
M
M dy
= k dx
y( M y )
1
1
+
dy = k dx
y M y
See Section 9-7 for a
quick way to resolve
into partial fractions.
ln |y| ln |M y| = kx + C
The differential of the
second denominator
is dy.
ln |y| + ln |M y| = kx C
My
ln
= kx C
y
89 =

My
= e kx C = e C e kx
y
My
= e C e kx = C1e kx
C1 = e C
y
M y = C 1ye kx
y + C 1ye kx = M
M
M
y=
kx =
1 + C1e
1 + ae kx
a = C 1, Q .E .D .
5. a. At t = 5.5, F 1.7869 2 fish left.
At t = 5.6, F 11.0738 , meaning no
fish are left.
The fish are predicted to become extinct in
just over 5.5 years.
F (fish)
Part b
1000

500

200

Parts c and d

Part a, dt = 0.1

t (years)
5

10

## b. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(3, 1200), showing that the fish population
will decrease because the initial condition is
above the 1000 maximum sustainable.
c. See the graph in part a with initial condition
(0, 300), showing that the population rises
slowly at first, then faster, eventually

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## slowing down as the population approaches

the 1000 maximum sustainable (carrying
capacity).
d. Let F = y + 200.
dy
y
800 y
= 130

dt
200
1000
200000
dy = 130 dt
y(800 y)

## The logistic function fits reasonably well (as

shown in this graph), especially if you use
several values of the maximum number of
people as shown in the table.
25
20

250
250
+

dy = 130 dt
800 y
y
See Section 9-7 for
quick partial fractions.
250 ln |y| 250 ln |800 y| = 130t + C
Why ?

15
10
5

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1
3
6
13
21
25
25
25
25

x
1

7. a. and b.

800 y
= e (13/25)t e C
y
800 y
= C1e (13/25)t
y
Substitute y = 100 (F = 300) when t = 0.
800 100
= C1e 0 C1 = 7
100
800 y
= 7e (13/25)t
y
800
y=
1 + 7e (13/25)t
800
F=
+ 200
1 + 7e (13/25)t
See the graph in part a, showing that the
sketch from part c reasonably approximates
this precise algebraic solution.
6. Answers will vary. Here is a typical run with a
class of 25 people.

Year

P/t

(P/t)/P

1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990

131.7
151.4
179.3
203.2
226.5
248.7

2.38
2.59
2.36
2.275

0.01571
0.01444
0.01161
0.01004

## You cant find P/t for 1940 and 1990

because you dont know values of P both
before and after these values.
c. Using linear regression on the values of
(P/t)/P without round-off gives
1 P
0.02802596 0.0000792747 P.
P t
The correlation coefficient is r = 0.98535 .
For the other types of regression:
r = 0.978 for logarithmic
r = 0.981 for exponential
r = 0.971 for power
Thus, a linear function fits best because r is
closest to 1.
d.

1 dP
0.02802596 0.0000792747 P
P dt
dP

= P(0.02802596 0.0000792747 P)
dt

e.
500

## Logistic regression gives

25.5083K
N=
1 + 43.1120 K e 1.3032Kx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

t
50

50

100

157

f.
Year

Euler

1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040

50

44.6
56.9
71.7
89.2
109.3
131.7
155.4
180.1
204.7
228.2
249.9
269.3
286.1
300.2
311.8
321.1

40
30
20
10

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Actual*

Euler**

62.9
76.0
92.0
105.7
122.8
131.7
151.4
179.3
203.2
226.5
248.7
281.4

46.1
58.3
72.9
90.1
109.8
131.7
155.0
179.2
203.5
226.9
248.8
268.6

## *Data from The World Book Encyclopedia .

**Note that although linear regression gives the
best fit for ( P/ t ) /P versus P, actually plotting
the graph shows that the data point for 1960 is
considerably out of line.

0.015
0.014

( P/ t)/P
1950
1960

0.013
0.012
0.011
150

1980
200

Year

2010
2020
2030
2040
2050

70
80
90
100
110

Euler
486.1
444.5
417.7
399.7
387.1

## The logistic model predicts that the

population will drop, approaching the
ultimate value of 353.5 million from above.
This behavior shows up in the slope field of
part e because the slopes are negative for
populations above 353.5.
1
A
B
A(10 y) + By
8. a.
= +
=
y(10 y) y 10 y
y(10 y)

1970

## The numerator of the first fraction must

equal that of the last fraction for all values
of y. That is, 1 = 10A Ay + By. The
constant and linear coefficients on the left
must equal the corresponding ones on the
right. Thus, 1 = 10A and 0 = Ay + By.
So A = B = 0.1.

## Using the two endpoints, 1950 and 1980,

gives (P/t)/P = 0.002716
0.00007557P. Using this equation gives
populations much closer to the actual ones
for the given years, as shown in the
rightmost column of the table in part f. This
is, of course, no guarantee that the later
model fits any better in the future than the
former one.
g. The population growth rate is zero
if dP/dt = 0.
Let
P(0.02802596 0.0000792747P) = 0.
P = 0 or P = (0.02802596)/
(0.0000792747) = 353.5
Predicted ultimate population 353.5 million
Differential equation: P = 353.5 makes
dP/dt = 0.
Graph: P = 353.5 is a horizontal
asymptote.
158

## h. See the graph in part e. Data do follow the

solution.
i. Sample answer: The predicted populations
agree fairly well with the data for the six
given years. The fit is exact for 1940 because
this point was used as an initial condition.
For the other five years, the predicted
populations are a bit higher than the actual
population.
j. Actual data are given in the table in part f.
k. The predicted population for 2010 from part f
is 286.1 million. Using 486.1 million as
an initial condition in 2010 gives the
following predictions:

b.

0.1
0.1
+
dy
y 10 y

y(10 y) dy =
1

1
1
= 0.1
dy, which equals 3 dx.
y y 10

## 0.1(ln |y| ln |y 10|) = 3x + C

ln

y
y 10
= ln
= 30 x + 10C
y 10
y

y 10
10
= 1
= e ( 30 x +10 C )
y
y
10
= 1 e 10 C e 30 x
y
10
y=
, where k = e 10 C , Q .E.D .
1 + ke 30 x
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

dP
= P(0.02802 0.00007927 P)
dt
= 0.00007927P(353.5 P)
1
dP = 0.00007927K dt
P(353.5K P)
1
1
1
dP
=
353.5K P P 353.5K

= 0.00007927K

dt

d.
Year

Algebraic

Euler

Actual

1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990

0
10
20
30
40
50

131.7
155.5
180.2
204.7
228.2
249.8

131.7
155.4
180.1
204.7
228.2
249.9

131.7
151.4
179.3
203.2
226.5
248.7

## The two methods of evaluating the

mathematical model agree almost perfectly.
However, the fact that they agree with each
other is no guarantee that they will fit the real
world as closely as they match each other.

10.

11.

dR
dR
= k1 R
= k1dt ln | R| = k1t + C
dt
R
C k1t
| R| = e e R = C1e k1t
R is increasing because k1 > 0.
dF
dF
= k2 F
= k2 dt
dt
F
ln | F| = k2 t + C
| F| = e C e k2t F = C2 e k2t
F is decreasing because k2 < 0.
dR
= k1 R k3 RF
dt
dF
= k2 F + k4 RF
dt

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 14. The slope at (70, 15) is about 0.4.

F

ln |P| ln |P 353.5|
= 353.5(0.00007927t + C)
P
P 353.5K
ln
= ln
P 353.5K
P
= 0.02802t + 353.5C
P 353.5K
= e ( 0.02802t +353.5C )
P
353.5K
= 1 + ke 0.02802t
P
353.5K
P=
1 + ke 0.02802...t
For the initial condition t = 0, P = 131.7,
353.5K
k=
1 = 1.684 .
131.7

9.

dF dF/dt k2 F + k4 RF
=
=
dR dR/dt
k1 R k3 RF
The dt cancels out.
13. R = 70, F = 15
dF 15 + 0.025 1050 11.25

=
=
= 0.4017K
dR
70 0.04 1050
28

12.

50

(70, 15)

R
100

dR
dF
= 28, and
= 11.25,
dt
dt
which are both positive. So both populations are
increasing and the graph starts up and to the
right.
15. The populations vary periodically and the graph
is cyclical. The fox population reaches its
maximum 1/4 cycle after the rabbit population
reaches its maximum.
16. Neither population changes when dR/dt =
dF/dt = 0.
dF/dt = 0 F = 0 or R = 1/0.025 =
40 (4000 rabbits)
dR/dt = 0 R = 0 or F = 1/0.04 = 25 foxes
17. Assume that dF/dt still equals F + 0.025RF.
dF dF/dt
F + 0.025 RF
=
=
dR dR/dt R 0.04 RF 0.01R 2
dF 11.25
R = 70 and F = 15
=
= 0.5357K
dR
21
18.
At R = 70, F = 15,

50

(70, 15)

R
100

## Note that the slope at (70, 15) is now negative.

19. The populations now spiral to a fixed point. The
rabbit population stabilizes at the same value as
in Problem 16, R = 40 (4000 rabbits), which is
surprising. The stable fox population decreases
from 25 to 15.
Problem Set 7-6

159

## 20. Assume that dF/dt still equals = F + 0.025RF.

dF dF/dt
F + 0.025 RF
=
=
dR dR/dt R 0.04 RF 0.01R 2 10
dF 11.25
R = 70 and F = 15
=
= 0.3629K
dR
31

b.

dV

= k dt

ln |V| = kt + C
| V | = e kt +C = e C e kt
V = C 1e kt
C1 can be positive or negative, so the
absolute value sign is not needed for V. In the
real world, V is positive, which also makes
the absolute value sign unnecessary.

21.
F

50

c. 400 = Ce k0 C = 400
500 = 400e k 40

(70, 30)

ln 1.25
= 0.005578
40
V = 400e0.005578t
k=

(70, 15)

R
100

## Note that the slope at (70, 15) is about 0.4.

22. The fox and rabbit populations spiral toward a
fixed point. Again, and even more surprisingly,
the rabbits stabilize at R = 40 (4000). But the
stable fox population is reduced to 8 or 9. Along
the way, the model shows that the foxes are
reduced to about 1, thus becoming in danger of
extinction!
23. See the graph in Problem 21 with initial
condition (70, 30). With this many foxes and
hunters chasing rabbits, the rabbits become
extinct. At this point, the foxes have been
reduced to just 5. After the rabbits become
extinct, the foxes decrease exponentially
with time, eventually becoming extinct
themselves.

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
R1. P(t) = 35(0.98 t )
P(t) = 35(0.98t) ln 0.98
P(t)

0
10
20

35
28.5975
23.3662

## Problem Set 7-7

1/ 2

dy = 6 dx y = (3 x + C )2

## b. y = (3x 4) (y = (3x 14)2 does not work

because at (3, 5), dy/dx = 30 but 6y1/2 = 30.)
2

c.
y

(3, 25)

10

x
1

e. i. dN/dt = 100 kN
dN
= dt
100 kN
(1/k) ln |100 kN| = t + C
Using (0, 0) gives (1/k) ln 100 = C.
Substituting this value for C gives
(1/k) ln |100 kN| = t (1/k) ln 100.
ln |100 kN| ln 100 = kt
ln |1 (k/100)N| = kt
1 ( k / 100) N = e kt
N = (100 / k )(1 e kt )
Using (7, 600) and solving numerically
gives k 0.045236.
N = 2210.6(1 e 0.045236 t)
ii. t = 30: About 1642 names

P(t)
0.7070
0.5777
0.4720

P(t)/P(t)
0.2020
0.2020
0.2020

## P(t ) 35(0.98t ) ln 0.98

=
= ln 0.98
P( t )
35(0.98t )
= 0.2020 , which is a constant, Q.E.D.
R2. a. V = speed in mi/h; t = time in s
dV
= kV
dt
160

R3. a.

d. At x = 2, y = 12 and y = 4.
See graph in part c.
A line through (2, 4) with slope 12 is tangent
to the graph.

## Problem Set 7-7

d. 750 = 400e0.005578t
ln 1.875
t =
= 112.68 113 s
0.005578...

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

t

## The brain saturates at about 2211 names.

iv. Let dN/dt = 30.
70
30 = 100 kN N =
= 1547.4
k
names. Substituting this for N gives
1547.4 K = 2210.6 K(1 e 0.045236 t ).
1547.4 K
e 0.045236 t = 1
= 0.3 (exactly)
2210.6 K
ln 0.3
t=
= 26.6 27 days
0.04523K
or:
30 = N(t) N(t 1)
= 2210.6 K[ e 0.045236 t + e 0.045236( t 1) ]
= 2210.6 Ke 0.045236 t ( t 1) ( e 0.045236 + 1)
t 27 days
20
dy
=
+ 0.05 y
dx
xy
At (2, 5), dy/dx = 1.75.
At (10, 16), dy/dx = 0.675.
The slopes at (2, 5) and (10, 16) agree with
these numbers.
b. Initial conditions (1, 8) and (1, 12)

R4. a.

y
(10, 16)

y (x = 1)

x
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
M
28.9
29

9
7.227
6.205
5.441
4.794
4.200
3.616
3.007
2.326
1.488
0.2185
8.091

y (x = 0.1)
9
7.707
6.949
6.413
5.999
5.662
5.377
5.130
4.910
4.712
4.529
4.359
4.199
4.045
3.896
3.750
3.604
3.457
3.306
3.150
M
0.1344
0.3810

y
(1, 12)
(1, 10)
(1, 8)
5
(1, 9)

(2, 5)

x
5

x = 0.1

x = 1

## The solution containing (1, 8) crosses the

x-axis near x = 7, converges asymptotically
to the y-axis as x approaches zero, and is
symmetric across the x-axis. The solution
containing (1, 12) goes to infinity as x goes
to infinity.
c. See the graph in part b with initial condition
(1, 10). The solution containing (1, 10)
behaves more like the one containing
(1, 12), although a slight discrepancy in
plotting may make it seem to go the
other way.
R5. a.

dy
20
=
+ 0.05 y
dx
xy

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
5

## For x = 1, the graph crosses the x-axis at

about x = 11.
b. See the table in part a for x = 0.1.
See the graph in part a.
c. The accuracy far away from the initial
condition is very sensitive to the size of the
increment. For instance, in part a the first
step takes the graph so far down that it
crosses the x-axis before running off the
edge of the grid. The greater accuracy with
x = 0.1 shows that the graph actually does
not cross the x-axis before x = 20.

161

## d. Continuing the computations in part c, the

graph crosses the x-axis close to x = 28.9.
See the table in part a.
R6. a.
y (hundred beavers)

(Note that the general solution to the differential equation is (x 6)2 + 2(y 7)2 = C,
and the specific solution for the given initial
condition is (x 6)2 + 2(y 7)2 = 0, whose
graph is a single point.)
e. Initial condition (9, 7)

10

(6, 7) (9, 7)

(15, 7) (19, 7)

x (years)
5

## The population is decreasing because it is

above the maximum sustainable, 900 beavers
(y = 9). By Eulers method, y 9.3598 , or
about 936 beavers, at x = 3 years.
b. See the graph in part a with initial condition
(3, 100), showing that the population is
expected to increase slowly, then more
rapidly, then more slowly again, leveling off
asymptotically toward 900. This happens
because the initial population of 100 is below
the maximum sustainable.
c.

dy
9 y
= 0.6 y
dx
9
9
y=
1 + ae 0.6 x

## Substitute into the

general equation.

9
Substitute the initial
condition (3, 1).
1 + ae 1.8
a = 8e1.8 = 48.3971 Solve for a.
9
9
y=
=
1 + 8e1.8e 0.6 x 1 + 48.3971K e 0.6 x
The point of
inflection is halfway
between the
asymptotes at y = 0
and y = 9.

1=

4.5 =

9
1 + 8e1.8e 0.6 x

## x = ln (8e1.8 )/0.6 = 6.4657 6.5 yr

d.

162

dy 0.5( x 6)
=
dx
( y 7)
dy = 0 when x = 6, and dx = 0 when y = 7. So
the stable point is (6, 7), corresponding to the
present population of 600 Xaltos natives and
7000 yaks.

10

## Suddenly there are too many predators for the

number of prey, so the yak population
declines. Because y is decreasing from (9, 7),
the graph follows a clockwise path.
f. See the graph in part e with initial condition
(19, 7). The graph crosses the x-axis at
x 14.4, indicating that the yaks are hunted
to extinction. (The Xaltos would then starve
or become vegetarian!)
g. See the graph in part e with initial condition
(15, 7). The graph never crosses the x-axis,
but crosses the y-axis at y 2.3, indicating
that the yak population becomes so sparse
that the predators become extinct. (The yak
population would then explode!)

Concept Problems
C1. a.

dy
= k y1/2 y 1/2 dy = k dx
dx
2 y1/2 = kx + C, so y = [0.5( kx + C )]2 .

## b. The differential equation would have to

become y1/3 after it is integrated. So the
original equation would have to contain
y 2 /3 after the variables have been separated.
dy
Conjecture:
= ky 2/3
dx
c. Confirmation:
dy
= ky 2 /3 y 2 /3 dy = k dx
dx
3y1/ 3 = kx + C y = [(1/3)(kx + C)]3, a
cubic function, Q.E.D.
dy
d. For n 0,
= k y ( n1)/n
dx
y ( n1)/n dy = k dx ny1/n = kx + C
y = [(1/n)(kx + C)]n

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dy
= y 7/8 y 7/8 dy = dx
dx
= x + C y = [(1/8)( x + C )]8

For example:
8 y1/8
C2. a.

Ticket Price

People

2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
4.50
5.50
6.00

460
360
320
260
140
120
80

b.
N
500

## Limit is 10, indicating maximum possible

population.
b. a = 421.3692 , c = 0.7303036 , and
k = 0.01589546 , either by twice taking
logarithms as suggested, or by this method:
Taking ln once ln a ce kt = ln P, so
ln a ce10k = ln 179
ln a c = ln 203
ln a ce 10 k = ln 226
Then substituting ln a = c + ln 203 into the
first and third equations gives
c(1 e10k) = ln 179 ln 203
c(1 e 10 k ) = ln 226 ln 203
Substituting c(1 e 10 k ) = c(e10 k 1)e 10 k =
e 10 k (ln 179 ln 203) into the previous
equation yields
ln 226 ln 203 ln 226 ln 203
e 10 k =
=
ln 179 ln 203 ln 203 ln 179
1 ln 226 ln 203
so k = ln
= 0.01589K .
10 ln 203 ln 179
Then find c using c(1 e 10 k ) = ln 226
ln 203 and find a using 203 = ae c .
c = 0.7303 and a = 421.3692

## Function behaves (more or less) linearly.

Let N = number of tickets and P = number of
\$/ticket.
By linear regression, N 90.83P + 605.4,
with correlation coefficient r = 0.9747 .
c. Let M = total number of dollars.
M P N = P(90.83P + 605.4)
M 90.83P 2 + 605.4P
d. Maximize M: M 181.66P + 605.4
605.4
= 3.332
181.66
Maximum M at P 3.332 because M
changes from positive to negative there (or
because the graph of M is a parabola opening
downward).
Charge \$3.30 or \$3.35.
e. M has a local maximum at this price because
charging more than the optimum price
reduces attendance enough to reduce the total
amount made, whereas charging less than the
optimum price increases attendance, but not
enough to make up for the lower price per
ticket.
0.5 t
C3. a. g(t ) = 10e 0.8e
The graph does look like Figure 7-7e.
0.5 t
0.5 t
lim 10e 0.8e
= 10e limt e
M = 0 P

= 10e 0.80 = 10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

g (t )

431.3...

100

t
100

## Note that this model predicts an ultimate

population of lim P(t ) 421 million.
t

## c. Now a = 551.1655 , c = 0.9988291 ,

k = 0.01186428 , and the ultimate
population is lim P(t ) 551 million. Thus,
t

## the Gompertz model is quite sensitive to a

small change in initial conditions. The
predicted ultimate population increased by
130 million with only a 1 million change in
one data point!
C4. dV/dt = 2V1/ 2 + F, where F is a constant.
dV
= dt
F 2V 1/2
The integral on the right is not the integral of
the reciprocal function because the numerator
cannot be made the differential of the
denominator. A slope field gives information
about the solutions. The following graph is for
F = 20 ft3/min flowing in. (The dashed line
shows the solution with F = 0, the original
condition.) Starting with 196 ft3 in the tub, the
volume levels off near 100 ft3. Starting below
100 ft3, the volume would increase toward 100.

163

V
196

F = 20

F=0
14

## If the inflow rate is too high, the tub will

overflow. The next graph is for F = 40 ft3/min.
In this case, the stable volume is above the
initial 196 ft3.
V
F = 40
196

F=0
14

## It is possible to antidifferentiate the left side by

the algebraic substitution method of Problem
Set 9-11, Problems 101106. The general
solution is
F
t + C = ln ( F 2V 1/2 ) V 1/2
2
and the particular solution for V = 196 at t = 0 is
F
F 28
t 14 = ln
V 1/2
2
F 2V 1/2
Unfortunately, it is difficult or impossible to
solve for V. The volume will asymptotically
approach F2/4, overflowing the tub if F2/4 > tub
capacity.
Chapter Test
dy
= ky
dx
T2. Solving a differential equation means finding the
equation of the function whose derivative appears
in the differential equation.
T3. The general solution involves an arbitrary
constant of integration, C. A particular solution
has C evaluated at a given initial condition.
T4.

T1.

y
5

x
5

(0, 4)

## T5. The concave side of the graph is up, so the

actual graph curves up from the Eulers tangent
lines, making the Eulers method values an
164

## underestimate. (Or: The convex side of the graph

is down, so the Eulers tangent lines are below
the actual graph.)
T6. General logistic differential equation:
dy
My
= ky
dx
M
dy
T7.
= 0.4 y
dx
dy
= 0.4 dx
y
ln |y| = 0.4x + C
|y| = eCe0.4 x
y = C1e0.4 x
5 = C 1 e 0.4(0) = C 1
y = 5e0.4 x
dy
T8.
= 12 y1/2 y 1/2 dy = 12 dx
dx
2 y1/ 2 = 12 x + C

dP
= kP P = Ce kt
dt
P = 3000 at t = 0 P = 3000ekt
b. P = 2300 at t = 5
1 2300
k = ln
= 0.05314 K
5 3000
P(25) = 794.6
Phoebe will not quite make it because the
pressure has dropped just below 800 psi by
time t = 25.
or:
800 = 3000e 0.05314Kt
1
800
t=
ln
= 24.87K
0.05314 K 3000
Phoebe will not quite make it because the
pressure has dropped to 800 just before t = 25.
T10. a. y = number of grams of chlorine dissolved
t = number of hours since chlorinator was
started
dy
= 30 ky
dt
dy
= dt
30 ky
1
ln |30 ky| = t + C
k
ln |30 ky| = kt + C 1
30 ky = C 2e k t
y = 0 when t = 0 C 2 = 30
ky = 30(1 e kt)
30
y=
(1 e kt )
k
The rate of escape is ky = 13 when y = 100.
So k = 0.13.
30
y =
(1 e 0.13t ) = 230.7K(1 e 0.13t )
0.13
T9. a.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## b. 200 = 230.7(1 e 0.13t )

200
e 0.13t = 1
= 0.1333K
230.7K
ln 0.1333K
t=
= 15.499K 15.5 hr
0.13
dy
16 y
= 0.5 y
T11. a.
dx
16
16
16
y=
2=
a=7
1 + ae 0.5 x
1 + ae 0
16
y=
1 + 7e 0.5 x
b. At x = 0, y = 2:
dy = 0.5(2)(16 2)/(16)(0.1) = 0.0875
At x = 0.1, y 2 + 0.0875 = 2.0875,
so dy = 0.5(2.0875)(16 2.0875)/(16)(0.1) =
0.09075 .
At x = 0.2, y 2.0875 + 0.09075 =
2.17825 .
16
=
The precise solution is y =
1 + 7e 0.1
2.18166 , which is greater than
2.17825 , as expected because the
graph is concave up (convex side downward).
16
c. 4 =
x = [ln (3/7)]/0.5 =
1 + 7e 0.5 x
1.6945
About 1 month 21 days
d.
y (hundred lilies)

## The graph starts going downward and to the

right from (80, 700) because the coyote
population is relatively high, thus decreasing
the number of roadrunners.
b. There can be two different values for the
roadrunner population for a particular coyote
population because the two events happen at
two different times. For example, coyotes are
increasing from 80 when there are 700 roadrunners, but later they are decreasing from 80
T13. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 7-8

Cumulative Review, Chapters 17
1.
v(t)
200
( t , v ( t ))

t
8

## v(t) dt represents the distance traveled in time dt.

2. Definite integral
8

3.

(t

## 21t 2 + 100t + 80) dt

1 4
t 7t 3 + 50t 2 + 80t
4
= 1280 mi
4. M 100 = 1280.0384
M1000 = 1280.000384
=

T12. a.

## The Riemann sums seem to be approaching 1280

as n increases. Thus, the 1280 that was found by
purely algebraic methods seems to give the
correct value of the limit of the Riemann sum.

x (months)

## The graph shows that the number of lilies is

expected to decrease toward 1600 (y = 16)
because of overcrowding.

5.
v(t)
200
( t , v ( t ))

t
(80, 700)

C (coyotes)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 6. Any Riemann sum is bounded by the

corresponding lower and upper sums. That is,
L n R n U n.
By the definition of integrability, the limits of Ln
and Un are equal to each other and to the definite
integral. By the squeeze theorem, then, the limit
of Rn is also equal to the definite integral.
Problem Set 7-8

165

7. Definition:

18. z 2 = x 2 + y 2 2 z

f ( x ) dx = lim Ln = lim Un
x 0

dz 1
= [0.3 x + 6e 0.5 x (0.9e 0.5 x )]
dt z
At x = 2, z = 2 2 + 2.2072 K2 = 2.9786 ,

x 0

## provided that the two limits are equal.

Fundamental theorem: If f is integrable on
[a, b] and g( x ) = f ( x ) dx,
then

f ( x ) dx = g(b) g( a).

Or: If F( x ) =

f (t ) dt, then F ( x ) = f ( x ).

## 8. Numerically, the integral equals 1280. By

counting, there are approximately 52 squares.
Thus, the integral 52(25)(1) = 1300.
v( 4.1) v(3.9)
(mi/min )
9. v ( 4)
= 19.9
0.2
min
v( 4.01) v(3.99)
(mi/min)
v ( 4 )
= 19.9999
0.02
min
f ( x ) f (c )
or
10. f (c) = lim
x c
xc
f ( x + x ) f ( x )
f ( x ) = lim
x 0
x
2
v(t)
=

+
11.
3t
42t 100 v(4) = 20
12. Slowing down. v(4) < 0 and v(4) = 208 > 0
velocity is positive but decreasing speed is
slowing down.
13. The line has slope 20, and passes through
(4, 208). The line is tangent to the graph.

## z is decreasing at about 0.044 unit per second.

dm
= km
19.
dt
dm
= k dt ln |m | = kt + C
20.
m
| m | = e kt +C m = C1e kt

21. Exponentially
22. General
23. 10000 = C1e0 C1 = 10000
10900 = 10000e k1
k = ln 1.09 m = 10000e ln(1.09) t
= 10000(1.09)t
24. False. The rate of increase changes as the amount
in the account increases. At t = 10,
m = 10000(1.09)10 23673.64.
The amount of money would grow by
\$13,673.64, not just \$9,000.
25. By Simpsons rule,

42

y dx

30

5
Slope
= 20

dz
1
=
(0.6 0.7308K) = 0.04391K .
dt 2.9786 K

so

v(t)
200

dz
dx
dy
= 2x
+ 2y
dt
dt
dt

2
(74 + 4 77 + 2 83 + 4 88 + 2 90
3
+ 4 91 + 89) = 1022.

90 83
y
= 1.75.
2( 2 )

100

100

## 27. If f is differentiable on (a, b) and continuous at

x = a and x = b, and if f ( a) = f ( b) = 0, then there
is a number x = c in (a, b) such that f (c) = 0.

t
0

10

28.
f(x)

14. Acceleration
15. At a maximum of v(t), v(t) will equal zero.
3t2 42t + 100 = 0 t =

42 42 2 4 3 100
6

t = 3.041 or 10.958
So the maximum is not at exactly t = 3.
16. v(t) = 6t 42
dx
dy
dz
17. Know:
= 0.3. Want:
and
.
dt
dt
dt
dy
dx
y = 6e 0.5 x
= 3e 0.5 x
= 0.9e 0.5 x
dt
dt
dy
At x = 2,
= 0.9e 1 = 0.3310 K .
dt
y is decreasing at about 0.33 unit per second.

166

tangent

f (b )

secant

f (a )

x
a c

29.
f(x) and f(x)
5

f
x

10

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

30.

36.

f(x)

x
1

Step discontinuity at x = 1.
31. g(x) = x1/ 3(x 1)
1
1
g( x ) = x 13/ + x 2/3 ( x 1) = x 2/3 ( 4 x 1)
3
3
g(0) is undefined because 0 2 /3 takes on the form
1 / 0 2 /3 or 1/0.

x
1

## 32. e0.2 x = 0.6x x 3.0953 (Store as a.)

Or x 7.5606 (Store as b.)
dA = (0.6x e0.2 x) dx
A=

(0.6 x e
a

0.2x

) dx 0.8787K

(Integrate numerically.)
33. dV = [(e0.2 x)2 (0.6x)2] dx
V =

(e
0

0.4x

0.36 x 2 ) dx 8.0554K
(Integrate numerically.)

34.

dy
x
= 0.25
dx
y
Initial conditions: (0, 3) and (10, 4)

dy
10
= 0.25
= 0.625.
dx
4
Using x = 0.5, y(10.5) 4 + (0.625)(0.5) =
4.3125, which is close to the exact value of
4.30842 .

d
3x 2
(sin 1 x 3 ) =
dx
1 x6

## 40. x = ln (cos t) and y = sec t

1
dx/dt =
( sin t ) = tan t
cos t
dy/dt = sec t tan t
dy dy/dt sec t tan t
=
=
= sec t = y
dx dx/dt
tan t
dx
1
41.
= ln |4 3 x | + C
4 3x
3
x
42. h( x ) = 5 = e xln 5 h( x ) = ln 5 e 5ln 5 = 5 x ln 5
sin 5 x + cos 3 x 5 x 1
0
43. lim

x0
x2
0
5 cos 5 x 3 sin 3 x 5
0
= lim

x0
2x
0
25 sin 5 x 9 cos 3 x
= lim
= 4.5
x0
2
sin 5 x + cos 3 x 5 x 1
, showing a
44. y =
x2
removable discontinuity at (0, 4.5).

(10, 4)

(0, 3)

= 0.125 x 2 + C1

## 37. x = 10.5: y = 0.5 10.52 36 = 4.30842

39.

g (x )

x 2 4y 2 = C
Initial condition: (10, 4)
100 64 = C C = 36
x 2 4 y 2 = 36 y = 0.5 x 2 36

y dy = 0.25 x dx 0.5y

x
x

## 35. See the graph in Problem 34. Any initial

condition for which y = 0.5x, such as (2, 1),
gives the asymptote.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
(0, 4.5)
5

## 45. Answers will vary.

46. Answers will vary.

167

Problem Set 8-1

## Problem Set 8-2

1. f (x) = x 3 6x 2 + 9x + 3
f (x) = 3x 2 12x + 9

Q1.

Q2.
y

x
1

x
1

Q3.

Q4.
y

g (x) = x 3 6x 2 + 15x 9
g (x) = 3x 2 12x + 15
y

f
f

Q5.

Q6.
y

y
x
1

x
1

h (x) = x 6x + 12x 3
h (x) = 3x 2 12x + 12
3

x
1

Q7.

Q8.

y
f

f
1

x
1

Q9.

2.

3.

4.

5.

168

## Positive derivative increasing function

Negative derivative decreasing function
Zero derivative function could be at a high
point or a low point, but not always.
The functions have vertex points at values of x
where their derivatives change sign. If the
derivative is never zero, as for function g, the
function graph has no vertex points. If the
derivative is zero but does not change sign, as
for function h, the function graph just levels
off, then continues in the same direction, with
no vertex.
g (x) = (d/dx)(3x2 12x + 15) = 6x 12
h (x) = (d/dx)(3x2 12x + 12) = 6x 12
All the second derivatives are the same!
The curves are concave up where the second
derivative is positive and concave down where the
second derivative is negative.
Points of inflection occur where the first
derivative graph reaches a minimum.
Points of inflection occur where the second
derivative graph crosses the x-axis.

Q10.
y
1

y
1

x
1

x
2

1.
max.

f (x )
f(x)

2
no p.i.

f (x )
f(x)

2.
min.

f ( x)
f' ( x)

2
no p.i.

f(x )
f"(x)
x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

9.
plateau

no max./min.

f (x )
f(x)

f (x )
+

f(x)

undef.

no p.i.

p.i.

f (x )

f (x )
f(x)

f(x)

undef.

10.

4.

no max.min.

max.

f (x )

f (x)
f' (x)

f'(x )

undef.

2
no p.i.

no p.i.

f (x )

f (x )
f"(x )

undef.

undef.

f"(x )

undef.

11.

5.

max.

min.

f (x )
f(x)

min.

max.

f (x )

undef.

f(x)

0
2

0
3

no p.i.

f (x )
f(x)

p.i.
0

undef.

p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

6.

no max./min.

f (x )
f'(x )

f (x )

undef.

2
p.i.

f (x )
f"(x )

undef.

+
2

7.

12.
no max./min.

min.

f (x )

plateau

max.

f(x )

f(x)

f'(x)

p.i.

f (x )
f(x)

p.i.

p.i.

p.i.

f (x )

f"(x)

8.

0
2

no max./.min.

f (x )
f'(x )

f (x )

p.i.

f (x )
f"(x)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

0
2

x
3

169

13.

16.
max.

plateau

min.

max.

min.

max.

f (x )

f (x )
f(x)

f' (x )

no p.i.

e.p. + 0

0 + e.p.

p.i.

no p.i.

f(x)

f (x )
f(x)

f"(x)

e.p.

f (x )

zero

e.p.
7

f (x )

x
2

17.
14.

y
3
max.

none

max.

f(x )
f'(x)

0 +

p.i.

18.

f (x )
f"(x )

x
3

f (x )

f'

f'
x

f'
x
2

19.
y

15.
min.

max.

min.

f (x )
f(x)

e.p.

zero

e.p.

x
4

no p.i.

f (x )
f(x)

e.p.

zero

e.p.
5

20.
y

f (x )
4
2

f'
x
1

170

x
4

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 21. f (x) = 3ex xex

f (x) = 3ex ex xex = ex (2 x)
f (2) = e2 (2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2
f (x) = 2ex ex xex = ex (1 x)
f (2) = e2 (1 2) = 7.3890... < 0
local maximum at x = 2
f (x )

f (x )
1

x
2

x
1

## The graph confirms a maximum at x = 2.

22. f ( x ) = sin

x
4

## 25. f (x) = (x 2)3 + 1

f (x) = 3(x 2)2
f (2) = 3(2 2)2 = 0 critical point at x = 2
f (x) = 6(x 2)
f (2) = 6(2 2) = 0, so the test fails.
f (x) goes from positive to positive as
x increases through 2, so there is a plateau
at x = 2.

cos x
4
4

4
4
at x = 2

f (x )

f ( x ) =

sin x
16
4
2

## sin (2) = 0.6168K > 0

f (2) =
16
4
local minimum at x = 2

x
2

f ( x ) =

f (x )
1

x
2
1

## The graph confirms a plateau at x = 2.

26. f (x) = (2 x)4 + 1
f (x) = 4(2 x)3
f (2) = 4(2 2)3 = 0 critical point at x = 2
f (x) = 12(2 x)2
f (2) = 12(2 2)2 = 0, so the test fails.
f (x) changes from negative to positive as
x increases through 2, so there is a local
minimum at x = 2.
f (x )

## The graph confirms a minimum at x = 2.

23. f (x) = (2 x)2 + 1
f (x) = 2(2 x)
f (2) = 2(2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2
f (x) = 2 f (2) = 2 > 0
local minimum at x = 2
f (x )

x
2

## The graph confirms a minimum at x = 2.

24. f (x) = (x 2)2 + 1
f (x) = 2(x 2)
f (2) = 2(2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2
f (x) = 2 f (2) = 2 < 0
local maximum at x = 2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
2

## The graph confirms a minimum at x = 2.

27. a. f (x) = 6x5 10x3
f (x) = 30x4 30x2 = 30x2(x + 1)(x 1)
f (x) = 0 x = 1, 0, or 1 (critical points
for f (x))
f ( x ) = 120 x 3 60 x = 60 x ( 2 x + 1)( 2 x 1)
f (x) = 0 x = 0, 1/2 (critical points for
f (x))
b. The graph begins after the f-critical point at
x = 1; the f -critical point at x = 1/2 is
shown, but is hard to see.
c. f (x) is negative for both x < 0 and x > 0.

171

## 28. a. f (x) = 0.1x 4 3.2x + 7

f (x) = 0.4x 3 3.2 = 0.4(x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)
x2 + 2x + 4 has discriminant = 22 4 4 < 0,
so f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x)).
f (x) = 1.2x2
f (x) = 0 x = 0 (critical point for f (x))
b. f (x) does not change sign at x = 0.
( f (x) 0 for all x)
c. f (c) = 0, but f (c) 0
29. a. f ( x ) = xe x
f ( x ) = xe x + e x = e x (1 x )
f (x) = 0 x = 1 (critical point for f (x))
f ( x ) = xe x 2e x = e x ( x 2)
f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x))
b. Because f (x) approaches its horizontal
asymptote (y = 0) from above, the graph must
be concave up for large x; but the graph is
concave down near x = 1, and the graph is
smooth; somewhere the concavity must
change from down to up.
c. No. e x 0 for all x, so xe x = 0 x = 0.
30. a. f (x) = x 2 ln x
f (x) = x + 2x ln x = x (1 + 2 ln x)
f (x) and f (x) are undefined at x = 0, so
f ( x ) = 0 ln x = 0.5 x = e 0.5 =
0.6065 (critical point for f (x)).
f (x) = 3 + 2 ln x
f ( x ) = 0 ln x = 1.5 x = e 1.5 =
0.2231 (critical point for f (x)).

## c. There is no inflection point at x = 0 because

concavity is down for both sides, but there is
an inflection point at x = 1.
32. a. f ( x ) = x 1.2 3 x 0.2
f ( x ) = 1.2 x 0.2 0.6 x 0.8 = 0.6 x 0.8 (2 x 1)
f (x) = 0 x = 0.5, and f (x) is undefined
at x = 0 (critical points for f (x)).
f ( x ) = 0.24 x 0.8 + 0.48 x 1.8 = 0.24 x 1.8 ( x + 2)
f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x);
f (0) is undefined, so f has no critical point
at x = 0).
b. f (0) = 01.2 3 00.2 = 0 has only one value.
c. Curved concave up because f (x) > 0 for
x < 2
33. a. f (x) = x 3 + 5x 2 6x + 7
f (x )
7

x
1

b.

ln x
1/ x
= lim
x 2 x 0 + 2 x 3
= lim+ 0.5 x 2 = 0 by LHospitals rule.

b. lim+ x 2 ln x = lim+
x0

x0

x0

c.

x0

## undefined for x < 0.

c. All critical points from part a appear,
although the inflection point at x = e 1.5 is
hard to see on the graph.
31. a. f (x) = x 5/3 + 5x 2/3
5
10
5
f ( x ) = x 2/3 + x 1/3 = x 1/3 ( x + 2)
3
3
3
f (x) = 0 x = 2, and f (x) is undefined
at x = 0 (critical points for f (x)).
10 1/3 10 4/3 10 4/3
=
f ( x ) =
x x
x ( x 1)
9
9
9
f (x) = 0 x = 1 (critical point for f (x);
f (0) is undefined, so f has no critical point
at x = 0).
b. The y-axis (x = 0) is a tangent line because
the slope approaches from both sides.

172

d.

34. a.

## Maximum (2.5, 7.6), minimum (0.8, 4.9),

points of inflection (1.7, 6.3)
No global maximum or minimum
f (x) = 3x 2 + 10x 6
1
f ( x ) = 0 x = (5 7 ) = 2.5485K or
3
0.7847
5
f ( x ) = 6 x + 10; f ( x ) = 0 x = =
3
1.666
f (0.7847) = 6(0.7847) + 10 =
5.2915 > 0, confirming local minimum.
Critical and inflection points occur only
where f, f , or f is undefined (no such points
exist) or is zero (all such points are found
above).
f (x) = x 3 7x 2 + 9x + 10
f (x )

10

x
1

## Maximum (0.8, 13.2), minimum (3.9, 2.1),

points of inflection (2.3, 5.6)
No global maximum or minimum

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. f (x) = 3x 2 14x + 9
1
f ( x ) = 0 at x = (7 22 ) = 3.896 K or
3
0.769
7
f ( x ) = 6 x 14; f ( x ) = 0 at x = = 2.333K
3
c. f (0.769) = 6(0.769) 14 =
9.3808 < 0, confirming local maximum.
d. Critical and inflection points occur only
where f, f , or f is undefined (no such points
exist) or is zero (all such points are found
above).
35. a. f (x) = 3x 4 + 8x 3 6x 2 24x + 37,
x [3, 2]
f (x )
80

x
3

b.

c.
d.

36. a.

## Maximum (3, 82), (1, 50), (2, 77),

minimum (2, 45), (1, 18), points of
inflection (1.5, 45.7), (0.2, 32.0)
Global maximum at (3, 82) and global
minimum at (1, 18)
f (x) = 12x 3 + 24x 2 12x 24
= 12(x + 2)(x 1)(x + 1)
f (x) = 0 x = 2, 1, 1
f (x) is undefined x = 3, 2.
f (x) = 36x 2 + 48x 12 = 12(3x 2 + 4x 1);
1
f ( x ) = 0 x = (2 7 ) = 0.2152
3
or 1.5485
f (x) is undefined x = 3, 2.
f (2) = 12[3(4) + 4(2) 1] = 36 > 0,
confirming local minimum.
Critical and inflection points occur only
where f, f , or f is undefined (only at
endpoints) or is zero (all such points are found
above).
f (x) = (x 1)5 + 4, x [1, 3]

## b. f (x) = 5(x 1)4

f (x) = 0 x = 1; f (x) is undefined
x = 1, 3.
f (x) = 20(x 1)3;
f (x) = 0 x = 1; f (x) is undefined
x = 1, 3.
c. f (1) = 20(1 1)3 = 0, so the test fails.
d. Critical and inflection points occur only
where f, f , or f is undefined (only at
endpoints) or is zero (all such points are found
above).
37. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d; f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c;
f (x) = 6ax + 2b f (x) = 0 at x = b/(3a)
Because the equation for f (x) is a line with
nonzero slope, f (x) changes sign at x = b/(3a),
so there is a point of inflection at x = b/(3a).
38. f (x) may not have a local maximum or
minimum (if f (x) is never zero); if this is not
the case, then the maximum and minimum occur
where f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c = 0, at
2 b 4b 2 4 3a c b
b 2 3ac
=

,
6a
3a
3a
and the maximum and minimum occur at
x=

## b 2 3ac /(3a) units on either side of the

inflection point b/(3a) (see Problem 33).
39. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c; f (x) = 6ax + 2b
Points of inflection at (2, 3) f (3) = 0
18a + 2b = 0
Maximum at (5, 10) f (5) = 0 75a + 10b +
c=0
(3, 2) and (5, 10) are on the graph
27a + 9b + 3c + d = 2.
125a + 25b + 5c + d = 10
Solving this system of equations yields
1
9
15
5
f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 x .
2
2
2
2
f (x )

(5, 10)

5
(3, 2)
3

x
5

f (x )

10
1

x
1

## Maximum (3, 36), minimum (1, 28),

plateau and points of inflection (1, 4)
Global maximum at (3, 36) and global
minimum at (1, 28)

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The graph confirms maximum (5, 10) and points

of inflection (3, 2).
40. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c; f (x) = 6ax + 2b
Points of inflection at (2, 7) f (2) = 0
12a + 2b = 0
Maximum at (1, 61) f (1) = 0
3a 2b + c = 0
Problem Set 8-2

173

## (2, 7) and (1, 61) are on the graph

8a + 4b + 2c + d = 7.
a + b c + d = 61
Solving this system of equations yields
f (x) = x 3 6x 2 15x + 53.
80

d.
f (x )

f (x )
x
c
x

e.

f ( x)

## The graph confirms maximum (1, 61) and

points of inflection (2, 7).
41. a. f (x) = x 3 f (x) = 3x 2
f (0.8) = 1.92
f (0.5) = 0.75
f (0.5) = 0.75
f (0.8) = 1.92
b. The slope seems to be decreasing from 0.8
to 0.5; f (x) = 6x < 0 on 0.8 x 0.5,
which confirms that the slope decreases. The
slope seems to be increasing from 0.5 to 0.8;
f (x) = 6x > 0 on 0.5 x 0.8, which
confirms that the slope increases.
c. The curve lies above the tangent line.
42. Ima could notice that y = 0 at x = 0
(or y = 3 at x = 1), so the graph could not
possibly be a straight line with slope = 1.
43. a.

(Locally
constant)

x
c

## 44. f (x) = 10(x 1)4/3 + 2

f (1) = 2, so f (1) is defined.
40
f ( x ) =
( x 1)1/ 3
3
f (1) = 0, so f is differentiable at x = 1.
40
f ( x ) =
( x 1) 2 / 3
9
40
40
f (1) has the form (0 2 / 3 ) or
(1/0) , so
9
9
f (1) is infinite.
There seems to be a cusp at (1, 2), but zooming
in on this point reveals that the tangent is
actually horizontal there.
f (x )

f (x )

x
x
c

b.
f (x )

x
c

c.
f (x )

x
c

174

## See Problem 20 in Problem Set 10-6 for

calculation of curvature.
45. f (x) = e0.06 x, f (x) = 0.06e0.06 x,
f (x) = 0.0036e0.06 x
g (x) = 1 + 0.06x + 0.0018x2 + 0.000036x3
g (x) = 0.06 + 0.0036x + 0.000108x2
g (x) = 0.0036 + 0.000216x
f (0) = 1 and g (0) = 1
f (0) = 0.06 and g (0) = 0.06
f (0) = 0.0036 and g (0) = 0.0036
(In fact, f (0) = g (0).)
But f (10) = e0.6 = 1.822 g (10) = 1.816;
f (10) = 0.109 g (10) = 0.1068.
Because f (x) > 0 for all x, f has no x-intercept.
But g (0) = 1 and g (100) = 23.
By the intermediate value theorem, g (x) = 0
somewhere between x = 100 and x = 0, meaning
that g does have an x-intercept.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 1. Let x = total width of pen, y = length of pen.

Domains: 0 x 300, 0 y 200
Maximize A(x) = xy.
2
2 x + 3 y = 600 y = 200 x
3
2 2
A( x ) = 200 x x
3

( x 1)3 sin 1 + 2, if x 1
46. f ( x ) =
x 1
2, if x = 1
2.01

f (x )

1.99

A (x)

1
+ 2 = 2 = f (1)
x 1
(The limit of the first term is zero because
(x 1)3 approaches zero and the sine factor is
bounded.)
f is continuous at x = 1.
f ( x ) f (1)
f (1) = lim
x 1
x 1
[( x 1)3 sin(1/( x 1))] + 2 2
= lim
x 1
x 1
1
2
= lim ( x 1) sin
=0
x 1
x 1
(x 1)2 0 and the sine factor is bounded.
f (1) = 0

max.

x 1

x 1

2.001

1.999

0.9

1.1

## Problem Set 8-3

Q2. ln |x + 6| + C
Q4. 3x 1/3 + C
Q6. x + C

Q10. D
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
14.28...

## The graph shows a minimum at x 14.

Algebraically, P (x) = 12 2450x 2.
P (x) = 0 2450x 2 = 12
x = 2450/12 = 35/ 6 = 14.288
Minimum is at x = 35/ 6 , y = 10 6 =
24.49 .
Make rooms 14.3 ft across and 24.5 ft deep.
b. For 10 rooms, P (x) = 20x + 11y =
20x + 3850x 1.
Minimum at x = 192.5 = 13.87 ,

y"
x

## The graph shows a maximum at x 150.

4
Algebraically, A( x ) = 200 x.
3
A(x) = 0 x = 150, confirming the graph.
2
x = 150 y = 200 150 = 100
3
Make the total width 150 ft and length 100 ft.
(Note: The maximum area was not asked for.)
2. a. Let x = width of a room across the front,
y = depth of a room from front to back.
Domains: x 0, y 0
Minimize P (x) = 12x + 7y.
xy = 350 y = 350x 1
P (x) = 12x + 2450x 1

Q9.

300

P (x )

## The graph is zoomed in by a factor of 10 both

ways. The graph does appear to be locally linear
at x = 2. Although the sine factor makes an
infinite number of cycles in any neighborhood of
x = 1, the (x 1)3 factor approaches zero so
rapidly that the graph is flattened out. The
name pathological is used to describe the fact that
the graph makes an infinite number of cycles in a
bounded neighborhood of x = 1.
47. Answers will vary.

Q1. y = 3(3 x + 5) 2
2
Q3. x 5/ 3
3
Q5. x 1 + C
Q7. ln |sin x| + C
Q8.

x
150

x
2

## y = 350/ 192.5 = 25.22

Make rooms 13.9 ft across and 25.2 ft deep.
For 3 rooms, P (x) = 6x + 4y = 6x + 1400x 1.
P (x) = 6 1400x 2 = 0 at x = 1400/6 =
10 7/3
Problem Set 8-3

175

## Minimum at x = 10 7/3 = 15.27 ,

y = 5 21 = 22.91
Make rooms 15.3 ft across and 22.9 ft deep.
3. a. Let x = width of rectangle, 2x = length of
rectangle, y = width of square.
A rect = 2x 2, A sq = y 2
For minimal rectangle, 2x2 800 x 20.
For minimal square, y2 100 y 10.
Perimeter P = 6x + 4y = 600
y = 150 1.5x
150 1.5x 10 x 140/1.5 =
93.3333
Domain: 20 x 93.3333
b. Total area A(x) = 2x2 + y2
= 2x2 + (150 1.5x)2
= 22500 450x + 4.25x2
A(x)
20,000

A(159.154) = 79577.471
Minimum area at r = 70.012 ,
s = 1000/(4 + ) = 140.024
For square, 4(140.024) 560.
For circle, 2(70.012) 440.
Use 440 yd for square and 560 yd for circle.
(You could build a square corral with side 140
around the circular fence of radius 70 to
enclose a total area of only 19,607 yd2 , but
Big Bill might not like your solution!)
b. The graph of A versus r shows that the
maximum area occurs at the largest possible
circle. Big Bill should use all 1000 yards for
the circular fence and not build a corral.
5. a. Let x = length of square base, z = height
of box.
Domain of x: 0 x 120 = 10.954
Maximize V(x) = x2z.
Area = x2 + 4xz = 120 z = 30/x x/4
V(x) = 30x x3/4
V

max.

x
20

93.3

## c. The graph shows a maximum at endpoint

x = 93.3333 .
A(x) = 450 + 8.5x
A(x) = 0 x = 450/8.5 = 52.9411
Because A(52.9) is a minimum, the
maximum occurs at an endpoint.
A(20) = 15200, A(93.3333) =
17522.2222
Greatest area 17,522 ft2
4. a. Let r = radius of circle, s = width of square
Diameter 50 r 25
Circumference 1000 2r 1000
r 500/
Domain of r: 25 r 500/ = 159.154
Minimize A(r) = r2 + s2.
Perimeter 2r + 4s = 1000 s = 250 r/2
A(r) = r2 + (250 r/2)2
A

max.

min.

r
25

70

160

## The graph shows minimum area at x 70.

A(r) = 2r + 2(250 r/2)(/2)
A(r) = 0 2r (250 r/2) = 0
r = 500/(4 + ) = 70.012
A(25) = 46370.667
A(70.012) = 35006.197
176

x
0

6.32...

10.95...

## The graph shows a maximum at x 6.3.

V(x) = 30 3x 2/4 = 0 at x = 40
x = 40 is out of the domain.
Critical points at x = 0, x = 40 , x = 120
V (0) = 0, V ( 120 ) = 0
V( 40 ) = 20 40 = 126.49
Maximum at x = 40 = 6.324 ,
z = 40 /2 = 3.162
Make the box 6.32 cm square by 3.16 cm
deep.
b. Conjecture: An open box with square base of
side length x and fixed surface area A will
have maximal volume when the base length
is twice the height, which occurs when
x = A/3 (see the solution to Problem 8b).
6. a. Domain of x is 0 x 6.
b. V(0) = 0 cm2
V(1) = 180 cm2
V(2) = 256 cm2 (largest volume for an integer
value of x)
V(3) = 252 cm2
V(4) = 192 cm2
V(5) = 100 cm2
V(6) = 0 cm2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## c. V(x) = (20 2x)(12 2x)x

= 240x 64x 2 + 4x 3
V (x )

A 2 z(2 z + 4 z 2 + A )

y=

2 z + 4 z 2 + A + 2 z

= 2 z + 4 z 2 + A

200

x
6

## The graph shows a maximum at x 2.4.

V(x) = 240 128x + 12x2 = 0 at
x = (128 4864 )/24 = 2.427 or 8.239
x = 8.239 is out of the domain.
V(2.427) = 262.68 is a maximum
because it is positive and V(0) = V(6) = 0.
Maximum volume 262.7 cm2 at
x 2.43 cm
7. Let x = length, y = depth, C(x) = total cost.
Domains: x > 0, y > 0
Area of bottom = 5x
Total area of sides is (10 + 2x)y.
Minimize C(x) = 10(5x) + 5(10 + 2x)y.
Volume = 72 5xy = 72
y = 72/(5 x ) = 14.4 x 1
C( x ) = 50 x + 5(10 + 2 x )(14.4 x 1 )
C( x ) = 50 x + 720 x 1 + 144

## Therefore, x = y for maximum volume,

Q .E .D .
b. Let x = y. Maximize V = xyz = x 2z.
Fixed area A = xy + 2xz + 2yz = x2 + 4xz
z = A/(4x) x/4
V = (A/4)x x3/4
dV
= ( A/4) 3 x 2 /4 = 0 at x = A/3
dx
dV/dx goes from positive to negative at
x = A/3 maximum at x = A/3.
1
1
A/3 = x
2
2
c. For the maximal box in part b, the depth is
half the length of the base. Thus, the box is
short and fat. This makes sense because the
problem is equivalent to maximizing the
volume of two open boxes with the second
box placed upside-down on the first. The
resulting single closed box will have
maximum volume when it is a cube, which
will happen if each open box is half a cube.
z = A/( 4 A/3 ) A/3 /4 =

x 2 + e2 x .
D (x)
x
3.794...

## The graph shows a minimum at x 3.8.

C(x) = 50 720x 2 = 0 x = 72/5 =
3.7947
x = 3.7947 is out of the domain.
Minimum is at x = 3.7947 because C(x)
changes from negative to positive there.
C(3.7947) = 120 10 + 144 523.47
Minimum cost is \$523.47.
8. a. Maximize V = xyz.
Fixed area A = xy + 2xz + 2yz
y = (A 2xz)/(x + 2z)
V =

Axz 2 x 2 z 2
x + 2z

dV 2 z 2 x 2 8z 3 x + 2 Az 2
=
dx
( x + 2 z )2
dV
= 0 at x = 2 z + 4 z 2 + A
dx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
0.4263...

## The graph shows a minimum at x 0.43.

1 2
( x + e 2 x ) 1/2 (2 x + 2e 2 x )
2
D(x) = 0 2x + 2e2x = 0 x = e2x
Because x appears both algebraically and
exponentially, there is no analytic solution.
Solving numerically gives x 0.4263. By
graphing D(x), D(0.4263) is a minimum.
Closest point to the origin is
(x, y) = (0.4263 , 0.6529).
10. Minimize A(r) = r2 + 2rx, r 20.
2 r + 2x = 400 x = 200 r
x 100 r 100/
domain is 20 r 100/.
A(r) = r2 + 2r(200 r) = 400r r2
D( x ) =

177

A (r )
10,000

r
20 31.83...

## The graph shows a minimum at endpoint x = 20.

A = 400 2 r
A = 0 r = 200/ = 63.6 (out of domain)
A > 0 for all r in the domain.
minimum occurs at left end of domain, r = 20.
x = 200 20 = 137.168
Make radius of semicircles 20 m and straight
sections 137.17 m.
11.

y
8

x1

L( x ) = x 2 + y 2 .
Domains: x 1, y 8
Minimize L 2(x) = x2 + y2.
8x
y
8
Using similar triangles, =
.
y=
x 1
x x 1
64 x 2
L2(x) = x2 +
( x 1)2

L( x ) = ( x + 7)2 + ( y + 5)2
Maximize L2(x) = (x + 7)2 + (y + 5)2.
Using similar triangles, y/7 = 5/x y =
35/x.
L2(x) = (x + 7)2 + (35/x + 5)2
L 2(x) = x 2 + 14x + 49 + 1225/x 2 + 350/x + 25
L
20

x
5.59...

## The graph shows a minimum of L(x) at x 5.6.

( L2 ( x )) = 2 x + 14 350 x 2 2450 x 3
By numerical solution, (L2) = 0 at x 5.5934 .
(Exact answer is x = 3 175 .)
But a minimum distance L in the hall implies
that the maximal ladder that will go through the
hall is at x = 5.5934 .
L2(5.5934) = 285.3222
L(5.5934) = 16.8914
No ladder longer than 16.8 ft (rounded down) can
pass through the hall.
13. Let r = radius, h = height.
V = r2h
2r + 2h = 1200 h = 600 r
V = r2(600 r) = (600r2 r3)
V

10

r
400

x
1

## The graph shows a minimum of L(x) at x 5.

128 x
(L2)(x) = 2x
( x 1)3
128 x

(L2)(x) = 0 2 x =
( x 1)3
x = 0 (out of domain) or (x 1)3 = 64 x = 5
By graph, L(x) is a minimum at x = 5.
Shortest ladder has length L(5) = 5 5 11.18 ft.
12. Let x and y be the segments shown.
L
y

5
7

178

## The graph shows a maximum at r 400.

V = (1200r 3r2)
V = 0 r = 0 or r = 400
From graph, maximum is at r = 400.
h = 600 400 = 200
Maximum volume occurs with rectangle
400 mm wide (radius), 200 mm high.
14. Rotating a square does not give the maximum
volume. The solution to Problem 13 gives a
counterexample. Repeating the calculations with
perimeter P instead of 1200 gives r = (1/3)P and
h = (1/6)P, showing that the proportions for
maximum volume are with radius twice the
height.
15. a. Let r = radius, h = height.
V = r2h = (3.652)(10.6) = 141.2185
= 443.6510 cm3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. A = 2rh + 2r2
V = r2h = 141.2185 h = 141.2185/r2
A = 2r(141.2185/r2) + 2r2
A = 2 (141.2185r 1 + r 2 )
c.

500

r
4.13...

## The graph shows a minimum at x 4.1.

A = 2 ( 141.2185r 2 + 2 r )
A = 2/r2(141.2185 + 2r3)
A = 0 r3 = 70.60925
r = 3 70.60925 = 4.1332
Minimum at r = 4.1 because A goes from
negative to positive.
h = 141.2815/(3 70.60925 )2 = 23 70.60925
= 8.2664
Radius 4.1 cm, height 8.3 cm
Because height = 2 radius, height = diameter.
So minimal can is neither tall and narrow nor
short and wide.
d. Normally proportioned can is taller and
narrower than minimal can. For normal can,
A = 2(3.65)(10.6) + 2(3.65)2 =
326.8041 .
For minimal can, A = 2(4.13)(8.26) +
2(4.13)2 = 322.014 .
Difference is 4.78 cm2.
Percent: (4.789)(100)/326.80 = 1.465
1.5% of metal in normal can
e. Savings = (0.06)(20 106)(0.01465)(365) =
6.419 106, or about \$6.4 million!
16. a. C(r ) = 2r 2 k + 2rh = 2r 2 k + 282.437r 1
C (r ) = 4rk 282.437r 2
= 4r 2 ( kr 3 70.60925)
C(r) = 0 at r = 3 70.60925/k
C (r ) = 4k + 564.874r 3 > 0 for all r > 0,
so this is a local minimum.
If the normal can is the cheapest to make,
then 3.65 = 3 70.60925/k
k = 70.60925(3.65) 3 = 1.4520 .
This is reasonable because metal for the ends
is cut into circles, so some must be wasted.
b. Now it takes (2r)2 cm2 of metal to make each
end of the can, so the function to minimize is
C(r ) = 8r 2 k + 2rh = 8r 2 k + 282.437r 1 .
C (r ) = 16rk 282.437r 2
C (r ) = 0 at r = 3
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

282.437
16k

## C (r ) = 16k + 564.874r 3 > 0 for all r > 0,

so this is a local minimum.
If the normal can is the cheapest to make,
282.437
282.437
then 3.65 = 3
k=
16k
16(3.65)3
= 1.1404 .
To minimize the area (not the cost) of the
can, minimize 8r 2 + 2rh = 8r 2 + 282.437r 1.
C (r ) = 16r 282.437r 2 = 0
282.437
r=3
= 3.8126 cm
16
141.2185
h=
2 = 9.7099 K cm.
3 282.437 /16

## The proportions of this can are closer to those

of the normal can.
c. If the metal for the ends can be cut without
waste, then it takes (r + 0.6)2 to make each
end and (2r + 0.5)h to make the sides, so
minimize
C(r) = 2(r + 0.6)2 + (2r + 0.5)h
= 2 (r + 0.6)2 + 141.2185(2r + 0.5)r 2
C (r ) = 4 (r + 0.6) 282.437r 2
141.2185r 3
C(r) = 0 at r 3.9966 by graphing calculator.
C (r ) = 4 + 564.874r 3 + 423.6555r 4 > 0
for all r > 0, so this is a minimum point.
Minimal can has r 3.9966 ,
h 8.8411 cm.
But if the metal for the ends is cut from
squares, then it takes 4(r + 0.6)2 to make each
end and (2r + 0.5)h to make the sides, so
minimize:
C(r) = 8(r + 0.6)2 + (2r + 0.5)h
= 8(r + 0.6)2 + 141.2185(2r + 0.5)r 2
C (r ) = 16(r + 0.6) 282.437r 2
141.2185r 3
C(r) = 0 at r 3.6776 by graphing
calculator.
C (r ) = 16 + 564.874r 3 + 423.6555r 4 > 0
for all r > 0, so this is a minimum point.
Minimal can has r 3.6776 ,
h 10.4411 .
This is close to the normal can!
17. a. Volume of cup = (2.5)2 7 = 43.75
Let r = radius of cup, h = height of cup.
Minimize A(r) = r2 + 2rh.
r 2 h = 43.75 h = 43.75r 2
A(r ) = r 2 + 87.5r 1
A

100

r
3.52...

179

## The graph shows a minimum at r 3.5 cm.

A(r ) = 2r 87.5r 2 = 2r 2 (r 3 43.75)
A(r) = 0 at r = 3 43.75 = 3.5236 .
There is a minimum at x = 3.5236 because
A(r) goes from decreasing to increasing.
(See graph.)
h = 43.75( 43.75) 2/3 = 3 43.75 = r
Minimal cup has r 3.52 cm, h 3.52 cm.
b. Ratio is d : h = 2r : h = 2 : 1.
c. Current cup design uses (2.5)2 + 5 7 =
41.25 = 129.59 cm2 = 0.012959 m2 per
cup, which costs
(300,000,000)(0.012959)(2.00)
\$7,775,441.82 per year.
Minimal cup design uses 3(43.75)2/3 =
117.01 cm2 = 0.011701 m2 per cup,
which costs (300,000,000)(0.011701)(2.00)
\$7,021,141.88 per year.
Switching to minimal cup design would
save 754,299.93 \$754,000 per year in
paper costs (about 10% of the current annual
paper bill), but would likely result in loss of
sales because a cup of that shape is hard to
drink from.
d. Let r = radius of cup, h = height of cup.
r 2 h = V h = (V / )r 2
Minimize A(r ) = r 2 + 2rh = r 2 + 2Vr 1 .
A(r ) = 2r 2Vr 2 = 0 at r = 3 V /
A(r ) = 2 + 4Vr 3 > 0 for all r > 0, so this is
a minimum.
Minimal cup has r = 3 V/ ,
h = (V / )(V / ) 2/3 = 3 V / = r.
18. a. A = yz = (30 + 0.2x)(40 0.2x)
A(x) = 1200 + 2x 0.04x2
Left rectangle: A(0) = 1200 in.2
Right rectangle: A(100) = 1000 in.2
b. A(80) = 1104 in.2
A (x )
c.
1000

x
25

100

## The graph shows a maximum at x 25.

A(x) = 2 0.08x = 0 at x = 25.
Critical points at x = 0, 25, 100
A(25) = 1225 in.2; A(0) = 1200 in.2;
A(100) = 1000 in.2 (from part a)
Maximum area at x = 25 in., minimum area for
x = 100 in.
19. Maximize A(x) = 2xy = 2x cos x.
Use 0 x /2 for the domain of x.
180

A (x )
1

x
1

## The graph shows a maximum at x 0.86.

A(x) = 2 cos x 2x sin x
A(x) = 0 when x = cot x.
Solving numerically gives x 0.8603 .
A(0) = A(/2) = 0; A(0.8603) = 1.1221
Maximum area = 1.1221
20.
200

50

Street

## Let x = width of store, y = length of store.

Minimize C(x) = 100x + 80(x + 2y).
xy = 4000 y = 4000 x 1
C( x ) = 180 x + 640000 x 1
y 200 x 20, so domain of x is
20 x 50.
Graph shows minimum at x endpoint x = 50.
C (x )
50,000

x
20

50

C ( x ) = 180 640000 x 2 = 0
80 5
at x =
= 59.628 , outside the domain.
3
C(20) = \$35,600.00; C(50) = \$21,800.00
Minimum cost is at x = 50, y = 4000/50 = 80.
Bill should build the store 50 ft 80 ft.
21. a. A = 0.5xy = 0.5x cot x
x
0
lim A = lim

x0
x 0 2 tan x
0
1
1
= lim
=
2
x 0 2 sec x
2
b. Domain of x is 0 < x /2.
A (x )
0.5

x
/2

## The graph shows that the area approaches a

maximum as x approaches the endpoint x = 0
from the positive side.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
(cot x x csc 2 x )
2
A(x) = 0 when x = cos x sin x or
2x = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x,
which happens at x = 0.
A(/2) = 0, so the maximum occurs at x = 0.
But x = 0 is not in the domain; A(x) can get
arbitrarily close to 1/2, but never achieve it.
A ( x ) =

22.

y
(x, y)

## The graph shows a maximum at x 1.

P(x) = 4 4x = 0 at x = 1
P(0) = 18; P(1) = 20; P(3) = 12
Maximal rectangle has width = 2,
length = 9 1 = 8.
c. No. The maximum-area rectangle is 2 3 by 6.
The maximum-perimeter rectangle is 2 by 8.
24. a. Maximize V(x) = x2y = x2(9 x2) =
9 x 2 x 4.
Domain: 0 x 3
V(x )
50

x
x

Domain of x is 0 x 3.
Maximize A = 0.5(3 x) ( y) = 0.5(3 x)ex =
1.5ex 0.5xex.
A (x )
4

x
0

## The graph shows a maximum at x 2.

A(x) = 1.5ex 0.5ex 0.5xex = 0.5ex(2 x)
A(x) = 0 at x = 2, confirming the graph.
A(x) > 0 for x < 2, and A(x) < 0 for x > 2,
confirming maximum point at x = 2.
Maximum area A(2) = e2/2 = 3.69452 .
23. a. Maximize A(x) = 2xy = 2x(9 x2) =
18x 2x 3.
Domain: 0 x 3

x
0

2.121...

## The graph shows a maximum at x 2.1.

V ( x ) = 18x 4x 3 = 0 at x = 0, 4.5 .
4.5 is out of the domain.
V (0) = V (3) = 0, V ( 4.5 ) = 20.25 =
63.6172
Maximum is at x = 4.5 , y = 9 4.5 = 4.5.
Maximal cylinder has radius = 4.5 =
2.12132 and height = 4.5.
b. Maximize L(x) = 2 xy = 2 x(9 x2) =
18 x 2 x 3 .
L (x )
50

x
0

A(x )
20

x
0

1.732

## The graph shows a maximum at x 1.7.

A( x ) = 18 6 x 2 = 0 at x = 3 = 1.732
1.732 is out of the domain.
A(0) = A(3) = 0; A( 3) = 12 3 = 20.7846 K
Maximal rectangle has width = 2 3,
length = 9 3 = 6.
b. Maximize P(x) = 4x + 2y = 4x + 18 2x2.

1.732...

## The graph shows a maximum at x 1.7.

L ( x ) = 18 6x 2 = 0 at x = 3 .
3 is out of the domain.
L(0) = L(3) = 0; L( 3 ) = 12 3 = 65.2967K
Maximum is at x = 3 , y = 9 3 = 6.
Maximal cylinder has radius = 3 =
1.7320 and height = 6.
c. Maximize A(x) = 2x2 + 2 xy = 2 x 2 +
2 x(9 x 2) = 2 x 2 + 18 x 2 x 3 .
A ( x)

50

P(x )
20
x
0

x
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2.097...

## The graph shows a maximum at x 2.1.

A(x) = 18 + 4 x 6 x 2
Problem Set 8-3

181

A(x) = 0 at x =

1.430
1.430 is out of the domain.
A(0) = 0; A(2.0971) = 88.2727 ;
A(3) = 18 = 56.5486
1+ 2 7
Maximal cylinder has radius =
=
3
52 4 7
2.0971 and height =
=
9
4.6018 .
d. No. The maximum-volume cylinder has
dimensions different from both of the
maximum-area cylinders in parts b and c.
e. No. Rotating the maximum-area rectangle
does not produce the maximum-volume
cylinder. But it produces the cylinder with
maximum lateral area.
f. If y = a2 x2, the paraboloid has radius = a.
V = x2(a2 x2) = (a2x2 x4)
V = (2a 2x 4x3)
V = 0 x = 0 or x = a/ 2 .
V is maximum at x = a/ 2.
For the cylinder of maximum volume,
a constant.
Note: This ratio is also constant (1/ 3 ) for the
cylinder of maximum lateral area, but is not
constant for the cylinder of maximum total
area.
25. a. x 2 + y 2 = 100, 0 x 10
Maximize V ( x ) = x 2 y = 2x 2 100 x 2 .
b.

V ( x)
2000

x
0

8.16... 10

## The graph shows a maximum volume at

x 8.2.
V ( x ) =
=

2x 3

+ 4 x 100 x 2

100 x 2
6 x 3 + 400 x

c. Height = radius 2
4
4000
1000 =
3
3
4000 3
Volume of maximal cylinder Vc =
9
Vc = Vs / 3
Volume of sphere Vs =

## 26. Let r = radius of cone, h = height.

Lateral area A(r) = r (slant height) = r r 2 + h 2
1
V = r 2 h = 5 h = 15r 2
3
A(r ) = r r 2 + 225r 4
h 2r 2r 15r 2
Domain of r is 0 < r 3 7.5 = 1.9574 K .
A(r )

20

r
1

1.957...

## The graph shows a minimum of A(r) at endpoint

r = 1.957 .
Minimize A 2 (r ) = 2 (r 4 + 225r 2 ).
( A 2 (r )) = 2 ( 4r 3 450 r 3 ) = 0 at r = 6 112.5 =
2.1971 , which is out of the domain.
A(1.9574) = 26.915 , lim+ A(r ) = .
r0

## Minimal cone has radius = 3 7.5 = 1.9574

and height = 2 r = 23 7.5 = 3.9148K .
Make r 1.96 ft and h 3.91 ft.
27. a. Lateral area L(x) = 2 x y
Domains: 0 x 5 and 0 y 7
Equation of element of cone is
7
y = x + 7 y = 1.4 x + 7.
5
L(x) = 2x(1.4x + 7) = 2(1.4x2 + 7x)
L (x )
50

100 x 2

V ( x ) = 0 at x = 0,

200 10 6
=
= 8.1649K
3
3

V(0) = V(10) = 0
10 6 4000 3
V
= 2418.399K
=
9
3
182

## Maximal cylinder has radius = 8.1649 ,

20 3
height =
= 11.5470 K , and volume =
3
2418.39 .

1 2 7
= 2.0971K or
3

x
0

2.5

## The graph shows a maximum of L(x) at

x 2.5.
L(x) = 2 (2.8x + 7)
L(x) = 0 at x = 2.5.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## L(x) goes from positive to negative at

x = 2.5.
maximum lateral area at radius x = 2.5 cm.
b. Total area A(x) = 2xy + 2x2
= 2x(1.4x + 7) + 2x2
A(x) = 2(7x 0.4x2)
A (x )
150

x
0

Maximum area at x =

rh
if h 2r;
2(h r )

x = r otherwise.
c. From part b, the maximal cylinder degenerates
to two circular bases if the radius of the cone
is at least half the height.
29. Maximize V = y2x.
Ellipse equation is (x/9)2 + (y/4)2 = 1, from
which y2 = (16/81)(81 x2).
V = (16/81)(81x x3)
Domain: 0 x 9

## The graph shows a maximum at endpoint

x = 5.
A(x) = 2(7 0.8x) = 0 at x = 8.75, out of
domain.
maximum is at an endpoint, x = 5.
A(0) = 0; A(5) = 2(52) = 50 = 157.07
Maximum area is with the degenerate cylinder
consisting only of the top and bottom, radius
5 and height 0.
28. a. Let r = radius of cone, h = height of cone
(constants).
Let (x, y) be a sample point on cone element.
Domain of x is 0 x r.
L(x) = 2xy.
Equation of element of cone is
y = (h/r)x + h.
L(x) = 2x[(h/r)x + h] = 2h(x2/r + x)
L(x) = 2h(2x/r + 1)
L(x) = 0 at x = r/2.
L(x) goes from positive to negative at
x = r/2.
maximum lateral area at radius x = r/2.
b. A(x) = 2xy + 2x2
= 2x[h (h/r)x] + 2x2
A(x) = 2[(1 h/r)x2 + hx]
A(x) = 2[2(1 h/r)x + h] = 0 at
h
x=
2(1 h/r )
h
rh
A(x) = 0 at x =
=
2 2 h/r 2(h r )
If h 2r, then A(x) 0 for all x r, so in
this case the critical points are the endpoints,
x = 0, r.
A(0) = 0; A(r) = 2r2
rh
If h 2r, then 0
r, so this is a
2( h r )
rh
rh 2
.
critical point; A
=
2( h r ) 2( h r )
A(x) goes from positive to negative at
rh
x=
.
2(h r )
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

150

x
0

5.196...

10

## The graph shows a maximum V at x 5.2.

V = (16/81)(81 3x2) = (16/27)(27 x2)
V = 0 at x = 27 = 5.196
5.196 is out of the domain.
V (0) = V (9) = 0; V ( 27 ) = 32 3 = 174.1
At x = 5.196 , y2 = (16/81)(81 27) =
32/3 y = 32/3 = 3.2659
maximum volume 174.1 cm3 at radius
3.27 m and height 5.20 m.
30. Maximize C(y) = y2x, the volume of the cylinder.
The parabola has an equation of the form
x = ay 2 + 16.
0 = a 16 + 16 a = 1 x = 16 y2
V(y) = y2(16 y2) = (16y2 y4)
Domain: 0 y 4
F (y )
300

y
0

2.828...

## The graph shows a maximum V(y) at y 2.8.

C(y) = (32y 4y 3) = 4 y(8 y 2) = 0 at
y = 0, 8 .
y = 8 is out of the domain.
C(0) = C( 4) = 0, C( 8 ) = 64 = 201.0619
Maximum C(y) at y = 8.
At y = 8 , x = 8.
Maximal cylinder has radius = 8 2.83 m,
height = 8 m, and volume = 64 201.1 m3.
Maximize F(y), the volume of the frustum.
Note that Vf = (1/3)h(R2 + r2 + Rr), where
Problem Set 8-3

183

## Vf = volume of frustum, h = height of frustum,

R = larger radius, and r = smaller radius.
1
F( y) = x (16 + y 2 + 4 y)
3
1
= (16 y 2 )( y 2 + 4 y + 16)
3
1
F( y) = (256 + 64 y 4 y 3 y 4 )
3
F (y )

## false because f (c) could be a local minimum

or a plateau point.
32. a. Let x = length of corral (parallel to wall), y =
width of corral (perpendicular to wall).
A = xy
If x 600, then 1000 = x + 2y
y = 500 0.5x.
If x 600, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 600)
y = 800 x.
500 x 0.5 x 2, x 600
A=
2
x > 600
800 x x ,

300

A
150,000
y
0

1.821...

## The graph shows a maximum F(y) at y 1.8.

1
F ( y) = (64 12 y 2 4 y 3 )
3
F (y) = 0 64 12y 2 4y 3 = 0
Solving numerically for y close to 1.8 gives
y 1.8216 .
Substituting y = 1.8216 gives
x = 16 y 2 12.6816 .
1
F(1.8216 K) = x (16 + y 2 + 4 y)
3
353.318 .
Maximal frustum has radii = 4 m and 1.82 m,
height 12.68 m, and volume 353.3 m3.
The maximal frustum contains 152.3 m3 more
than the maximal cylinder, about 75.7% more.
31. a. If f (c) is a local maximum, then
f (x) f (c) 0 for x in a neighborhood of c.
For x to the left of c, x c < 0.
f ( x ) f (c )
Thus,
0 (neg./neg.) and
xc
f ( x ) f (c )
0.
f (c) = lim
x0
xc
For x to the right of c, x c > 0.
f ( x ) f (c )
Thus,
0 (neg./pos.) and
xc
f ( x ) f (c )
f (c) = lim+
0.
x0
xc
Therefore, 0 f (c) 0.
Because f (c) exists, f (c) = 0 by the squeeze
theorem, Q.E.D.
b. If f is not differentiable at x = c, then f (c)
does not exist and thus cannot equal zero.
Without this hypothesis, the reasoning in
part a shows only that f (x) changes sign at
x = c. There could be a cusp, a removable
discontinuity, or a step discontinuity at x = c.
c. The converse would say that if f (c) = 0, then
f (c) is a local maximum. This statement is
184

x
500

## The graph shows a maximum A at x 500.

500 x, x < 600
A =
800 2 x, x > 600
For x < 600, A = 0 x = 500.
For x > 600, A = 0 x = 400 (out of the
domain).
A is undefined at the cusp, x = 600.
Maximum at x = 500 because graph is
parabola opening downward.
Or: Check the critical points.
A(500) = 500(500) 0.5(500)2 = 125,000
A(600) = 500(600) 0.5(600)2 = 120,000 ft2
Maximum area is 125,000 f t 2 at x = 500 ft.
b. If x 400, then 1000 = x + 2y
y = 500 0.5x.
If x 400, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 400)
y = 700 x.
500 x 0.5 x 2, x 400
A=
2
x > 400
700 x x ,
A
150,000

x
400

## The graph shows a maximum A at the cusp,

x = 400.
x < 400
500 x,
A =
700 2 x, x > 400
For x < 400, A = 0 x = 500 (out of the
domain).
For x > 400, A = 0 x = 350 (out of the
domain).
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Maximum area is at the cusp, x = 400.

A = 700(400) 4002 = 120,000
Maximum area is 120,000 f t 2.
c. If x 200, then 1000 = x + 2y
y = 500 0.5x.
If x 200, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 200)
y = 600 x.
500 x 0.5 x 2, x 200
A=
2
x > 200
600 x x ,

Q7.

## Q8. Sample answer:

y

y
x
1

x
2

Q9. tan x + C

Q10. B

1. a. y = 4 x
dV = 2xy dx = 2 (4x x3) dx
b. 0 = 4 x 2 = (2 x)(2 + x) at x = 2
2
1
V = 2 ( 4 x x 3 ) dx = 2 2 x 2 x 4

0
4
= 8 = 25.1327
2

A
150,000

x
300

## The graph shows a maximum A at x 300.

500 x, x < 200
A =
600 2 x, x > 200
For x < 200, A = 0 x = 500 (out of the
domain).
For x > 200, A = 0 x = 300.
A is undefined at the cusp, x = 200.
Maximum area is at x = 300 because graph is
a parabola opening downward.
Or: Check critical points.
A(300) = 600(300) 3002 = 90,000
A(200) = 500(200) 0.5(200)2 = 80,000 ft2
Maximum area is 90,000 ft2 at x = 300 ft.
33. Answers will vary.

## Problem Set 8-4

Q1.

y
x

Q3.

c. y = 4 x 2 x 2 = 4 y
Upper bound of solid is at y = 4.
dV = x2 dy = (4 y) dy
V=

(4 y) dy = (4 y 0.5y )

## 8 = 25.1327 , which is the same answer

as by cylindrical shells in part b.
2. a. Height of cylinder = 8 x
b. y = x 2/3 x = y 3/2
dV = 2 (8 x)y dy = 2 (8 y3/2)y dy
= 2 (8y y 5/2) dy
c. At x = 8, y = 82/3 = 4.
4
2
V = 2 (8 y y 5/2 ) dy = 2 4 y 2 y 7/2

0
7
384
=
= 172.3387
7
d. dV = y 2 dx = x 4/3 dx
8
8
3
384
V = x 4/3 dx = x 7/3 =
=
0
7
7
0

4
0

## 172.3387 , which is the same as the

volume by cylindrical shells in part c.
3. The graph shows y = x2 + 4x + 3, from x = 1 to
x = 4, sliced parallel to the y-axis, with sample
point (x, y), rotated about the y-axis, showing
back half of solid only.

Q4.
y

Q2.
y

(x, y)

y
x

x
1

Q5.

Q6.
y

dV = 2xy dx = 2 (x 3 + 4x 2 + 3x) dx

y
x

V=

2 ( x
1

+ 4 x 2 + 3 x ) dx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

185

## Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and

4 and height 7 has volume (42 12) 7 =
329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.

y
(0, y )

(x, y )

## 4. The graph shows y = x2 8x + 17, from x = 2 to

x = 5, sliced parallel to the y-axis, with sample
point (x, y), rotated about the y-axis, showing
back half of solid only.

y
5
(x, y)

x
2

V=

## dV = 2xy dx = 2 (x3 8x2 + 17x) dx

V=

2 ( x
2

8 x 2 + 17 x ) dx

## 117.8097 (exactly 37.5)

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5
and height 5 has volume (52 22) 5 =
329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound
for the calculated volume. Assuming that the
part of the solid above y = 2 could be fit into
the trough, the volume is approximately
(52 22) 2 = 131.9 , which is close to the
calculated volume.
5. The graph shows x = y2 + 6y 5, intersecting
y-axis at y = 1 and y = 5, rotated about the
x-axis, showing back half of solid only.
y
5
(x, y)

(0, y )

2 ( y
4

+ 10 y 2 24 y) dy

40
41.8879 exactly

3
Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 4 and 6
and height 1 has volume (62 42) 1 =
62.83 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
7. Figure 8-4h shows y = x3, intersecting the line
y = 8 at x = 2 and the line x = 1. Rotate about
the y-axis. Slice parallel to the y-axis. Pick
sample points (x, y) on the graph and (x, 8) on
the line y = 8.
dV = 2 x(8 y) dx = 2 (8x x4) dx
V=

2 (8x x

) dx

## 36.4424 (exactly 11.6)

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 1
and height 7 has volume (22 12) 7 = 65.9 ,
which is a reasonable upper bound for the
calculated volume.
8. The graph shows y = 1/x, intersecting line y = 4
at x = 0.25 and the line x = 3, rotated about the
y-axis, showing back half of solid only.

y
(x, 4)
y=4

(x, y )

dV = 2 y(x 0) dy = 2 (y + 6y 5y) dy
3

V=

2 ( y
1

+ 6 y 2 5 y) dy

## 201.0619 (exactly 64)

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 5
and height 4 has volume (52 12) 4 =
301.5 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
6. The graph shows x = y2 10y + 24, intersecting
y-axis at y = 4 and 6, rotated about the x-axis,
showing back half of solid only.
186

## Problem Set 8-4

0.25

dV = 2x (4 y) dx = 2 (4x 1) dx
V=

0.25

2 ( 4 x 1) dx

## 95.0331 (exactly 30.25)

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 0.25 and 4
and height 3.7 has volume (32 0.252)(3.7) =
103.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
9. Figure 8-4i shows y = 1/x2, intersecting the line
x = 5 at y = 0.04 and the line y = 4. Rotate
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## about the x-axis. Slice parallel to the x-axis. Pick

sample points (x, y) on the graph and (5, y) on
the line x = 5.
dV = 2 y(5 x) dy = 2 (5y y1/2 ) dy

V=

0.04

y
2

x
4

y
4
(x, y )

(8, y )

x
1

V=

## dV = 2 y(8 x) dy = 2 (8y y5/2 ) dy

4

2 (8y y

5/2

) dy

3
149.0012 exactly 47

7
Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 4
and height 7 has volume (42 12) 7 =
329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
11. Figure 8-4j shows y1 = x2 6x + 7 and y2 =
x + 1, intersecting at (1, 2) and (6, 7). Rotate
about the y-axis. Slice parallel to y-axis. Pick
sample points (x, y1) and (x, y2).
dV = 2x (y2 y1) dx = 2(x3 + 7x2 6x) dx
6

2 ( x
1

+ 7 x 2 6 x ) dx

5
458.1489 exactly 145

6
Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 6
and height 7 has volume (62 12) 7 =
769.6 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
12. The graph shows y = x11/3 x1 = y 3 and y =
0.5x2 2 x2 = 2y + 4, intersecting at (8, 2)
in Quadrant I and bounded by the x-axis, rotated
about the x-axis, showing back half of solid
only.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2 (2 y

+ 4 y y 4 ) dy

13
43.5634 K exactly 13

15
Circumscribed cylinder of radius 2 and height 8
has volume 22 8 = 100.5 , which is a
reasonable upper bound for the calculated
volume.
13. Figure 8-4k shows y = x3/2 , from x = 1 to x = 4.
Rotate about the line x = 5. Slice parallel to the
y-axis. Pick sample point (x, y).
dV = 2(5 x)y dx = 2(5x3/2 x5/2 ) dx
V=

V=

2 (5 y y1/2 ) dy

## 217.8254 (exactly 69.336 )

Circumscribed cylinder of radius 4 and height 4.5
has volume 42 4.5 = 226.1 , which is a
reasonable upper bound for the calculated
volume.
10. The graph shows y = x2/3 , intersecting the line
y = 1 and intersecting the line x = 8 at y = 4,
rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of
solid only.

V=

(x 2 , y )
(x1, y)

2 (5x

3/2

x 5/2 ) dx

3
161.5676 exactly 51

7
Circumscribed cylinder of radius 4 and height 8
has volume (42) 8 = 402.1 , which is a
reasonable upper bound for the calculated
volume.
14. The graph shows y = x 2, from x = 1 to x = 2,
rotated about the line x = 3, showing back half of
solid only.
y

(x, y )

x
1

dV = 2 (3 x ) y dx = 2 (3 x 2 x 1 ) dx
V=

2 (3x
1

x 1 ) dx

## 5.0696 (exactly (3 2 ln 2))

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 2
and height 1 has volume (22 12) 1 = 9.4 ,
which is a reasonable upper bound for the
calculated volume.
15. The graph shows y1 = x4 and y2 = 5x + 6,
intersecting at x = 1 and x = 2, rotated about
the line x = 4, showing back half of solid
only.

187

## 18. The graph shows y1 and y2 as described in

Problem 17, but rotated about the line y = 1,
showing back half of solid only. Slicing
perpendicular to the x-axis is appropriate
because slicing parallel to it would give strips
of length (curve) minus (curve) at some values
of y and (curve) minus (other curve) at other
values of y.

y
16

(x, y2)

(x, y1 )

x
1

y
(x, y1)

## dV = 2(4 x)(y2 y1) dx

= 2 (4 x)(5x + 6 x4) dx
V=

2 ( 4 x )(5 x + 6 x ) dx
4

## 390.1858 (exactly 124.2 )

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5
and height 16 has volume (52 22) 16 =
1055.5 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
16. The graph shows y1 = x = x 1/2 and y 2 = 6 x,
intersecting at x = 4 in Quadrant I and bounded
by the line x = 1, rotated about the line x = 1,
showing back half of solid only.
y
5

(x, y2 )

1
1

## dV = 2(x + 1)(y2 y1) dx

= 2 (x + 1)(6 x x 1/2) dx
V=

2 ( x + 1)(6 x x

1/2

) dx

13
109.5368K exactly 34

15
Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5
and height 4 has volume (52 22) 4 =
263.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for
the calculated volume.
17. Figure 8-4l shows y1 = x2 + 4x + 1 and y2 =
1.4x, intersecting at x = 0 and x = 3.3740
(store as b). Rotate about the line x = 2. Slice
parallel to the y-axis. Pick sample points (x, y1)
and (x, y2).
dV = 2 (x + 2) (y1 y2) dx
= 2 (x + 2)(x2 + 4x + 1 1.4x) dx
V=

2 ( x + 2)( x 2 + 4 x + 1 1.4 x ) dx

163.8592
Circumscribed hollow cylinder with radii 2 and
5.4 and height 4 has volume (5.42 22)4 =
316.1 , a reasonable upper bound for calculated
volume.
188

y = 1

## dV = [(y1 + 1)2 (y2 + 1)2] dx

= [(x2 + 4x + 2)2 (1.4x + 1)2] dx
Limits of integration are 0 to b, where
b = 3.3740 , as in Problem 17.
V=

(x, y1 )
1

(x, y2 )

[( x

## + 4 x + 2)2 (1.4 x + 1)2 ] dx

181.0655
Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 6
and height 3.4 has volume (62 22) 3.4 =
341.8 , a reasonable upper bound for the
calculated volume.
19. Slice perpendicular to the y-axis. Pick sample
points (x, y) on the graph of y = x3 and (1, y)
on the line x = 1.
y = x 3 x = y 1/3; y 1/3 = 1 at y = 1
dV = ( x2 12) dy = (y2/3 1) dy
V=

(y
1

2/3

1) dy 36.4424

## (exactly 11.6 ), which agrees with the answer to

Problem 7.
20. See the graph for Problem 8. Slice
perpendicular to the y-axis. Pick sample points
(x, y) on the graph of y = 1/x and (3, y) on the
line x = 3.
dV = (32 x 2 ) dy = (9 y 2 ) dy
V=

1/ 3

(9 y 2 ) dy 95.0331 (exactly

## 30.25 ) , which agrees with the answer to

Problem 8.
21. The graph shows y = x1/3, from x = 0 to x = 8,
rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of
solid only.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y
2

(x, y )

## The integral can be found algebraically

using the Pythagorean properties from
trigonometry.
sin3 t = (1 cos2 t) sin t = sin t cos2 t sin t

(8, y )

x
8

V=
y = x 1/3 x = y 3
dV = 2 y ( 8 x) dy = 2 ( 8y y4) dy
2
1
V = 2 (8 y y 4 ) dy = 2 4 y 2 y 5

0
5

2
0

2x sin x dx 10.9427
0

## numerically (exactly 2 ( sin 2 2 cos 2),

integrating by parts).
b. The integrand, x sin x, is a product of two
functions, for which the antiderivative cannot
be found using techniques known so far.
23. a. x = 5 cos t, dx = 5 sin t dt
y = 3 sin t, dy = 3 cos t dt
Slice parallel to the x-axis, then rotate about
the x-axis. Pick sample points (x, y) at the
left end of the strip and (x, y) at the right end.
dV = 2 y [ x (x)] dy = 4 xy dy
= 4 ( 5 cos t)(3 sin t)(3 cos t dt)
= 180 cos2 t sin t dt
Limits of integration are y = 0 to y = 3.
At y = 0, t = 0. At y = 3, t = /2.
V=

/2

45 cos 2 t ( sin t dt )
0

## Problem Set 8-5

Q1.

Q2.
y

y
16

16

x
0

Q3. A =

Q4. A =

x 2 dx

1 34
x
3 1

Q5. A = 21
Q6.
y
16

/2
0

= 60 ( 0 1) = 60 = 188.4955
b. Slice the region in Quadrant I perpendicular to
the x-axis, then rotate about the x-axis. Pick
sample point (x, y) on the graph.
dV = y 2 dx = ( 3 sin t)2(5 sin t dt)
= 45 sin3 t dt
Limits of integration are from x = 5 to
x = 5.
At x = 5, t = . At x = 5, t = 0.
V=

= 45 15 (45 ) + (15 ) = 60
c. Slice the region parallel to the line x = 7 and
rotate about that line. Pick sample points
(x, y) and (x, y) on the upper and lower
branches.
dV = 2 ( 7 x)[y (y)] dx
= 4 ( 7 5 cos t)(3 sin t)(5 sin t dt)
= 60 ( 7 5 cos t)(sin2 t) dt
Limits of integration are t = to t = 0, as in
part b.
V 2072.6169 (exactly 210 2, using the
half-argument properties for sin2 t, as in
Problem 16 of Problem Set 5-9, or by using
integration by parts as in Chapter 9).
24. Answers will vary.

## 180 cos 2 t sin t dt

= 60 cos3 t

45 sin t dt

= 45 cos t 15 cos t

## = 2 ( 16 6.4) = 19.2 = 60.3185789

R8 = 19.3662109 = 60.8407460
R100 = 19.2010666 = 60.3219299
R1000 = 19.2000106 = 60.3186124
Rn is approaching 19.2 as n increases.
22. a. y = sin x from x = 0 to x = 2, rotated about
the y-axis, as in Figure 8-4m. Slice parallel
to the y-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on
the graph.
dV = 2 xy dx = 2 x sin x dx
V=

x
4

Q7. V =

2x 3 dx

Q8. V =

Q9. V = 127.5
1. a.

44
x
2 1

Q10. E

45 sin 3 t dt 188.4955

found in part a.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
0

x
2

189

b. L

## (0.4)2 + [e 0.4 n e 0.4( n 1) ]2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + e 2 x dx

L=

## (0.3)2 + [sec 0.3n sec 0.3 (n 1)]2

n =1

n =1

= 6.7848
c. dy = e x dx
2

b. L

= 13.7141
c. dy = sec x tan x dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + tan 2 x sec 2 x dx
L=

1 + e dx 6.7886 numerically
2x

1/5

numerically

2. a.

5. a.
y
9

## (0.6)2 + [2 0.6 n 2 0.6( n 1) ]2

n =1

= 7.7853
c. dy = (2x ln 2) dx

b. dy = (2x 5) dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x 5)2 dx
L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x ln 2)2 dx
L=

b. L

1 + (2 x ln 2)2 dx 7.7920 K

numerically
3. a.

1 + (2 x 5)2 dx 15.8617K

## c. Low point is (2.5, 3.25). Chords from

(1, 1) to (2.5, 3.25) and from (2.5, 3.25)
to (6, 9) have combined length 7.3125 +
162.3125 = 15.4 , which is a reasonable
lower bound for L.
6. a.

y
4

10

x
0

b. L

## (0.3)2 + [tan 0.3n tan 0.3(n 1)]2

n =1

= 14.4394
c. dy = sec2 x dx

1.5

1 + sec 4 x dx 14.4488K

numerically
4. a.

b. dy = (4 2x) dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + ( 4 2 x )2 dx
L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx
L=

1.5

1 + ( 4 2 x )2 dx 9.2935K

## c. Chords from (0, 0) to (2, 4) and from

(2, 4) to (4, 0) have combined length
2 20 = 8.9442 , which is a reasonable
lower bound for L.
7. a.
16 y

10

1
0

190

x
1.5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. dy = 4x3 dx

b. dy = (sin x + x cos x) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 16 x 6 dx
L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= 1 + (sin x + x cos x )2 dx

1 + 16 x 6 dx 18.2470 K

## c. Chords from (1, 15) to (0, 16) and (0, 16) to

(2, 0) have combined length 2 + 260 =
17.5 , which is a reasonable lower bound
for L.
8. a.

L=

## c. Eight chords of x = /2 extend from middle

to high to middle to low points on the graph.
Lengths sum to 52.6109 , a reasonable
lower bound for L.
11. a.

y
50
10

x
1

x
0

1.5

b. dy = (3x2 18x + 5) dx
b. dy = sec2 x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx

= 1 + (3 x 2 18 x + 5) 2 dx
L=

L=

1 + (3 x 18 x + 5) dx 219.4873K
2

## c. Using five chords with x = 2, L

204.4605 , which is a reasonable lower
bound for L.
9. a.

1.5

1 + sec 4 x dx 14.4488K

## c. Distance between the endpoints is

14.1809 , which is a reasonable lower
bound for L.
12. a.
y

y
10

b. dy = 2 ln x x 1 dx = 2 x 1 ln x dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x 1 ln x )2 dx
L=

0.1

x
1

1 + (2 x 1 ln x )2 dx 7.6043

## c. Chords from x = 0.1 to x = 1 and from x = 1

to x = e have combined length 7.3658 ,
which is a reasonable lower bound for L.
10. a.
y

1.5

b. dy = sec x tan x dx
dL = 1 + (sec x tan x )2 dx
L=

1.5

## c. The distance between the endpoints is

13.2221 , which is a reasonable lower
bound for L.
13. a.
5

x
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x
5

191

## b. dx = 15 cos2 t sin t dt, dy = 15 sin2 t cos t dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (15 cos 2 t sin t )2 + (15 sin 2 t cos t )2 dt
L=

## (15 cos 2 t sin t )2 + (15 sin 2 t cos t ) 2 dt

30
To see why the answer is so simple,
transform the radicand and use the
fundamental theorem.
L=

## 225(sin t cos t )2 (cos 2 t + sin 2 t ) dt

= 7.5

= 7.5

= 7.5

(2 sin t cos t )2 dt

= 10 2

= 10 2

= 20 2

= 40 2 (1 1) + 40 2 (1 + 1)1/2 = 80
c. Maximum/minimum values of y are
7.5 3 . Circle of radius 7.5 3 has
circumference 15 3 = 81.6209K .
15. a.
1/2

/2

sin 2t dt

= 30 (exactly!)

## b. dx = (5 sin t + 5 sin 5t) dt

dy = (5 cos t 5 cos 5t) dt
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 =
(5 sin t + 5 sin 5t ) 2 + (5 cos t 5 cos 5t ) 2 dt

L=

10

x
5

## b. dx = 5(2 sin t + 2 sin 2t) dt

dy = 5(2 cos t 2 cos 2t) dt
dL = dx + dy =
2

## (5 sin t + 5 sin 5t ) 2 + (5 cos t 5 cos 5t ) 2 dt

40
To see why the answer is so simple,
transform the radicand and use the
fundamental theorem.
L=5

## [5(2 sin t + 2 sin 2t )]2 + [5(2 cos t 2 cos 2t )]2 dt

80
To see why the answer is so simple,
transform the radicand algebraically and
use the fundamental theorem.
L = 10

= 10 2

=5 2
=5 2

L=

192

## (1 + cos t ) 1/2 (sin t dt )

= 40 2 (1 + cos t )1/2

14. a.

## c. Circle of radius 5 (i.e., x = 5 sin t, y =

5 cos t) has circumference 10 = 31.4152 ,
which is close to the calculated value of L.

|sin 2t | dt = 7.5 4
/2

|sin t |
dt
1 + cos t

1
= 30 ( cos 2t )
2

sin 2 2t dt

1 cos 2 t
dt
1 + cos t

=5 2

## 1 cos 4t dt (using cos ( A B))

= 40 2

/4

1 cos 2 4t
dt
1 + cos 4t
|sin 4t |
dt
1 + cos 4t
(1 + cos 4t ) 1/2 (sin 4t dt )

= 20 2 (1 + cos 4t )1/2

/4
0

= 0 + 20 2 2 = 40
c. Maximum/minimum values of x, y are
3 3. Circle of radius 3 3 has circumference
32.6483 , which is close.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

16. a.

## c. Distance between endpoints is

1.006944 K = 1.00346 K , which is a
reasonable lower bound for L.
19. a.

y
5

x
5

y
t = 4

## b. dx = (sin t + sin t + t cos t) dt = t cos t dt

dy = (cos t cos t + t sin t) dt = t sin t dt
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = (t cos t )2 + (t sin t )2 dt
= |t | dt = t dt (because t 0)
L=

t dt = 0.5t 2

4
0

= 8 2 = 78.9568K

## c. Circle of radius 4 = 12.5663 would have

circumference = 8 2.
17. a.

x
1

b. dy = 2 x 1/ 3 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 4 x 2/3 dx

1 + 4x
= ( x + 4)

b. dy = 6x1/2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 36 x dx
0

1 + 36 x dx =

1
36

1/2

( x 1/3 dx )

= 8 8 5 5 = 11.4470 K

2/3

dx

3 8 2/3
2
( x + 4)1/2 x 1/3 dx

2 1
3
8
3 2
= ( x 2/3 + 4)3/2
2 3
1
=

2/3

1
8
1

L=

L=

30

(1 + 36 x )

1/2

(36 dx )

## c. Distance between endpoints is 130 =

11.4017 , which is a reasonable lower
bound for L.
20. a.

4
1
1
=
(1 + 36 x )3/2 0 =
(1453/ 2 1)
54
54
= 32.3153
c. The chord connecting the endpoints has length
32.2490 , which is a reasonable lower
bound for L.
18. a.

x
0

b. dy =

1 2
( x + 2)1/ 2 2 x dx = x ( x 2 + 2)1/ 2 dx
2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 ( x 2 + 2) dx

= 1 + x 4 + 2 x 2 dx = (1 + x 2 ) dx
x
1

L=

b. dy = ( x /4 x ) dx
2

dL = dx + dy = 1 + ( x /4 x ) dx
2

2 2

= 1 + x 4 /16 1/2 + x 4 dx

1 3
(1 + x 2 ) dx = x + x 3 = 12
0
3 0

## c. Distance between endpoints is 11.6123 ,

which is a reasonable lower bound for L.
21. Construct an x-axis at water level and a y-axis
through the vertex of the parabola.

= ( x 2 /4 + x 2 )2 dx = | x 2 /4 + x 2 | dx
L=

( x /4 + x
2

750

## ) dx (because integrand > 0)

= x 3 /12 x 1 1 = 1
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
= 1.0833K
12

2100

220
0

x
2100

193

## General equation is y 220 = ax2.

Substitute (2100, 750) for (x, y).
53
750 220 = a 2100 2 a =
441000
53
Equation of parabola is y =
x 2 + 220 .
441000
106
dy =
x dx
441000
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (106/441000)2 x 2 dx
L=

2100

## 4372.0861 numerically 4372 feet.

The answer is reasonable because the 4200 feet
between supports is a lower bound for L.
22. y = 0.2(e x + e x ), dy = 0.2(e x e x ) dx
dL = dx + dy
2

= 1 + 0.04(e x e x )2 dx
L=

24.1722 24.2 ft
The parabola with vertex (0, 0.4) and endpoints
(4, 0.2(e4 + e 4)) = (4, 10.9232) has equation
y = ax2 + 0.4. Substituting (4, 10.9232) gives
10.9232 = 16a + 0.4 a = 0.6577 .
y = 0.6577 x2 + 0.4 dy = 1.3154 x dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 1.7303... x 2 dx
L=

24.
5

x
8

## dx = 16 sin 2t, dy = 5 cos t

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (16 sin 2t )2 + (5 cos t )2 dt
Curve appears to have length

## (16 sin 2t )2 + (5 cos t )2 dt

= 68.7694
Length should be less than the lengths of three
circumscribing segments, 16 + 16 + 10 = 42.
The discrepancy is explained by the fact that the
parabola is traced twice as t goes from 0 to 2.
Actual length (0.5)(68.7694) = 34.384 ,
for which 42 is a reasonable upper bound.
2
25. 9 x 2 = 4 y 3 x = y 3/2 .
3

## 1 + 1.7303K x 2 dx 23.2193 23.2 ft,

484.4224 484.4 m

L=

1 + 0.04(e x e x )2 dx

1 + (106/441000)2 x 2 dx

2100

L=

## which is about a foot shorter than the catenary,

as shown by graph:
y
10

x
0

dx = y 1/2 dy
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = ( y + 1)1/2 dy
x

L=

## 23. Outer ellipse:

x = 120 cos t, dx = 120 sin t dt
y = 100 sin t, dy = 100 cos t dt
dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (120 sin t )2 + (100 cos t )2 dt
L=

dy =

2
( y + 1)3/2
3

## = (100 sin t ) + (50 cos t ) dt

2

y
4

2
= 4.6666
3
26. x 2 = y 3 x = y 1.5
2x dx = 3y2 dy 4x2 dx2 = 9y4 dy2
9
4 y 3 dx 2 = 9 y 4 dy 2 dx 2 = y dy 2
4
Note that dy < 0 between (1, 1) and (0, 0):

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

## Problem Set 8-5

1/2

=4

692.5791 692.6 m
Inner ellipse:
x = 100 cos t, dx = 100 sin t dt
y = 50 sin t, dy = 50 cos t dt

194

( y + 1)

x
8

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## For x in [1, 0], x = y 1.5 , dx = 1.5y0.5 dy,

dL = dx + dy = 2.25 y + 1 dy.
For x in [0, 8], x = y1.5 , dx = 1.5y0.5 dy,
2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 2.25 y + 1 dy.
L=

2.25 y + 1 dy +

2.25 y + 1 dy

0
4
8
8
(2.25 y + 1)3/2 + (2.25 y + 1)3/2
27
1 27
0
8
3/2
3/2
=
(1 + 3.25 + 10 1) = 10.5131
27
t
1
27. x = cos t, dx = (cos t t sin t ) dt

t
1
y = sin t, dy = (sin t + t cos t ) dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
1
=
(cos t t sin t )2 + (sin t + t cos t )2 dt

1
=
1 + t 2 dt

## The curve crosses the x-axis exactly when sin t

= 0, when t is a multiple of . There are seven
crossings after the beginning, so t should run
between 0 and 7. To check this, note that the
curve ends at (7, 0), so solve (t/) cos t = 7
with t = n (n / ) cos n = 7
n cos n = 7 n = 7 0 t 7 .
1 7
L=
1 + t 2 dt 77.6508
0
The integral can be evaluated algebraically by
trigonometric substitution as in Section 9-6,
giving
1
1 + t 2 dt = t t 2 + 1 + ln t + 1 + t 2 + C.

## 28. x = r cos t, dx = r sin t dt

y = r sin t, dy = r cos t dt

## Doubling A doubles the amplitude of the

sinusoid. However, it less than doubles the
length of the sinusoid for much the same reason
that doubling one leg of a right triangle does not
double the hypotenuse. In the limit as A
approaches infinity, doubling A approaches
doubling the length.
30. x = cos t, dx = sin t dt
y = A sin t, dy = A cos t dt
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = sin 2 t + A 2 cos 2 t dt
The entire ellipse is generated as t increases from
0 to 2 .
L=

Circumference =

0
1
2
3

6.283185 (= 2)
9.688448
13.364893

## Doubling A doubles one axis of the ellipse

without changing the other axis. That is why the
length does not double when A doubles. The
reasoning is similar to that in the solution to
Problem 29.
31. The function y = ( x 2) 1 has a vertical
asymptote at x = 2, which is in the interval
[1, 3]. So the length is infinite. Maes partition
of the interval skips over the discontinuity, as
shown in the graph.
y
25
Mae's
error

r dt = rt

= 2r, Q .E.D .

## 29. y = A sin x, dy = A cos x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + A 2 cos 2 x dx
Pick a convenient interval for x such as [0, 2].
L=

x
1

0
1
2
3

6.283185 (= 2)
7.640395
10.540734
13.974417

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y
Amos's sample points
1

x
0

## 32. The sample points are all of the form (n/2,

sin n), which all lie on the x-axis and therefore
fail to measure the wiggly bits.

1 + A 2 cos 2 x dx

sin 2 t + A 2 cos 2 t dt

dL = dx + dy = r sin t + r cos t dt
= r dt (for r 0)
The range 0 t 2 generates the entire circle.
2

10

## The length of the curve is 40 times the length of

the part from x = 0 to x = 0.25 (by symmetry),
so Amos could use five subintervals of [0, 0.25]
to estimate the length of half of one arch, then
Problem Set 8-5

195

## multiply his answer by 40 to find the total

length.
33. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators
section of the Instructors Resource Book.

Q3.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.

Q8.
Q9.
Q10.
1.

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + cos 2 x dx
dS = 2y dL = 2 sin x 1 + cos 2 x dx
S=

## Problem Set 8-6

Q1.

b. dy = cos x dx

1 + 9 x 4 dx

Q2.

1 + sec 4 x dx

1 6
sin x + C
Q4. 156
6
xex + ex
Maximum y = 7 (at x = 1)
f ( x + x ) f ( x )
f ( x ) = lim
x 0
x
f ( x ) f (c )
or f (c) = lim
x c
xc
Instantaneous rate of change
1
ln | sec 2 x + tan 2 x | + C
2
D
a. The graph shows y = 0.5x2, from x = 0 to
x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y )
1

## c. The circumscribed cylinder of length

and radius 1 has lateral area = 2 2 =
19.7392 , which is a reasonable upper
bound for S.
3. The graph shows y = ln x, from x = 1 to x = 3,
rotated about the x-axis.
y
(x, y )

x
1

dy = x 1 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 dx
dS = 2 y dL = 2 ln x 1 + x 2 dx
S=

2 ln x
1

1 + x 2 dx 9.0242

## 4. The graph shows y = ln x, from x = 1 to x = 3,

rotated about the y-axis, showing back half of
surface only.

dy = x dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 dx

1
(x, y )

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 2 dx
S=

2x
0

x
3

1 + x 2 dx 64.1361

## b. The inscribed cone of height 4.5 and radius

3 has lateral surface area = rL =
3 32 + 4.52 = 50.9722 , which is
a reasonable lower bound for S.
c. S =

(1 + x

2 1/2

) (2 x dx )

3
2
2
(1 + x 2 )3/2 = (10 10 1)
3
3
0
= 64.1361 , agreeing with the answer
found numerically.
2. a. The graph shows y = sin x, from x = 0 to
x = , rotated about the x-axis.

## dL = 1 + x 2 dx, from Problem 3.

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + x 2 dx
S=

2 x
1

1 + x 2 dx 28.3047K

## 5. The graph shows y = 1/ x = x 1,from x = 0.5 to

x = 2, rotated about the y-axis.
2

y
(x, y )

x
2

y
1

(x, y )

x
0

196

## Problem Set 8-6

dy = x 2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 4 dx
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 4 dx
S=

0.5

2x 1 + x 4 dx 15.5181K

## 6. The graph shows y = 1/x = x , from x = 0.5 to

x = 2, rotated about the x-axis.
1

2x

S=

1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx

58.7946
9. The graph shows y = x = x 1/2, from x = 0 to
x = 1, rotated about the x-axis.
y
1 (x, y )

2
(x, y )

dS = 2y dL = 2x
S=

0.5

2x

1+ x

1
4

1+ x

dx

dx 15.5181K

## (Note that surfaces 5 and 6 are congruent.)

7. The graph shows y = x3, from x = 0 to x = 2,
rotated about the y-axis.
y

dy = 0.5 x 1/ 2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.25 x 1 dx
dS = 2y dL = 2x 1/ 2 1 + 0.25 x 1 dx
= 2 x + 0.25 dx = 2 ( x + 0.25)1/ 2 dx
S=

2 ( x + 0.25)1/2 dx =

1
0

4
=
(1.253/ 2 0.125) = 5.3304 K
3
10. The graph shows y = x3, from x = 1 to x = 2,
rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of
surface only.

(x, y )

x
0

dy = 3x2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 9 x 4 dx
dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + 9 x 4 dx
S=

4
( x + 0.25)3/2
3

2 x
0

(x, y )

x
1

1 + 9 x 4 dx 77.3245K

## 8. The graph shows y = x3 + 5x2 8x + 6, from

x = 0 to x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.
y
6

dy = 3x2 dx
(x, y )

x
3

dy = (3x2 + 10x 8) dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= 1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx
dS = 2 x dL
= 2 x 1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx
Graph intersects x-axis where y = 0.
x 3 + 5x 2 8x + 6 = (x 3)(x 2 2x + 2) = 0
at x = 3.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 9 x 4 dx
dS = 2 y dL = 2 x3 (1 + 9x4)1/2 dx
S=

2x 3 (1 + 9 x 4 )1/2 dx

2
(1 + 9 x 4 )1/ 2 (36 x dx )
18 1
2
2
= (1 + 9 x 4 )3/ 2
18 3
1

=
(1453/ 2 10 3/ 2 ) = 199.4804 K
27
11. The graph shows y = x 4 / 8 + x 2 / 4, from x = 1
to x = 2, rotated about the x-axis, showing back
side of surface only.
=

197

## dL = (1 + x2) dx, from Problem 20 in Section 8-5

dS = 2 x dL = 2 ( x + x3) dx

x
1

S=

1
2 ( x + x 3 ) dx = x 2 + x 4

0
2

## = 1 + 0.25 x 6 0.5 + 0.25 x 6 dx

= 0.25( x + x ) dx = 0.5( x + x ) dx
dS = 2 y dL
= 2 ( x 4/8 + x 2/4)[0.5(x3 + x 3)] dx

= ( x 7 + 3 x + 2 x 5 ) dx
8
2 7
S=
( x + 3 x + 2 x 5 ) dx
8 1
2
1
3
1
= x 8 + x 2 x 4
1
8 8
2
2
3 2

x
1

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 +

S = 2
= 2

(x, y )

dy = 2 x dx
dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + 4 x dx
2

x 1 + 4x

= (1 + 4 x )
4

S = 2

0
2

2 1/ 2

(1 + 4 x 2 )3/2
6

x
1

4 4 / 3
x
dx
9

4
x 1/ 3 x 4 / 3 +

1+

4 4 / 3
x
dx
9

x 4/3 + 4

1/2

1/ 2

dx
4 1/3
x dx
3

3/2 8

## (1483/2 133/2 ) = 204.0435K

27
1
1
15. The graph shows y = x 3 + x 1 , from x = 1 to
3
4
x = 3, rotated about the line y = 1, showing
back half of surface only.
=

dx
(8 x dx ) =

4
= x 4/3 +

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 4 x 2 dx

4 4 / 3
x
dx
9

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 +

2 2/3
x dx
3

dy =

1 1 3 1
155
= 32 + 6
=4
+

8
32 8 2 2
256
= 14.4685
12. The graph shows y = x2, from x = 0 to x = 2,
rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y )

= 49.5 = 155.5088
14. The graph shows y = 2x1/3, from x = 1 to
x = 8, rotated about the y-axis, showing back
half of surface only.

## dy = (x3/2 x 3/2) dx = 0.5(x3 x 3) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.25( x 3 x 3 )2 dx
3

2
0

= (173/ 2 1) = 36.1769K
6
1
13. The graph shows y = ( x 2 + 2)3/ 2 , from x = 0 to
3
x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y)

y
12

x
1

(x, 1)
(x, y )

1
0

198

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
dx = x 2 x 2 dx

b. i. S0,1 =
2

1
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 x 2 dx

4
1 1
= 1 + x 4 + x 4 dx
2 16

ii. S1,2 =
iii. S2,3 =

1
1
= x 2 + x 2 dx = x 2 + x 2 dx

4
4
dS = 2 ( y + 1) dL
1
1
1
= 2 x 3 + x 1 + 1 x 2 + x 2 dx
3

4
4
1
1
1
1
= 2 x 5 + x 2 + x + x 2 + x 3 dx
3

3
4
16
S = 2

3x

+ x2 +

iv. S3,4 =
v. S4,5 =

1
1
1
x + x 2 + x 3 dx

3
4
16

1
1
1
1
1 2
x
= 2 x 6 + x 3 + x 2 x 1
18

3
6
4
32

3
1

5
= 101 = 318.1735K
18
1
1
16. The graph shows y = x 3 + x 1 , from x = 1 to
3
4
x = 3, rotated about line x = 4.
9

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

## c. The two features exactly balance each other.

The area of a zone of a sphere is a function
of the height of the zone only, and is
independent of where the zone is located
on the sphere.
18. Suppose that the sphere is centered at the origin,
as in Problem 17. The equation of a great
circle in the xy-plane is x2 + y2 = r2, from
which y = r 2 x 2 = (r 2 x 2 )1/2 .
dy = x(r2 x2) 1/2dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 (r 2 x 2 ) 1 dx
dS = 2y dL

= 2 r 2 x 2 + x 2 dx = 2r dx (if r > 0)

(4, y )

S=

2r dx = 2rx

3 4

1
dL = x 2 + x 2 dx, from Problem 15

4
1
dS = 2 ( 4 x ) dL = 2 ( 4 x ) x 2 + x 2 dx

4
1 1

2
3
2
= 2 4 x x + x x dx

4
3
1
S = 2 4 x 2 x 3 + x 2 x 1 dx

1
4

4
1
1
= 2 x 3 x 4 x 1 ln | x|
3

4
4

3
1

1 1
= 2 15 ln 3 = 94.6164 K
3 4

17. a. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y = 25 x 2
2 1/ 2

dy = x (25 x )

dx

= 2 25 x + x dx = 10 dx
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

r
r

= 4r 2 , Q .E.D .

## 19. Pick a sample point in the spherical shell at

radius r from the center. Surface area at the
sample point is 4 r2. Volume of shell is
approximately (surface area)(thickness).
dV = 4r 2 dr
V=

4
4 r 2 dr = r 3
3

4
R 3 , Q .E .D .
3

4
dV
20. V = r 3
= 4r 2 = S, Q.E.D.
3
dr
dV
or: V = S dr
= S by the definition of
dr
indefinite integral.
21. y = ax2, dy = 2ax dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = (1 + 4 a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 dx

dS = 2x dL = 2x (1 + 4 a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 dx
2 1

dL = dx + dy = 1 + x (25 x ) dx
dS = 2 y dL
= 2 25 x 2 1 + x 2 (25 x 2 ) 1 dx
2

2
1

= 10

= 2 (r 2 x 2 )1/ 2 1 + x 2 (r 2 x 2 ) 1 dx

(x, y)

10 dx = 10x

x(1 + 4a x )

=
(1 + 4 a x )
4a

S = 2

2 2 1/ 2

dx

2 2 1/ 2

(8a 2 x dx )

2 2 3/2
(
+
)
= 2 [(1 + 4 a 2 r 2 )3/ 2 1]
1
4
a
x
2
6a
6a
0

199

## 22. Let h be the height of the paraboloid from the

vertex to the center of the base. Because h is the
value of y when x = r, h = ar2. Substituting into
the formula for S from Problem 21 gives

S = 2 [(1 + 4 ah)3/ 2 1]
6a
Let a = 1 and evaluate S for various h. Find the
zone areas by subtracting. Use the TABLE feature.
h

Zone

(0)
6

(10.1803K)
6

(26)
6

( 45.8721K)
6

(69.0927K)
6

(95.2340 K)
6

(124)
6

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

N.A.

(10.1803K)
6

(15.8196 K)
6

(19.8721K)
6

(23.2206 K)
6

(26.1412 K)
6

(28.7659K)
6

## The property is not true for paraboloids. The

areas of zones of equal height are greater if the
zone is farther away from the vertex.
23. x = 5 cos t, dx = 5 sin t dt
y = 3 sin t, dy = 3 cos t dt
3 y

(x, y )

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = ( 5 sin t )2 + (3 cos t )2 dt
dS = 2y dL
= 2 (3 sin t ) ( 5 sin t )2 + (3 cos t )2 dt

## 6 sin t ( 5 sin t ) 2 + (3 cos t )2 dt

165.7930
From ( x/5)2 + ( y/3)2 = 1, y = 0.6 25 x 2 .
Using the upper branch of the graph,
dy = 0.6 x (25 x 2 ) 1/ 2 dx.
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.36 x 2 (25 x 2 ) 1 dx
At x = 5, dL involves division by zero, which
is awkward, and makes the Cartesian equation

200

## dS = 0.24 252 16 x 2 dx, which is defined

at x = 5.
24. a. x = 35 sec t, dx = 35 sec t tan t dt
y = 100 + 80 tan t, dy = 80 sec2 t dt
y = 0 100 + 80 tan t = 0 tan t = 5/4
t = tan 1 ( 5 / 4)
Radius at base is x = 35 sec [tan 1 ( 5/4)] =
56.0273 56.0 ft.
b. At top, t = 0.5.
Radius: x = 35 sec 0.5 = 39.8822 39.9 ft
Height: y = 100 + 80 tan 0.5 = 143.7041
143.7 ft
c. From the information given in parts a and b,
it can be assumed that /2 < t < /2.
dx
Minimize x:
= 35 sec t tan t = 0 at t = 0
dt
(or, because cos t has a max at t = 0,
sec t = 1/cos t has a minimum there).
Minimum radius = 35 ft
Height = y = 100 + tan 0 = 100 ft
d. dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= 352 sec 2 t tan 2 t + 80 2 sec 4 t dt
dS = 2 x dL
= 2 (35 sec t ) 352 sec 2 t tan 2 t + 80 2 sec 4 t dt
S=

0.5

tan 1 ( 5/4 )

## dS 37, 756.5934 37, 757 ft 2

4
= 12, 585.5311 ft 3
12
466.1307 yd3
25. From Figure 8-6m, a circle of radius L has area
L2 and circumference 2L. The circumference of
the cones base is 2R. The arc length of the
sector of the circle of radius L must be equal to
this, so the sector is (2R)/(2L) = R/L of the
circle and has surface area S = L2(R/L) = RL,
Q .E .D .
26. S = RL rl
The objective is to get the lateral area in terms of
the slant height of the frustum, L l.
r
S = R L l

R
l
r
l
= R L l , because
= .

L
R L
R 2 2
=
(L l )
L
e. Volume S

S=

## inappropriate for finding the arc length of an

ellipse.
For the surface area, however, the offending
denominator cancels out, giving

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

R
( L + l )( L l )
L
l
= R + R ( L l)

c. dr = 3 cos d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (3 cos )2 + ( 4 + 3 sin )2 d

R + r
= 2
( L l ), Q .E.D .
2

Q5. e

## Q2. 12(4x 9)2

Q4. 3 sec 3x tan 3x

Q6. 1/x
1 2
Q7. ln |x| + C
Q8.
x +C
2
Q9. 3x + C
Q10. x + C
1. a. r = 10 sin dA = 50 sin2 d

50 sin 2 d 157.0796

(exactly 50 )
b. The area of the circle is 5 = 25.
The calculated area is twice this because the
circle is traced out twice as increases from 0
to 2. Although r is negative for < < 2,
dA is positive because r is squared.
2. a. r = 10 sin dr = 10 cos d
2

dL = dr + (r d )
2

L=

10 d = 10

= 20

## The circumference is 2 5 = 10. The

calculated length is twice this value because
the circle is traced out twice as increases
from 0 to 2. The calculus of this section
always gives the dynamic answer as the
distance traveled by a point on the curve as
increases from one value to another. This
path length does not necessarily equal the
length of the curve.
3. a. r = 4 + 3 sin . The calculator graph confirms
that the text figure is traced out once as
increases from 0 to 2.
1
b. dA = ( 4 + 3 sin )2 d
2
A=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dL 28.8141K

## dA 92.6769 (exactly 29.5 )

c. dr = 3 sin d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (3 sin )2 + (5 3 cos )2 d

A=

A=

## 4. a. r = 5 3 cos . The calculator graph confirms

that the text figure is traced out once as
increases from 0 to 2.
1
b. dA = (5 3 cos )2 d
2

= ( R + r)(L l)

## Q1. 15x 2 14x + 4

Q3. 3 sin2 x cos x

L=

r
= R + R ( L l)

L=

dL 34.3136

## 5. a. r = 7 + 3 cos 2. The calculator graph

confirms that the text figure is traced out once
as increases from 0 to 2.
1
b. dA = (7 + 3 cos 2 )2 d
2
A=

## dA 168.0752 (exactly 53.5)

c. dr = 6 sin 2 d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (6 sin 2 )2 + (7 + 3 cos 2 )2 d

L=

dL 51.4511

## 6. a. r = 8 cos 2. The calculator graph confirms

that the text figure is traced out once as
increases from 0 to 2.
1
b. dA = (8 cos 2 )2 d
2
A=

dA 100.5309K (exactly 32 )

c. dr = 16 sin d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (16 sin 2 )2 + (8 cos 2 )2 d
L=

dL 77.5075K

## 7. a. 5 = 5 + 5 cos . The calculator graph

confirms that the text figure is traced out once
as increases from 0 to 2.
1
b. dA = (5 + 5 cos )2 d
2
A=

## Problem Set 8-7

201

c. dr = 5 sin d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

A=

= (5 sin ) + (5 + 5 cos ) d
2

L=

10
. The calculator graph
3 2 cos
confirms that the text figure is traced out once
as increases from 0 to 2.

8. a. r =

A=

dA 84.2977K (exactly 12 5 )

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
2

L=

20 sin

10
(3 2 cos )2 + 3 2 cos d

=
2

dA 4.5557K

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= 4 (sec tan + sin )2 + (sec cos )2 d
L=

20 sin
d
(3 2 cos )2

c. dr =

## (exactly 16 tan 1 24 + 4 sin 2)

c. dr = 4(sec tan + sin ) d

dL = 40 (exactly)

1
10
b. dA =

2 3 2 cos

1
( 4 sec 4 cos )2 d
2

b. dA =

dL 33.0744 K

dL 10.9534 K

11. r = 49 cos 2
r = 0 2 = cos 1 0 = /2 + 2 n (n an integer)
= /4 + n
The right-hand loop corresponds to
nonnegative values of the integrand,
/4 /4.
1
dA = ( 49 cos 2 ) d
2
A=

/4

1
( 49 cos 2 ) d = 12.25 sin 2
/4 2

/4
/4

= 24.5
Area of both loops is 49.
12. The graph of r = csc + 4 shows a closed loop
from 3.4 to 6.

9. a.
1

1
5

## r = sin 3 makes one complete cycle as

increases from 0 to .
1
b. dA = (sin 3 )2 d
2
A=

## dA 0.7853K (exactly 0.25 )

c. dr = 3 cos 3 d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (3 cos 3 )2 + (sin 3 )2 d
L=

dL 6.6824 K

10. a.
4

202

## The graph passes through the pole where r = 0.

csc + 4 = 0 = csc 1 ( 4) =
sin 1 ( 0.25) = 0.2526 + 2 n or
[ (0.2526)] + 2 n
Desired range is 3.3942 6.0305 .
1
dA = (csc + 4)2 d
2
A=

6.0305K

3.3942K

dA 8.4553

## 13. r1 = 4 + 4 cos and r2 = 10 cos intersect where

4 + 4 cos = 10 cos
= cos 1 (2/3) = 0.8410 + 2 n.
(The graphs also touch at the pole, but not for
the same value of . For the cardioid,
= + 2n. For the circle, = /2 + 2 n.)
Region outside the cardioid and inside

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## the circle is generated as goes from

0.841 to 0.841 .
1
dA = (r22 r12) d
2
1
= [(10 cos )2 ( 4 + 4 cos )2 ] d
2
A=

0.841K

0.841K

dA 18.8863K
1

## (exactly 26 cos (2/3) (4/3) 5)

14. r1 = 5 and r2 = 5 5 cos intersect at = /2
and /2.
5

10

## r = 4 + 6 cos = 0 cos = 2/3

= cos 1 ( 2/3) = 2.3005 + 2n
1
dA = ( 4 + 6 cos )2 d
2
The outer loop is swept out as increases from
2.3005 to 2.3005.
A1 =

A2 =
1
dA = (r12 r22 ) d
2
1
= [52 (5 5 cos )2 ] d
2
Integrate from /2 to /2, because in Quadrants
II and III the cardioid lies outside the circle.
A=

2.3005K

dA 105.0506 K

3.926K

2.3005K

dA 1.7635K

## Area of the region between the loops is

A 1 A 2 103.2871 .
17. a.
4

/2

## 15. a. r = 0.5. The graph starts at = 0 and makes

three revolutions, so increases from 0 to 6.
dr = 0.5 d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2 = 0.52 + (0.5 )2 d
L=

2.3005K

## The inner loop is generated as increases from

2.3005 to 3.9826 .

/2

dL 89.8589

1
1
(0.5 )2 d = 2 d
2
8
Area swept out for third revolution in

dr = 2.5 1.5 d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2 = 6.25 3 + 25 1 d

/2

dL 31.0872

## b. The graph shows sectors of central angles 1,

2, and 3 radians.

b. dA =

4.5
1 2
1
217 3
d = 3

=
4 8
24
192
4
Area swept out for second revolution in

A3 =

A2 =

4.5

2.5

1 2
1
d = 3
8
24

2.5
2

61 3

=
192

## Area of region between second and third

revolution in Quadrant I is A3 = A2 =
13 3
= 25.1925 .
16
16. The graph of r = 4 + 6 cos shows a closed loop
from 2.3 to 4.0.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Area of sector is A( ) =

1 2
r .
2

1 2
(5) (1) = 12.5
2
1
A(2) = (3.5355...)2 (2) = 12.5
2
1
A(3) = (2.8867K)2 (3) = 12.5
2
1
In general, A( ) = (5 1/ 2 )2 ( ) = 12.5, which
2
is independent of the value of .
A(1) =

203

## 18. The graph shows r = sec and a segment from

= 0 to 1.5.

10

The point with polar coordinates (r, ) has xycoordinates x = r cos , y = r sin . The graph
given by r = sec can be written
x = r cos = sec cos = 1
y = r sin = sec sin = tan
(i.e., < y < ). Thus, this graph is the
line x = 1.
By calculus, the segment from = 0 to = 1.5
has length as follows:
dr = sec tan d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (sec tan )2 + sec 2 d
= sec tan 2 + 1 d = sec 2 d
L=

1.5

sec 2 d = tan

1.5
0

## = tan 1.5 0 = 14.1014

As shown above, y = tan .
At = 1.5, y = tan 1.5, confirming the calculus.
19. A typical record has grooves of inner radius
6.6 cm and outer radius 14.6 cm, and takes
about 24 minutes to play. There are thus
(33.333)(24) or about 800 grooves in a space
of (14.6 6.6) or 8.0 cm. Thus, the grooves
decrease in radius by about 8.0/800 = 0.01 cm
per revolution. A simple equation of the spiral is
0.01
0.005
r=
=

## which assumes that the grooves start at the center

and have a pitch of 0.01 cm. The innermost
actual groove is at = 6.6/0.005 = 1320,
and the outermost groove is at = 14.6/0.005
= 2920 .
dr = (0.005/) d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= (0.005/ ) 2 + [(0.005/ ) ]2 d
0.005
=
1 + 2 d

L=

2920

1320

dL 53, 281.4120 cm

= 16,960.0002 cm
Rough check: Average radius = 10.6 cm
L should equal approximately the sum of 800

204

## circles of radius 10.6 cm. L 800(2 10.6) =

16,960 cm, which is very close to the calculated
16,960.0002 cm.
(The integral can be evaluated algebraically by
the tangent trigonometry substitution from
Chapter 9. The result, 16,960.00021, is
remarkably close both to the numerical answer
and to the sum of the lengths of the 800 circles
of average radius 10.6 cm.)
100
= 100(3 2 cos ) 1
3 2 cos
1
dA = [100(3 2 cos ) 1 ]2 d
2
= 5000(3 2 cos ) 2 d

20. a. r =

A=

0.2

b. Solving

## dA 974.3071 974 (kilo-mi)2

0.8

5000(3 2 cos t ) 2 dt =

## 974.3071 gives 1.88976 .

c. P = ka1.5
(27.3)(24) = k(240)1.5
k = 0.17622
d. The major axis of the spaceships orbit is
120 thousand miles, so a = 60.
P = k 601.5 = 81.9 hours (precise answer)
e. The total area of the ellipse is
A=

5000(3 2 cos ) 2 d

= 8429.7776 (kilo-mi)2
Fraction of area from = 0 to = 0.2 is
(974.3071)/(8429.7776) = 0.1155 .
This fraction is the same as the fraction of the
period. Thus, the time is 0.1155(81.9) =
9.4659 hours to go from = 0 to = 0.2,
and the same for to go from 0.8 to
1.88976 .
f. dr = 100(3 2 cos ) 2 (2 sin ) d
= 200 sin (3 2 cos ) 2 d
dL = dr 2 + (r d )2
= [( 200 sin (3 2 cos ) 2 ) 2
+ (100(3 2 cos ) 1 )2 ]1/2 d
From = 0 to = 0.2,
L=

0.2

L=

1.88K

0.8

## g. Average speed from = 0 to = 0.2 is

20.2228K
= 2.1363K , or about 2136 mi/h.
9.4659K
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Average speed from = 0.8 to

56.7896 K
= 1.88976 is
= 5.9993K ,
9.4659K
or about 5999 mi/h.
h. When the spaceship is farthest from Earth, its
radial velocity (toward the Earth) is zero. As
it proceeds in its orbit, it can be thought of as
falling toward the Earth, thus picking up
speed. The reverse is true on the other side of
the Earth, where it is moving away and is
thus being slowed by gravity.
21. a. Count 5 spaces to the right and about 7.5
spaces down from the given point.
Slope 1.5.
b. r =
x = cos dx = d cos sin d
y = sin dy = d sin + cos d
dy dy/d sin + cos
=
=
dx dx/d cos sin
At = 7, dy/dx = 1.54338 , thus
confirming the answer found graphically.
22. a. x = r cos , y = r sin
y/x = sin /cos = tan
slope =

r sin
r cos

= tan

dr
dx
dy
= 2x
+ 2y
d
d
d
dr
dx
dy
r
=x
+y
d
d
d
Substitute these expressions in parts d and e
into the top and bottom of the expression in
part c to show the property.

e. r 2 = x 2 + y 2 2 r

r
a a cos 1 cos
=
=
=
dr/d
a sin
sin
tan /2, using the half-angle formula. Then
= /2 + n. But 0 2, and 0 ,
which implies n = 0, so = /2.
r
dr
g. tan =

= const r r = Cek
dr/d
d
dr
dr/d
Note that
= kCe k = kr k =
=
d
r
1
= cot .
tan
f. tan =

## Problem Set 8-8

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
R1. a.

r sin
50 y

r cos

## b. The slope of any line is tan , where is the

angle between the x-axis and the line.
And, because the tangent line has slope
dy dy/d
=
( by the chain rule),
dx dx/d
dy/d
tan =
.
dx/d
tan tan
c. tan = tan ( ) =
1 + tan tan
dy/d y

dx/d x x dx/d
=

dy/d y x dx/d
1+

dx/d x
dy
dx
x
y
d
d

=
dx
dy
x
+y
d
d
d. dx/d = r sin ;
dy
dx
dy/d = r cos x
y
d
d
= r cos (r cos ) r sin ( r sin )
= r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 = r2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

g
h
x
10

## b. f (x) = 3x 2 18x + 30; f (x) = 6x 18

g (x) = 3x2 18x + 27; g(x) = 6x 18
h (x) = 3x2 18x + 24; h(x) = 6x 18
c. h (x) = 3(x 2)(x 4) = 0 at x = 2 and 4
h(2) = 6 < 0, so h has a local maximum
at x = 2.
h(4) = 6 > 0, so h has a local minimum
at x = 4.
d. g (x) = 3(x 3)2 = 0 only at x = 3.
g (x) > 0 on both sides of x = 3, so this is
neither a maximum nor a minimum point.
e. From the graphs, each point of inflection
appears at x = 3. Because each second
derivative equals 6x 18, each one equals
zero when x = 3.

205

R2. a.
no max.
or min.

f (x )
+

f(x)

undef.

2
p.i.

f (x )
+

f(x)

undef.

b.
f (x )

## Minimum at (0, 0). Maximum at (2, 0.5413).

f (x) = 0 at x = 2 + 2 = 3.4142 and at
x = 2 2 = 0.5857
f (x) changes sign at each of these x-values,
which implies points of inflection at
(0.5857 , 0.1910), (3.4142 ,
0.3835).
R3. a. Let x = width of a cell, y = length of the cell.
xy = 10 y = 10 x 1 ; 0 < x
Minimize L( x ) = 12 x + 7 y = 12 x + 70 x 1 .
The graph shows minimum L (x) at x 2.4.
L (x )

x
2

5
100

2
2 4/3
c. i. f ( x ) = x 1/3 1, f ( x ) =
x
3
9
ii. Zooming in shows that there is a local
minimum cusp at (0, 0) and a local
maximum with zero derivative at x 0.3.
0.5

f (x )

x
0

## Algebraically, f (x) = 0 at x = (2/3)3 =

8/27, and f (x) is undefined at x = 0, thus
locating precisely the minimum and
maximum found by graphing.
Because there are no other critical values
of x, there are no other maximum or
minimum points.
iii. f (x) is undefined at x = 0, and f (x) < 0
everywhere else; f never changes sign, so
there are no inflection points.
iv. f (0) = 0, f (8/27) = 4/27, f (5) = 2.0759
Global maximum at (8/27, 4/27).
Global minimum at (5, 2.0759).
d.

x
2

L ( x ) = 12 70 x 2
L ( x ) = 0 at x = 70/12 = 2.4152
At x = 70/12 , y = 10 12/70 = 4.1403 .
Overall length of battery is 6(2.4152) =
14.4913 .
Optimal battery is about 14.5 by 4.1,
which is longer and narrower than the typical
battery, 9 by 6.7. Thus, minimal wall
length does not seem to be a major
consideration in battery design.
b. The graph shows y = 8 x3, from x = 0 to
x = 2, with rectangle touching sample point
(x, y) on the graph, rotated about the y-axis,
generating cubic paraboloid and inscribed
cylinder.
8

(x, y )

f (x )
1

x
2

x
2

## The graph shows that f ( x ) = x 2 e x has local

minimum at x = 0, local maximum at x 2,
and points of inflection at x 3.4 and at
x 0.6.
f ( x ) = 2 xe x x 2 e x = x (2 x )e x
f ( x ) = 2e x 4 xe x + x 2 e x = (2 4 x + x 2 )e x
f (x) = 0 at x = 0, 2

206

## Problem Set 8-8

Domain of x is 0 x 2.
Maximize V (x) = r2h = x 2y = 8 x2 x 5 .
The graph shows that V (x) has a maximum at
x 1.5.
V(x )
30

x
0

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## V (x) = 16 x 5 x 4 = x(16 5x3)

V ( x ) = 0 at x = 0 and x = 3 16/5 = 1.4736
Maximal rectangle has x = 3 16/5 = 1.4736 ,
y = 8 16/5 = 4.8.
R4. a. The graph shows y = x11/3 and y = x 22 ,
intersecting at (0, 0) and (1, 1), rotated about
the x-axis, sliced parallel to the x-axis,
showing back half of solid only.
y

## ii. The graph shows the region described in

part i, rotated about the x-axis, showing
back half of solid only.
y
(x, 4)
4

(x, y )

x
2

(x 1 , y )

1
(x 2 , y )

## dV = (42 y2) dx = (16 x4) dx

x
0

V=

x 1 = y 3 , x 2 = y 1/2
dV = 2 y (x 2 x 1) dy = 2 y (y 1/2 y 3) dy
V=

## (Cylindrical shells can also be used.)

iii. The graph shows the region described in
part i, rotated about the line y = 5,
showing back half of solid only.
y

0

## b. The graph shows y1 and y2 as in part a, but

sliced perpendicular to the x-axis, generating
plane washer slices.

(x, 4)

5
4

(x, y )

y
(x, y1 )

x
2

2
(x, y2 )
0

## dV = [(5 y)2 12] dx

= [(5 x2)2 1] dx
2
7
V = dV 174.2536 exactly 55

2
15
(Cylindrical shells can also be used.)
iv. The graph shows the region described in
part i, rotated about the line x = 3,
showing back half of solid only.

V=

(x, 4)

## the same answer as in part a, Q.E.D.

c. i. The graph shows y = x2 and y = 4,
intersecting at (2, 4) and (2, 4), rotated
about the y-axis, showing back half of
solid only.
y
(x, 4)

(x, y )

x
2

dV = 2 x (4 y) dx = 2 x (4 x2) dx
V 25.1327 (exactly 8)
(Disks can also be used.)
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

(x, y ) (3, y)

x
2

dV = 2 (3 x) (4 y) dx
= 2 (3 x)(4 x2) dx
V=

## (Washers can also be used.)

R5. a. y = x 2 from x = 1 to x = 2.
dy = 2x dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x )2 dx
L=

dL 6.1257
Problem Set 8-8

207

b. y = x3/2 from x = 0 to x = 9.
dy = 1.5x1/2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (1.5 x 1/2 )2 dx
9

(1 + 2.25x ) dx
1
(1 + 2.25 x )
=
2.25

L=

1/2

1/2

(2.25 dx )

9
2
(1 + 2.25 x )3/2
6.75
0
2
3/ 2
(21.25 1) = 28.7281
=
6.75
Distance between the endpoints is
10 2 + 26 2 = 27.8567 , so the answer
is reasonable.
c. x = t cos t dx = (cos t t sin t ) dt
y = t sin t dy = (sin t + t cos t ) dt
The graph shows t increases from 0 to 4.

1/2

x 4 / 3 + 1 4 x 1/3 dx

0
9 3

1
= x 4/3 +

3/2 8

=
(1453/ 2 1) = 203.0436 K
27
The disk of radius 8 has area 64 =
201.0619 , so the answer is reasonable.
b. The graph shows y = tan x, from x = 0 to
x = 1, rotated about the line y = 1, showing
the back half of the solid only.
y
1

(x, y)

x
0

1
(x,1)

4 y

x
4

dy = sec2 x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (cos t t sin t )2 + (sin t + t cos t )2 dt
= 1 + ( t )2 dt
L=

1 + 2 t 2 dt 25.7255K

S=

(x, y )

1 2/3
x
dx
3
2

1
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2/3 dx
3

1
dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 2/3 dx
3

= 2
208

R7. a. r = dr = d

L=

(0, y) 2

dS 20.4199K

dL = dr 2 + (rd )2 = 1 + 2 d

S = 2

dS = 2 (y + 1) dL
= 2 ( tan x + 1) 1 + sec 4 x dx

## R6. a. The graph shows y = x1/3 , from x = 0 to

x = 8, rotated about the y-axis, showing the
back half of the solid only.

dy =

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx

1
1 + x 2/3 dx
3

5 / 2

dL 32.4706 K

1 2
1
r d = 2 d . Area of the region
2
2
between the curves equals the area traced out
from t = 2 to t = 5 /2 minus the area traced
out from t = 0 to t = /2.
/2 1
5 / 2 1
A=
2 d
2 d
2
0
2
2

b. dA =

1
= 3
6

5 /2
2

1
3
6

/2
0

1 3
7.5 3
(2.53 2 3 0.53 + 0 3 ) =

6
6
= 38.7578
=

1/2

1
x 1/3 x 4/3 + dx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Concept Problems
C1. a. The graph of (t) = 130 12T + 15T 2 4T 3
from T = 0 to T = 3 shows maxima at T = 0
and T 2.0 and minima at T 0.5 and
T = 3.
(T )

f
g

1
0

130

T
0

To maximize (T):
(T ) = 12 + 30T 12T 2
= 6(2T 1)(T 2)
1
(T ) = 0 at T = , 2
2
1
(0) = 130; = 127.25;
2
(2) = 134; (3) = 121
Maximum viscosity occurs at T = 2, or 200.
b. Minimum viscosity occurs at endpoint,
T = 3, or 300.
c.
C2. The graph of f (x) = (x 1)4 + x shows that the
graph straightens out at x = 1 but does not
change concavity.
y

x
1

## f (x) = 4(x 1)3 + 1; f (x) = 12(x 1)2,

so f (1) = 1 and f (1) = 0.
f (x) > 0 for all x 1. In particular, f (x) does not
change sign at x = 1. Thus, the graph is straight
at x = 1, but not horizontal. Zooming in on (1,
1) shows that the graph resembles y = x when x
is close to 1, although it is actually concave up
slightly.
C3. The graphs of f (x) = x2/3 and g( x ) = x 1/3 show a
cusp at x = 0 for function f and a vertical
asymptote at x = 0 for function g.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3

y =

## 2.5 1 + cos ( x 5) sin ( x 5)

3
3
3

2.5
3

1 + cos 3 ( x 5) sin 3 ( x 5)

2.5
(1 + cos )sin dx
dL = 1 +
3

## where temporarily stands for ( x 5)

3
L=

7.5

dL 5.7726

b. y =
2.5
d
[(1 + cos ) cos + ( sin ) sin ]
3
dx

2.5
=
(2 cos 2 1 + cos )
3
3
2
2.5
=
(cos + 1)(2 cos 1)
9
y = 0 cos = 1 or cos = 0.5
= + 2 n or = /3 + 2 n
x = 8 + 6n, 4 + 6n, or 6 + 6n
The only zero of y within the domain is
x = 6, so the point of inflection must be
at x = 6.
c. dS = 2 (x 4) dL, where dL is as in part a.
S=

7.5

dS 78.2373

5
d. x = 7.5 y = 3 + 1.25 1 + cos

= 3 + 1.25(1 3 /2)2
= 3 + 1.25(1.75 3 ) = 3.0224
dV = 2 (x 4) (y 3.0224) dx
V=

7.5

## 2 ( x 4)1.25[(1 + cos )2 (1.75 3 )] dx

= 58.8652
C5. The 2000 World Almanac and Book of Facts
lists the area of Brazil as 3,286,478 square miles.
Individual answers will vary.
Problem Set 8-8

209

## Because the spike goes from x = 0 to x =

C6. Let the cylinder lie on the x-axis and the hole lie
on the y-axis so that the z-axis is perpendicular
to both the cylinder and the hole. The cylinder is
thus described by y2 + z2 25, and the hole by
x 2 + z2 9.
Slice the hole with planes perpendicular to the
z-axis. Then for 3 z 3, the cross section at
z of the hole is a rectangle with height
2 y = 2 25 z 2 and width 2 x = 2 9 z 2 .
Area of cross-section rectangle is

Vs =

= 8 + 8 2 6 = 0.46415 cm 3

4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 dz

= 269.3703 cm3
According to the CRC Handbook, the density
of uranium is 19.1 g/cm3. So the mass of the
uranium drilled out is
m = (269.3703)(19.1) = 5144.97 g.
Value is 200(5144.97) \$1,029,000.

dVs 0.0109642 .

11 2 1

= 8(1 2 /2)3 + 24
4 2
12

so dV = 4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 dz.
Thus, the volume of the hole (and thus of the
uranium that once filled the hole) is
3

2 /2,

## (The integral can be evaluated algebraically using

trigonometry substitution, as in Chapter 9. The
11 2 1
exact value is Vs =
.)
12
4 2
The 24 spikes (3 for each of the eight corners) are
identical.
Thus, the total volume remaining is
V = 8Vc + 24Vs

4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 ,

V=

2 /2

Chapter Test
T1.
y
3

## C7. Draw x- and y-axes with origin at the center of

the circle on one face of the cube.

x
0

T2.

y
6

(x, y )

Function
5
4

x
1

3
2

## The solid remaining consists of eight identical

corner pieces. Each corner piece consists of a cube
and three identical spikes. The spikes have square
cross sections when sliced perpendicular to the
appropriate axes. The hole perpendicular to the
xy-plane cuts a circle in that plane with equation
x2 + y2 = 1. The cube shown in the diagram
begins at x = y so that 2x2 = 1,
from which x = 2 /2. Each cube is thus
(1 2 /2) cm on a side, and thus has volume
Vc = (1 2 /2)3 = 0.0251262 cm 3 .
Consider the leftmost spike in the preceding
diagram. Pick a sample point (x, y) on the part
of the circle in that spike. The cross section
perpendicular to the x-axis for this spike is a
square of side (1 y) = 1 1 x 2 . Thus,

x
1

Derivative

## T3. A = xy = x(500 0.5x) = 500x 0.5x2

A = 500 x
A = 0 x = 500
A goes from positive to negative at x = 500
local maximum at x = 500.
A(0) = A(1000) = 0 global maximum
at x = 500.
Maximum at x = 500, y = 250.

dVs = (1 1 x 2 )2 dx.
210

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T4. V = 2

T11. Vcyl = 22 8 = 32

x ( y1 y2 ) dx

Vsolid 19.2
=
= 0.6
32
Vcyl

1
T5. a. dA = r 2 dr
2
b. dL = ( dr ) + (r d )
2

## So, V solid = 0.6V cyl .

T12. a.

c. dL = dx 2 + dy 2

d. dS = 2 ( x 1) dL
T6. f (x) = x 3 7.8x 2 + 20.25x 13
f (x) = 3x2 15.6x + 20.25
= 3(x 2.5)(x 2.7)
f (x) changes from positive to negative at
x = 2.5 and from negative back to positive at
x = 2.7. So there is a local maximum at x = 2.5
and a local minimum at x = 2.7.
f (x) = 6x 15.6 = 6(x 2.6)
f (x) = 0 at x = 2.6
f (2.6) = 0.03, so the graph is not horizontal at
the inflection point.
T7. y = x3 dy = 3x2 dx
dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (3 x 2 )2 dx
L=

1 + 9 x 4 dx = 8.6303

T8. dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + 9 x 4 dx
S=

2 x
0

1 + 9 x 4 dx = 77.3245

## b. dx = 5 sin t dt, dy = 2 cos t dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (5 cos t )2 + (2 sin t )2 dt
L=

V(x) = 16 x 5 x 4 = 0 at x = 0 or 3.21/3
V(0) = V(2) = 0
V(3.2 1/3) = 4.8 3.22/3 > 0, so this is a
maximum.
Maximal cylinder has V = 4.8 3.22/3 cm3 =
32.7459 cm3.
T10. Slicing parallel to the y-axis generates cylindrical
shells of radius x extending from the sample
point (x, y) to the line y = 8.
dV = 2 x (8 y) dx = 2 x (8 x3) dx
V=

2 (8 x x 4 ) dx = 2 ( 4 x 2 0.2 x 5 )

= 19.2 = 60.3185

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2
0

dL 23.0131

20 sin 3 t dt = 83.7758

= 26.6666 (numerically)
V can be evaluated algebraically by
transforming two of the three sin t factors
into cosines.
V=

## c. Slicing perpendicular to the x-axis generates

circular slices of radius y, where sample point
(x, y) is on the upper branch of the ellipse.
dV = y2 dx = 4 sin2 t (5 sin t dt)
= 20 sin3 t dt
Leftmost slice is at t = , and rightmost slice
is at t = 0.
V=

## T9. V(x) = x 2(8 y) = 8 x2 x 5

The graph shows a maximum V (x) at x 1.5.
40

x
5

20 (1 cos 2 t ) sin t dt
20 sin t dt +

20 cos

t sin t dt

0
20
2
= 20 cos t cos3 t = 26

3
3
The x-radius is 5, and the y-radius is 2.
4
4
3
3
2
26 , Q .E.D .
3
(In general, if a = x-radius and b = y-radius,
the parametric functions are x = a cos t, y =
b sin t. Repeating the preceding algebraic
4
solution gives V = ab 2 .)
3

T13. r = 5e0.1
dr = 0.5e0.1 d

## Problem Set 8-8

211

dL = dr 2 + (rd )2
= (0.5e 0.1 )2 + (5e 0.1 )2 d
= e 0.1 25.25 d
The spiral starts at r = 5 = 5e0.10 and makes three
complete revolutions, so 0 6.
L=

6
0

## = 10 25.25 (e 0.6 1) = 280.6961

1
T14. dA = r 2 d = 12.5e 0.2 d
2
The area between the second and third revolutions
equals the area swept out for the third revolution

212

## minus the area swept out for the second

revolution. In Quadrant I, the third revolution
extends from = 4 to = 4.5 and the second
revolution extends from = 2 to = 2.5 .
A=

4.5

12.5e 0.2 d
4.5

2.5

12.5e 0.2 d
2.5

## = 62.5e 0.2 4 62.5e 0.2 2

= 62.5(e0.9 e0.8 e0.5 + e0.4 )
= 203.7405
T15. Answers will vary.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Chapter 9Algebraic Calculus Techniques

for the Elementary Functions
Problem Set 9-1
1. V = 2

/2

2.

x cos x dx 3.5864

## 2. f (x) = x sin x f (x) = x cos x + sin x

3.
4.

x cos x dx = f ( x ) dx sin x dx

## = f (x) + cos x + C (by definition of indefinite

integral)
= x sin x + cos x + C

3.

= 2 x sin x + 2 cos x 0 /2
= 2 2
6. V = 2 2 = 3.5864 , which is the same as
the approximation, to the accuracy shown.
7. The method involves working separately with the
different parts of the integrand. The function
f (x) = x sin x was chosen because one of the
terms in its derivative is x cos x, which is the
original integrand. See Section 9-2.

4.

xe

4x

dx

6 xe

3 x

u = 6x

dx

( x + 4)e

5 x

dx

( x + 7)e

2x

dx

7.

u=x

dv = sin x dx

du = dx

v = cos x

= x cos x ( cos x ) dx
= x cos x + sin x + C
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

u=x+4

dv = e 5x dx

du = dx

1
v = e 5 x
5

u=x+7

dv = e2x dx

du = dx

v=

1 2x
e
2

f ( x + h) f ( x )
h

Q10. C

x sin x dx

dv = e 3x dx

1
1 2x
= ( x + 7) e 2 x
e dx
2
2
7
1
1
= e 2 x + xe 2 x e 2 x + C
2
2
4
13 2 x 1 2 x
= e + xe + C
4
2

1.

1 4x
e
4

Q6.

h0

v=

6.

Q9. 110/6

du = dx

1
1
= ( x + 4) e 5 x +
e 5 x dx
5
5
4
1
1
= e 5 x xe 5 x e 5 x + C
5
5
25
21 5 x 1 5 x
= e xe + C
25
5

Q8. lim

dv = e4x dx

## Q7. r(x) = t (x)

u=x

1
v = e 3 x
3
1
1
= (6 x ) e 3 x (6) e 3 x dx
3

2
= 2 xe 3 x e 3 x + C
3

1 11
Q2.
x +C
11
1
Q4.
sin 3 x + C
3

1
v = sin 3 x
3

du = 6 dx

5.

Q3.

du = dx

x cos x dx

## Q1. y = x sec x + tan x

dv = cos 3x dx

1 4x 1 4x
xe
e dx
4
4
1
1
= xe 4 x e 4 x + C
4
16

/2

u=x

1
1
x sin 3 x
sin 3 x dx
3
3
1
1
= x sin 3 x + cos 3 x + C
3
9
=

f ( x ) dx = x cos x dx + sin x dx

5. V = 2

x cos 3x dx

ln x dx

u = ln x

dv = x 3 dx

du = x 1 dx

v=

1 4
x
4

1 4
1 3
x ln x
x dx
4
4
1
1
= x 4 ln x x 4 + C
4
16
=

213

8.

u = ln 3x

dv = x 5 dx

du = x 1 dx

v=

ln 3 x dx

1.

1 6
x
6

x e

3 2x

dx

9.

x e

2 x

u = 2x
du = 2 dx

dv = ex dx
v = ex

u = x2

sin x dx

u = 2x
du = 2 dx

dv = cos x dx
v = sin x

ln x dx

u = ln x
du = x

5 x

dx

v = cos x

## = x 2 cos x 2 x sin x ( 2 sin x ) dx

2
= x cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C
11.

2.

1 3 2x 3 2 2x 3 2x 3 2x
x e x e + xe e + C
2
4
4
8

dv = sin x dx

du = 2x dx
2
= x cos x ( 2 x cos x ) dx

v = ex

= x 2 e x 2 xe x 2e x dx
= x2ex 2xex + 2ex + C
10.

3.

sin x dx

dv = dx
dx

v=x

= x ln x x + C

4.

Q4.

1 4
Q5.
x + 11x + C
4
Q7. 1/2
Q8. V =

[ f ( x)
a

dv
sin x
cos x
sin x
cos x
sin x
cos x

u
x2
2x
2
0

cos x dx

1 3
( x + 11)6 + C
18

dv
cos x
sin x
cos x
sin x

Q6. 1
5.
g( x )2 ] dx

Q9.

Q10. B
y
4

x
2

214

u
x4
4x 3
12x 2
24x
24
0

Q3. tan x + C

dv
e x
e x
e x
e x
e x
e x
e x

## = x4 cos x + 4x3 sin x + 12x2 cos x

24x sin x 24 cos x + C

1 6
r +C
6

u
x5
5x 4
20x 3
60x 2
120x
120
0

## = x5e x 5x4e x 20x3e x 60x2e x 120xe x

120e x + C

= x ln x x x 1 dx

Q1.

du = 2x dx
2 x
x
= x e 2 xe dx

6
dv = ex dx

1 2x
2e
1 2x
4e
1 2x
8e
1 2x
16 e

6x

u = x2

dx

dv
e 2x

3x2

1 6
1
x ln 3 x
x 5 dx
6
6
1
1 6
= x 6 ln 3 x
x +C
6
36
=

u
x3

cos 2 x dx

u
x5
5x 4
20x 3
60x 2
120x
120
0

dv
cos 2x
1
2 sin 2x
1
4 cos 2x
1
8 sin 2x
1
16 cos 2x
1
32 sin 2x
1
64 cos 2x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6.

1 5
5
5
x sin 2 x + x 4 cos 2 x x 3 sin 2 x
2
4
2
15
15
15
x 2 cos 2 x + x sin 2 x + cos 2 x + C
4
4
8

x 3 sin 5 x dx

u
x3
3x 2
6x
6
0

dv
sin 5x
1
5 cos 5x
1
25 sin 5x
1
125 cos 5x
1
625 sin 5x

10.

1
3 2
6
= x 3 cos 5 x +
x sin 5 x +
x cos 5 x
5
25
125
6

sin 5 x + C
625
7.

e sin x dx
x

u
ex
ex
ex

34 3x
e cos 5 x dx
25
1
3
= e 3x sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x + C1
5
25
e 3x cos 5 x dx

5 3x
3
e sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x + C
34
34

4x

sin 2 x dx

1
= e 4x cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x + C1
2
e 4x sin 2 x dx

## = e x cos x + e x sin x e x sin x dx

11.

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C1

1 4x
1
e cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x + C
10
5
u
dv
ln 3x + x 7
1 8
1/x
8x
----------------1
1 8 x7
1
0 + 64 x 8

ln 3 x dx

e x sin x dx
1
1
= e x cos x + e x sin x + C
2
2

8.

u
ex
ex
ex

cos x dx

dv
cos x
sin x
cos x

=
12.

1 8
1 8
x ln 3 x
x +C
8
64

u
dv
ln 6x + x 5
1 6
1/x
6x
------------------------1
1 6x5
1
0 + 36 x 6

ln 6 x dx

## = e x sin x + e x cos x e x cos x dx

2 e cos x dx
x

= ex sin x + ex cos x + C 1
e x cos x dx

9.

1 x
1
e sin x + e x cos x + C
2
2

3x

cos 5 x dx

u
e 3x
3e 3x
9e 3x

=
13.

dv
cos 5x
1
5 sin 5x
1
25
cos 5x

14.
15.
16.

1
3
= e 3x sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x
5
25
9

e 3x cos 5 x dx
25

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv
sin 2x
1
2 cos 2x
1
4 sin 2x

2 e sin x dx

1
= e 4x cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x 4 e 4x sin 2 x dx
2
5 e 4x sin 2 x dx

dv
sin x
cos x
sin x

u
e 4x
4e 4x
16e 4x

1 6
1 6
x ln 6 x
x +C
6
36
ln 7 5
x 4 ln 7 dx =
x + C (ln 7 is a constant!)
5
cos 5 7x
e 7x cos 5 dx =
e +C
7
1
sin 5 x cos x dx = sin 6 x + C
6
1
2 2/3
x (3 x ) dx =
(3 x 2 )2/3 ( 2 x dx )
2
3
= (3 x 2 )5/3 + C
10

## Problem Set 9-3

215

17.

x ( x + 5)
3

18.

1/2

u
x3
3x 2
6x
6
0

dx

dv
(x + 5) 1/2
2
3/2
3(x + 5)
4
5/2
15(x + 5)
8
7/2
105(x + 5)
16
9/2
945(x + 5)

23.

x (ln x )

u
dv
(ln x) 3 + x
1 2
3 (ln x)2/x
2x
-------------------------1
3 (ln x) 2 2 x
1 2
6 (ln x)/x
4x
-------------------------1
6 ln x + 4 x
1 2
6/x
8x

dx

2 3
4
x ( x + 5)3/2 x 2 ( x + 5)5/2
3
5
16
32
7/2
+ x ( x + 5)
( x + 5)9/2 + C
35
315

--------------------------

2 x dx = x 2 (2 x )1/2 dx
u
x2
2x
2
0

dv
(2 x)1/2
2
3(2 x)3/2
4
5/2
15(2 x)
8
105(2 x)7/2

24.

1
8x
1 2
16 x

1 2
3
x (ln x )3 x 2 (ln x )2
2
4
3
3
+ x 2 ln x x 2 + C
4
8

x (ln x ) dx
3

u
(ln x) 2
2(ln x)/x

dv
x3
1 4
4x

--------------------------

1 3
4x
1 4
16 x
-------------------------1
2 + 16 x 3
1
0 64 x 4

2 ln x
2/x

2
8
= x 2 (2 x )3/2 x (2 x )5/2
3
15
16
7/2

(2 x ) + C
105
19.

20.
21.

ln x
e

ln 7 x

x e

5 x2

dx = 5 ln x dx = 5 x ln x 5 x + C

dx = 7 x dx =

7 2
x +C
2

dx

25.
u
x4
4x 3

1 4
1
1 4
x (ln x )2 x 4 ln x +
x +C
4
8
32

x (x
3

+ 1) 4 dx

u
x2

dv
x(x 2 + 1)4
1
2
5
2x
10 (x + 1)
---------------------------------1
2
5
5 x(x + 1)
1
2
6
+
0
12 (x + 1)

dv
xe x 2
1 x2
2e

--------------------------

2x 2 xe x 2
1 x2
4x
2e
-------------------------2 + xe x 2
1
0 2 e x2

=
26.

=
22.

2
2
1 4 x2
x e x 2e x + e x + C
2

x e

5 x

dx

u
x3

3x 2

3
1
1 3
= x 3e x e x + C
3
3

216

## Problem Set 9-3

1 2 2
1
x ( x + 1)5 ( x 2 + 1)6 + C
10
60

x 2 3 dx = x 3 ( x 2 3)1/2

dv
x(x 2 3) 1/2
1 2
3/2
3(x 3)

----------------------------------2

dv
x 2 ex 3
1 x3
3e

x 2 ex 3
1
3

u
x2
2x

---------------------------

1
0

ex3
27.

x(x 2 3) 3/2
1 2
5/2
5(x 3)

1 2 2
2
x ( x 3)3/2 ( x 2 3)5/2 + C
3
15

cos

x dx

u
cos x
sin x

dv
cos x
sin x

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= cos x sin x + (1 cos x ) dx
= cos x sin x + x cos x dx
2 cos x dx = cos x sin x + x + C
1
1
cos x dx = cos x sin x + x + C
2
2
= cos x sin x ( sin 2 x ) dx

32.

33.
34.

u
sin 0.4x
0.4 cos 0.4x

dv
sin 0.4x
2.5 cos 0.4x

## = 2.5 sin 0.4 x cos 0.4 x + (1 sin 0.4 x ) dx

= 2.5 sin 0.4 x cos 0.4 x + dx sin 0.4 x dx
2 sin 0.4 x dx
= 2.5 sin 0.4 x cos 0.4 x + cos 2 0.4 x dx
2

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

dv
sec2 x
tan x

## = sec x tan x sec x (sec x 1) dx

= sec x tan x sec x dx + ln | sec x + tan x |
2 sec x dx
= sec x tan x sec x tan 2 x dx
2

40.

cos x dx

e sin x dx = e
x

## Two integrations produced the original integral

with the opposite sign (which is useful), and two
more integrations reversed the sign again to give
the original integral with the same sign (which
is not useful).

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

e x sin x + e x sin x dx

sec 2 x tan x dx

1
= (sec x )1 (sec x tan x dx ) = sec 2 x + C
2
1
31. log 3 x dx =
ln x dx
ln 3
1
=
( x ln x x ) + C
ln 3
1
= x log 3 x
x+C
ln 3

## Amoss choice of u and dv transforms

1
1
x 2 cos x dx into x 3 cos x +
x 3 sin x dx,
3
3
which is more complicated than the original
expression.
41. After two integrations by parts,
e x sin x dx

1
1
= sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x | + C
2
2

sec x dx

30.

## = sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x | + C 1

sin x dx = cos x + C
cos x dx = sin x + C
csc x dx = ln | csc x + cot x | + C
sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x | + C
tan x dx = ln | cos x | + C
cot x dx = ln | sin x | + C
x cos x dx
effectively canceling out what she did in the first
part. She will get

u
sec x
sec x tan x

ln x dx

sin 2 0.4 x dx

sec 3 x dx

1
ln 10

## For the first integral, Wanda integrated cos x and

differentiated x2, but in the second integral she
plans to differentiate cos x dx and integrate 2x,

## = 2.5 sin 0.4x cos 0.4x + x + C 1

29.

x dx =

1
( x ln x x ) + C
ln 10
1
= x log10 x
x+C
ln 10

sin 2 0.4x dx

10

28.

log

42.

cos

1
(1 + cos 2 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x + sin 2 x + C

2
2

x dx =

217

## By the double-argument properties from

trigonometry,
1
1
1
x + sin 2 x + C = ( x + sin x cos x ) + C

2
2
2
which is equivalent to the answer in Problem 27
found using integrating by parts.

## Applying limits of integration gives

u dv = uv

(1,1/e)

x
3

y = xe x + e x = e x(1 x)
Critical points at x = 0, 1, 3; maximum at
x = 1.
x

12 x e

2 x

dx

= 12 x 2 e x 24 xe x 24e x

b
0

## = 12b2e b 24be b 24e b + 24

The first two terms approach zero as b
by LHospitals rule. The third term also
approaches 0.
lim Ab = 24
b

45. y = ln x
dV = y2 dx = (ln x)2 dx
5

(ln x ) dx

u
dv
(ln x)2 + 1
2 (ln x)/x
x
----------------------2 ln x 1
2/x
x
----------------------2 + 1
0 x

= x (ln x )2 2 x ln x + 2 x

5
1

= 5 ( ln 5)2 10 ln 5 + 10 0 + 0 2
= 15.2589
46. Consider u dv, and write dv = v + C. Then

u dv = u(v + C) (v + C) du
= uv + Cu v du C du
= uv + Cu v du Cu = uv v du
Thus, the constant cancels out later, Q.E.D.

218

v du
a

ln ax dx = (ln a + ln x ) dx

= x ln a + x ln x x + C
= x ln ax x + C
49.

= 3e 3 e 3 + 1 = 4e 3 + 1 = 0.8008
44. y = 12x2e x
Area from x = 0 to x = b is
A(b) =

dx

= ( xe x e x )

V=

48.

v du

## The quantity (bd ac) is the area of the

L-shaped region, which is the area of the larger
rectangle minus the area of the smaller one.
Thus, the integral of u dv equals the area of the
L-shaped region minus the area represented by the
integral of v du.

xe

= (bd ac)

A=

u=b
u =a

43.

u dv = uv v du.

sin

u
sin 6 x
6 sin 5 x cos x

x dx

dv
sin x
cos x

## = sin x cos x + 6 sin x (1 sin x ) dx

= sin x cos x + 6 sin x dx 6 sin x dx
7 sin x dx = sin x cos x + 6 sin x dx
1
6
sin x dx = 7 sin x cos x + 7 sin x dx
= sin 6 x cos x + 6 sin 5 x cos 2 x dx
6

## The fractions are 1/(old exponent) and

(old exponent 1)/(old exponent). The new
exponent is 2 less than the old exponent. So
1
sin 7 x dx = sin 6 x cos x
7
6 1 4
4
+ sin x cos x +
sin 3 x dx

7 5
5
1
6
6
4
= sin x cos x
sin x cos x
7
35
24 1
2
+ sin 2 x cos x +
sin x dx

35 3
3
1
6
6
4
= sin x cos x
sin x cos x
7
35
8
16
sin 2 x cos x
cos x + C
35
35
50. Answers will vary.

Q1. uv v du

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q2.

Q3.
y

4.

## tan x dx = tan x tan

= tan x (sec x 1) dx
= tan x sec x dx tan
1
= tan x tan x dx
19
20

18

18

x
2

19

Q4. y = 1 + ln 5x
Q6. ln |x| + C

5.

sec

13

x dx

18

1
sin 6 x + C
Q5.
6

18

x dx

18

x dx

Q7.

u
sec 11 x
11 sec 10 x sec x tan x

dv
sec 2 x
tan x

y
1
3

= sec

11

1
Q8.
1+ x2
Q10. D
1.

x tan x 11 sec
x tan x 11 sec

= sec11

sin 9 x dx

u
8

x cos x + 8 sin
x cos x + 8 sin

sin7

sin 8 x
x cos x

dv
sin x
cos x

= sin

6.

csc

100

dv
cos x

10

10

## cot x dx = cot x cot x dx

= cot x (csc x 1) dx
= cot x csc x dx cot x dx
1
= cot x cot x dx
11
12

10

10

10

11

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x cot x 98 csc
x cot x 98 csc

100

dv
csc 2 x
cot x

7.

98

100

x (csc 2 x 1) dx

x dx + 98 csc 98 x dx

## x dx = csc x cot x + 98 csc 98 x dx

98

1
98
csc100 x dx = csc 98 x cot x +
csc 98 x dx
99
99

cos

x dx

10

sin x

## = cos x sin x + 9 cos x (1 cos x ) dx

= cos x sin x + 9 cos x dx 9 cos x dx
10 cos x dx = cos x sin x + 9 cos x dx
1
9
cos x dx = 10 cos x sin x + 10 cos x dx
= cos 9 x sin x + 9 cos8 x sin 2 x dx

3.

98

99 csc
+

x dx

= csc 98

u
cos 9 x
9 cos 8 x sin x

1
11
sec x dx =
sec11 x tan x +
sec11 x dx
12
12
13

= csc

cos10 x dx

## = csc 98 x cot x 98 csc 98 x cot 2 x dx

x dx 8 sin 9 x dx

x dx + 11 sec11 x dx

11

x (1 sin 2 x ) dx

2.

13

u
csc 98 x
98 csc 97 x csc x cot x

## 9 sin x dx = sin x cos x + 8 sin x dx

1
8
sin x dx = 9 sin x cos x + 9 sin x dx
= sin 8

x (sec 2 x 1) dx

13

## = sin 8 x cos x + 8 sin 7 x cos 2 x dx

8

11

u
cos n 1 x
(n 1) cosn 2 x sin x

dv
cos x
sin x

## = cos x sin x + (n 1) cos x (1 cos x ) dx

= cos x sin x + (n 1) cos x dx
(n 1) cos x dx
n cos x dx = cos x sin x + (n 1) cos x dx
n 1
1
cos x dx = n cos x sin x + n cos x dx
= cos n1 x sin x + (n 1) cos n2 x sin 2 x dx
n 1

n2

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

10

## Problem Set 9-4

219

8.

sin

u
sin n 1 x
(n 1) sinn 2 x cos x

x dx

## = sin x cos x + (n 1) sin x (1 sin

= sin x cos x + (n 1) sin x dx
(n 1) sin x dx
n sin x dx = sin x cos x + (n 1) sin
n 1
1
sin x dx = n sin x cos x + n sin
tan x dx = tan x tan x dx
= tan x (sec x 1) dx
= tan x sec x dx tan x dx
1
=
tan x tan x dx
n 1
cot x dx = cot x cot x dx
= cot x (csc x 1) dx
= cot x csc x dx cot x dx
1
=
cot x cot x dx
n 1
csc x dx

## = sin n1 x cos x + (n 1) sin n2 x cos 2 x dx

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

x ) dx

n 1

9.

n2

n2

14.

n 1

u
(n 2) csc n 3x csc x cot x

15.

## = csc x cot x (n 2) csc x (csc x 1) dx

= csc x cot x (n 2) csc x dx
+ (n 2) csc x dx
(n 1) csc x dx
= csc x cot x + (n 2) csc x dx
csc x dx
1
n2
=
csc x cot x +
csc x dx
n 1
n 1
sec x dx
n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

12.

n2

u
sec n 2x
(n 2) sec n 3 x sec x tan x

220

## Problem Set 9-4

x dx

dv
sec 2 x
tan x

cot

x dx

1
1
= cot 5 x cot 3 x ( cot x x ) + C
5
3

1
1 3
5
= cot x + cot x cot x x + C
5
3

dv
csc 2 x
cot x

## = csc n2 x cot x (n 2) csc n2 x cot 2 x dx

n2

cos

1
4 1
2
cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C

5
53
3
1
4
8
= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C
5
15
15

n2

csc n 2x

n2

n2

1
4 1
2
= sin 4 x cos x + sin 2 x cos x cos x + C

5
5 3
3
1
4
8
= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x cos x + C
5
15
15

n2

11.

13.

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

x dx

n 1

10.

x dx

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n 1

n2

n2

## = sec x tan x (n 2) sec x (sec x 1) dx

= sec x tan x (n 2) sec x dx
+ (n 2) sec x dx
(n 1) sec x dx
= sec x tan x + (n 2) sec x dx
sec x dx
1
n2
=
sec x dx
sec x tan x +
n 1
n 1
sin x dx
= sec n2 x tan x (n 2) sec n2 x tan 2 x dx

dv
sin x
cos x

16.

tan

x dx

1
1
1

## = tan 6 x tan 4 x tan 2 x + ln | cos x | + C

6
4
2

1
1
1
6
4
2
= tan x tan x + tan x + ln | cos x | + C
6
4
2
1
2
17. sec 4 x dx = sec 2 x tan x + tan x + C
3
3
1
2
4
2
18. csc x dx = csc x cot x cot x + C
3
3
19. a. y = cos x is on top; y = cos3 x is in the
middle; y = cos5 x is on the bottom.
b. For y = cos x, area 2.0000 .
For y = cos3 x, area 1.3333 .
For y = cos5 x, area 1.06666 .

c. A1 =

/2

/2

cos x dx = sin x

/2
/2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

A3 =

/2

/2

## < x < , then cos x < cos

4
2
4

cos N x <
.
2
Now, for any n > N,

cos3 x dx

Note that if

/2
1
2
= cos 2 x sin x + sin x
3
3
/2
1
2
= cos 2 ( /2) sin ( /2) + sin ( /2)
3
3
1
2
2
cos ( /2) sin ( /2) sin ( /2)
3
3
2
2 4
= 0 + 0 + = = 1.3333
3
3 3
2
Observe that A3 = A1 .
3

A5 =

/2

/2

/2
/2

=2

/4

And 2

4
5

/2

/2

cos3 x dx

<2
So

/4

/2

/4

/2

cos n x dx < 2

/2

n /2

20.

dx =

/2

/4

(cos n x < 1) .
2

cos N x dx (n > N )

dx =

N

cos x <
.
2
2

/2

/4

cos n x dx < .

cos n x dx = 0, Q .E.D .

## cos x dx = cos x cos x dx

= (1 sin x ) cos x dx
= (1 2 sin x + sin x ) cos x dx
= cos x dx 2 sin x cos x dx
+ sin x cos x dx
5

y = cos100 x

/2

cos n x dx + 2

lim

/4

cos n x dx

/2

=2

0.5

n /2

cos n x dx.

/4

cos n x dx < 2

dx <
2

/2

/2

0.5

/2

cos n x dx + 2

/4

4
4 4 4 2
16
A3 = = 2 =
5
5 3 5 3
15
= 1.066666
4
Observe that A5 = A3 .
5
d. Based on the graphs, the area under cos x
should be greater than that under cos3 x,
which in turn is greater than the area under
cos5 x. This is exactly what happens with the
calculated answers: A1 > A3 > A5.
e.

f. Yes, lim

/4

But 2

=0+

cos n x dx

/2

cos 5 x dx

1
= cos 4 x sin x
5

/2

2
1
= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C
3
5

cos n x dx = 0.

A5 =

## Following the pattern in part c, for odd n,

(n 1)(n 3)(n 5)K( 4)(2)(1)
An =
2,
(n)(n 2)(n 4)K(5)(3)
the denominator gets large faster than the
numerator. However, because both go to
infinity, this observation is not decisive.
The following epsilon proof by Cavan Fang
establishes the fact rigorously, using the
definition of limit in the form For any
> 0, there is an N > 0 such that whenever
n > N, A n < .
Proof:
Pick 0 < < 2 .

## Then 0 < cos < 1, so there exists N > 0

4

N
such that cos
<
.
4 2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

/2

/2

sin 5 x dx

2
1
= 2 sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x

3
5

/2
0

4 2 16
+ =
= 1.0666 , which agrees with
3 5 15
the answer from Problem 19.
=2

21.

sec

u
sec x
sec x tan x

x dx

dv
sec 2 x
tan x

## = sec x tan x sec x (sec x 1) dx

= sec x tan x sec x dx + sec x dx
= sec x tan x sec x tan 2 x dx
2

## Problem Set 9-4

221

1
= (sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax 2 sin ax cos 2 ax )
3
1
= [sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax (1 cos 2 ax )]
3
1
= [sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax (sin 2 ax )]
3
= sin3 ax

2 sec 3 x dx
= sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x| + C 1

sec

x dx

1
1
sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x| + C
2
2
Note that the answer is half the derivative of
secant plus half the integral of secant.
=

22.

sin

ax dx

sin

ax dx

1
(cos ax )(sin 2 ax + 2) + C, Q .E.D .
3a
24. Use integration by parts, or use the technique of
Problem 20, as shown here.
=

u
sin n 1 ax
a(n 1) sin n 2ax cos ax

dv
sin ax
1
a cos ax

## cos ax dx = cos ax cos ax dx

= (1 sin ax ) cos ax dx
= cos ax dx sin ax cos ax dx
3

1
= sin n1 ax cos ax
a

+ (n 1) sin

n2

ax cos ax dx

1
= sin n1 ax cos ax
a

1
1
sin ax sin 3 ax + C
3a
a
1
=
(sin ax )(3 sin 2 ax ) + C
3a
1
=
(sin ax )(2 + cos 2 ax ) + C, Q .E .D .
3a
Or: Differentiate, as in the alternate solution for
Problem 23.
=

+ (n 1) sin n2 ax (1 sin 2 ax ) dx
=

1
sin n1 ax cos ax + (n 1) sin n2 ax dx
a

(n 1) sin n ax dx

n sin n ax dx
=

1
sin n1 ax cos ax + (n 1) sin n2 ax dx
a

sin

ax dx

1
n 1
sin n1 ax cos ax +
sin n2 ax dx
an
n
1
sin 5 3 x dx = sin 4 3 x cos 3 x
15
4
8

sin 2 3 x cos 3 x
cos 3 x + C
45
45
1
sin 2 ax cos ax
23. sin 3 ax dx =
3a
2
+
sin ax dx (From Problem 22)
3
1
2
= sin 2 ax cos ax cos ax + C
3a
3a
1
2
= cos ax (sin ax + 2) + C, Q .E.D .
3a
d 1
Or:
(cos ax )(sin 2 ax + 2)
dx 3a

1
2
= ( a sin ax )(sin ax + 2)
3a
1

3a
=

Q1. f (1) = 4
Q3. h(3) = 12
Q5. p(5) = 6e5
Q7.
5

## Problem Set 9-5

g(2) = 1/2
t(4) = /24
x = 83 = 512
integration by parts

Q2.
Q4.
Q6.
Q8.

x
3

Q9.

Q10. E
f'(x) and f (x )

222

f
f'

1
1

1.

x
1

## sin x dx = (1 cos x ) sin x dx

= (1 2 cos x + cos x ) sin x dx
5

= cos x +

2
1
cos3 x cos 5 x + C
3
5
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

2.

## cos x dx = (1 sin x ) cos x dx

= (1 3 sin x + 3 sin x sin x ) cos x dx
7

12.

cos 9 x dx = (1 sin 9 x )
= (1 3 sin 9 x + 3 sin 9 x
7

cos 9 x dx

## sin6 9x) cos 9x dx

1
1
= sin 9 x sin 3 9 x
9
9
1
1
5
+ sin 9 x sin 7 9 x + C
15
63
4.

15.

## sin 3 10 x dx = (1 cos 2 10 x ) sin 10 x dx

6.
7.

1
1
cos 10 x + cos3 10 x + C
10
30
1
4
sin 3 x cos 3 x dx = sin 5 3 x + C
15
1
cos8 7 x sin 7 x dx = cos 9 7 x + C
63

17.

sec

18.

## csc x dx = (cot x + 1) csc x dx

= (cot x + 2 cot x + 1) csc x dx
6

19.

1
1
= sin 5 2 x sin 7 2 x + C
10
14

## sin x cos x dx = sin x (1 cos x ) cos

= (cos x 2 cos x + cos x ) sin x dx
2

20.
2

x dx

## cos x sin x dx = cos x (1 sin

= (sin x sin x ) cos x dx
2

21.

1
2
1
= cos3 x + cos 5 x cos 7 x + C
3
5
7
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6 x dx

## sec 100 x dx = (tan 100 x + 1) sec 100 x dx

4

22.
2

x ) sin x dx

1
1
tan 3 100 x +
tan 100 x + C
300
100
1
tan10 x sec 2 x dx = tan11 x + C
11
1
cot 8 x csc 2 x dx = cot 9 x + C
9

sec

10

1
sec10 x + C
10

csc

## x cot x dx = csc 7 x (csc x cot x dx )

1
= csc8 x + C
8

1
1
= sin 3 x sin 5 x + C
3
5
1
2
11. cos x dx =
(1 + cos 2 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x + sin 2 x + C
2
4

## csc 6 x dx = (cot 6 x + 1) csc 6 x dx

= (cot 6 x + 3 cot 6 x + 3 cot 6 x + 1) csc

x dx = ( tan 2 x + 1) sec 2 x dx

1
1
1
cot 7 6 x cot 5 6 x cot 3 6 x
42
10
6
1
cot 6 x + C
6

sin 2 x cos 2 x dx
= sin 2 x (1 sin 2 x ) cos 2 x dx
= (sin 2 x sin 2 x ) cos 2 x dx

1
1
cos 7 8 x +
cos 9 8 x + C
56
72

10.

9.

1
2
= cot 5 x cot 3 x cot x + C
5
3

8.

16.

cos 8x sin 8x dx
= cos 8 x (1 cos 8 x ) sin 8 x dx
= (cos 8 x cos 8 x ) sin 8 x dx
6

1
(1 cos 2 x ) dx
2

1
= tan 3 x + tan x + C
3

=
5.

x dx =

1
1
= x sin 2 x + C
2
4
1
13. sin 2 5 x dx =
(1 cos 10 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x sin 10 x + C
2
20
1
14. cos 2 6 x dx =
(1 + cos 12 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x + sin 12 x + C
2
24

3
1
= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x sin 7 x + C
5
7
3.

sin

23.
24.
25.

## sec 20 dx = sec 20 dx = (sec 20) x + C

csc 12 dx = csc 12 dx = (csc 12) x + C
1
(cos x sin x ) dx = cos 2 x dx = 2 sin 2 x + C
10

10

10

## Problem Set 9-5

223

26.
27.
28.
29.

(cos x + sin x ) dx = dx = x + C
(sin x ) dx = csc x dx = cot x + C
1
(cos 3x ) dx = sec 3x dx = 3 tan 3x + C
sec x dx
2

1
1
= sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x | + C
2
2
30.

csc

x dx

(sec x + 6 sec x ) dx
= [(1 + tan x ) sec x + 6 sec x ] dx
= (tan x sec x + 7 sec x ) dx
4

dv
cos 5x
1
5 sin 5x
1
25 cos 5x

1
3
= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x
5
25
9
+
cos 5 x sin 3 x dx
25
16
cos 5 x sin 3 x dx
25
1
3
= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x + C1
5
25

tan 3 x + 7 tan x
3
0

## = tan 3 1 + 7 tan 1 ( = 38.2049K)

3
b. dV = 2 (x + 3) y dx = 2 (x + 3)(sec2 x) dx

V = 2

x sec
0

= 2 x tan x

x dx + 6

1
0

sec

x dx

tan x dx + 6 tan x

= 8 tan 1 + 2 ln |cos x |

5
3
= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x + C
16
16

## = 8 tan 1 + 2 ln (cos 1) (= 35.2738)

35. dA =

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx

2
5
3
=
sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 3 x cos 5 x = 0
16
16
0
Because the integral finds the area above
minus the area below, this calculation shows
the two areas are equal.

32. a.
y
1

b. A =

1
sin 3 x dx = cos3 x cos x
3

1
0

1 2
1
r d = (5 + 4 cos )2 d
2
2

1
2

/4

## (16 cos 2 + 40 cos + 25) d

= 4 + 2 sin 2 + 20 sin +

25

/4
0

25
= + 2 + 10 2 + = 29.1012 ,
8
which agrees with the numerical answer.
1
1
36. dA = r 2 d = a 2 (1 + cos )2 d
2
2

2
1
A = a2
(1 + 2 cos + cos 2 ) d
0
2

4
3

## c. Numerically: A 1.3333 (Checks.)

d. A = 0 because sin3 x is an odd function
[sin3 (x) = sin3 x] and the integral of an
Problem Set 9-5

A=

1
0

cos 5x sin 3x dx
0

224

34. a. y = sec2 x
dV = [(y + 3)2 32] dx
= (sec4 x + 6 sec2 x) dx

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx
u
sin 3x
3 cos 3x
9 sin 3x

b.

V =

1
1
= csc x cot x ln | csc x + cot x | + C
2
2
31. a.

## odd function between symmetrical limits is

equal to zero.
33. dV = y2 dx = sin2 x dx

V = sin 2 x dx =
(1 cos 2 x ) dx
0
2 0

= x sin 2 x = 2 /2
2
4
0

1 2
1
1
a + 2 sin + + sin 2

2
2
4

2
0

3 2
a , which is 1.5 times A circle.
2
37. Answers will vary.
=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 9-6

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q6.
Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.

1
1
sin 3 x + C
Q2. cos 4 x + C
3
4
1
1
ln | cos 5 x | + C Q4. ln | sin 6 x | + C
6
5
1
ln | sec 7 x + tan 7 x | + C
7
5 sec2 5x
y = 4 cos 4x
d
See the text for the statement of fundamental
theorem of calculus.
See the text for the definition of indefinite
integral, Section 5-3.

## substitution to use and the ensuing calculus, and

because algebraic techniques are of less importance now
that technology is used for evaluating integrals, the
student is not expected to carry along the absolute value
just to eliminate it later.
1.

49

x
= sin . x = 7 sin , dx = 7 cos d ,
7
x
49 x 2 = 7 cos , = sin 1
7
49 x 2 dx = 7 cos (7 cos d )

=
=
=

## x 2 a 2 = a |tan |, and Quadrant I or II

2.

10

ln x + x 2 + a 2 for x > 0

## The second form can be transformed into the first by

taking advantage of the property ln n = ln (1/n). Thus,
1
x a2 x 2

= ln x + a 2 x 2
which can be shown by rationalizing the denominator
of the fraction and incorporating the constant ln a2
(or 2 ln a) into the constant of integration. Because
the major focus of this section is on the correct

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x2

x
= sin . x = 10 sin , dx = 10 cos d ,
10
x
100 x 2 = 10 cos , = sin 1
10
2
100 x dx = 10 cos (10 cos d )
Let

ln x x 2 + a 2 for x < 0

= ln

100

ln x a x

49
(1 + cos 2 ) d
2

100 x 2 dx

x a = a tan

49
49
+ sin 2 + C
2
4
49
49
+ sin cos + C
2
2
49 1 x 49 1 1
sin
+
x
49 x 2 + C
2
7 2 7 7
49 1 x 1
sin
+ x 49 x 2 + C
2
7 2

= 49 cos 2 d =

u
x2

Let

## For the first two, the absolute value is unnecessary

because cos 0 and sec 0 in the respective
quadrants. For the secant substitution, if x is negative,
then is in Quadrant II, where tan < 0. Thus, the
radical equals the opposite of a tan , and one should
write

49 x 2 dx
v

## Note: A radical without a sign in front of it means the

positive root. Because trigonometric functions can be
positive or negative, the radical should technically be
replaced by the absolute value of the appropriate
trigonometric function. Fortunately, this turns out to be
unnecessary. If x has been replaced by a sin , a tan ,
or a sec , it is assumed that is the corresponding
inverse trigonometric function. So is restricted to the
range of that inverse trigonometric function. Thus,
respectively,
2

100
= 100 cos d =
(1 + cos 2 ) d
2
= 50 + 25 sin 2 + C
= 50 + 50 sin cos + C
x
1
1
= 50 sin 1 + 50 x
100 x 2 + C
10
10 10
x 1
= 50 sin 1 + x 100 x 2 + C
10 2
2

## Problem Set 9-6

225

3.

x 2 + 16 dx

5.

9 x 2 1 dx

x 2 + 16
3x

9x 2 1

u
4

x
= tan . x = 4 tan , dx = 4 sec 2 d ,
4
x
x 2 + 16 = 4 sec , = tan 1
4

x 2 + 16 dx = 4 sec ( 4 sec 2 d )

3x
1
= sec . x = sec ,
1
3
1
dx = sec tan d ,
3

Let

Let

9 x 2 1 = tan , = sec 1 3 x

3

## Problem Set 9-4.)

16
16
= sec tan + ln | sec + tan | + C1
2
2
1
= x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln
2

x 2 + 16 x
+ + C1
4
4

1
x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln
2
1
= x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln
2

x 2 + 16 + x 8 ln 4 + C1

4.

x 2 + 16 + x + C

81 + x 2

6.

1
9 x 2 1 dx = tan sec tan d
3

16 x 2 1 dx

1
sec tan 2 d
3
1
=
(sec 3 sec ) d
3
1
1
= sec tan + ln | sec + tan |
6
6
1
ln | sec + tan | + C
3
1
1
= sec tan ln | sec + tan | + C
6
6
1
1
2
= x 9 x 1 ln 3 x + 9 x 2 1 + C
2
6

81 + x 2 dx

x
= tan . x = 9 tan , dx = 9 sec 2 d ,
9
x
81 + x 2 = 9 sec , = tan 1
9

81 + x 2 dx = 9 sec (9 sec 2 d )

4x

Let

## = 81 sec 3 d (Compare Problem 21 in

Problem Set 9-4.)
=

81
81
sec tan + ln | sec + tan | + C1
2
2

1
81
= x 81 + x 2 + ln
2
2

81 + x 2 x
+ + C1
9
9

1
81
81
x 81 + x 2 + ln 81 + x 2 + x ln 9 + C1
2
2
2
1
81
= x 81 + x 2 + ln 81 + x 2 + x + C
2
2
=

226

u
1

## Problem Set 9-6

16x 2 1

u
1

4x
1
= sec . x = sec ,
1
4
1
dx = sec tan d ,
4
16 x 2 1 = tan , = sec 1 4 x
1

## 16 x 2 1 dx = tan sec tan d

4

1
2
=
sec tan d
4
1
=
(sec 3 sec ) d
4
1
1
= sec tan + ln | sec + tan |
8
8
1
ln | sec + tan | + C
4
Let

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7.

1
1
= sec tan ln |sec + tan | + C
8
8
1
1
2
= x 16 x 1 ln 4 x + 16 x 2 1 + C
2
8
dx

x2 +1

x 121

x
u

17 x 2 = 17 cos , = sin 1

x
= sec . x = 11 sec ,
11
dx = 11 sec tan d ,
Let

x
17

## = sec d = ln | sec + tan | + C

= ln

= ln x + x 2 121 + C

11.

13 x 2

13 x = 13 cos , = sin
2

13 cos d
13 cos
13 x
x
= d = + C = sin 1
+C
13
dx

dx

x2 +1

x 2 9 dx

## Let x/ 13 = sin . x = 13 sin ,

dx = 13 cos d ,

x 2 121
+ C1
11

x
+
11

= ln x + x 2 121 ln 11 + C1
13

9.

x
11
dx
11 sec tan d
=
11 tan
x 2 121

## x 2 121 = 11 tan , = sec 1

17 cos d
17 cos
17 x
x
= d = + C = sin 1
+C
17
dx
dx

13 x

u
11

Let x/ 17 = sin .
x = 17 sin , dx = 17 cos d ,

x 2 121

17 x 2

x2 +1 + x + C

dx

17

8.

sec 2 d
= sec d
sec

= ln | sec + tan | + C = ln
10.

17 x 2

dx

x
13

x 2 9

u
3

x
= sec . x = 3 sec ,
3
dx = 3 sec tan d,
Let

x 2 9 = 3 tan , = sec 1

x
3

## = (9 sec ) (3 tan ) (3 sec tan d )

= 81 sec tan d
= 81 sec d sec d
1
3
= 81 sec tan + sec d sec d
4

4
81
81
= sec tan sec d
4
4

x 2 x 2 9 dx

x2 + 1

u
1

x
= tan . dx = sec 2 d ,
1
x 2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1 x

Let

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 9-6

227

81 3
81
sec tan sec tan
4
8
81
ln | sec + tan | + C1
8
81 x 3
x 2 9 81 x
x2 9
=

4 27
3
8 3
3
2
81
x
x 9
ln +
+ C1
8
3
3
=

1 3 2
9
x x 9 x
4
8
81
2
ln x + x 9
8
1 3 2
9
= x x 9 x
4
8
81
2
ln x + x 9
8
=

12.

13.

## Let x = sin . dx = cos d,

1 x 2 = cos , = sin 1 x

81
ln 3 + C1
8

= cos d

x2 9

+C

=
x

u
x2

x
Let = sin . x = 3 sin , dx = 3 cos d ,
3
x
9 x 2 = 3 cos , = sin 1
3
x 2 9 x 2 dx

## = (9 sin ) (3 cos ) (3 cos d )

= 81 sin cos d
= 81 (cos cos ) d
81
= 81 cos d
cos sin
4
3 81

cos d
4
81
81
= (1 + cos 2 ) d cos sin
8
4

14.

1
3
cos3 sin +
cos 2 d
4
4
1
3
cos3 sin +
(1 + cos 2 ) d
4
8
1
3
3
cos3 sin + + sin 2 + C
4
8
16
1
3
3
cos3 sin + + sin cos + C
4
8
8
1
3
3
x (1 x 2 )3/2 + sin 1 x + x 1 x 2 + C
4
8
8

(x

81) 3/2 dx

u
9

x
= sec . x = 9 sec , dx = 9 sec tan d ,
9
1
x 2 81 = 9 tan , = sec 1 x
9

Let

81
81
81
+ sin 2 cos3 sin + C
8
16
4
81
81
81
= + sin cos cos3 sin + C
8
8
4
81
81
= + sin cos (1 2 cos 2 ) + C
8
8
81 1 x
= sin
8
3
81 x
9 x 2 2( 9 x 2 )

1
+C
8 3
3
9

81 1 x 1
= sin
x ( 2 x 2 9) 9 x 2 + C
8
3 8
=

228

x 2 81

1 x2

9 x dx

) dx

2 3/2

x2 9
+

(1 x

## = (9 tan ) (9 sec tan d )

1 sec d
=
81 tan

( x 2 81) 3/ 2 dx
3

1
cot csc d
81
1
= csc + C
81
x
=
+C
81 x 2 81
=

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15.

81 + x
dx

b.

81 +

x
u
9

18. a.
x
Let = tan . x = 9 tan , dx = 9 sec 2 d ,
9
x
81 + x 2 = 9 sec , = tan 1
9

16.

81 + x =

x
1
tan 1 + C
9
9
dx
25 x 2 + 1

dx

x
= sec . x = 7 sec ,
7
dx = 7 sec tan d,
x
7
7 sec (7 sec tan d )
7 tan

x 2 49 = 7 tan , = sec 1
x dx
x 2 49

b.
5x
1
1
= tan . x = tan , dx = sec 2 d ,
1
5
5
19.

25 x 2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1 5 x
sec d
2

5 sec

+1
1
1
= tan 5 x + C
5
x dx
17. a.
x 2 + 25

= 7 sec 2 d = 7 tan + C = x 2 49 + C

u
7

Let

x 2 49

dx

x 2 49

9 sec 2 d 1
1
=
d = + C
81 sec 2
9
9

5x

25x

1
( x 2 + 25) 1/2 (2 x dx )
2

25x 2 + 1

Let

x + 25
2

## = x 2 + 25 + C, which agrees with part a.

Moral: Always check for an easy way to
integrate before trying a more sophisticated
technique!
x dx

x2

x dx

x 49

1
( x 2 49) 1/2 (2 x dx )
2

## = x 2 49 + C,which agrees with part a.

dx

1
1
d = + C
5
5

x dx

9 ( x 5)2
v

x5

9 (x

u
5)2

x5
= sin . x = 5 + 3 sin , dx = 3 cos d ,
3
x5
9 ( x 5)2 = 3 cos , = sin 1
3
dx
3 cos d

=
3 cos
9 ( x 5)2
x5
= d = + C = sin 1
+C
3
dx
Let

x 2 + 25
x

u
5

x
= tan . x = 5 tan , dx = 5 sec 2 d ,
5
1
x 2 + 25 = 5 sec , = tan 1 x
5
x dx
5 tan (5 sec 2 d )

=
5 sec
x 2 + 25

Let

= x + 25 + C
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

20.

36 ( x + 2)2
v

x+2

36 (x +

u
2)2

## Problem Set 9-6

229

x+2
= sin . x = 6 sin 2, dx = 6 cos d ,
6
x+2
36 ( x + 2)2 = 6 cos , = sin 1
6
dx
6 cos d

=
6 cos
36 ( x + 2)2
Let

dx
x + 8 x 20
2

10

( x + 4)2 36

x
= sin . x = 10 sin , dx = 10 cos d ,
10
x
100 x 2 = 10 cos , = sin 1
10

Let

u
6

x+4
= sec . x = 6 sec 4,
6
dx = 6 sec tan d,

Let

sin 1 0.8

100 x 2 dx

sin 1 (0.3)

= 50

x 2 + 8 x 20
+ C1
6

10 cos 10 cos d

sin 1 0.8

sin 1 (0.3)

sin 1 0.8

sin 1 (0.3)

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 d )

= 50 + 25 sin 2

sin 1 0.8
sin 1 (0.3)

## = 50 sin 1 0.8 + 25 sin (2 sin 1 0.8)

50 sin 1 (0.3) 25 sin [2 sin 1 (0.3)]
= 99.9084
Numerical integration: 99.9084 (Checks.)

= ln | sec + tan | + C 1
x+4
+
6

= 100

x 2 + 8 x 20 = ( x + 4)2 36 = 6 tan ,
x+4
= sec 1
6
dx
6 sec tan d

=
2
6 tan
x + 8 x 20

= sec d

100 x 2

(x + 4) 2 36

x+4

= ln

100 x 2 dx

x+2
+C
6
dx

= d = + C = sin 1
21.

23.

24.

x 2 + 25 dx

= ln x + 4 + x 2 + 8 x 20 ln 6 + C1

= ln x + 4 + x + 8 x 20 + C
2

x 2 + 25
x

22.

dx
x 2 14 x + 50

dx

( x 7)2 + 1

u
5

(x 7) 2 + 1

x
= tan . x = 5 tan , dx = 5 sec 2 d ,
5

Let
x7

## x 2 + 25 = 5 sec , = tan 1 0.2 x

x7
Let
= tan . x = 7 + tan , dx = sec 2 d ,
1
x 2 14 x + 50 = ( x 7) 2 + 1 = sec ,
= tan 1 (x 7)
dx
sec 2 d

=
= sec d
sec
x 2 14 x + 50
= ln | sec + tan | + C

= ln

230

tan 1 0.8

tan 1 (0.2 )

= 25
=

x 2 + 25 dx

5 sec 5 sec 2 d

tan 1 0.8

tan 1 (0.2 )

sec 3 d

25
25
sec tan + ln |sec + tan |
2
2

tan 1 0.8
tan 1 ( 0.2 )

x 14 x + 50 + x 7 + C
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25
sec ( tan 1 0.8) 0.8
2
25
+ ln |sec ( tan 1 0.8) + 0.8 |
2
25
sec [tan 1 ( 0.2)] ( 0.2)
2
25
ln | sec [tan 1 ( 0.2)] 0.2 |
2
= 26.9977
Numerical integration: 26.9977 (Checks.)
25. y = 3x 2
dL = 1 + ( y )2 dx = 1 + 36 x 2 dx
L=

1 + 36 x 2 dx

1 + 36x2
6x

u
1

6x
1
1
= tan . x = tan , dx = sec 2 d ,
1
6
6
2
1
1 + 36 x = sec , = tan 6 x
x =5
1
L =
sec sec 2 d
x =0
6
1 x =5 3
=
sec d
6 x =0
x =5
1
1
= sec tan + ln |sec + tan |
12
12
x =0
5
1
1
= x 1 + 36 x 2 + ln 1 + 36 x 2 + 6 x
2
12
0
5
1
=
901 + ln 901 + 30 = 75.3828K
2
12
Numerical integration: L = 75.3828 (Checks.)
3
26. a. 9 x 2 + 25 y 2 = 225 y =
25 x 2
5
Slice the region vertically. Pick a sample
point (x, y) on the positive branch of the
graph, within the strip.
6
dA = 2 y dx =
25 x 2 dx
5
6 4
A=
25 x 2 dx
5 3
Let

A=

= 15 +

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 ) d

15
sin 2
2

x =4
x =3

A = 30

/2

/2

cos 2 d

/2
15
sin 2
2
/2
15 15
15 15
=
+ sin +
sin ( )
2
2
2
2
= 15 = 47.1238

= 15 +

27. x 2 + y 2 = r 2 y = r 2 x 2 , x = 0 at y = r
Slice the region inside the circle perpendicular to
the x-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on the
positive branch of the circle, within the strip.
dA = 2 y dx = 2 r 2 x 2 dx
A=2

r 2 x 2 dx

r 2 x 2

x
= sin . x = r sin , dx = r cos d,
r
x
r 2 x 2 = r cos , = sin 1
r
x = r = /2, x = r = /2

Let

x
u

25 x2

x
= sin . x = 5 sin , dx = 5 cos d ,
5
x
25 x 2 = 5 cos , = sin 1
5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

5 cos 5 cos d

= 15 + 15 sin cos xx == 43
x =4
x 3
= 15 sin 1 + x 25 x 2
x =3
5 5
3
1
= 15 sin 0.8 + ( 4) 9
5
3
1
15 sin ( 0.6) (3) 16
5
= 15[sin 1 0.8 sin 1 ( 0.6)] + 14.4
15
=
+ 14.4 = 37.9619
2
Numerical integration: A = 37.9619
(Checks.)
6 5
b. A =
25 x 2 dx
5 5
x = 5 = /2, x = 5 = /2

Let

x = 3
x =4

x = 3

6
5

x = 3
x =4

x =4

= 30
= 15

A = 2

= 2r

/2

r cos r cos d

/2
/2
2

/2

cos 2 d

## Problem Set 9-6

231

= r2

/2

/2

(1 + cos 2 ) d

/2
1 2
r sin 2
2
/2

= r 2 + r 2 sin + r 2
2 2
2
1 2
2
r sin ( ) = r
2
A = r 2, Q .E .D .

= r 2 +

30. x 2 y 2 = 9 y = x 2 9
Slice the region perpendicular to the x-axis. Pick
a sample point (x, y) on the positive branch of
the hyperbola, within the strip.
dA = 2 y dx = 2 x 2 9 dx
A=2

x
y
b 2
28. + = 1 y =
a x2
a
b
a
Slice the region inside the ellipse perpendicular
to the x-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on the
positive branch of the ellipse, within the strip.
2b 2
dA = 2 y dx =
a x 2 dx
a
2b a
A=
a 2 x 2 dx
a a

a 2 x 2

= ab

/2

/2

/2

/2

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 ) d
/2

ab
sin 2
2
/2
ab ab
ab ab
=
+
sin ( ) = ab
sin +
2
2
2
2
A = ab
= ab +

## Note that if a = b = r, then ab = r2, the area of

a circle.
29. dV = x 2 dy =
V =

a2
b2

x 2 9 dx

x 2 9

u
3

x
= sec . x = 3 sec , dx = 3 sec tan d,
3
x
x 2 9 = 3 tan , = sec 1
3

Let

x =5

= 18
= 18

## 3 tan 3 sec tan d

x =3
x =5
x =3

x
Let = sin . x = a sin , dx = a cos d,
a
x
2
a x 2 = a cos , = sin 1
a
x = a = /2, x = a = /2
2 b /2
A =
a cos a cos d
a /2
= 2 ab

A=2

a2 2
(b y 2 ) dy, b y b
b2

(b 2 y 2 ) dy

a2
y3
= 2 b2 y
3
b
4 2
V = a b
3
232

## Rotating instead about the x-axis is equivalent to

interchanging the a and b, giving V = 43 ab 2 .

=
b

4 2
a b
3

x =5

x =3

tan 2 sec d
(sec 3 sec ) d

## = 9 sec tan + 9 ln | sec + tan |

x =5
18 ln | sec + tan | x =3
= 9 sec tan 9 ln | sec + tan |
=x

x 2 9 9 ln

1
1 2
x+
x 9
3
3

x =5
x =3
5
3

= 20 9 ln 3 = 10.1124
Numerical integration: A = 10.1124 (Checks.)
31. dV = 2x (2 y) dx = 4x x 2 9 dx

= 2

V = 4

x 2 9 x dx

x 2 9 (2 x dx )

5
2
= 2 ( x 2 9)3/2
3
3
4
256
= 64 =
= 268.0825
3
3
32. From Problems 30 and 31, A = 20 9 ln 3,
256
V=
.
3
128
V = 2 x A x =
= 4.2192 K
3(20 9 ln 3)
x is a little more than halfway through the
region.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## 33. x = a cos t dx = a sin t dt

y = b sin t
dA = 2y dx = 2(b sin t)(a sin t dt)
= 2ab sin2 t dt
x = a t = , x = a t = 0
A = 2 ab

sin 2 t dt = ab

Q7.
Q8.
Q9.
Q10.

(1 cos 2t ) dt

1.

ab
= abt +
sin 2t = 0 + 0 + ab( ) 0 = ab
2

## A = ab, as in Problem 28.

With this method, you get sin 2 t dt, directly.

2.

## With trigonometric substitution in Problem 28,

you get cos 2 t dt, indirectly.

## 34. r = 0.5 dr/d = 0.5

dL = r 2 + ( dr/d )2 d = 0.25 2 + 0.25 d

3.

4.

= 0.5 2 + 1 d
L = 0.5

2 + 1 d

5.

2 + 1

6.

u
1

## Let = tan d = sec2 d.

2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1

= 0.5

L = 0.5

=6

=0
=6

=0

7.

sec 3 d
8.

=6
=0

= 0.25 2 + 1 + 0.25 ln

2 +1 +

= 1.5 36 + 1 + 0.25 ln

36 + 1 + 6
2

## = 89.8589 , same as numerical

integration.
35. See the note preceding the solutions for this
section. For the sine and tangent substitution,
the range of the inverse sine and inverse tangent
make the corresponding radical positive. For the
secant substitution, the situation is more
complicated but still gives an answer of the same
algebraic form as if x had been only positive.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9.

9 x 2 25 x 50
dx
( x + 1)( x 7)( x + 2)
2
3
4
=
+
+
dx
x +1 x 7 x + 2
= 2 ln |x + 1| + 3 ln |x 7| + 4 ln |x + 2| + C

Q2. x 2 + 2x 15
Q4. x 2 + 14x + 49
Q6. x 2 64

7 x 2 + 22 x 54
dx
( x 2)( x + 4)( x 1)
3
1
5
=
+
+
dx
x 2 x + 4 x 1
= 3 ln |x 2| ln |x + 4| + 5 ln |x 1| + C

4 x 2 + 15 x 1
dx
x 3 + 2 x 2 5x 6
1
2
3
=
+
+
dx
x + 3 x +1 x 2
= ln |x + 3| + 2 ln |x + 1| + 3 ln |x 2| + C

10.

3 x 2 + 22 x 31

x 8x + 19 x 12 dx
2
4
3
=
+
+
dx
x 1 x 3 x 4
3

= 2 ln |x 1| 4 ln |x 3| + 3 ln |x 4| + C
11.

Q1. (x + 5)(x 5)
Q3. (x + 2)(x 6)
Q5. (x + 4)2

6
0

sec sec 2 d

## = 0.25 sec tan + 0.25 ln | sec

+ tan |

ex
b2 4ac = 1500, so x2 + 50x + 1000 is prime.
b2 4ac = 144, so x2 + 36 is prime.
B
11x 15
4
7
+
dx =
dx
x 1 x 2
x 2 3x + 2
= 4 ln |x 1| + 7 ln |x 2| + C
7 x + 25
2
9
dx =
+
dx
x + 1 x 8
x 2 7x 8
= 2 ln |x + 1| + 9 ln |x 8| + C
(5 x 11) dx
7/2
3/2
=
+
dx
x + 2 x 4
x2 2x 8
7
3
= ln | x + 2 | + ln | x 4 | + C
2
2
(3 x 12) dx
9/5
6/5
=
+
dx
2

x 5 x 50
x+5
x 10
9
6
= ln | x + 5 | + ln | x 10 | + C
5
5
21 dx
7
7
=
+
dx
x + 5 x + 2
x 2 + 7 x + 10
= 7 ln |x + 5| + 7 ln |x + 2| + C
10 x dx
2
8
=
+
dx
x + 3 x 12
x 2 9 x 36
= 2 ln |x + 3| + 8 ln |x 12| + C

3 x 3 + 2 x 2 12 x + 9
dx
x 1
2
= 3x 2 + 5x 7 +
dx

x 1
5
= x 3 + x 2 7 x + 2 ln | x 1 | + C
2

## Problem Set 9-7

233

12.

13.

x 3 7 x 2 + 5 x + 40
dx
x2 2x 8
3x
dx
= x 5+ 2

x 2x 8
1
2
= x 5+
+
dx

x + 2 x 4
1
= x 2 5 x + ln | x + 2 | + 2 ln | x 4 | + C
2

y + 1000 y dy = 2 dt

4 x + 6 x + 11
dx
2
+ 1)( x + 4)
x+2
3
= 2
+
dx
x +1 x + 4
1 2 x dx
dx
3 dx
=
+2 2
+
2 x2 +1
x +1
x+4
1
= ln | x 2 + 1| + 2 tan 1 x + 3 ln | x + 4 | + C
2
2

(x

4 x 2 15 x 1
dx
x 3 5x 2 + 3x + 1
3
x2
=
+
dx
x 1 x 2 4 x 1
1
= 3 ln | x 1| + ln | x 2 4 x 1| + C
2
Note that
x2
1/2
1/2
=
+
,
x2 4x 1 x 2 + 5 x 2 5
1
1
but ln x 2 + 5 + ln x 2 5
2
2
1
2
= ln | x 4 x 1|, so the answer comes out
2
the same.

15.

4 x 2 + 18 x + 6

( x + 5)( x + 1)

dx

1
3
2
=
+
+
2 dx
x + 5 x + 1 ( x + 1)
= ln |x + 5| + 3 ln |x + 1| + 2(x + 1) 1 + C

16.

3 x 2 53 x + 245
dx
x 3 14 x 2 + 49 x
5
2
3
= +
+
2 dx
x x 7 ( x 7)
= 5 ln |x| 2 ln |x 7| 3(x 7) 1 + C

dx
dx
=
6 x + 12 x 8
( x 2)3
1
= ( x 2) 2 + C
2
1
dx
18.
dx =
( x + 1) 4
x 4 + 4x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 1
1
= ( x + 1) 3 + C
3
17.

234

dy
1000 y
1000 dy
= 2y

= 2 dt
dt
1000
y(1000 y)
1000 dy
= 2 dt
y(1000 y)

14.

19. a.

## Problem Set 9-7

ln |y| ln |1000 y| = 2t + C
ln

y
= 2t + C
1000 y

y
= e 2 t + C (Note that 0 y < 1000.)
1000 y
1000 y
1000
= e 2 t C
1 = e 2 t C
y
y
1000
= 1 + e 2 t C = 1 + ke 2 t ( k = e C )
y
1000
y=
1 + ke 2 t
Initial condition y = 10 when t = 0 k = 99.
1000
y=
1 + 99e 2 t
1000
b. y(1) =
= 69.4531 69 students
1 + 99e 2
have heard the rumor after one hour.
1000
y( 4 ) =
= 967.8567 968
1 + 99e 8
students have heard by lunchtime.
1000
y(8) =
= 999.9888 1000
1 + 99e 16
studentseveryone knows by the end of
the day!
c. It is quicker to analyze the original differential
equation, which already refers to the derivative,
than to analyze the equation found in part a.
1000 y
Maximize y = 2 y
1000
1
2
=
(1000 y y ).
500
1
y =
(1000 y 2 yy) = 0 when y = 500.
500
This is the maximum point because y > 0
for y < 500 and y < 0 for y > 500 (and
y > 0 for all t).
So the rate of spreading (y) is greatest when
500 students have heard the news. This occurs
when
1000
500 =
1 + 99e 2 t
99e 2 t + 1 = 2
1
e 2 t =
99
1
t = ln 99 = 2.2975 hr
2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

y
1000

## 20. a. Assume that an infected person and an

uninfected person have about the same chance
of meeting any other infected person (i.e.,
infected people are not quarantined). An
infected person can meet N P uninfected
people out of the total population, so the
chance of meeting an uninfected person will be
(N 1)/N, so of an average infected persons
three contacts per day, 3(N 1)/N of them
will be with uninfected persons. (Actually
(N P)/(N 1) because the total population
that someone can meet is N 1people dont
meet themselves outside the Twilight Zone
but (N P)/N is reasonably close enough for
now.) So there are P infected people, each
meeting an average of 3(N P)/N uninfected
people per day, for a grand total of 3P(N P)/N
contacts between infected and uninfected
people per day.
b. If 10% of the contacts with infected people
per day result in infection, then the number
of new infections per day should be 0.1 times
the number of contacts between infected and
uninfected people, that is,
dP
3 P( N P )
NP
= 0.1
= 0.3P
.
dt
N
N
dP
NP
N dP
c.
= 0.3P

= 0.3 dt
dt
N
P( N P )
N dP
= 0.3 dt
P( N P )
1 + 1 dP = 0.3 dt
P N P
ln |P| ln |N P| = 0.3t + C
P
ln
= 0.3t + C
NP
P
(Note that 0 P < N.)
= e 0.3t +C
NP
N
= 1 + e 0.3t C = 1 + ke 0.3t ( k = e C )
P
N
P( t ) =
1 + ke 0.3t
Initial condition P(0) = P0
N
N
P0 =
k=
1.
P0
1+ k
N
P( t ) =
1 + ( N / P0 1)e 0.3t

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d. N = 1000 and P0 = 10
1000
P( t ) =
1 + 99e 0.3t
1000
P(7) =
= 76.2010 76 people
1 + 99e 2.1
infected after 1 week
e. Solve P(t) = 990.
1000
990 =
1 + 99e 0.3t
100
1 + 99e 0.3t =
99
e0.3 t = 992
2
t=
ln 99 = 30.6341K 31 days
0.3
b
b
25
5
5
21. A =
dx =
+
dx
2
2 x + 3x 4
2 x 1
x + 4

= 5 ln | x 1| 5 ln | x + 4|

b
2

= 5 ln

x 1
x+4

b
2

b 1
1
b 1
= 5 ln
5 ln = 5 ln
+ 5 ln 6
b+4
6
b+4
6
A(7) = 5 ln + 5 ln 6 = 5.9281
11
1
lim A(b) = lim 5 ln + 5 ln 6
b
b
1
(lHospitals rule)
= 5 ln 6 = 8.9587
So the area does approach a finite limit.
50 x
22. dV = 2 x y dx = 2
dx
x + 3x 4
b
b 10
50 x
40
V=
dx =
+
dx
2
2 x + 3x 4
2 x 1
x + 4

= 10 ln | x 1| + 40 ln | x + 4| 2b
= 10 ln |b 1| + 40 ln |b + 4| 40 ln 6
V(7) = 40 ln 11 30 ln 6 = 132.4590
lim V (b) = because both ln terms become

## infinite and are added.

(Note that if the region were rotated about the
x-axis, the limit of the volume would be
35
finite. The answer would be 5 2 ln 6
6

= 35.3400 .
x3
1/2
1/2
23. a.
+
dx =
dx
2

x 6x + 8
x 2 x 4
1
1
= ln | x 2| + ln | x 4| + C
2
2
b. x 2 6x + 8 = (x 3)2 1

x3

(x 3) 2 1

u
1

235

## Let x 3 = sec . dx = sec tan d,

( x 3) 1 = tan , = sec ( x 3)
2

x3
x3
dx
dx =
6x + 8
( x 3)2 1

sec
(sec tan d ) =
tan 2

sec 2
d
tan

= ln | tan | + C
= ln ( x 3)2 1 + C
= ln x 2 6 x + 8 + C
c.

x3
1
dx =
6x + 8
2

2x 6
dx
6x + 8

1
ln | x 2 6 x + 8| + C
2
d. From part a,
1
1
ln | x 2| + ln | x 4| + C
2
2
1
= ln |( x 2)( x 4)| + C
2
1
= ln | x 2 6 x + 8| + C
2
which is the answer in part c. This equals
=

ln | x 2 6 x + 8|1/2 + C = ln x 2 6 x + 8 + C,
which is the answer from part b. So all three
answers are equivalent, Q.E.D.
24. a. When the population is very much smaller
than the maximum, (m p) behaves like a
constant, and dp/dt = k(m p) p is
approximately proportional to p. But when p
is approaching m, then (m p) goes to zero,
so dp/dt = kp(m p) goes to zero.
b. dp/dt = kp(m p) = k(mp p2). So dp/dt is a
quadratic function of p. Thus, the turning
point is at
m
p=
= m/2.
2(1)
If k > 0, the graph of dp/dt versus p opens
downward and the turning point is a
maximum.
So the population grows fastest when
p = m/2.
dp
dp
c.
= kp( m p)
= k dt
dt
p( m p)

p(m p) = k dt
dp

1/m 1/m
+
dp = k dt
p
m p

1
1
ln | p| ln |m p| = kt + C1
m
m
236

## Problem Set 9-7

p
= kmt + C2
(C 2 = mC 1)
m p
p
(C3 = e C2 )
= e kmt +C2 = C3e kmt
m p

p
> 0.
Note that m > p > 0
m p

m p
m
kmt
kmt
(b = 1/C3 )
= be
1 = be
p
p
m
m
= 1 + be kmt p =
1 + be kmt
p
At time t = 0, p = p 0.
m
p0 =
m = p0 (1 + b)
1+ b
p (1 + b)
p = 0 kmt
1 + be
1+ b
Letting K = km, p = p0
, Q .E .D .
1 + be Kt
e. Let p denote millions of people. Then
p0 = 179.3.
Substitute p(10) = 203.2.
1+ b
203.2 = 179.3
1 + be 10 K
203.2 + 203.2be10K = 179.3 + 179.3b
b(203.2e10K 179.3) = 23.9
23.9
b=
203.2e 10 K 179.3
By substituting p(20) = 226.5 and
transforming,
47.2
b=
.
226.5e 20 K 179.3
Equating the two values of b and solving
numerically for K gives K = 0.0259109 .
23.9
b=
= 1.0630436
203.2e 0.259109... 179.3
2.063036...
p = 179.3
1 + 1.063036...e 0.0259109...
Check that this equation gives a good
approximation for 1990.
2.0630...
p(30) = 179.3
1 + 1.0630... e 300.0259...
= 248.4892 248.5 million people,
which is close to the actual population,
248.7 million.
2.0630...
f. p( 40) = 179.3
1 + 1.0630... e 400.0259...
= 268.6144 268.6 million people, which
is lower than the actual population by about
13 million people.
1+ b
g. k > 0 lim p = lim p0
= p0 (1 + b)
t
t
1 + be kt
= 179.3 (1 + 1.0630)
= 369.9024 369.9 million people
d. ln

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## h. If p(10) had been 204.2, then K would have

been given by
24.9
47.2
=
204.2e 10 K 179.3 226.5e 20 K 179.3
K = 0.0343965
24.9
b=
0.0343965...
179.3
204.2e
= 0.721075
So the ultimate population would have been
lim p = p0 (1 + b) = 179.3(1 + 0.7210 )

3.

4.

= x tan 1

cot

x dx
1 x2

u
sin 1x
dx
1
x2

x dx

dv
1

x dx
1 x2

1
(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )
2
1
= x sin 1 x + 2(1 x 2 )1/2 + C
2
1
= x sin x + 1 x 2 + C
= x sin 1 x +

5.

dv
1
x

sec

u
sec 1 x
dx
|x| x 2 1

x dx

= x sec 1 x

| x|

dv
1
x

x dx

x2 1
dx
= x sec 1 x sgn x
( x/| x | = sgn x )
x2 1

x +1
1 2 x dx
x
2 x +1
x dx
2

= x tan 1 x
2.

u
tan 1 x
dx
1 + x2

x dx

= x tan 1 x

sin

= x sin 1 x

## integration by parts Q2. partial fractions

x = tan or = tan1 x
x = sec or = sec1 x
x = sin or = sin1 x
1 2
Q6.
( x + 1)8 + C
16
Q7. 7 (at f (1)).
Q8. 3 (at f (5)).
Q9. undefined
Q10. B
1

dv
1

1
(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )
2
1
= x cos 1 x 2(1 x 2 )1/2 + C
2
= x cos 1 x 1 x 2 + C (Checks.)

Q1.
Q3.
Q4.
Q5.

tan

u
cos 1 x
dx
1 x 2

x dx

= x cos 1 x

1.

= x cos 1 x +

## = 308.5888 308.6 million people.

An increase of 1 million in one of the initial
conditions causes a decrease of over
61 million in the predicted maximum
population! So this model does have a fairly
sensitive dependence on the initial conditions.

cos

1
ln | x 2 + 1| + C (Checks.)
2

x 2 1

u
1

u
cot 1 x
dx
1 + x2

x dx

x +1
1 2 x dx
x+
2 x +1

= x cot 1 x +
= x cot 1

= x cot 1 x +

x dx
2

1
ln | x 2 + 1| + C (Checks.)
2

dv
1
x

x
= sec .
1
dx = sec tan d
x 2 1 = tan
= sec1 x
sec 1 x dx
Let

= x sec 1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sec tan d

tan
x sgn x sec d

= x sec 1 x sgn x

237

## Simpsons rule for y = sec 1 x: n = 10

x = 0.2
0.2
A
( y1 + 4 y1.2 + 2 y1.4 + 4 y1.6 + L + 4 y2.8 + y3 )
3
= 1.919692K

= x sec1 x sgn x ln x + x 2 1 + C
(Checks.)
Note: This answer can be transformed to
x sec 1 x ln (| x | + x 2 1 ) + C.
6.

csc

x dx

u
x

csc 1
dx
|x| x 2 1

= x csc 1 x +

| x|

x dx

x2 1
dx
= x csc 1 x + sgn x
x2 1

x2 1

csc cot d
cot

## = x csc x + sgn x ln | csc + cot | + C

= 3 sec 1 3 1 ln (3 + 8 ) sec 11 + 1 ln 1

/2
0

1
ln | x 2 + 1|
1
2
1
1
= 4 tan 1 4 ln 17 tan 11 + ln 2
2
2
1 17
1
= 4 tan 4 ln
= 3.4478K
4 2
2
tan 1 x dx = x tan 1 x

Numerically,

/2

x
1

238

4
1

tan 1 x dx = 3.4478K .

8.

## Problem Set 9-8

/2

sin y dy

= cos

V = 2

x tan

x tan

x dx

x dx

u
tan 1 x
dx
1 + x2

(Checks.)
Note: This answer can be transformed to
x sec 1 x + ln (| x | + x 2 1 ) + C.
7.

= 1.930131 .
The Simpsons rule answer differs from this
by 0.0104 , or about 0.5%.
9. By vertical slices,
1
A = sin 1 x dx

0 2
1

= x x sin 1 x 1 x 2
2
0

1
= sin 1 0 0 + 0 + 1 = 1
2

= x csc x + sgn x ln x + x 1 + C
1

= x sec 1 x sgn x ln ( x + x 2 1 )

## + cos 0 = 1, which is the

2
same answer as by vertical slices.
10. By cylindrical shells, dV = 2 x tan 1 x dx.

x sgn x csc d

= x csc 1 x sgn x

x dx

dv
1

= cos y

csc 1 x dx

= x csc 1

By horizontal slices, A =

## Let x = csc . dx = csc cot d,

x 2 1 = cot , = csc 1 x

sec

A=

dv
x
1 2
2x

x2
1 2
1
x tan 1 x
dx
2
2 1+ x2
1
1
1
= x 2 tan 1 x
dx
1
2
2 1+ x2
1
1
1
= x 2 tan 1 x x + tan 1 x + C
2
2
2
1
2
1
V = x tan x x + tan 1 x 0
=

= tan 1 1 + tan 1 1 0 + 0 0

= 2 tan 1 1 = 2
4
1 2
= = 1.7932 K
2
Compare this with a cylinder ( r2h) minus a
cone ( r2h/3), both of radius 1 and altitude / 4,
which has volume 2 ( / 4)/3 = 2/6 = 1.6449 ;
the volume is slightly less than V, which is
expected because the cylinder minus the cone is
generated by rotating a line that lies below the
graph.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7.
x
5
1
Q3.
tan 3 x + C
3
Q5. ln |x| + C
Q7. False

## Q1. x = 5 tan or = tan 1

Q2. xex ex + C
Q4. 2x1/ 2 + C
Q6. reduction formula
Q8.

8.
9.
10.

dx 2 + dy 2 or dr 2 + (rd )2

Q9. (1 x2)1/ 2
1.

Q10. C

11.

12.

cosh
1

d
(csch x sin x )
dx
= csch x coth x sin x + csch x cos x
d
(tan x tanh x ) = sec 2 x tanh x + tan x sech2 x
dx
1
sech 2 4 x dx = tanh 4 x + C
4
1
sech 7 x tanh 7 x dx = sech 7 x + C
7
d 3
2
( x coth x ) = 3 x coth x x 3 csch 2 x
dx
d 2.5
( x csch 4 x )
dx
= 2.5x1.5 csch 4x 4x2.5 csch 4x coth 4x

tanh

13.

sinh

14.

sech 1

x
1

csch

2.
y

cosh1

3
1

## = ln (cosh 3) ln (cosh 1) = 1.875547

coth

tanh x dx = ln (cosh x )

coth1
x
1
tanh

sinh x dx = cosh x

4
4

=0

## (Note that sinh is an odd function.)

d sinh 5 x
15.
dx ln 3 x
5 cosh 5 x ln 3 x x 1 sinh 5 x
=
(ln 3 x )2
d cosh 6 x
16.
dx cos 3 x
6 sinh 6 x cos 3 x + 3 cosh 6 x sin 3 x
=
cos 2 3 x

sinh

17.

y
1
sech
1

x sinh x dx

u
x
1
0

csch1

1
1

dv
sinh x
cosh x
sinh x

= x cosh x sinh x + C

d
tanh 3 x = 3 tanh 2 x sec h 2 x
dx
d
4.
5 sec h 3 x = 15 sec h 3 x tanh 3 x
dx
1
5. cosh 5 x sinh x dx = cosh 6 x + C
6
1
3
6. (sinh x ) cosh x dx = (sinh x ) 2 + C
2
1
2
= csch x + C
2
Or: (sinh x ) 3 cosh x dx = csch 2 x coth x dx

1
1
= coth 2 x + C1 = (csch 2 x + 1) + C1
2
2
1
2
= csch x + C
2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

= x cosh x sinh x

3.

x sinh x dx

=e
18.

1
0

= cosh 1 sinh 1

= 0.36787
u
x2
2x
2
0

cosh x dx

dv
cosh x
sinh x
cosh x
sinh x

x 2 cosh x dx

b
a

239

## = b2 sinh b 2b cosh b + 2 sinh b

a2 sinh a + 2a cosh a 2 sinh a
12
d
19.
(3 sinh 1 4 x ) =
dx
16 x 2 + 1

tanh
=

22.

25 sinh

4
4
x cosh 1 6 x [(6 x )2 1]1/2 + C
6
6
2
2
1
= x cosh 6 x
36 x 2 1 + C
3
3
23. Let x = 3 sinh t, dx = 3 cosh t dt,
x 2 + 9 = 9 sinh 2 t + 9 = 3 cosh t,
x
t = sinh 1 .
3

x 2 + 9 dx = 3 cosh t 3 cosh t dt
=

= 9 cosh 2 t dt

u
cosh t
sinh t

dv
cosh t
sinh t

## = 9 cosh t sinh t 9 (cosh t 1) dt

= 9 cosh t sinh t 9 cosh t + 9 dt
18 cosh t dt = 9 cosh t sinh t + 9t + C
9 cosh t dt = 4.5 cosh t sinh t + 4.5t + C

= 1 + ( y)2 dx
w
w
d ( y) = ds =
1 + ( y)2 dx
h
h
d.

u
sinh t
cosh t

## = 25 sinh t cosh t 25 cosh 2 t dt

2

t + 1) dt

1/2

w
x+C
h
At x = 0, y = 0, so
w
sinh 1 0 = 0 + C C = 0.
h
w
w
sinh 1 y = x y = sinh x
h
h
dy
w
w
= sinh x dy = sinh x dx
dx
h
h
h
w
y = cosh x + C
w
h
1
y = 2 when x = 0 2 = k cosh 0 + C
k
2=k+CC=2k
4
y = 5 when x = 4 5 = k cosh + 2 k
k
Using the solver feature of your grapher,
k 3.0668 .
sinh 1 y =

e.

f.

1/2

= 25 sinh 2 t dt

2 1/2

x2 + 9 x
x
= 4.5
+ 4.5 sinh 1 + C
3
3
3
x
= 0.5 x x 2 + 9 + 4.5 sinh 1 + C
3
24. Let x = 5 cosh t, dx = 5 sinh t dt,
x 2 25 = 25 cosh 2 t 25 = 5 sinh t,
x
t = cosh 1 .
5

x 2 25 dx = 5 sinh t 5 sinh t dt

[1 + ( y) ] d( y)
= (1 + sinh t ) d (sinh t )
= (cosh t ) (cosh t dt )
= dt = t + C = sinh y + C
w
w
h dx = h x + C
2

## t dt = 12.5 sinh t cosh t 12.5t + C

c. ds = dx 2 + dy 2 = dx 2 [1 + ( dy/dx )2 ]

## = 9 cosh t sinh t 9 sinh 2 t dt

240

x 2 25 x
x
12.5 cosh 1
5
5
5
x
= 0.5 x x 2 25 12.5 cosh 1 + C
5
25. a. Figure 9-9g shows that the horizontal force
is given by the vector (h, 0) and the vertical
force is the vector (0, v), so their sum, the
tension vector, is the vector (h, v), which has
v
slope . Because the tension vector points
h
along the graph, the graphs slope, y , also
v
equals .
h
b. v = weight of chain below (x, y) = s w
v sw w
y = =
= s
h
h
h

1
1
x tanh 1 5 x + ln |1 (5 x )2 | + C
5
10
4 cosh 1 6 x dx

= 12.5

5x dx

## 50 sinh t dt = 25 sinh t cosh t 25t + C1

15 x 2
d
20.
(5 tanh 1 x 3 ) =
1 x6
dx
21.

g.
dv
sinh t
cosh t

26. a.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
x + 2 3.0668
3.0668
1
y = 3.0668 cosh
x 1.0668
3.0668
y (20) = 1040.9739
y = 4:
1
4 = 3.0668 cosh
x 1.0668
3.0668
1
5.0668K
cosh
x=
3.0668K
3.0668K
1 5.0668
x = 3.0668 cosh
= 3.3355
3.0668
By symmetry, x = 3.3355 .
The answer can be found numerically using
the solver feature of your grapher.
1
y = sinh x; y(3) = 1.1418
k
3
1
A = k cosh x + 2 k dx

1
k
y = 3.0668 cosh

b.
c.

d.
e.

= k 2 sinh

1
x + (2 k ) x
k

3
1

3
1
= (3.0668)2 sinh
sinh

3.0668
3.0668
+ 4(2 3.0668)
= 9.5937
f.

L=

1
3

1 + ( y)2 dx
1 + sinh 2 ( x/k ) dx

cosh

1
1
x dx = k sinh x
k
k

3
1

3
1
= k sinh + sinh = 4.5196

k
k
27. a. The vertex is midway between the poles,
so y = 110 ft when x = 150 ft.
h
w
y = cosh x + C
w
h
400 lb
0.8
=
cosh
x+C
0.8 lb / ft
400
1
110 = 500 cosh
150 + C
500

## C = 110 500 cosh 0.3

1
y = 500 cosh
x + 110 500 cosh 0.3
500
The cable comes closest to the ground at
x = 0.
y (0) = 500 cosh 0 + 110 500 cosh 0.3
= 610 500 cosh 0.3 = 87.3307 87.3 ft

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. y = sinh

L=

150

150
150

1
x
500
1 + sinh 2 ( x/500) dx

1
x dx
500
150
1
= 500 sinh
x
500 150
= 500 sinh 0.3 500 sinh (0.3)
= 1000 sinh 0.3 = 304.5202 304.5 ft
A faster method is:
Half weight of cable = vertical tension at
(150, 110) = h y (150) (Compare
Problem 25.)
1
Weight = 2 400 sinh
150 = 800 sinh 0.3
500
= 243.6162 243.6 lb
(Note: Because w L = weight, either of these
methods could give both the weight and the
length.)
150

cosh

## c. T = h 2 + v 2 ; h is constant and v is greatest

at the ends, so the maximum tension is at
x = 150 ft.
T (150) = h 2 + [hy(150)]2
= 400 1 + sinh 2 0.3 = 400 cosh 0.3
= 418.1354 418.1 lb
h
w
d. The general equation is y = cosh x + C.
w
h
If y (0) = 100 and y (150) = 110, find h such
that y (150) y (0) = 10. Solve:
h
w
h
cosh 150 = 10, or
w
h
w
120
8
cosh
1 =
h
h
By grapher, h = 901.3301... 901.3 lb.
28. The answers will depend on the dimensions
of the chain used. Note that the answer is
independent of the kind of chain. You might
show students how a heavy chain and a light
chain of equal length will hang in the same
catenary if they are suspended from the same
points.
Assume that the dimensions are the same as in
Example 5.
a. Vertex: (0, 20). Supports: (90, 120).
1
x 31.78K
b. y = 51.78 cosh
51.78K
c. Note: To conserve class time, you might have
students plot only each 20 cm for x, as shown
here for Example 5. Use the TABLE feature.

241

0
20
40
60
80

20.0
23.9
36.2
58.8
95.1

## c. Slice perpendicular to the y-axis.

dV = x 2 dy = (sinh1 y)2 dy
Top of bowl is at
1
y = sinh 1
= 1.133534K .
24
V =

## d. A clever way to make sure the measurements

are vertical is to hold a book against the board
with its bottom edge along the chalk tray.
Then hold the meterstick against the vertical
edge of the book. It is crucial that the points
be plotted accurately to get the dramatic
impact of perfect fit.
e. For a quadratic function with vertex on the
y-axis, y = ax2 + c. Using the data for
Example 5,
20 = a(0) + c c = 20
1
120 = a(90 2 ) + 20 a =
81
1 2
y=
x + 20
81
y

1.133K

## = 1.25317 by numerical integration

1.253 ft3
1
x+C
k
Inner catenary: yinner(0) = 612, yinner(260) = 0
0
612 = ki cosh + Ci Ci = 612 + ki
ki
260
0 = ki cosh
+ 612 + ki
ki
ki = 97.1522 (numerically)
1
yinner = 97.1522 cosh
x + 1 + 612

97.1522 K
Outer catenary: youter (0) = 630, youter (315) = 0
0
630 = ko cosh
+ C o C o = 630 + k o
ko

30. a. y = k cosh

315
+ 630 + k o
ko
ko = 127.7114 (numerically)
1
youter = 127.7114 K cosh
x + 1 + 630

127.7114 K
0 = ko cosh

parabola

catenary
10

x
20

## The parabola is more curved at the vertex.

f. For Example 5,
dL = 1 + ( y)2 dx = 1 + sinh 2

1
x dx
51.78K

1
x dx
51.78K
90
1
L=
cosh
x dx
90
51.78K
90
1
= 51.78Ksinh
x
= 285.349K
51.78K 90
285.3 cm
The actual length should be close to this.
29. a. y = sinh x

100

= cosh

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + cosh 2 x dx
S = 2

x
0

1 + cosh 2 x dx

## = 5.07327 by numerical integration

5.07 ft2
b. Cost = 2(57)(5.07327) = 578.3532
\$578.35

242

## Problem Set 9-9

(sinh 1 y)2 dy

x
100

c. A =
=

315

315

ko2
+

youter dx

260

260

yinner dx

x
sinh + ko x + 630 x
ko

ki2

x
sinh ki x 612 x
ki

315
315
260
260

dyouter
1
d.
= sinh x, so
dx
ko
L=
=

315

315

1 + sinh 2

315

315

cosh

1
x dx
ko

1
1
x dx = ko sinh x
ko
ko

315
315

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

315
127.7114 K
= 1493.7422 1494 ft.
315
315
e. youter
= sinh
( 315) = sinh
127.7144K
ko

## exponential form or by transforming the second

to hyperbolic form, as shown here.)
1 3x 1 x
1
1
e + e + C = e x e 2 x + e 2 x + C
6

6
2
2

= 2 127.7114 K sinh

## = 5.8481 is the spiders starting slope.

f. Jos can fly through at altitude yinner(x) if
x 50 + 120/2 = 110.
yinner(110) = 542.7829 , so the plane can
fly through at heights between 0 and 542 feet.
(Because of the curvature of the arch and the
vertical thickness of the plane, the closest
distance is slightly less than 50 feet when the
horizontal distance is 50 feet. The plane can
fly through at slightly higher altitudes by
banking slightly.)
31. a. H(x) = csch x H(x) = csch x coth x
H(1) = csch 1 coth 1 = 1.1172855
csch (1.01) csch (0.99)
b. H(1)
0.02
= 1.11738505 . The answers differ by
0.0000995 , which is about 0.0089% of
32.

## sech x dx = sin 1 ( tanh x )

sech x dx = 0.435990K
1

(Checks.)
33. By parts:
x

u
sinh 2x
2 cosh 2x
4 sinh 2x

u
ex
ex
ex

sinh x dx

3 e sinh 2 x dx
x

## = e sinh 2 x 2e cosh 2 x + C1 e sinh 2 x dx

x

2
1
= e x cosh 2 x e x sinh 2 x + C
3
3
By transforming to exponential form:
1 x 2 x 2 x
e x sinh 2 x dx =
e (e e ) dx
2
1
1
1
=
(e 3 x e x ) dx = e 3 x + e x + C
2
6
2
Transforming to exponential form is easier!
(Note that the two answers can be shown to be
equivalent either by transforming the first to

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv
sinh x
cosh x
sinh x

x

## The original integral reappeared with the same

coefficient, so when it was added again to the left
side, it exactly canceled out the desired integral.
Use the exponential form of sinh x.
1 x x
e x sinh x dx =
e (e e x ) dx
2
1
=
(e 2 x 1) dx
2
1
1
= e2 x x + C
4
2
2
35. a. cosh x sinh2 x

ex + e x ex e x
=

2
2

dv
ex
ex
ex

sinh 2 x dx

34.

## = sin1 (tanh 2) sin1 (tanh 1)

= 0.435990

2 x e 2 x + e 2 x 1 x e 2 x e 2 x
e
e
+C
3
2
3
2
2
1
= e x cosh 2 x e x sinh 2 x + C
3
3

2
1

Numerically,

1
1
1
1
= e x e 2 x + e 2 x e 2 x + e 2 x + C
3

3
6
6

e 2 x + 2 + e 2 x e 2 x 2 + e 2 x

=1
4
4
cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1, Q .E.D .
=

b.

1
1
(cosh 2 x sinh 2 x ) =
cosh 2 x
cosh 2 x

1 tanh2 x = sech2 x
1
1
c.
(cosh 2 x sinh 2 x ) =
sinh 2 x
sinh 2 x
coth2 x 1 = csch2 x
36. a. Substitute 2x for x in the definition of sinh x.
1
b. sinh 2 x = (e 2 x e 2 x )
2
1
1
= 2 (e x e x ) (e x + e x )
2
2
= 2 sinh x cosh x

## Problem Set 9-9

243

1 2x
(e + e 2 x )
2
1
+ 1 + e 2 x ) + ( e 2 x 1 + e 2 x )
4

c. cosh 2 x =
=

1 2x
(e
4

d. Slice as in part b.

Let l = sinh 2 t dt

u
sinh t
cosh t

2
1
1
= (e x + e x ) + (e x e x )
2
2

2
= cosh x + sinh2 x
d. cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1 cosh2 x = 1 + sinh2 x
cosh 2x = cosh2 x + sinh2 x
= (1 + sinh2 x) + sinh2 x = 1 + 2 sinh2 x
e. 1 + 2 sinh2 x = cosh 2x
2 sinh2 x = cosh 2x 1
1
sinh 2 x = (cosh 2 x 1)
2
37. a. On the circle, u2 + v2 = 1
2u du + 2v dv = 0 dv = (u/v) du.

dL = du 2 + dv 2 = du 2 + (u/v)2 du 2
=
L=

1
1
u2 + v2
du = du =
du
2
v
v
1 u2
1
du

cos 2

1 u2

= cos 1 u

1
cos 2

= cos 1 1 + 2 = 2

## The curve along the hyperbola from u = 1 to

u = cosh 2 has length greater than the line
segment along the horizontal axis from (1, 0)
to (cosh 2, 0). This segment has length
L = cosh 2 1 = 2.762 . So the length of
the curve is greater than 2, Q.E.D.
b. The area of the triangle that circumscribes the
sector is 0.5(2 sinh 2 cosh 2) = sinh 2 cosh 2.
The area of the sector is the area of this
triangle minus the area of the region between
the upper and lower branches of the hyperbola
from u = 1 to u = cosh 2.
Slice this region vertically. Pick sample point
(u, v) on the upper branch, within the strip.
Let t be the argument of sinh and cosh at the
sample point. 0 t 2.
dA = 2v du = 2 sinh t d(cosh t) = 2 sinh2 t dt
A=2

sinh

t dt 11.644958K

## Thus, the area of the sector is

cosh 2 sinh 2 11.644958 = 2, Q.E.D.
c. By definition of the circular functions,
x is the length of the arc from (1, 0) to
(cos x sin x). So the total arc has length 2x.
The circumference of a unit circle is 2, and
its area is . Thus,
2x
Asector =
= x , Q .E .D .
2

244

dv
sinh t
cosh t

## = sinh t cosh t (1 + sinh t ) dt

= sinh t cosh t t sinh t dt
= sinh t cosh t cosh 2 t dt
2

sinh

## Slicing as in part b, the area A between the

upper and lower branches of the hyperbola is
A=2

sinh

t dt

## = 2(0.5 sinh x cosh x 0.5 x ) 0

= sinh x cosh x x
Thus, the area of the sector is
cosh x sinh x (sinh x cosh x x) = x,
Q .E .D .
38. a. y = sinh 1 x sinh y = x cosh y y = 1
1
1
1
, Q. E . D .
y =
=
=
2
2
cosh y
x +1
sinh y + 1
b. y = tanh 1 x tanh y = x sech2 y y = 1
1
1
1
y =
, Q.E.D.
2 =
2 =
sec h y 1 tan h y 1 x 2
c. y = coth 1 x coth y = x
csch2 y y = 1
1
1
1
y =
=
,
2 =
2
csch y (coth y 1) 1 x 2
Q .E .D .
d. y = sech 1 x sech y = x
sech y tanh y y = 1
1
y =
sech y tanh y
1
=
sech y 1 sech 2 y
=

1
x 1 x2

, Q. E . D .

e. y = csch 1 x csch y = x
csch y coth y y = 1
1
1
=
y =
csch y coth y csch y 1 + csch 2 y
=

1
| x| 1 + x 2

, Q .E .D .

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 9-10

4. a.

Q2. sinh x + C

Q1.
y

x
1

x
1

Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.
1.

sinh x
sin x + C
y = tan x
y = ex
y
a.

Q4.
Q6.
Q8.
Q10.

sin x
y = x3
y = sinh x or x 3 + x
A

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.
1

b.

## (1/x ) dx = lim (1/x ) dx

0

= lim+ ln | x |
a 0

a 0
1
a

= lim+ (0 ln a) =
a 0

5. a.

x
2

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

(x

(1/ x ) dx = lim
2

b 2

1
2

1
Integral converges to .
2
2. a.

) dx

b

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

1/ x 0.2 dx = lim

= lim 1.25 x

b 1
b
0.8

x 0.2 dx

b

6. a.

x
3
1

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

1/ x 4 dx = lim

b 3
b
3

x 4 dx

1
1
1
= lim 3 + =

3
b
81
81
3
1
The integral converges to
.
81
1
= lim x
b 3

3. a.

x
1

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

1/ x 1.2 dx = lim

b 1

= lim 5 x 0.2

b
1

x 1.2 dx

b

7. a.

x
1

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

(1/ x ) dx = lim

b
1

x
1

(1/x ) dx

b 1

= lim ln | x |

= lim (ln b 0) =
b

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.

## The integral diverges.

Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## Problem Set 9-10

245

b.

1/ x 0.2 dx = lim+
a0
1

a 0

0.2

11. a.

dx

y
1

## = lim+ (1.25 1.25a 0.8 )

a 0

= 1.25
The integral converges to 1.25.
8. a.

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches 0 or 1.
b. To determine whether this converges, split the
integral into two pieces. Each piece must
converge in order for the integral to converge.
The integral can be written

x
1

1/( x ln x ) dx
= 1/( x ln x ) dx + 1/( x ln x ) dx
= lim 1/( x ln x ) dx + lim 1/( x ln x ) dx
0

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.
1

b.

1/x

1.2

dx = lim+
a0

a 0

1.2

dx

a0

b 1

= lim+ ln | ln x | + lim ln | ln x |

= lim+ (5 + 5a 0.2 ) =

a0

a0

b1

b
c

a 0

## + lim(ln |ln b | ln |ln c |)

b1

=+
For the integral to converge, both limits must
exist. Because neither exists, the integral
diverges.

x
0

9. a.

= lim+ 5 x 0.2

12. a.

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

1/(1 + x 2 ) dx = lim

b 0

= lim tan 1 x
b

b
0

1/(1 + x 2 ) dx

= lim (tan 1 b 0) =
b

10. a.

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b. The indefinite integral can be written
(ln x ) 2 ( dx/ x ) = (ln x ) 1 + C.

b
3

## = lim [(ln b) 1 + (ln 3) 1 ] = (ln 3) 1

b 3

= lim (ln x ) 1
0

1/[ x(ln x ) ] dx

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
b.

1/(1 + x ) dx = lim

b 0
b

1/(1 + x ) dx

## The integral converges to

(ln 3) 1 = 0.910239 .
13. a.
y
1

b

x
2

## It might converge because the integrand

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.
246

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

e 0.4 x dx = lim

= lim 2.5e

0.4 x

b 2
b
0.4 x

17. a.

dx

y
1

b

= 1.1233 .

x
0

14. a.

## It might converge because the integrand seems

to approach zero as x approaches infinity.
b. Integrate by parts:
xe x dx = e x ( x + 1) + C

y
1

xe x dx = lim

= lim e x ( x + 1)
b

## It diverges because the integrand does not

approach zero as x approaches infinity.
b. (Not applicable)
15. a.

b 0

xe x dx

= lim [ e b (b + 1) + 1] = 1
b

## (The first term is zero by lHospitals rule.)

Integral converges to 1.
18. a.
y

x
1

## It does not converge because the integrand is

undefined for x < 0.
b. (Not applicable)
16. a.

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches 1.
3

b.

( x 1) dx
= lim ( x 1)
2

b1

dx + lim+
a1

( x 1)

= lim ( x 1) 1 + lim+ ( x 1) 1
b1

a1
1

dx

3
a

## = lim [(b 1) + (1) ]

1

b1

+ lim+ [2 1 + ( a 1) 1 ]

x
1

a1

=+
For the integral to converge, both limits must
exist. Because neither exists, the integral
diverges.

## It might converge because the integrand

becomes infinite only as x approaches 3.
7

b.

( x 3) dx
= lim ( x 3)
2/3

19. a.

2/3

b3 1

= lim 3( x 3)

1/3

b3

dx + lim+
a3

b
1

( x 3)

dx

+ lim+ 3( x 3)1/3
a3

2/3

y
1

7
a

x
20

b 3

## + lim+ [3( 4)1/3 3( a 3)1/3 ]

a3

= 3 21/3 + 3 41/3
The integral converges to 3 21/3 + 3 41/3
= 8.5419 .

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## It diverges because the integrand does not

approach zero as x approaches infinity.
b. (Not applicable)

## Problem Set 9-10

247

24. y = 1/x x = y 1
Slice the vertical cross section horizontally.
dA = x dy = y 1 dy

20. a.
y
1

A = lim

20

a a

y 1 dy = lim ln | y|
a

1
a

= lim ( ln | 1| + ln |a|) =
a

## It diverges because the integrand does not

approach zero as x approaches infinity.
b. (Not applicable)
b

21. As b ,

b

a. I
= 1/ x
dx = lim x
dx
0

22.

1.001

1.001

b 1
b

= lim 1000 x

1.001

0.001

= lim (1000 b

0.001

b 1
b

x 0.999 dx

f (2) = lim

## c. Ip converges if p > 1 and diverges if p 1.

23. a. y = 1/x = x 1
dA = y dx = x 1 dx

x dx = (See Problem 3)

b 1

x 2 dx = lim x 1
b

b
1

= lim ( b 1 + ) =
b

V = lim

b 1

2 dx = lim 2 x
b

= lim (2b 2 ) =

b
1

Volume diverges.
d. False. The volume could approach a constant
as in part b or become infinite as in part c.

248

+2

te t dt

## (Using lHospitals rule on b2e b gives

2b
2
lim b 2 e b = lim b = lim b = 0.)
b
b e
b e
f (3) = lim

b 0

t 3e t dt

= lim t 3e t
b

b
0

+3

t 2 e t dt

= lim ( b 3e b + 0) + 3(2) = 6
b

lim b 3e b = lim

## The volume converges to .

c. By cylindrical shells, dV = 2 xy dx
= 2 x(x 1) dx = 2 dx.

= lim ( b 2 e b + 0) + 2(1) = 2

## The area does not approach a finite limit.

b. By plane slices, dV = y2 dx = x 2 dx.
V = lim

+ 0 + 1) = 1

t 2 e t dt

= lim t 2 e t

diverges.

A=

b 0

## (Using lHospitals rule on be b gives

b
1
lim be b = lim b = lim b = 0. )
b
b e
b e

= (diverges), Q.E.D.

te t dt = lim ( te t e t )

= lim ( be e

## = lim (1000 b 0.001 1000)

b. I1 =

t x e t dt

f (1) = lim

+ 1000)

1/ x 0.999 dx = lim

b 0

25. a. f ( x ) =

I 0.999 =

## The area of the buckets surface is greater than

the area of the cross section, and the crosssectional area diverges. Thus, the bucket has
infinite surface area. The bucket is congruent to
the solid in Problem 23b, which has volume
approaching . Thus, cubic units of paint
would fill the bucket but could not coat the
whole surface!

3b 2
6b
6
b = lim b = lim b = 0.)
b e
b e
e

b. Conjecture:
f ( 4) = 4 f (3) = 24 = 4!
f ( 5) = 5 f (4) = 120 = 5!
f ( 6) = 6 f (5) = 720 = 6!
c. f ( x ) =

t x e t dt

u
tx

xt x1

dv
e t
e t

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= lim t x e t
b

b
0

+x

t x 1e t dt

= lim ( b x e b + 0) + x f ( x 1)
b

= 0 + 0 + x f (x 1)
= x f (x 1), Q .E .D .
( lim ( b x e b ) = 0 can be proved by
b

## mathematical induction using

lHospitals rule.)
d. Part a shows that f (1) = 1 = 1!.
Part c shows that f (n) = nf (n 1) =
n(n 1) f (n 2) = n(n 1)(n 2)(2)(1)
= n!, Q .E .D .
e.

1000

3 t

t e dt 6

3 t

dt

3 b

2 b

= b e 3b e 6be 6e + 6
|b3e b + 3b2e b + 6be b + 6e b| < 0.000001
for b > 23.4050 , say, b 24.

f. 0.5! =

t 0.5e t dt

## The value of b that makes the integral come

within 0.000001 of 6 can be found numerically
(though it will be slow), or algebraically:

te

## i. (1)! = 0!/0, which is infinite. So (2)! and

(3)!, which equal (1)!/(1) and (2)!/(2),
are also infinite. However,
(0.5)! = 0.5!/(0.5) = 1.77245
(1.5)! = (0.5)!/(0.5) = 3.54490
(2.5)! = (1.5)!/(1.5) = 2.36327
all of which are finite.

## = 0.886226925K , which agrees

j. 0.5! =
2
with the tabulated value.
26. dW = F dr = 1000r 2 dr
At the earths surface, r = 1.

b
W = 1000 r 2 dr = lim 1000 r 1 1
b
1
= lim (1000 b 1 + 1000)

24

t 0.5e t dt

Thus, the amount of work does not increase
without bound as r goes to infinity.
3
x2
x
27. a.
2
dx
1
x2

b.

Error =

t 0.5e t dt <

24

t 3e t dt < 0.000001

24

## The difference between the tabulated value

of 0.5! and the value calculated here is
0.8862269255
0.866227311
= 0.000000386
which is less in absolute value than 0.000001.
Note, however, that the difference is negative
because the calculated value is larger than
the tabulated value. This observation means
that either the tabulated value is incorrect or
there is more inaccuracy in the numerical
integration algorithm than there is in the error
caused by dropping the tail of the integral.
(Using a smaller tolerance in the numerical
integrator gives a value of 0.8862269252 .)
g. Using the tabulated value of 0.5!,
1.5! = 1.5(0.5!) = 1.3293
2.5! = 2.5(1.5!) = 3.3233
3.5! = 3.5(2.5!) = 11.6317
h. 0! =

b
t 0 e t dt = lim e t 0
b

= lim( e b + 1) = 1, Q .E.D .
b

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x2
dx
b2 1
x2
3
x2
+ lim+ 2 x
dx
a2 a
x2

0.886227311
From the graphs, t0.5 e t < t3e t for x 24. The
error in 0.5! from stopping at b = 24 is the
area under the tail of the graph from b = 24.

3
x2
x2
x
x
dx
2
dx + 2
1
2
x2
x2
2
3
x2
x2
x
x
dx
dx + 2
2
1
2
x2
x2

= lim

c.

x2
dx
x2
3
x2
+ lim+ 2 x
dx
a 2 a
x2

lim

b2

= lim
b2

(2
1

+ 1) dx + lim+
a2

(2
a

1) dx

b2

a2

3
a

b

b2

a 2

## = 4/ln 2 + 2 2/ln 2 1 + 8/ln 2 3

4/ln 2 + 2 = 6/ln 2
The integral converges to 6/ln 2 = 8.6561 .
d. The integral is defined by dividing the
interval into Riemann partitions and summing
the subintervals. But the Riemann partitions
may be chosen so that the discontinuities
are at endpoints of subintervals. Then the
subintervals corresponding to each continuous
piece may be summed separately.
e. False. Some discontinuous functions (notably,
piecewise continuous functions) are integrable.
28. Answers will vary.
Problem Set 9-10

249

## Problem Set 9-11

1. y = sec 3x tan 3x
y = (3 sec 3x tan 3x) tan 3x + sec 3x (3 sec2 3x)
= 3 sec 3x tan2 3x + 3 sec3 3x
2. y = sinh 5x tanh 5x
y = (5 cosh 5x) tanh 5x + sinh 5x (5 sech2 5x)
= 5 sinh 5x + 5 sinh 5x sech2 5x or
5 sinh 5x + 5 tanh 5x sech 5x
3.

4.

x cosh 4 x dx

u
x
1
0

1
1
x sinh 4 x cosh 4 x + C
4
16

x cos x dx

dv
cosh 4x
1
4 sinh 4x
1
16 cosh 4x

250

## 18. g(t ) = t 2 1 = (t 2 1)1/2

1
t
g(t ) = (t 2 1) 1/2 (2t ) =
2
2
t 1

1 + t 2 dt =

= sec 3 d =

dv
cos x
sin x
cos x

= x sin x + cos x + C
5. f (x) = (3x + 5) 1 f (x) = 3(3x + 5) 2
6. f (x) = (5 2x 1) f (x) = 2(5 2x) 2
1
7. (3 x + 5) 1 dx = ln |3 x + 5| + C
3
1
8. (5 2 x ) 1 dx = ln |5 2 x | + C
2
9. t(x) = tan5 4x
t(x) = 5 tan4 4x (4 sec2 4x) = 20 tan4 4x sec2 4x
10. h(x) = sech3 7x
h(x) = 3 sech2 7x (7 sech 7x tanh 7x)
= 21 sech3 7x tanh 7x
1
11. sin 2 x dx =
(1 cos 2 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x sin 2 x + C
2
4
1
1
= x sin x cos x + C (or integrate by parts)
2
2
1
12. cos 2 x dx =
(1 + cos 2 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x + sin 2 x + C
2
4
1
1
= x + sin x cos x + C (or integrate by parts)
2
2
6 x 11
13. y =

x+2
6( x + 2) (6 x 11)(1)
23
y =
=
2
( x + 2)
( x + 2)2
5x + 9

14. y =
x4
5( x 4) (5 x + 9)(1)
29
y =
=
( x 4) 2
( x 4) 2

17. f (t ) = 1 + t 2 = (1 + t 2 )1/2
1
t
f (t ) = (1 + t 2 ) 1/2 (2t ) =
2
1+ t2

19.
u
x
1
0

6 x 11
23
dx = 6
dx

x+2
x + 2
= 6x 23 ln | x + 2 | + C
5x + 9
29
16.
dx = 5 +
dx

x4
x 4
= 5x + 29 ln | x 4 | + C

15.

1 + tan 2 d ( tan )
1
sec tan
2

1
+ ln | sec + tan | + C
2
1
1
= t 1 + t 2 + ln 1 + t 2 + t + C
2
2
20.

t 2 1 dt =

sec 2 1 d (sec )

## = sec tan 2 d = (sec 3 sec ) d

1
1
sec tan + ln | sec + tan |
2
2
ln | sec + tan | + C
1
1
= sec tan ln | sec + tan | + C
2
2
1
1
2
= t t 1 ln t + t 2 1 + C
2
2
3 x
21. y = x e
y = 3x2ex + x3ex = x2ex(3 + x)
22. y = x4e x
y = 4x3e x x4e x = x3e x(4 x)
=

23.

x e

3 x

u
x3
3x 2
6x
6
0

dx

dv
ex
ex
ex
ex
ex

24.

x e

4 x

dx

u
x4
4x 3
12x 2
24x
24
0

dv
e x
e x
e x
e x
e x
e x

## = x4 e x 4x3 e x 12x2 e x 24xe x 24e x + C

1
25. f ( x ) = sin 1 x f ( x ) =
= (1 x 2 ) 1/2
2
1 x
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

26. g( x ) = tan 1 x g( x ) =
27.

sin

1
x +1
2

u
sin 1 x
(1 x 2)1/2

x dx

dv
1
x

## = x sin 1 x (0.5)(2)(1 x2)1/2 + C

= x sin 1 x + 1 x 2 + C

tan

u
tan 1 x
1
1 + x2

x dx

= x tan 1 x

1+ x
1

## (Absolute value is optional.)

cosh x dx
36. coth x dx =
= ln | sinh x | + C
sinh x

( x dx )

dv
1
x

39.

1
ln |1 + x 2 | + C
2
1
1/6 1/6
29.
dx =
+
dx
x + 5 x 1
x2 + 4x 5
1
1
= ln | x + 5| + ln | x 1| + C
6
6
1
1/8
1/8
30.
dx =
+
dx
2

x 6x 7
x + 1 x 7
1
1
= ln | x + 1| + ln | x 7| + C
8
8
1
1
dx =
dx
31.
2
x + 4x 5
( x + 2)2 9
1
=
(3 sec tan d )
(3 sec )2 9
1
=
(3 sec tan d ) = sec d
3 tan
= ln | sec + tan | + C
1
1
= ln ( x + 2) +
( x + 2)2 9 + C1
3
3

2x

cos 3 x dx

x2 6x 7
1

dx =

1
( x 3)2 16

dx

( 4 sec tan d )

( 4 sec ) 16
1
=
( 4 sec tan d ) = sec d
4 tan
= ln |sec + tan | + C
2

= ln

1
1
( x 3) +
( x 3)2 16 + C1
4
4

= ln x 3 + x 2 6 x 7 + C

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv
cos 3x
1
3 sin 3x
1
9 cos 3x

=
40.

2x

cos 3 x dx

3 2x
2
e sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x + C
13
13

3 x

cos 4 x dx

= ln x + 2 + x 2 + 4 x 5 + C
32.

u
e 2x
2e 2x
4e 2x

1
2
= e 2 x sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x
3
9
4 2x

e cos 3 x dx
9
13 2 x
e cos 3 x dx
9
1
2
= e 2 x sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x + C1
3
9

## (Absolute value is necessary.)

37. y = e2x cos 3x
y = (2e2x) cos 3x + e2x(3 sin 3x)
= e2x(2 cos 3x 3 sin 3x)
38. y = e 3x cos 4x
y = (3e3x) cos 4x + e3x(4 sin 4x)
= e3x(3 cos 4x + 4 sin 4x)

= x tan 1 x

= x sin 1 x (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( x dx )

28.

## 33. f (x) = tanh x f (x) = sech2 x

34. f (x) = coth x f (x) = csch2 x
sinh x dx
35. tanh x dx =
= ln |cosh x | + C
cosh x

u
e 3x
3e 3x
9e 3x

dv
cos 4x
1
4 sin 4x
1
16 cos 4x

1 3 x
3
e sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x
4
16
9

e 3 x cos 4 x dx
16
25 3 x
e cos 4 x dx
16
1
3
= e 3 x sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x + C1
4
16
=

e
=

3 x

cos 4 x dx

4 3 x
3
e sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x + C
25
25
Problem Set 9-11

251

## Note: As a check for integrals such as

Problems 39 and 40, the numerators of the
coefficients equal the 3 and 4 in the arguments
of e3x and cos 4x. The denominators equal
32 + 42, or 25.
41. g (x) = x 3 ln 5x
g (x) = (3x2) ln 5x + x3 (5/5x)
= x 2 (3 ln 5x + 1)
42. h (x) = x 2 ln 8x
h (x) = (2x) ln 8x + x2 (8/8x)
= x(2 ln 8x + 1)
43.

x ln 5x dx
3

u
ln 5x
1
x

dv
x3
1 4
4x

48.

1
0

49.

50.

51.
52.
53.

=
44.

1 4
1
x ln 5 x x 4 + C
4
16

ln 8 x dx

u
ln 8x

## cos x dx = (1 sin x ) cos x dx

= cos x dx sin x (cos x dx )
3

1
= sin x sin 3 x + C
3
1
2
Or: cos3 x dx = cos 2 x sin x +
cos x dx
3
3
1
2
= cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C
3
3

dv
x2
1 3
3x

------------------------

1
0

1 2
3x
1 3
9x

1
1
= x 3 ln 8 x x 3 + C
3
9
x
45. y =

( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)
ln y = ln x ln (x + 2)
ln (x + 3) ln (x + 4)
y = y[x 1 (x + 2) 1 (x + 3) 1 (x + 4) 1]
x
=
[ x 1 ( x + 2) 1
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)
(x + 3) 1 (x + 4) 1]
x
46. y =

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
ln y = ln x ln (x 1)
ln (x 2) ln (x 3)
y = y[x 1 (x 1) 1 (x 2) 1 (x 3) 1]
x
=
[ x 1 ( x 1) 1
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

1/2
2
3/2
=

+
dx
x 1 x 2 x 3
1
3
= ln | x 1| 2 ln | x 2| + ln | x 3| + C
2
2
y = cos3 x sin x
y = (3 cos2 x sin x) sin x + cos3 x (cos x)
= 3 cos2 x sin2 x + cos4 x
y = sin5 x cos x
y = (5 sin4 x cos x) cos x + sin5 x (sin x)
= 5 sin4 x cos2 x sin6 x
1
cos3 x (sin x dx ) = cos 4 x + C
4
1 6
5
sin x (cos x dx ) = sin x + C
6

1
x

47.

------------------------

1 3
4x
1 4
16 x

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) dx

(x 2) 1 (x 3) 1]
x
dx
( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)

1
3
2
=
+

dx
x + 2 x + 3 x + 4

54.

## sin x dx = (1 cos x ) (sin x dx )

= (1 2 cos x + cos x )(sin x dx )
= sin x dx 2 cos x sin x dx
+ cos x sin x dx
5

2
1
cos3 x cos 5 x + C
3
5
1
4
Or: sin 5 x dx = sin 4 x cos x +
sin 3 x dx
5
5
1
4
8
= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x +
sin x dx
5
15
15
1
4
= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x
5
15
8
cos x + C
15
1
3
55. cos 4 x dx = cos3 x sin x +
cos 2 x dx
4
4
1
3
3
= cos3 x sin x + cos x sin x +
dx
4
8
8
1
3
3
= cos3 x sin x + cos x sin x + x + C
4
8
8
= cos x +

= ln |x + 2| + 3 ln |x + 3| 2 ln |x + 4| + C
252

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

56.

1
5
sin 6 x dx = sin 5 x cos x +
sin 4 x dx
6
6
1
5
= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x
6
24
15
+
sin 2 x dx
24
1
5
= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x
6
24
15
15
sin x cos x +
dx
48
48
1
5
= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x
6
24
5
5
sin x cos x +
x+C
16
16

68.

= xe x e x

72. r ( x ) =

58. f (x) = (x 1)
f (x) = 4(x3 1)3(3x2) = 12x2(x3 1)3
59.

(x

( x 1) dx
= (x 4x
3

62.

63.

64.

(t

66. h( x ) =

(t

+ 6 x 6 4 x 3 + 1) dx

74.

1 13 2 10 6 7 4
x x + x x + x+C
13
5
7
1
( x 4 + 3)3 x 3 dx = ( x 4 + 3) 4 + C
16
1
( x 3 1) 4 x 2 dx = ( x 3 1)5 + C
15
1
( x 4 + 3) dx = x 5 + 3 x + C
5
1
( x 3 1) dx = x 4 x + C
4

65. f ( x ) =

67.

12

61.

3(ln x )2 (ln x )3 4
x2
ln x + 2
dx
73.
dx = (ln x + 2)
x
x
1
= (ln x + 2)2 + C
2

1 13 9 27 5
x +x +
x + 27 x + C
13
5

=
60.

(ln x )3 + 4
dx
dx = (ln x )3
+
x
x
1
= (ln x ) 4 + 4 ln | x | + C
4

75. f ( x ) = e x f ( x ) = 2 xe x
3

1) 4 dt h ( x ) = ( x 3 1) 4

79.

2
1

= 2e 2 e 2 e + e = e 2 = 7.3890 K

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

u
x
1
0

xe x dx

+ 3)3 dt f ( x ) = ( x 4 + 3)3

x dx

## (The absolute values are optional because ln x

appears in the original integrand, so only
positive values of x can be used.)

= xe x e x

76. f ( x ) = e x f ( x ) = 3 x 2 e x
2
1 2
77.
xe x dx = e x + C
2
3
1 3
78.
x 2 e x dx = e x + C
3

## 3(ln x )2 (1/ x ) x [(ln x )3 + 4] 1

x2

+ 3) dx = ( x + 9 x + 27 x + 27) dx
8

= 2e 2 e 2 + 0 + 1

(ln x )3 + 4

r ( x ) =

12

## 70. s(x) = xe x s(x) = xe x + e x

ln x + 2
71. q( x ) =

x
(1/ x ) x (ln x + 2) 1 1 ln x
q ( x ) =
=
x2
x2

dv
e x
e x
e x

## 69. r(x) = xex r(x) = xex + ex

57. g (x) = (x + 3)
g (x) = 3(x4 + 3)2(4x3) = 12x3(x4 + 3)2

u
x
1
0

= 3e 2 + 1 = 0.59399

xe x dx

x e

3 x2

dx

dv
ex
ex
ex

u
x2
2x

dv
xe x 2
1 x2
2e

---------------------

2
0
=

1 x2
2 xe
1 x2
4e

1 2 x2 1 x2
x e e +C
2
2

## Problem Set 9-11

253

80.

x e

5 x3

u
x3
3x 2

dx

dv
x 2e x 3
1 x3
3e

84.

---------------------

1
0

x 2e x 3

1 x3
3e

ax

u
e ax
ae ax

cos bx dx

1 ax
a
a2
e sin bx + 2 e ax cos bx 2
b
b
b
a2 + b2
e ax cos bx dx
b2
1
a
= e ax sin bx + 2 e ax cos bx + C1
b
b
ax
cos
e
bx dx

dv
cos bx
1
b sin bx
1
b 2 cos bx

a 2e ax

ax

cos bx dx

87.

ax

u
e ax
ae ax
a 2e ax

sin bx dx

83.

254

a
b
e ax sin bx 2
e ax cos bx + C
a2 + b2
a + b2
(for a, b not both 0)
ax
e sin bx dx = C
(for a = b = 0)

sin

cx dx =

1
(1 cos 2cx ) dx
2

1
1
x
sin 2cx + C
2
4c
sin 2 cx dx = C

## Problem Set 9-11

(1 + cos 2cx ) dx

1
1
x+
sin 2cx + C
2
4c
cos 2 cx dx = x + C

ax + b

88.

(for c 0)
(for c = 0)

dv
sinbx
1
b cosbx
1
2 sinbx
b

1
a
= e ax cos bx + 2 e ax sin bx
b
b
a2
ax
2 e sin bx dx
b
a2 + b2
e ax sin bx dx
b2
1
a
= e ax cos bx + 2 e ax sin bx + C1
b
b
e ax sin bx dx

1
2

89.

cx + d dx = c +
=

b
a
= 2
e ax sin bx + 2
e ax cos bx + C
a + b2
a + b2
(for a, b not both 0)
ax
e cos bx dx = x + C
(for a = b = 0)

cx dx =

(for c 0)
(for c = 0)

ax + b
cx + d
a(cx + d ) c( ax + b)
f ( x ) =
=
2
(cx + d )
(cx + d )2
(for c, d not both 0)
(undefined for c = d = 0)
86. f (x) = (ax + b)n
f ( x ) = na( ax + b) n1
(for a, b not both 0, or n 1)
f (x) = 0
(for a = b = 0 and 0 n 1)
(undefined for a = b = 0 and n < 0)

82.

85. f ( x ) =

3
1
1 3
= x 3e x e x + C
3
3

81.

cos

b ( a/c)d
dx
cx + d

+
ln |cx + d | + C (for c 0)
c
c2
ax + b
a 2 b
dx =
x + x+C
cx + d
2d
d
(for c = 0, d 0)
(undefined for c = d = 0)
( ax + b) n+1
+C
a(n + 1)
(for n 1, a 0)
1
n
( ax + b) dx = ln |ax + b| + C
a
(for n = 1, a 0)
n
n
(for a = 0)
( ax + b) dx = b x + C
( ax + b) n dx =

x dx
x +a
2

1
( x 2 + a 2 ) 1/2 (2 x dx )
2

1
2( x 2 + a 2 )1/2 + C = x 2 + a 2 + C
2
x dx
1
=
90.
( a 2 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )
2
2
2
a x
1
= 2( a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 + C = a 2 x 2 + C
2
(for a 0)
(undefined for a = 0)
dx
d ( a tan )
=
91.
2
2
x +a
a 2 tan 2 + a 2
=

a sec 2 d
= sec d
a sec
= ln |sec + tan | + C1
1 2
1
= ln
x + a 2 + x + C1
a
a
=

= ln

x 2 + a2 + x + C

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

92.

dx

d ( a sin )

a x
a a sin
a cos d
x
=
= d = + C = sin 1 + C
a cos
a
(for a 0)
(undefined for a = 0)
2
93. f (x) = x sin ax f (x) = 2x sin ax + ax2 cos ax
94. f (x) = x2 cos ax f (x) = 2x cos ax ax2 sin ax
2

95.

u
x2
2x
2

sin ax dx

100.

dv
sinax
1
a cosax
1
2 sinax
a

96.

u
x2
2x
2

cos ax dx

0
=

97.

98.

99.

1
sinax
a3

1 2
2
2
x sin ax + 2 x cos ax 3 sin ax + C
a
a
a
(for a 0)
1 3
2
x cos ax dx = x + C
(for a = 0)
3
1
sinh ax dx = cosh ax + C
(for a 0)
a
(for a = 0)
sinh ax dx = C

1
cosh ax dx = a sinh ax + C
cosh ax dx = x + C
cos

= x cos 1 ax +

= x cos 1 ax

1
[1 ( ax )2 ]1/ 2 ( 2 a 2 x dx )
2a

ax dx
1 ( ax )2

ax dx
1 ( ax )2

1
1 + x dx

Let u = 1 + x .
x = (u 1)2
dx = 2(u 1) du

2(u 1) du
= 2 du (2/u) du
u
= 2u 2 ln |u| + C
= 2(1 + x ) 2 ln |1 + x | + C
Or: 2 x 2 ln |1 + x | + C1
Absolute values are optional because
1 + x > 0.
1
102.
Let u = 1 x .
dx
1 x
x = (1 u)2
dx = 2(u 1) du
2(u 1) du
=
= 2 du (2/u) du
u
= 2u 2 ln |u| + C
= 2(1 x ) 2 ln |1 x | + C
Or: 2 x 2 ln |1 x | + C1
1
dx
103.
Let u = 1 + 4 x .
1+ 4 x
x = (u 1)4
dx = 4(u 1)3 du
3
4(u 1) du
=
= ( 4u 2 12u + 12 4/u) du
u
4
= u 3 6u 2 + 12 u 4 ln |u| + C
3
4
= (1 + 4 x )3 6(1 + 4 x )2 + 12(1 + 4 x )
3
4 ln 1 + 4 x + C
=

dv
1
x

Or:

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(for a = 0)

dv
1

(for a 0)

u
cos 1ax
a
1 (ax) 2

ax dx

u
sin 1ax
a
1 (ax) 2

ax dx

1
[1 ( ax )2 ]1/2 ( 2 a 2 x dx )
2a
1
= x sin 1 ax +
1 ( ax )2 + C
(for a 0)
a
(for a = 0)
sin 1 ax dx = C
101.

dv
cosax
1
a sinax
1
2 cosax
a

= x sin 1 ax +

sin

= x sin 1 ax

1
cosax
a3

1 2
2
2
x cos ax + 2 x sin ax + 3 cos ax + C
a
a
a
(for a 0)
(for a = 0)
x 2 sin ax dx = C

1
1 ( ax )2 + C
a
(for a 0)

1
cos ax dx = x + C
(for a = 0)
2

= x cos 1 ax

4 4 3
( x ) 2( 4 x )2 + 4 4 x 4 ln |1 + 4 x | + C1 ,
3

255

## by expanding the powers or by starting with

u = 4 x.
Absolute values are optional because 1 + 4 x > 0.
1
dx
104.
Let u = x 1/ 6 .
x+3x
x = u6
dx = 6u5 du
5
3
6u du
6u du
=
3
2 =
u +u
u +1
6

2
= 6u 6u + 6
du

u + 1
(by long division)
= 2u 3 3u 2 + 6u 6 ln |u + 1| + C
= 2 x 33 x + 66 x 6 ln (6 x + 1) + C
1
105.
Let u = e x + 1.
dx
x
e +1
ex = u2 1
x = ln (u 2 1)
2u du
dx = 2
u 1
2 du
1
1

=
=

du
u 1 u + 1
u2 1
(by partial fractions)
= ln |u 1| ln |u + 1| + C

= ln ( e + 1 1) ln ( e + 1 + 1) + C
1
dx
106.
Let u = e x 1.
x
e 1
ex = u2 + 1
x = ln (u 2 + 1)
2u du
dx = 2
u +1
2 du
1
=
= 2 tan u + C = 2 tan 1 e x 1 + C
u2 + 1
107. a. Let t = x/2 and substitute, getting
cos x = 2 cos2 (x/2) 1 and
sin x = 2 sin (x/2) cos (x/2).
2
b. cos x =
1
sec 2 ( x/2)
2 sec 2 ( x/2)
=
sec 2 ( x/2)
2 [1 + tan 2 ( x/2)]
=
1 + tan 2 ( x/2)
1 tan 2 ( x/2)
=
, Q .E .D .
1 + tan 2 ( x/2)
sin ( x/2)
sin x = 2
cos 2 ( x/2)
cos ( x/2)
1
= 2 tan ( x/2)
sec 2 ( x/2)
2 tan ( x/2)
=
, Q .E .D .
1 + tan 2 ( x/2)
x

## c. u = tan ( x/2) 2 tan 1 u = x dx =

cos x =
1

1+

1+ u
2 du
=
= du
(1 + u 2 ) + (1 u 2 )
1
e.
dx = du = u + C = tan ( x/2) + C
1 + cos x
1
dx
108. a. sec x dx =
cos x
1 + u 2 2 du
2

=
=
du
1 u2 1 + u2
1 u2
1
1
+
du
b. sec x dx =
1 u 1+ u
= ln | 1 u | + ln |1 + u| + C
2

1+ u
1 + tan ( x/2)
+ C = ln
+C
1 u
1 tan ( x/2)

= ln

sec x dx = ln

c.

1 + tan ( x/2)
+C
1 1 tan ( x/2)

## tan ( /4) + tan ( x/2)

+C
1 tan ( /4) tan ( x/2)
= ln |tan ( /4 + x/2)| + C

= ln

d. i.

1
0

## = ln |tan (/4 + 1/2)| ln |tan /4|

= ln |tan (/4 + 1/2)| = 1.226191

1 u2
2u
from part b.
2 and sin x =
1+ u
1 + u2

1 + cos x dx
1
2 du
=

1 u 1+ u

d.

256

2 du
1 + u2

ii.

## sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x|

= ln |sec 1 + tan 1| ln |1 + 0| =
ln |sec 1 + tan 1| = 1.226191 , which
agrees with the answer in part i.
1
1
2 du

109.
dx =
2
1 u 1 + u2
1 cos x
1
1 + u2
2 du
du 1
=
=
+C
2
2 =
(1 + u ) (1 u )
u2
u

= cot (x/2) + C
1
1
2 du

110.
dx =
2
u
1 + sin x
1 + u2
1+
2
1+ u
2 du
du
1
=
=
+C
2
2 =
(1 + u ) + 2u
(u + 1)
u +1
1
=
+C
tan ( x/2) + 1

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

111.

1 u2
cos x
1 + u 2 2 du
dx =
1 u2 1 + u2
1 cos x
1
1 + u2

R3. a.

1 u2
1
2
=
du = 2
du
2
u
u (1 + u 2 )
1 + u2
1
= 2 tan 1 u + C
u
1
=
2 tan 1[tan ( x/2)] + C
tan ( x/2)

x cos 2 x dx
3

= cot (x/2) x + C
Or:

1 cos x dx = 1 + 1 cos x dx
cos x

= dx +

b.

4x

sin 3 x dx

Review Problems
R0. Answers will vary.
R1. f ( x ) = x cos x
f ( x ) = x(sin x) + (1) cos x = cos x x sin x
x cos x dx + C = f ( x ) dx

=
c.

x (ln x ) dx
2

1
0

## x sin x dx = sin x x cos x

u
dv
(ln x)2 + x
1
1 2
2 ln x x
2x
-----------------------ln x
x
1 1 2
x
2x
------------------------

1
2x
1 2
4x

## = sin 4 4 cos 4 sin 1 + cos 1 = 1.5566

R2.

3 4x
4
e cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x + C
25
25

= sin x x sin x dx

Numerically,

4x

dv
sin 3x
1
3 cos 3x
1
9 sin 3x

= (cos x x sin x ) dx

## Problem Set 9-13

1
4
= e 4x cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x
3
9
16 4x

e sin 3 x dx
9
25 4x

e sin 3 x dx
9
1
4
= e 4x cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x + C1
3
9
e 4x sin 3 x dx

u
e 4x
4e 4x
16e

## Problem Set 9-12

dv
cos 2x
1
2 sin 2x
1
4 cos 2x
1
8 sin 2x
1
16 cos 2x

1 3
3
x sin 2 x + x 2 cos 2 x
2
4
3
3
x sin 2 x cos 2 x + C
4
8

1 cos x dx

## = x cot (x/2) + C (using Problem 109)

u
x3
3x 2
6x
6
0

x sin x dx 1.5566 K .

5x sin 2 x dx

u = 5x

dv = sin 2x dx

du = 5 dx

1
v = cos 2 x
2

1
1
= 5 x cos 2 x +
cos 2 x (5 dx )
2

2
5
5
= x cos 2 x + sin 2 x + C
2
4

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1 2
1
1
x (ln x )2 x 2 ln x + x 2 + C
2
2
4
d. Slice parallel to the y-axis. Pick a sample
point (x, y) on the graph, within the slice.
dV = 2 x y dx = 2 x(x ln x) dx
= 2 x 2 ln x dx
=

V = 2

x 2 ln x dx

u
ln x

1
x

dv
x2
1 3
3x

----------------------

1
0

1 2
3x
1 3
9x

257

2
1
1
= 2 x 3 ln x x 3
3
9 1
16
16
2
16
14
= ln 2 + = ln 2
3
9
9
3
9
= 6.7268K

R4. a.

cos

d.

sec

u
secx
secx tanx

x dx

dv
sec 2 x
tanx

## = sec x tan x (sec 1) sec x dx

= sec x tan x + sec x dx sec x dx
2 sec x dx
= sec x tan x tan 2 x sec x dx
2

30

u
cos 29x
29 cos 28x sinx

dx

dv
cosx
sinx

x sin x + 29 cos

29

= cos

29

28
28

sec

x (1 cos x ) dx
2

30 cos dx
30

## = cos 29 x sin x + 29 cos 28 x dx

e.

cos dx
30

1
29
cos 29 x sin x +
cos 28 x dx
30
30
1
4
b. sec 6 x dx = sec 4 x tan x +
sec 4 x dx
5
5
1
4
= sec 4 x tan x + sec 2 x tan x
5
15
8
2
+
sec x dx
15
1
4
= sec 4 x tan x + sec 2 x tan x
5
15
8
+ tan x + C
15
=

c.

## tan x dx = tan x (tan x dx )

= tan x (sec x 1) dx
= tan x sec x dx tan x dx
1
=
tan x tan x dx
n 1
cos x dx = (1 sin x ) (cos x dx )
= (1 2 sin x + sin x )(cos x dx )
n2

n2

n2

n2

n 1

R5. a.

## 32 dx = ( tan 9 32) dx = ( tan 9 32) x + C

f. r = 9 + 8 sin
1
1
dA = r 2 d = (9 + 8 sin )2 d
2
2
1 /4
A=
(64 sin 2 + 144 sin + 81) d
2 0
1 /4
=
[32(1 cos 2 ) + 144 sin + 81] d
2 0
1
81 /4
= 16 sin 2 72 cos +

2
2 0
81
= 4 8 36 2 + + 72
8
113
=
+ 64 36 2 = 57.4633K
8

R6. a.

x 2 49 dx
v

x 2 49

u
7

## Problem Set 9-13

x
= sec . x = 7 sec ,
7
dx = 7 sec tan d,

Let
2

1
2
= tan 5 x + tan 3 x + tan x + C
5
3
1
c.
sin 2 7 x dx =
(1 cos 14 x ) dx
2
1
1
= x sin 14 x + C
2
28

258

## sec x dx = (tan x + 1) (sec x dx )

= (tan x + 2 tan x + 1)(sec x dx )

tan

2
1
= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C
3
5
b.

x dx

1
1
sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x | + C
2
2

n2

x 2 49 = 7 tan , = sec 1

x
7

x 49 dx
= (7 tan )(7 sec tan d )
= 49 sec tan d
= 49 sec d sec d

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1
1
= 49 sec tan + ln |sec + tan |
2
2

ln |sec + tan | + C1

c.

1 0.25 x 2 dx
v

49
49
=
sec tan
ln |sec + tan | + C1
2
2
49 x

2 7

x 2 49
7

1
x x 2 49
2
49
+
ln 7 + C1
2
1
= x x 2 49
2
=

b.

1 0.25x 2

0.5 x
= sin .
1
x = 2 sin , dx = 2 cos d,

Let

x 2 49
+ C1
7

49
x
ln +
2
7

0.5x

x
2
1 0.25 x 2 dx = (cos )(2 cos d )

## 1 0.25 x 2 = cos , = sin 1

49
ln x + x 2 49
2

= 2 cos d = (1 + cos 2 ) d
49
ln x + x 2 49 + C
2

x 2 10 x + 34 dx =

( x 5)2 + 9 dx

(x 5)2 + 9
x5

1
= + sin 2 + C = + sin cos + C
2
1
1 x
= sin
+ x 1 0.25 x 2 + C
2 2
d. Slice region vertically. Pick sample point
(x, y) on the upper branch of the circle,
within the strip.
dA = 2 y dx = 2 25 x 2 dx
v

u
3

x5
= tan .
3
x = 5 + 3 tan , dx = 3 sec2 d,

Let

## ( x 5)2 + 9 = 3 sec , = tan 1

x5
3

x
= sin . x = 5 sin , dx = 5 cos d ,
5
x
25 x 2 = 5 cos , = sin 1
5

Let

9
9
sec tan + ln |sec + tan | + C1
2
2

9 ( x 5)2 + 9 x 5
2
3
3
+

9
ln
2

( x 5) + 9 x 5
+
+ C1
3
3

2
= 2
= 25

A=

x =4

25 x 2 dx
5 cos (5 cos d )

x =3
x =4
x =3

(1 + cos 2 ) d

= 25 + 12.5 sin 2

1
=
( x 5)2 + 9 ( x 5)
2
9
9
+ ln ( x 5)2 + 9 + x 5 ln 3 + C1
2
2
1
2
= ( x 5) x 10 x + 34
2
9
+ ln x 2 10 x + 34 + x 5 + C
2

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25 x 2

( x 5) + 9 dx
= (3 sec )(3 sec d ) = 9 sec d

x =4
x =3

= 25 + 25 sin cos

x =4
x =3

4
x
x 1
+ 25
25 x 2
5
5 5
3
= 25 sin 1 0.8 + 4 9 25 sin 1 0.6 3 16
= 25(sin 1 0.8 sin 1 0.6) = 7.0948
(6 x + 1) dx
(6 x + 1) dx
R7. a.
=
x 2 3x 4
( x + 1)( x 4)
1
5
=
+
dx
x +1 x 4

= 25 sin 1

= ln |x + 1| + 5 ln |x 4| + C
Problem Set 9-13

259

b.

5 x 2 21x 2
dx
( x 1)( x + 2)( x 3)

R8. a.
y

3
4
2
=
+

dx
x 1 x + 2 x 3

= 3 ln |x 1| + 4 ln |x + 2| 2 ln |x 3| + C
c.

5 x 2 + 3 x + 45
dx =
x3 + 9x

5 x 2 + 3 x + 45
dx
x ( x 2 + 9)

5
3
x
= + 2
dx = 5 ln | x | + tan 1 + C
x x + 9
3

## (The second integral may be found by

inspection or by trigonometric substitution.)
d.

5 x + 27 x + 32
dx
x ( x + 4) 2
2

x
1

b. f ( x ) = sec 1 3x
3
1
f ( x ) =
=
2
|3 x | (3 x ) 1 | x | 9 x 2 1
c.

2
3
1
= +

dx
x x + 4 ( x + 4) 2

= 2 ln | x | + 3 ln | x + 4 | + (x + 4) 1 + C
1
= ln | x 2 ( x + 4)3 | +
+C
x+4
dy
e.
= 0.1( y 3)( y 8)
dx
dy
= 0.1 dx
( y 3)( y 8)

1/5

1/5

y 3 + y 8 dy = 0.1 dx

dv
1
x

1 + 25x dx
1
1
5x
(50 x dx )
10 1 + 25 x
5x

1
ln |1 + 25 x 2 | + C
10
(Absolute values are optional because
1 + 25x 2 > 0.)
d. Obvious way: Slice the region vertically.
Pick a sample point (x, y) on the graph,
within the strip.
dA = y dx = cos 1 x dx
= x tan 1 5 x

A=

cos 1 x dx = x cos 1 x 1 x 2

1
0

= cos 1 0 0 + 1 = 1
Easier way: Slice horizontally. Pick a sample
point (x, y) on the graph within the strip.
dA = x dy = cos y dy
A=

y8

= 0.25e 0.5 x
y3
((y 8)/(y 3) < 0 because (0, 7) is on the
graph)
5
y = 3+
1 + 0.25e 0.5 x
The graph shows that solution fits slope field.

u
tan 1 5x
5
1 + 25x 2

5x dx

= x tan 1

y8
= 0.5 x ln 4
y3

y8
= e 0.5 x ln 4 = 0.25e 0.5 x
y3

= x tan 1 5 x

1
1
ln | y 3 | + ln | y 8 | = 0.1x + C1
5
5
ln | y 3 | + ln | y 8 | = 0.5x + C
Substituting (0, 7) gives
C = ln 4 + ln 1 = ln 4.
ln

tan

/2

cos y dy = sin y

/2

= 1 0 = 1

R9. a.
y

x
1

b.
y

y
1

7
1

260

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. h(x) = x2 sech x
h(x) = x2 sech x tanh x + 2x sech x
d. f ( x ) = sinh 1 5x
5
f ( x ) =
25 x 2 + 1
e.

tanh 3 x dx =

b.

f.

cosh

u
cosh 1 7x
7
49x 2 1

/2

= x cosh 7 x

7x
49 x 2 1

a /2

R10. a.

= lim 5( x 2)

b
b
0.2

c.

b

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x 2/3 dx

= lim
b 0

x 2/3 dx + lim+
a 0

= lim 3 x 1/3

dv
1

b 0

b
1

2/3

dx

+ lim+ 3 x 1/3
a 0

1
a

1/3

b0

dx

( x 2) 1.2 dx

a /2

a0

## The integral converges to 6.

d.

x | x 1| dx
x 1

= lim

( x 2) 1.2 dx = lim

tan x dx

## The integral diverges.

1
( 49 x 2 1) 1/2 (98 x dx )
14
1
= x cosh 1 7 x 2( 49 x 2 1)1/2 + C
14
1
= x cosh 1 7 x
49 x 2 1 + C
7
g. cosh2 x sinh2 x
1
1
= (e x + e x ) 2 (e x e x ) 2
2
2
1 2x
1
2 x
= (e + 2 + e ) (e 2 x 2 + e 2 x )
4
4
= 1, Q .E .D .
1
h. The general equation is y = k cosh x + C.
k
y = 5 at x = 0 5 = k cosh 0 + C
C=5k
3
y = 7 at x = 3 7 = k cosh + 5 k
k
3
2 = k cosh k
k
k = 2.5269 (solving numerically)
t
y = 2.5269K cosh
+ 5 2.5269K
2.5269K
y(10) = 68.5961 20
x
= 2.5269K cosh
+ 5 2.5269K
2.5269K
x = 6.6324 (solving numerically)
= x cosh 1 7 x

## = lim (ln |sec 0 | ln |sec a |) =

a /2

= lim ln |sec x |

1
sinh 3 x dx
cosh 3 x

7x dx

tan x dx = lim
0

1
= ln |cosh 3 x | + C
3
(Absolute values are optional because
cosh 3x > 0.)
1

b1

( x + 1) dx + lim+
a1

(
a

x 1) dx

2
= lim x 3/2 + x

b1 3

2
+ lim+ x 3/2 x

1
a
3
0

4
a

2
= lim b 3/ 2 + b 0

b1 3
2
2
+ lim+ 4 3/2 4 a 3/2 + a

a1 3
3
2 3/2
2 3/2
2 3/2
= 1 +1 + 4 4 1 +1
3
3
3
16
10
= 1+ 4 +1 =
3
3
10
The integral converges to
= 3.333K .
3
e.

## x p dx converges if p > 1 and diverges

otherwise.
R11. a. f ( x ) = x sin 1 x f ( x ) = sin 1 x +

b. I = x sin 1 x dx

1 2 1
1
x sin x
2
2

Let I1 =

u
sin 1 x
1
1 x2

x 2 dx
1 x2

dx = cos d ,
= sin 1 x

x
1 x2

dv
x
1 2
2x

x 2 dx
1 x2
and x = sin .

1 x 2 = cos ,

## Problem Set 9-13

261

sin 2 cos d
= sin 2 d
cos
1
1
1
=
(1 cos 2 ) d = sin 2 + C
2
2
4
1
1
= sin cos + C
2
2
1
1
1
= sin x x 1 x 2 + C
2
2
1 2 1
1
1
I = x sin x sin 1 x + x 1 x 2 + C
2
4
4
d
x
x
2 x
c.
tanh e = e sech e
dx
1
d. ( x 3 x ) 1 dx = 3
dx
x x
1
=
dx
x ( x 1)( x + 1)
1 1/2
1/2
= +
+
dx
x x 1 x + 1
1
1
= ln | x | + ln | x 1| + ln | x + 1| + C
2
2
e. f ( x ) = (1 x 2)1/2
1
f ( x ) = (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x ) = x (1 x 2 ) 1/2
2
I1 =

## differential of the inside function, 2x dx,

requires multiplying by a variable. Because the
integral of a product does not equal the product of
the two integrals, you cant divide on the outside
of the integral by 2x. So a more sophisticated
technique must be used, in this case,
trigonometric substitution. As a result, an
inverse sine appears in the answer:
x
(9 x 2 ) 1/2 dx = sin 1 + C
3

f. I = (1 x 2 )1/2 dx
Let x = sin .
dx = cos d , (1 x 2 )1/2 = cos ,
= sin 1 x
I = cos cos d = cos 2 d

x ln x dx

1
x

dv
x
1 2
2x

-------------------1
1 2x
0

1 2
4x

1 2
1
x ln x x 2 + C
2
4

## R12. For (9 x 2 ) 1/2 x dx, the x dx can be

transformed to the differential of the inside
function by multiplying by a constant,
1

(9 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx ) = (9 x 2 )1/2 + C,
2
and thus has no inverse sine.

262

C1.

sech x dx =

1 tanh 2 x dx

tanh x

u
tanh2x

## Let tanh x = sin .

x = tanh 1 (sin ) and = sin 1 (tanh x)
1
1
dx =
d
2 cos d =
1 sin
cos

u
ln x

Concept Problems

## 1 tanh 2 x = 1 sin 2 = cos

1
sech x dx = cos
d = d
cos
= + C = sin 1 (tanh x ) + C, Q .E.D .

1
1
1
=
(1 + cos 2 ) d = + sin 2 + C
2
2
4
1
1
= + sin cos + C
2
2
1
1
1
= sin x + x 1 x 2 + C
2
2
1
g. g( x ) = (ln x )2 g( x ) = 2 ln x
x
h.

1
0

## = sin 1 (tanh 1) sin 1 (tanh 0)

= sin 1 (tanh 1) = 0.86576948
Numerical integration gives 0.86576948 ,
which agrees with the exact answer.
C2. From sinh 2A = 2 sinh A cosh A,
let A = x/2, so
sinh x = 2 sinh (x/2) cosh (x/2) csch x
1
1
=
=
sinh x 2 sinh ( x/2) cosh ( x/2)
1
sech 2 ( x/2)
csch x =

## 2 sinh ( x/2) cosh ( x/2) sech 2 ( x/2)

1
sech 2 ( x/2)
sech 2 ( x/2)
2
=
=
tanh ( x/2)
2 tanh ( x/2)
1
1
csch x dx =
sech 2 ( x/2) dx

tanh ( x/2) 2
= ln | tanh (x/2) | + C, Q .E .D .

2
1

## = ln |tanh 1| ln |tanh(1/2) | = 0.49959536 K

Numerical integration gives 0.49959536 .
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## C3. From sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A, let A = x/2, so

sin x = 2 sin (x/2) cos (x/2)
1
1
csc x =
=
sin x 2 sin ( x/2) cos ( x/2)
1
sec 2 ( x/2)

## 2 sin ( x/2) cos ( x/2) sec 2 ( x/2)

1
sec 2 ( x/2)
sec 2 ( x/2)
2
=
=
tan ( x/2)
2 tan ( x/2)
1
1
csc x dx =
sec 2 ( x/2) dx
tan ( x/2) 2

= ln | tan (x/2) | + C, Q .E .D .
Or:
Let u = tan (x/2), as in Problem 107 of Problem
Set 9-11.
2 du
1 + u2
Then dx =
2 and csc x =
1+ u
2u
1 + u 2 2 du
csc x dx =

2u 1 + u 2
= (1/u) du = ln | u | + C = ln |tan ( x/2)| + C,
=

Chapter Test
T1.

sin

T2.

T3.

Q .E .D .
Confirmation:
1

0.5

1 6
sin x + C
6
u
x3
3x 2
6x
6
0

sinh 6 x dx

1
2 dx
1 + x
0
1
= lim
2 dx + lim
a a 1 + x
b

= lim tan 1 x
a

0
a

1+ x
0

+ lim tan 1 x
b

x
1 x2

dv
1
x

dx

T4.

sec x dx
3

1
1
sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x | + C
2
2

2x

cos 5 x dx

u
e 2x
2e 2x
4e 2x

dv
cos 5x
1
5 sin 5x
1
25 cos 5x

b
0

= ( /2) + ( /2) =
C5. Prove that f (x) = ln x is unbounded above.
Proof:
Assume f (x) = ln x is not unbounded above.
Then there is a number M > 0 such that
ln x < M for all x > 0.
Let x = eM+ 1.
Then ln x = ln eM+ 1 = M + 1.
ln x > M, which is a contradiction.
the assumption is false, and ln x is unbounded
above, Q.E.D.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dx

## = lim (0 tan 1 a) + lim (tan 1 b 0)

a

1
(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )
2
1
= x cos 1 x (2)(1 x 2 )1/2 + C
2
1
= x cos x 1 x 2 + C

T5.
b

u
cos 1x
1

x2

x dx

= x cos 1 x

0.5

cos

1
1
= ln tan ln tan = 0.7605K
2
4
Numerical integration gives 0.7605 .
2 sin ( x/2) cos ( x/2)
Note that tan ( x/2) =
2 cos 2 ( x/2)
sin x
1
=
=
, so
1 + cos x csc x + cot x
ln |tan ( x/2)| = ln |csc x + cot x | .

dv
sinh 6x
1
6 cosh 6x
1
36 sinh 6x
1
216 cosh 6x
1
1296 sinh 6x

1 3
1
x cosh 6 x x 2 sinh 6 x
6
12
1
1
+ x cosh 6 x
sinh 6 x + C
36
216

= x cos 1 x +

## csc x dx = ln |tan ( x/2)|

C4. A =

x cos x dx =

1 2x
2
e sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x
5
25
4

e 2 x cos 5 x dx
25
29 2 x
e cos 5 x dx
25
1
2
= e 2 x sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x + C
5
25
=

e
=

2x

cos 5 x dx

5 2x
2
e sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x + C
29
29

## Problem Set 9-13

263

T6.

ln 3x dx

u
ln 3x
1/x

= ln

dv
1
x

= x ln 3 x dx = x ln 3 x x + C
ii.

## T7. f (x) = sech (e )

f (x) = 3 sech2 (e5x) [sech (e5x)
tanh (e5x)] 5e5x
= 15e5x sech3 (e5x) tanh (e5x)
1
T8. g( x ) = sin 1 x g ( x ) =
1 x2
3

5x

## T9. f (x) = tanh 1 x tanh f (x) = x, |x| 1

sech2 f(x) f (x) = 1
[1 tanh2 f (x)] f (x) = 1
(1 x2) f (x) = 1
1
f ( x ) =
, |x | < 1
1 x2
1
1
f (0.6) =
=
= 1.5625
1 0.36 0.64
Numerically, f (0.6) 1.5625 (depending on
the tolerance of the calculator).
1
T10. General equation is y = k cosh x + C.
k
y = 1 at x = 0 1 = k cosh 0 + C
C=1k
5
y = 3 at x = 5 3 = k cosh + 1 k
k
Solving numerically, k 6.5586 .
1
y = 6.5586 K cosh
x + 1 6.5586 K
6.5586 K
x3
x3
T11. a. i. I =
dx =
dx
2
x 6x + 5
( x 3)2 4

x3

(x 3)2 4

x3
= sec . x 3 = 2 sec ,
2
dx = 2 sec tan d,
Let

x3
2
(2 sec )(2 sec tan d )
4 tan 2

= ln

264

1
( x 3)2 4 + C1
2

## Problem Set 9-13

1
ln | x 2 6 x + 5 | + C
2

x 3
1/2
1/2
+
dx =
dx

6x + 5
x 1 x 5
1
1
= ln | x 1| + ln | x 5 | + C
2
2
1
= ln | ( x 1)( x 5) | + C
2
1
= ln | x 2 6 x + 5 | + C,
2
which agrees with part a.

x3
dx
6x + 5
1
1
=
(2 x 6) dx
2 x2 6x + 5
1
= ln | x 2 6 x + 5| + C, as in parts a and b.
2
b. See parts i, ii, and iii.
iii.

T12.

cos

x dx =

2 (1 + cos 2 x ) dx

=
T13. a. i.

1
1
x + sin 2 x + C
2
4

## cos x dx = (1 sin x ) cos x dx

= (1 2 sin x + sin x ) cos x dx
5

2 3
1
sin x + sin 5 x + C
3
5
1
4
ii. cos 5 x dx = cos 4 x sin x +
cos3 x dx
5
5
1
4
= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x
5
15
8
+
cos x dx
15
1
4
= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x
5
15
8
+ sin x + C
15
1
4
8
4
b.
cos x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x
5
15
15
1
= (1 sin 2 x )2 sin x
5
4
8
+ (1 sin 2 x ) sin x + sin x
15
15
1
2 3
1 5
= sin x sin x + sin x
5
5
5
4
4
8
+ sin x sin 3 x + sin x
15
15
15
= sin x

u
2

I=

( x 3)2 4 + C

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T14.

1 4
8
2 4
= + + sin x + sin 3 x
5 15 15
5 15

## = lim (10 xe 0.1x 100e 0.1x )

1
+ sin 5 x
5
2
1
= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x
3
5

= lim (10 be

xe 0.1x dx

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b
b

0.1b

100e

0.1b

b
0

+ 0 + 100)

10 b + 100
+ 100

e 0.1b
10

= lim
0.1b + 100 (by lHospitals rule)
b 0.1e
= 100
T15. Answers will vary.
= lim
b

u
x
1
0

dv
e 0.1x
10e 0.1x
100e 0.1x

265

## Chapter 10The Calculus of MotionAverages,

Extremes, and Vectors
Problem Set 10-1
1. v(t) = 100(0.8) 30 = 100e
30 = 0
ln 0.3
t ln 0.8
e
= 0.3 t =
= 5.3955K
ln 0.8
v becomes negative after t0 5.40 min.
t

2. sup =

t0

v dt =

t ln 0.8

t0

sdown =

10

t0

v dt =

10

t0

## = 51.8110 (numerically) 51.8 ft

Distance = sup + sdown = 203.6452 203.6 ft
3. Displacement = sup sdown = 100.0231
100.0 ft
The displacement is positive, so Calvin is
upstream of his starting point.
4. Displacement =

10

## (100e t ln 0.8 30) dt

5. Distance =

Distance =

|t

(t
0

10t + 16) dt = 12 ft

1
10t + 16 | dt = 41 ft
3

2
2
+ 26 = 12 ft
3
3
2
2
1
Distance = 14 + 26 = 41 ft
3
3
3

d. Displacement = 14

e. a(t) = v(t) = 2t 10
a(3) = 2(3) 10 = 4 (ft/s)/s
2. a. v(t) = tan 0.2t on [10, 20]
v(t) = 0 t = 0, 5 , 10 , = 5 in
[10, 20]
v(t) is infinite t = 2.5 , 7.5 , ,
none of which is in [10, 20].
v(t) < 0 for t in [10, 5 ). v(t) > 0 for t in
(5, 20].

## = 100.0231 (numerically) 100.0 ft

10

c. Displacement =

|v| dt =

10

|100e

t ln 0.8

30 | dt

## b. For [10, 5), displacement =

Q1. 120 mi
Q3. 1.25 h
Q5. x ln x x + C
Q7. g(t) = sech2 t
Q9.

1 x
2 +C
ln 2

Q2. 25 mi/h
Q4. f (x) = 1/x
Q6. f (t) = sec2 t
1 3
Q8.
x +C
3
Q10. ln 2 e x ln 2 = 2 x ln 2

## 1. a. v(t) = t2 10t + 16 on [0, 6]

v(t) = (t 2)(t 8) = 0 t = 2 or 8 s
v(t) > 0 for t in [0, 2). v(t) < 0 for t in (2, 6].
b. For [0, 2), displacement
2
2
= (t 2 10t + 16) dt = 14
0
3
2
Distance = 14 ft
3
For (2, 6], displacement
6
2
= (t 2 10t + 16) dt = 26
2
3
2
Distance = 26 ft
3

266

tan 0.2t dt

10

## = 5 ln | sec | 5 ln | sec 2 | = 4.3835

Distance = 4.3835 4.38 cm
For (5, 20], displacement =

20

tan 0.2t dt

## = 5 ln |sec 4| 5 ln | sec | = 2.1259

Distance = 2.1259 2.13 cm
c. Displacement =
2.26 cm
Distance =

20

10

20

10

## |tan 0.2t | dt = 6.5095K

6.51 cm
d. Displacement = 4.3835 + 2.1259 =
2.2576 2.26 cm
Distance = (4.3835) + 2.1259 =
6.5095 6.51 cm
e. a( t) = v(t) = 0.2 sec2 t
a( 15) = 0.2 sec2 3 = 0.2040 0.20 (cm/s)/s

t 2 on [1, 11]
24
v(t) = 0 when

## cos t = 0.5 t = 8 in [1, 11]

24
v(t) < 0 for t in [1, 8). v(t) > 0 for t in
(8, 11].

3. a. v(t ) = sec

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## b. For [1, 8), displacement =

sec 24 t 2 dt
1

24
=
ln sec + tan
16

3
3

24
ln sec
+ tan
+2

24
24
= 4.9420
Distance 4.94 km
For (8, 11], displacement
11

= sec t 2 dt

8
24

24
11
11
ln sec + tan 22

24
24

24
ln sec + tan + 16

3
3
= 4.7569
Distance 4.76 km
11

c. Displacement = sec t 2 dt =

1
24
0.1850 K 0.19 km
11

Distance =
sec t 2 dt = 9.6990 K
1
24
9.70 km

## d. Displacement = 4.9420 + 4.7569 =

0.1850 0.19 km
Distance = (4.9420) + 4.7569 =
9.6990 9.70 km

t tan
t
sec
e. a(t ) = v (t ) =
24
24
24
a( 6) = 0.1851 0.19 (km/h)/h
exactly 2

24
4. a. v(t) = t3 5t2 + 8t 6 on [0, 5]
v(t) = (t 3)(t2 2t + 2) = 0 t = 3 in [0, 5]
v < 0 for t in [0, 3). v > 0 for t in (3, 5].
b. For [0, 3), displacement =
3
3
(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 6
0
4
3
Distance = 6 mi
4
For (3, 5], displacement =
5
2
(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 24
3
3
2
Distance = 24 mi
3
c. Displacement =
5
11
(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 17 mi
0
12
5
5
3
2
Distance = | t 5t + 8t 6 | dt = 31 mi
0
12

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3
2
11
+ 24 = 17 mi
4
3
12
3
2
5
Distance = 6 + 24 = 31 mi
4
3
12
e. a( t) = v(t) = 3t2 10t + 8
a(2.5) = 1.75 (mi/min)/min
d. Displacement = 6

## 5. a(t ) = t 1/2, v(0) = 18, on [0, 16]

2
v(t ) = t 1/2 dt = t 3/2 + C; v(0) = 18 C = 18
3
2 3/2
v(t ) = t 18
3
16 2
t 3/2 18 dt = 14 14 ft
Displacement =

0 3
15
16 2
7
Distance =
t 3/2 18 dt = 179 ft
0
3
15

## v(t ) = t 1 dt = ln t + C (t > 0); v(1) = 0 C = 0

v(t ) = ln t
Displacement =

1.6

0.4

ln t dt = 0.0814

0.081 cm
Distance =

1.6

0.4

|ln t | dt = 0.3854

0.385 cm
7. a(t ) = 6 sin t, v(0) = 9, on [0, ]
v(t ) = 6 sin t dt = 6 cos t + C; v(0)

= 9 C = 3
v(t) = 6 cos t 3
Displacement =

(6 cos t 3) dt =

## 9.4247 9.42 km (exact: 3 km)

Distance =

| 6 cos t 3| dt = 13.5338

13.53 km (exact: 6 3 + )
8. a(t) = sinh t, v(0) = 2, on [0, 5]
v(t ) = sinh t dt = cosh t + C

v(0) = 2 C = 3
v(t) = cosh t 3
Displacement =

(cosh t 3) dt =
0

## 59.2032 59.20 mi (exact: sinh 5 15)

Distance =

|cosh t 3| dt
0

= 64.1230 K 64.12 mi
9. a. v = t 2 = 0 t = 4 s;
v < 0 if t < 4, v > 0 if t > 4
1/2

b. Displacement =
c. Distance =

|t
1

(t
1

1/2

1/2

1
2) dt = 1 ft
3

2| dt = 4 ft

## Problem Set 10-2

267

1
1
10. a. v = sin 2t = 0 at t = , , , 0, ,
2
2
3
, ,
2
1
sin 2t 0 on 0, , so
2
Distance =

/2

4.5

4.5

Displacement =
b. Distance =

40

10

40

10

(60 2t ) dt = 300 ft

|60 2t | dt = 500 ft

## v(t ) = ( 40 cos 0.015t 9.8) dt

40
=
sin 0.015t 9.8t + C
0.015
v(0) = 0 C = 0
For t > 100, v(t ) = 9.8 dt = 9.8t + C

40
sin 1.5 980 = 1679.986
0.015
C = 1679.986 + 980 = 2659.986
40 sin 0.015t 9.8t, t in [0, 100]
v(t ) = 0.015
9.8t + 2659.986 K ,
t > 100
v(100) =

a (t )
30

t
100

v (t )

1000

268

100

sin 2t dt = 9 cm

## 40 cos 0.015t 9.8, t in [0, 100]

12. a. a(t ) =
t > 100
9.8,
For t in [0, 100],

100

sin 2t dt = 1 cm

## Or: The regions where the graph is below

the x-axis cancel out the regions where the
graph is above the axis, leaving only one
uncancelled region above the graph, so
Displacement = area from part a = 1 cm. The
absolute values of the regions above and
below the graph are the same, so Distance =
9 times the area from part a = 9 cm.
11. a. v = 60 2t

c. Displacement =

sin 2t dt = 1 cm

b. Displacement =
Distance =

1
9.8
cos 1
=
0.015
40
88.2184 K 88.2 s
v = 0 at t = 2,659.986/9.8 = 271.4272
271.4 s

b. a = 0 at t =

300

v(t ) dt

## 40 sin 0.015t 9.8t dt

0.015

300

100

(9.8t + 2659.986 K) dt

## 116202.27 + 139997.32 256,200 m

Distance = 116202.27 +

300

100

| 9.8t + 2659.986 K | dt

## = 116202.27 + 147998.09 264,200 m

The distance is greater than the displacement,
which agrees with the fact that the velocity
becomes negative at t = 271.4 s.
d. v(300) = 9.8(300) + 2,659.986 =
280.0133 , so the rocket is moving
downward (falling) at about 280 m/s.
13. a.
tend
s

aav
(mi/h)/s

vend
mi/h

vav
mi/h

7.375

send
mi
0

2.95

14.75

10

3.8

33.75

24.25

0.0102
0.0439

15

1.75

42.5

38.125

0.0968

20

0.3

44

43.25

0.1569

25

44

44

0.2180

30

44

44

0.2791

35

44

44

0.3402

40

0.2

43

43.5

0.4006

45

0.9

38.5

40.75

0.4572

50

2.6

25.5

32

0.5017

55

3.5

16.75

0.525

60

1.6

0.5305

## b. At t = 60, vend = 0, the train is at rest.

c. The train is just starting at t = 0; its
acceleration must be greater than zero to get it
moving, even though it is stopped at t = 0.
Acceleration and velocity are different
quantities; the velocity can be zero but
changing, which means the acceleration is
nonzero.
d. Zero acceleration means the velocity is
constant, but not necessarily zero.
e. The last entry in the last column is the
displacement at time t = 60. Thus, it is
0.5305 0.53 mi between stations.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

14. a.

v (t )

tend
s

aav
(mi/h)/s

v end
mi/h

vav
mi/h

send
mi

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

8.5
22
33
39.5
42.5
53
71
83.5
47.5
3

6000
6085
6305
6635
7030
7455
7985
8695
9530
10005
10035

6042.5
6195
6470
6832.5
7242.5
7720
8340
9112.5
9767.5
10020

400
416.7847
433.9930
451.9652
470.9444
491.0625
512.5069
535.6736
560.9861
588.1180
615.9513

## b. According to these calculations, the spaceship

is only about 620 mi from the launchpad and
moving at only about 10,000 mi/h. So the
specifications are definitely not met, and the
project should be sent back to the drawing
board.
dv
15. a. a =
v = a dt = at + C;
dt
v = v 0 when t = 0 C = v 0 v = v 0 + at
ds
b. v =
s = v dt = (v0 + at ) dt =
dt
1
v0 t + at 2 + C
2
s = s0 when t = 0 C = s0
1
s = v0 t + at 2 + s0
2
16. Use s(t) for displacement. Assume v(0) =
s(0) = 0.
2, if 0 t < 6
a. a(t ) =
0, if t 6

10

t
0

10

t
0

## b. The acceleration suddenly jumps from 0 to 2

at t = 0 and drops back to 0 at t = 6. (The
velocity graph has cusps in both places.)

c. a(t ) = 2 2 cos t
3

t0
t0
3
= 2 2 cos 0 = 0

## lim a(t ) = lim 2 2 cos t

t 6
3

t 6

= 2 2 cos 2 = 0
Because a(t) is continuous at t = 0 and 6,
there are no sudden changes in acceleration.

2 2 cos t, if 0 t 6
d. a(t ) =
3
0,
if t 6
2t 6 sin t, if 0 t 6
v(t ) =
3

if t 6
12,
e.
v (t )
10

t 2 ,
if 0 t < 6
s( t ) =

,
t
12
36
if t > 6

t
0

s(6) = 36.
a (t )

10

## There are no step discontinuities in a(t), and

thus the graph of v(t) is smooth.
f.

2t 6 sin t dt = t 2 + 18 cos t

0
3
3 0

18
18
2 0 2 = 36

= 36 +
t

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

50

2t, if 0 t < 6
v(t ) =
12, if t > 6

10

s(t )

10

269

## g. The elevator will take another 36 ft to slow

down and stop. So the deceleration should
start where the elevator is 564 ft up, about
the 47th floor (from part h, one floor = 12 ft).
h. The elevator takes a total of 12 s to accelerate
and decelerate. During these intervals it
travels a total of 72 ft, leaving 528 ft for the
constant velocity portion. At 12 ft/s, this part
of the trip will take 44 s. Thus, the total trip
takes 56 s.
i. The elevator must start to decelerate halfway
through the trip, where s(t) = 6 ft. Solving
b

2t sin 3 t dt = 6
6

## numerically for b gives b 3.1043

3.1 s.
a(3.1043) = 3.9880 4.0 ft/s2
By symmetry, the deceleration process must
start at this time, meaning the acceleration
jumps to 3.9880 ft/s2. The graph looks
like this:

## b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.
f (x )

y = 41

50

x
1

c. 41 = c3 c + 5
c = 3.4028 , which is in [1, 5].
1 9 1/2
1
2. a. yav =
( x x + 7) dx = 4
8 1
6
b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded
region.

f (x )
5

y = 4.1666...

x
1

5 a (t )

1
= c1/2 c + 7
6
c = 5.0892 , which is in [1, 9].
1 7
3. a. yav =
3 sin 0.2 x dx = 2.0252
6 1
b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded
region.
c. 4

t
0

6.2

## Thus, the passengers get a large jerk at the

midpoint of the trip.
One way to remedy the problem is to reduce
the acceleration so that the elevator goes only
6 ft instead of 36 ft in the first 6 seconds.
That is,
1 1

a(t ) = cos t
3 3
3
You may think of other ways.

50 mi/h
20 min
No local maximum
f (x) = 16 (at x = 1)
Mean value theorem

1. a. yav =

270

1
4

Q2.
Q4.
Q6.
Q8.
Q10.

( x 3 x + 5) dx =

y = 2.0252...

x
1

## c. 2.0252 = 3 sin 0.2c

c = 3.7053 , which is in [1, 7].
1 1.5
4. a. yav =
tan x dx = 2.5181
1 0.5
b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded
region.

Q1.
Q3.
Q5.
Q7.
Q9.

g (x )
3

30 mi
2
1.5
infinite
D

1
(164) = 41
4

h(x )
10

y = 2.5181...
x
0.5

1.5

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. 2.5181 = tan c
c = 1.1927 , which is in [0.5, 1.5].
1 9
1
5. a. yav =
t dt = 2
8 1
6
b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded
region.

v (t)
3

y = 2.1666...

t
1

1
= c
6
25
c = 4 , which is in [1, 9].
36
1 3
100
6. a. yav =
(2 + e 3 )
100(1 e t ) dt =
3 0
3
= 68.3262
b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded
region.
c. 2

v (t )
100
y = 68.32...

t
0

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

c. 68.3262 = 100(1 e c)
c = 1.1496 , which is in [0, 3].
1 k 2
1
yav =
ax dx = ak 2
k 0
3
1 k 3
1 3
yav =
ax dx = ak
k 0
4
1 k x
1
yav =
ae dx = a(e k 1)
k 0
k
1 k
1
yav =
tan x dx = ln | sec k |
k 0
k
1/2
a(t) = 6t
v(t) = 12t1/2 + C; v(0) = 60 C = 60
v(t) = 12t1/2 + 60
s(t) = 8t3/2 + 60t + s0
v(25) = 120 ft/s
Displacement = s(25) s(0) = 2500 ft
vav = 2500/25 = 100 ft/s
The general equation of a parabola with vertex
(h, k) is v k = a(t h)2. Vertex is at
(t, v) = (2, 50), so
v 50 = a(t 2)2 . v = 30 when t = 0, so
20 = a(2)2 a = 5.

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

v = 50 5(t 2)2
1 4
1
vav =
[50 5(t 2)2 ] dt = 43 mi/h
4 0
3
1
This is just 13 mi/h above the speed limit.
3
If Ida wins her appeal, her fine will be
1
1
7 13 = \$93 \$93.33, which is \$46.67 less
3
3
than what she now faces.
13. Consider an object with constant acceleration a,
for a time interval [t0, t1].
v(t ) = a dt = at + C

## At t = t0, v(t) = v 0 v 0 = at0 + C

C = v 0 at0.
v(t) = at + v0 at0 = v0 + a(t t0)
t1

vav

[v

=
t0

+ a(t t0 )] dt

t1 t0
1
1
1
=
v0 t1 + a(t1 t0 )2 v0 t0 a(t0 t0 )2
2
2
t1 t0

1
a(t1 t0 )
2
The average of v0 and v1 is
1
1
(v0 + v1 ) = [v0 + v0 + a(t1 t0 )]
2
2
1
= v0 + a(t1 t0 )
2
vav = the average of v0 and v1, Q.E.D.
14. Counterexample: In Problem 11, the cars
acceleration is a = 6/ t .The initial velocity is
v(0) = 60 ft/s; the final velocity after 25 seconds
is v(25) = 120 ft/s; and the average velocity is
vav = 100 ft/s. But the average of the initial and
1
final velocities is [v(0) + v(25)] = 90 ft/s vav .
2
15. a. Integral = area = 12(100 + 70)/2 + 6(40) +
12(40 + 10)/2 = 1560
yav = 1560/30 = 52, or \$52,000
Cost of inventory = 0.50(52000)/100 =
\$260.00
b. At x = 12, they may have had a single, large
sale, dropping the inventory from \$70,000 to
\$40,000. There is no day on which the inventory
is worth \$52,000.
= v0 +

y (thousand dollars)
100
No x where y = 52
50

10

20

x (days)
30

271

16.
y (ft)
Water surface
5

10

15

20

25

x (ft)
30

## 19. v = A sin 120 t and y = | A sin 120 t |

1 1/60
yav =
| A sin 120 t | dt
1/60 0

= 60
y av = 6.5142

=
10

## Integral = (area of 4 rectangles, 2 trapezoids,

and 2 quarter-circles)
2(8) + 8(10) + 7(3) + 1(2) +
7[10 + (5)]/2 + 5[5 + (3)]/2 (22)
(1)2/4 = 195.4269
yav = 195.4269/30 = 6.5142 , or about
6.51 feet deep.
The volume would equal 6.5142 times the area
of the horizontal cross section times the number
of gallons in a cubic foot.
17. Integral 3(16/2 + 15 + 15 + 17/2) +
2(17 + 20)/2 + 1(20 + 14)/2 + 3(14/2 + 10 +
9 + 8 + 9/2) = 139.5 + 37 + 17 + 115.5 = 309
yav = 309/24 = 12.875 12.9C
The average of the high and low temperatures is
(20 + 8)/2 = 14C, which is higher than the
actual average. Averaging high and low
temperatures is easier than finding the average by
calculus, but the latter is more realistic for such
applications as determining heating and air
conditioning needs.
18. a. At x = 3, y = 81.3139 81.3 mg.
1 3
1
yav =
200e 0.3 x dx = (395.6202 K)
3 0
3
= 131.8734 131.9 mg

## b. k = 81.3139 , so the equation is

y = 281.3139e 0.3(x 3 ) .
6
1

## yav = 395.6202 K + 281.3139K e 0.3( x 3) dx

3
6

1
= (395.6202 K + 556.4674 K) = 158.6812 K
6
158.7 mg

## c. As the graph shows, there are two times in

[0, 6] at which there are 158.7 mg. So the
conclusion of the mean value theorem is true,
in spite of the discontinuity.

/
1120

A sin 120 t dt 60
1/120

A
cos 120t
2

1/60

/
1120

A sin 120 t dt

A
cos 120t
2

1/60
1/120

A
2A
( cos + cos 0 + cos 2 cos ) =
2

2A
If yav = 110, then
= 110 A = 55

= 172.78 V.
The average value of one arc of

1
2
y = sin x is
sin x dx = , and
0 0

## y = sin x has a maximum value of 1. A

horizontal stretch does not affect the average
value. Write a proportion to find the maximum
of a sinusoidal curve with an average value
2/ 110
of 110.
=
, so m = 55 .
m
1
=

20. a. d = k sin x
1 2 2 2
2
dav
k sin x dx
=
2 0

=
=

k2 1
1
x sin 2 x

2 2
4

k
k2
( 0 0 + 0) =
2
2

rms = k/ 2 = 0.7071K k
b. cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x sin 2 x =

1 1
cos 2 x
2 2

y
1

## c. By symmetry across the line y =

1
, the
2

1 1
cos 2 x (and hence
2 2
1
y = sin2 x) over [0, 2] is . Thus, the
2
1
2
2
average of y = k sin x is k 2 .
2
rms = k/ 2 , as in part a.
average of y =

y (mg)
300

y av = 158.68...
200

100
Two times

x (h)
1

272

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## d. By symmetry, it suffices to find the average

and rms for one arch of the graph, that is,
over [0, ].
1
yav =
|sin x | dx
0
1
=
sin x dx (because sin x 0 in [0, ])
0

1
2
= cos x =

0
1
2
dav =
(|sin x | 2/ ) 2 dx 0.094715K
0
rms 0.0947151/2 = 0.3077
The maximum distance between high and low
points for this curve is 1; a sinusoidal curve
with maximum distance 1 between high and
1
low points has equation y = sin x, with
2
rms = 2 /4 = 0.3535K(using part a). This
number is greater than the rms for |sin x|,
so |sin x| is smoother.

## Ann should swim toward a point about 21.8 m

downstream.
2.
100

100 x

30

1
1
(100 x ) +
30 2 + x 2
13
12
The graph shows a minimum T at x 72.
T =

T
10

x
100

Algebraic solution:
1
1
T = + (30 2 + x 2 ) 1/2 2 x
13 24
1
1
=
T = 0
x (30 2 + x 2 ) 1/ 2
13 12
13x = 12(302 + x2)1/2
169x2 = 144 302 + 144x2
x = 72
The diver should swim for 100 72 = 28 m,
then dive.

## Problem Set 10-4

Q1. x = 81
1
Q3. (100 x 2 )3/2 + C
3
1 2x 1 2x
Q5.
xe e + C
2
4
Q7. 1.5
Q9. t = 4

Q2. y = x(100 x 2) 1/ 2
Q4. y = 3 (1 9x2) 1/ 2
Q6. y = sech2 x
Q8. t = 1 and t = 4
Q10. A

3.
1000

1.

1000 x

300

50

C = 40(1000 x ) + 50 300 2 + x 2
The graph shows a minimum C at x 400
(exactly x = 400).

100 x
100

1
1
50 2 + x 2 + (100 x )
2
5
The graph shows a minimum T at x 22 m.
T=

C
100,000

T 100

x
1000

x
100

Algebraic solution:
1
1
T = (50 2 + x 2 ) 1/2 2 x
4
5
1
1
2
2 1/2
T = 0 (50 + x ) x =
2
5
5x = 2(502 + x 2)1/2
25x 2 = 4 502 + 4x 2
x = 100/ 21 = 21.8217K

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

## The pipeline should be laid 600 m along the road

from the storage tanks, then straight across the
field to meet the well.
4.
120
400 x

400

273

## W = 3000( 400 x ) + 4000 120 2 + x 2

The graph shows a minimum W at x 136
(exactly x = 360/ 7 = 136.067K).

9.

W
2,000,000

x
400

## The walkway should go 400 136.067

263.9 m parallel to the street, then cross
the street.
5. a. For minimal path, x = 100/ 21.
sin =

x
50 + x 2
2

## b. For minimal path, x = 400.

x
sin =
= 0.8 = 40/50, Q .E.D .
300 2 + x 2

7. sin =

49,213
49,002
49,000
49,002
49,155

T (x )

x
500

900

## The minimum occurs at an endpoint of the

domain. Because Calvin can walk entirely along
pavement when x = 0, there is a removable
discontinuity in the above function and
T(0) = 100 + 240 = 340 s. Because T(500) =
433.333 , which is greater than 340, the
minimum time is at x = 0. Calvins time is
minimized by staying on the sidewalks. If road
construction (for instance) prevented Calvin from
walking on Heights Street, his time would be
minimized by walking directly to Phoebes
house.

12
13

## 16x2 = 9(1202 + x2)

7 x 2 = 9 120 2 x = 360/ 7 = 136.067
The walkway should go 400 136.067
263.9 m parallel to the street, then cross the
street.
The algebraic solution is easier than before
because no algebraic calculus needs to be done.
Mathematicians find general solutions to gain
insight, and to find patterns and methods to allow
easier solution of similar problems.

300
390
400
410
500

500

s
, Q .E .D .
w

12
x = 30 tan sin 1 = 72

13
The diver should swim 100 72 = 28 m, then
dive. The algebraic solution is easier than before
because no algebraic calculus needs to be done.
Mathematicians find general solutions to gain
insight, and to find patterns and methods to allow
easier solution of similar problems.
x
3000 3
8. sin =
=
=
2
2
4000 4
120 + x

C(x), approximate

## The table shows that a near miss will have

virtually no effect on the minimal cost. For
instance, missing the optimal value of x by
10 m will make about a \$2 difference in cost,
and missing by 100 m makes only a \$150 to
\$200 difference.
1
1
10. T ( x ) = (500 x ) +
1200 2 + x 2
5
3
The graph shows a local minimum at x 900 ft
(exact: 900 ft), which is out of the domain.

## 6. Distance swimming = p 2 + x 2 . Distance

walking = k x.
1 2
1
T=
p + x 2 + (k x )
s
w
x
1 1
1
T =
= sin
2
2
w s
w
s p +x
T = 0 sin =

11.
120
300 x

x
70

1
1
120 2 + x 2 +
70 2 + (300 x )2
50
130
The graph shows a minimum T at x 48 yd.
T=

x
300

274

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Algebraically:
x
300 x
T =

2
2
50 120 + x
130 70 2 + (300 x )2
Setting T = 0 and simplifying leads to a
fourth-degree equation, which must be solved
numerically. Minimum is at x = 47.8809
47.9 yd.

## b. Light always takes the path requiring the least

time between two points.
c. When you look at the object, your mind tells
you that the light rays go straight. Actually,
they are bent, as shown in the diagram. So
the object is deeper than it appears to be.
Because water < air, v water < v air.

12.

Apparent path
of light rays

Air

120 1

1
300 x

Apparent
depth

Actual path
of light rays
Water
70

Actual
depth

## 15. Answers will vary.

From Problem 11,
x
300 x
T =

2
2
50 120 + x
130 70 2 + (300 x )2
By trigonometry,
x
sin 1 =
,
120 2 + x 2
300 x
sin 2 =
2
70 + (300 x )2
1
1
T =
sin 1
sin 2
50
130
For minimal path, T = 0. Thus,
1
1
sin 1 =
sin 2
50
130
sin 1
50
=
, Q. E . D .
sin 2 130
1
1
a2 + x 2 +
b 2 + (k x )2
v1
v2
x
kx
T =

2
2
2
v1 a + x
v2 b + ( k x ) 2

13. T =

sin 1 =
sin 2 =
T =

## Problem Set 10-5

Q1. f (x) = sin x + x cos x
Q3. xex ex + C
Q5. x
Q6.

Q2. g(x) = x 1
Q4. Snells law
Q7.
y
1

x
1

## Q8. Total distance

Q9. Newton and Leibniz

Q10. C

1
1. D = t + D = 1 t 2
t
The graphs show zero derivative and local
minimum of D at t = 1, and maximum of D at
t = 3.
3 D or D'

D
D'
t

a2 + x 2
kx

b 2 + (k x )2
1
1
sin 1 sin 2
v1
v2

## For minimal path, T = 0. Thus,

1
1
sin 1 = sin 2
v1
v2
sin 1 v1
= , Q .E .D .
sin 2 v2
14. a. The light rays take the minimal time to get
from one point to another, just as Robinson
Crusoe wanted to take the minimal time to
get from hut to wreck.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## D = 0 t 2 = 1 t = 1, confirming the graph.

Minimum is D(1) = 2, or 2000 mi.
1
Maximum is D(3) = 3 , or about 3333 mi.
3
2. Fuel cost per mile = k v2.
At v = 30, cost = 0.18.
1
0.18 = k 30 2 k =
5000
100 2000
Driver cost is 20t = 20
=
.
v
v
2000
v2
2000 v 2
C=
+
100 =
+
v
5000
v
50
2000 v
C = 2 +
v
25
Problem Set 10-5

275

## The graphs show minimum C at v 37 mi/h;

C is multiplied by 10 so that it is easier to see
its behavior around C = 0.
C = 0 at v = 103 50 = 36.8403
C or C' times 100
C
100

v
85 100

37
C' times 10

## 3. Maximize f(x) = x x2.

f (x) = 1 2x; f (x) = 0 at x = 0.5;
f (x) = 2, so graph is concave down
everywhere.
Maximum of f (x) is at x = 0.5.
4. Maximize f (x) = x x 2 for x 2.
The graph shows maximum at endpoint x = 2.
f (x )

## ii. G(2) = 54.5454 , 55, about 1 point

less.
6. a. = 130 12T + 15T 2 4T 3 , 0 T 3
d
= 12 + 30T 12T 2 = 6(2T 1)(T 2)
dT
d
= 0 at T = 0.5 or T = 2
dT
(0) = 130
(0.5) = 127.25
(2) = 134
(3) = 121
Maximum viscosity occurs at T = 2, or 200.
b. Minimum viscosity = 121 centipoise at
T = 3, or 300.
c.

d d dT
=

dt dT dt
Because T = t ,

When T = 1,

dT
1
1
=
=
.
dt 2 t 2T

dT
d
= 0.5 and
= 6.
dt
dT

d
= 0.5(6) = 3
dt
Viscosity is increasing at 3 centipoise/min.
7. a. Put a coordinate system with origin at the
center of the cones base. Pick a sample point
(x, y) where the cylinder touches the element
of the cone. Thus, x is the radius of the
cylinder and y is its altitude. The volume and
surface area are
V = x 2y
A = 2 x 2 + 2 x y
The cone element has equation y = 0.6x + 6.
V = x 2(0.6x + 6) = (0.6x3 + 6x2)
A = 2 x 2 + 2 x(0.6x + 6)
= (0.8x2 + 12x)

## Because f (2) is the maximum and it is negative,

there is no number greater than 2 that exceeds its
square.
100t
9
900t
5. a. S =
;F=
;G =
t +1
t+9
(t + 1)(t + 9)
The graph shows a maximum of G at t = 3
hours.
y
S
G
50
F times 20

t
10

900t
900t
= 2
(t + 1)(t + 9) t + 10t + 9
900(t 2 + 10t + 9) 900t (2t + 10)
G =
(t 2 + 10t + 9)2
900(9 t 2 )
= 2
(t + 10t + 9)2
G = 0 t = 3
Because G changes from positive to negative
at t = 3, there is a local maximum there, as
in the graph.
Fran should study for 3 hours.
c. Optimum grade = G(3) = 56.25 56 (Not
good!)
i. G(4) = 55.3846 55, about 1 point
less.

b. G =

276

y
600
A

V
x
10

## b. From the graphs, the maximum volume

occurs where the radius x 6.7 in. The
maximum area occurs at x = 10, where all of
the area is in the two bases of the cone.
Algebraically,
V = ( 1.8x2 + 12x)
2
V = 0 x = 0 or x = 6
3

## Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Maximum V is at x = 6

2
in., as shown on
3

## the graph, and y = 2 in.

A = (1.6x + 12)
A = 0 x = 7.5, which is out of the
domain.
A(0) = 0 and A(10) = 200, so maximum A
is at x = 10 in., as shown on the graph, and
y = 0 in.
The maximum volume and maximum area do
not occur at the same radius.
Note that the radius of the cone is large
compared to its altitude. Thus, the increase in
areas of the two bases of the cylinder offsets
the decrease in its lateral area as x increases,
making the maximum area that of the
degenerate cylinder of altitude zero.
8. a. Put a coordinate system with origin at the
center of the cones base. Pick a sample point
(x, y) where the cylinder touches the element
of the cone. Thus, x is the radius of the
cylinder and y is its altitude.
dy
dV
Know:
= 2 in./min. Want:
.
dt
dt
V = x 2y
The cone element has equation y = 3x + 18,
1
from which x = 6 y.
3
2
1
1
V = 6 y y = 36 y 4 y 2 + y 3

3
9
1
1
dV
= 36 8 y + y 2 = ( y 6)( y 18)

3 3
dy
dV dV dy 2
=

= ( y 6)( y 18)
dt
dy dt 3
dV
When y = 12,
= 24 .
dt
V is decreasing at 24 = 75.3982
75.4 in.3/min.
b. If t [0, 9], then y [0, 18].
dV
= 0 y = 6 or y = 18
dt
V(0) = 0; V(6) = 96 ; V(18) = 0
Maximum V is 96 in.3 at t = 3 min.
c. If t [4, 6], then y [8, 12].
No critical points for V are in [8, 12].
V(8) = 88.8888; V(12) = 48
Maximum V is 88.8888 279.3 in.3 at
t = 4 min.
dV
dy
= 0.7 m 3 /min. Want: .
9. Know:
dt
dt
dV = x2 dy
dV
dy
dy 0.7

= x 2

=
dt
dt
dt x 2
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

## When the water is 3 m deep, y = 8.

Because y = x 4 + 5, x = 4 3 .
dy 0.7
=
= 0.1286 K 0.129 m/min
dt 3
10. a. Pick a sample point (x, y) where the cylinder
touches the parabola. Thus, the radius of the
cylinder is x and its altitude is y.
dx
dV
Know:
= 0.3. Want:
.
dt
dt
V = x 2y = x 2(4 x 2) = (4x 2 x 4)
dV
dx
= (8 x 4 x 3 )
= 1.2 (2 x x 3 )
dt
dt
dV
When x = 1.5,
= 0.45 .
dt
dV
b.
= 4 (2 x x 3 )
dx
dV
= 0 x = 0, 2 ( 2 is out of domain)
dx
V (0) = V (2) = 0; V ( 2 ) = 4
Maximum volume = 4 12.6 units3 at
radius = 2 units.
11. a. w = 1000 + 15t (lb); p = 0.90 0.01t (\$/lb)
A = (1000 + 15t)(0.90 0.01t)
= 900 + 3.5t 0.15t2 (\$)
dA
35
2
b.
= 3.5 0.3t = 0 at t =
= 11 days
dt
3
3
2
Maximum A at t = 11 , not a minimum,
3
dA
because
goes from positive to negative
dt
there.
2
5
c. A 11 = 920 \$920.42
3
12
12. a. 0 D 130 0 20x + 10 130
1
x6
2
0 W 310 0 10(x 2 8x + 22)
310 1 x 9
Given x 1, the domain of x is [1, 6].
b. Minimize/maximize W on x [1, 6].
dW
= 10(2 x 8) = 0 at x = 4.
dx
W(1) = 150; W(4) = 60; W(6) = 100
Minimum: W = 60 ft (at x = 4 mi)
Maximum: W = 150 ft (at x = 1 mi)
c. C = k D W
= k (20x + 10) 10(x 2 8x + 22)
= 100k(2x3 15x2 + 36x + 22)
(k > 0)
dC
2
= 100 k (6 x 30 x + 36)
dx
= 600 k ( x 2)( x 3)
dC
= 0 x = 2 or x = 3
dx
Problem Set 10-5

277

## C(1) = 4500k; C(2) = 5000k; C(3) = 4900k;

C(6) = 13,000k
Cheapest bridge at x = 1 mi.
d. No. The shortest bridge at x = 4 mi would
cost C(4) = 5400k, which is 900k more than
the cheapest bridge at x = 1.

## Problem Set 10-6

Q1. x cos x + sin x + C Q2. 2xe3x + 3x2e3x
2x
Q3.
+C
Q4. 53 = 125
ln 2
1 4
6 sec 2 6t 2
x +7
Q6.
= sec 2 ln x 2
4
3e 3t
x
Q7. parametric
Q8. x ln x x + C
Q9. x2
Q10. E
1. The velocity is tangent to the path, the
acceleration is toward the concave side of the
path, and there is an obtuse angle between
acceleration and velocity.
Q5.

## 2. The velocity is tangent to the path, the

acceleration is toward the concave side of the
path, and there is an acute angle between the
acceleration vector and the velocity vector.
y

r
r
r
3. a. r = (e t cos t ) i + (e t sinr t ) j
r
r
v = (e t cos t e t sin t ) i + (e t sin t + e t cos t ) j
r
r
r
v (1) = 0.8186 Ki + 3.7560 j
x is decreasing at t = 1 because dx/dt is
negative.
Speed = 0.8186 K2 + 3.7560...2 =
3.8442 3.84 cm/s
b. L =
1

t

## s1 (1) = 12 + 2 2 2.24 cm/s and

s2 (1) = 1.52 + 1.52 2.12 cm/s
b. Distance =

12 + [2(t 2)]2 dt

6.1257 6.13 m
c. The paths cross at (x, y) = (1,
r 1) and (2, 4).
By tracing on the grapher, r1 is at (1, 1)
r
when t = 1, but r2 is not at (1, 1) until
t = 2.
By further tracing, both paths are at (2, 4)
when t = 4.
So the particles collide only at (x, y) = (2, 4)
when t = 4.
r
r
r
5. a. r (t ) = (10 sin 0.6t )i + ( 4 cos 1.2t ) j
r
r
r
v (t ) = (6 cos 0.6t )i + ( 4.8 sin 1.2t ) j
r
r
r
a (t ) = ( 3.6 sin 0.6t )i + ( 5.76 cos 1.2t ) j
r
r
r
b. r (0.5) = (10 sin 0.3)i + ( 4 cos 0.6) j
r
r
= 2.9552 i + 3.3013 j
r
r
r
v (0.5) = (6 cos 0.3)i + ( 4.8 sin 0.6) j
r
r
= 5.7320 i 2.7102 j
r
r
r
a (0.5) = ( 3.6 sin 0.3)i + ( 5.76 cos 0.6) j
r
r
= 1.0638i 4.7539 j
r r
r
The graph shows r , v , and a at t = 0.5.
y

t = 0.5
at
v

x
an a

t=7
v

2e 2 t dt = 2 (e 1) = 2.4300 K 2.43

## Distance from origin

= (e1 cos1)2 + (e1 sin 1)2
= e = 2.7812 2.78 cm
278

## (Note that the distance traveled is less than the

distance from the origin because the particle
started at (1, 0), not at (0, 0).)
r
r
r
c. a = ( 2e t sin t )i + (2e t cos t ) j .
r
r
r
a (1) = ( 4.5747...) i + (2.9373...) j
r
r
r
4. a. r1 = (t 2)i + (t 2) 2 j and
r
r
r
r2 = (1.5t 4)i + (1.5t 2) j
r
r
r
r
r
r
v1 = 1i + 2(t 2) j and v2 = 1.5i + 1.5 j
r
r
r
r
r
r
a1 = 0i + 2 j and a2 = 0i + 0 j
r
r
r
r
r
r
v1 (1) = i 2 j and v2 (1) = 1.5i + 1.5 j
r
r
r
r
r
r
a1 (1) = 0i + 2 j and a2 (1) = 0i + 0 j

## These vectors make sense because the head of

r
r
r is on the graph, v is tangent to the graph,
r
and a points to the concave side of the graph.
c. The object is speeding up because the angle
r
r
between a and v is acute.
Calculus Solutions Manual
2005 Key Curriculum Press

r
d. | v(0.5) | = (6 cos 0.3)2 + (4.8 sin 0.6)2
= 6.3404
r
r
a (0.5) v (0.5) = ( 3.6 sin 0.3)(6 cos 0.3)
+ (5.76 cos 0.6)(4.8 sin 0.6)
= 6.7863 , so the angle is acute.
r
r
a (0.5) v (0.5)
P=
= 1.0703
r
|v (0.5)|
r
r
v (0.5)
at (0.5) = P r
| v (0.5)|
r
r
(6 cos 0.3)i + (4.8 sin 0.6) j
=P
r
| v (0.5)|
r
r
= 0.9676 i 0.4575 j
r
r
r
an (0.5) = a (0.5) at (0.5)
r
r
= 2.0314 i 4.2964 j
See the graph in part b.
r
e. The object is speeding up at | at (0.5)| = P
= 1.0703 1.07 (ft/s)/s.
r
r
r
f. r (7) = (10 sin 4.2)ri + ( 4 cos 8.4r) j
= 8.7157i 2.0771 j
r
r
r
v (7) = (6 cos 4.2)i + ( 4.8 sin 8.4) j
r
r
= 2.9415i 4.1020 j
r
r
r
a (7) = ( 3.6 sin 4.2)i + ( 5.76 cos 8.4) j
r
r
= 3.1376 i + 2.9911 j
See the graph in part b.
The object is slowing down because the
r
r
angle between ra andr v is obtuse.
a (7) v (7)
(Note that P =
= 4.2592 , so
r
| v (7)|
the object is slowing down at 4.2592
4.26 (ft/s)/s.)
r
r
r
r
r
g. r (0) = (10 sin 0)i + ( 4 cos 0) j = 0i + 4 j
r
r
r
r
r
v (0) = (6 cos 0)i + ( 4.8 sin 0) j = 6i + 0 j
r
r
r
a (0) = ( 3.6 sin 0)i + ( 5.76 cos 0) j
r
r
= 0i 5.76 j
r
r
a (0) v (0) = (0)(6) + ( 5.76)(0) = 0
r
r
a(0) and v(0) are perpendicular, Q.E.D.
This means the object is neither slowing
down nor speeding up at t = 0.
r
r
r
6. a. r (t ) = (8 cos 0.8t )i + (6 sin 0.4t ) j
r
r
r
v (t ) = ( 6.4 sin 0.8t )i + (2.4 cos 0.4t ) j
r
r
r
a (t ) = ( 5.12 cos 0.8t )i + ( 0.96 sin 0.4t ) j
r
r
r
b. r (1) = (8 cos 0.8)i + (6 sin 0.4) j
r
r
= 5.5736 i + 2.3365 j
r
r
r
v (1) = ( 6.4 sin 0.8)i + (2.4 cos 0.4) j
r
r
= 4.5910 i + 2.2105 j
r
r
r
a (1) = ( 5.12 cos 0.8)i + ( 0.96 sin 0.4) j