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45K Ansichten360 SeitenCalculus Concepts and Applications Paul A Foerster

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Calculus Concepts and Applications Paul A Foerster

© All Rights Reserved

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45K Ansichten360 SeitenCalculus Concepts and Applications Paul A Foerster

© All Rights Reserved

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C o n c e p t s an d Ap p l i c a t i o n s

Second Edition

Solutions Manual

P a u l A. F o e r s t e r

Project Administrator: Shannon Miller

Consulting Editor: Christopher David

Accuracy Checkers: Jenn Berg, Dudley Brooks

Production Director: Diana Jean Ray

Production Editor: Angela Chen

Copyeditor: Margaret Moore

Production Coordinator: Michael Hurtik

Text and Cover Designer: Jenny Somerville

Art Editors: Jason Luz, Laura Murray Productions

Art and Design Coordinator: Kavitha Becker

Cover Photo Credit: Alec Pytlowany/Masterfile

Compositor: Interactive Composition Corporation

Printer: Alonzo Printing

Publisher: Steven Rasmussen

Limited Reproduction Permission

The publisher grants the teacher who purchases Calculus: Concepts and Applications Solutions Manual the

right to reproduce material for use in his or her own classroom. Unauthorized copying of Calculus:

Concepts and Applications Solutions Manual constitutes copyright infringement and is a violation of federal

law.

The Geometers Sketchpad, Dynamic Geometry, and Key Curriculum Press are registered trademarks

of Key Curriculum Press. Sketchpad is a trademark of Key Curriculum Press. Fathom Dynamic Statistics

is a trademark of KCP Technologies, Inc. All other registered trademarks and trademarks in this book are the

property of their respective holders.

Key Curriculum Press

1150 65th Street

Emeryville, CA 94608

editorial@keypress.com

www.keypress.com

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

12 11 10 09 08

ISBN: 978-1-55953-657-8

Contents

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

iii

Overview

This Solutions Manual contains the answers to all problems in Calculus: Concepts and

Applications. Solutions or key steps in the solutions are presented for all but the simplest

problems.

In most cases the solutions are presented in the form your students would be expected to

use. For instance, decimal approximations are displayed as exact answers using ellipsis

format for a mathematical-world answer, then rounded to an appropriate number of

decimal places with units of measurement applied for the corresponding real-world

answer. An answer such as f(3) = 13.7569... 13.8 cm indicates that the precise answer,

13.7569... , has been retained in memory in the students calculator without round-off for

possible use in subsequent computations. The ellipses indicate that the student chooses not

to write all the digits on his or her paper.

Because the problems applying to the real world may be somewhat unfamiliar to both you

and your students, fairly complete solutions are presented for these. Often commentary is

included over and above what the student would be expected to write to further guide your

evaluation of students solutions, and in some cases reference is provided to later sections

in which more sophisticated solutions appear. Later in the text, the details of computing

definite integrals by the fundamental theorem are omitted because students are usually

expected to do these numerically. However, exact answers such as V = 8/3 are presented

where possible in case you choose to have your students do the algebraic integration.

Solutions are not presented for journal entries because these are highly individual for each

student. The prompts in most problems calling for journal entries should be sufficient to

guide students in making their own responses.

Where programs are called for, you may use as a model the programs in the Instructors

Resource Book. Check the publishers Web page (see the address on the copyright page of

this manual) for further information on programs for specific models of the graphing

calculator.

If you or your students find any mistakes, please report them to Key Curriculum Press by

sending in the Correction/Comment Form in the back of this book.

Paul A. Foerster

Problem Set 1-1

1. a. 95 cm

b. From 5 to 5.1: average rate 26.34 cm/s

From 5 to 5.01: average rate 27.12 cm/s

From 5 to 5.001: average rate 27.20 cm/s

So the instantaneous rate of change of d at

t = 5 is about 27.20 cm/s.

c. Instantaneous rate would involve division

by zero.

d. For t = 1.5 to 1.501, rate 31.42 cm/s.

The pendulum is approaching the wall: The

rate of change is negative, so the distance is

decreasing.

e. The instantaneous rate of change is the limit

of the average rates as the time interval

approaches zero. It is called the derivative.

f. Before t = 0, the pendulum was not yet

moving. For large values of t, the pendulums

motion will die out because of friction.

2. a. x = 5: y = 305, price is $3.05

x = 10: y = 520, price is $5.20

x = 20: y = 1280, price is $12.80

b. x = 5.1, rate 46.822 /ft

x = 5.01, rate 46.9820 /ft

x = 5.001, rate 46.9982 /ft

c. 47 /ft. It is called the derivative.

d. x = 10: 44 /ft. x = 20: 128 /ft

e. The 20-ft board costs more per foot than the

10-ft board. The reason is that longer boards

require taller trees, which are harder to find.

Q1. Power function, or polynomial function

Q2. f (2) = 8

Q3. Exponential function

Q4. g (2) = 9

Q5.

h (x )

3. a. Decreasing fast

4. a. Decreasing slowly

5. a. Increasing fast

c. Decreasing slowly

6. a. Decreasing fast

c. Increasing fast

7. a. Increasing slowly

c. Increasing slowly

8. a. Decreasing fast

c. Decreasing fast

9. a. Increasing fast

b.

b.

b.

d.

b.

d.

b.

Decreasing slowly

Increasing slowly

Increasing slowly

Increasing fast

Increasing slowly

Decreasing fast

Increasing slowly

b. Decreasing fast

b. Neither increasing

nor decreasing

d. Increasing slowly

b. Decreasing fast

d. Neither increasing

nor decreasing

c. Increasing fast

10. a. Decreasing slowly

c. Decreasing fast

11. a.

T(x) (C)

100

50

x (s)

100

200

x = 100: rate = 0/s

x = 140: rate 0.8/s

b. Between 0 and 80 s the water is warming

up, but at a decreasing rate.

Between 80 and 120 s the water is boiling,

thus staying at a constant temperature.

Beyond 120 s the water is cooling down,

rapidly at first, then more slowly.

12. a.

v ( x ) (ft/s)

x

1

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

1.

2.

h (5) = 25

Q7.

y=x

Q9.

Derivative

a. Increasing slowly

a. Increasing fast

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y = ax2 + bx + c, a 0

y = |x|

70

60

50

40

30

20

b. Increasing fast

b. Decreasing slowly

10

x (s)

1

x = 2: rate 18 (ft/s)/s

x = 5: rate = 0 (ft/s)/s

x = 6: rate 11 (ft/s)/s

b. Units are (ft/s)/s, sometimes written as ft/s2.

The physical quantity is acceleration.

13. a.

h (x)

r(1) is undefined.

Estimate: r approaches the average of r(0.99)

and r(1.01), 108.0586 foxes/year. (Actual

is 108.0604 .)

The instantaneous rate is called the

derivative.

f (4.01) f (4)

= 129.9697

0.01

f (4) f (3.99)

= 131.4833

0.01

Instantaneous rate = (129.9697

131.4833)/2 = 130.7265 foxes/year

(actual: 130.7287)

The answer is negative because the number of

foxes is decreasing.

a(2.1) a(2)

15. a. Average rate =

=

0.1

2

52.9902 mm /h

d.

18

2

3 4

Increasing at x = 3

Decreasing at x = 7

b. h (3) = 17, h(3.1) = 17.19

0.19

= 1.9 ft/s

Average rate =

0.1

c. From 3 to 3.01:

0. 0199

average rate =

= 1. 99 ft/s

0.01

From 3 to 3.001:

0.001999

average rate =

= 1.99 ft/s

0.001

The limit appears to be 2 ft/s.

d. h (7) = 9, h(7.001) = 8.993999

0.006001

= 6.001 ft /s

Average rate =

0.001

The derivative at x = 7 appears to be 6 ft/s.

The derivative is negative because h(x) is

decreasing at x = 7.

14. a.

f (t )

Not much

500

300

Decrease

Increase

100

t

10

b. Enter y2 =

y1 (x ) y1(1)

x 1

r(t) = y2 (foxes/year)

0.97

110.5684

0.98

109.7361

0.99

108.9001

b. r (t) =

200(1.2 t ) 200(1.2 2 )

t2

r (t ) (mm2/hr)

60

40

20

t (mm)

2

r(2) is undefined.

c. r(2.01) = 52.556504

52.556504 52.508608 = 0.04789

Use the solver to find t when

r(t) = 52.508608 + 0.01 = 52.518608 .

t = 2.002088 , so keep t within

0.002 unit of 2.

4

16. a. v(x ) = x 3 v(6) = 288

3

4 (6.13 63 )

b. 6 to 6.1: average rate = 3

=

0.1

146.4133

4 (6 3 5. 93 )

5.9 to 6: average rate = 3

=

0.1

141.6133

Estimate of instantaneous rate is

(146.4133 + 141.6133)/2 =

144.0133 = 452.4312 cm3/cm.

4 x 3 4 63

3

c. r (x ) = 3

x6

r(x ) (cm3/cm)

undefined

1.01

107.2171

1.02

106.3703

1.03

105.5200

144

48

x

6

r(6) is undefined.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

r(6.1) is 7.5817 units from the derivative.

Use the solver feature to find x if

r(x) = 144 + 0.1.

x = 6.001326 , so keep x within 0.00132

unit of 6.

17. a. i. 1.0 in./s ii. 0.0 in./s iii. 1.15 in./s

b. 1.7 s, because y = 0 at that time

smaller change in x. See what number these

average rates approach as the change in x

approaches zero.

The numerical method illustrates the fact that

the derivative is a limit.

30. Problems 13 and 14 involve estimating the value

of a limit.

iii. 0.105 in./min

b. The rate is negative, because y is decreasing

as the tire goes down.

19. a. Quadratic (or polynomial)

b. f(3) = 30

c. Increasing at about 11.0 (2.99 to 3.01)

Q1. 72 ft2

Q2. y = cos x

Q3. y = 2

Q4. y = 1/x

Q6. f(5) = 4

Q5. y = x

Q7.

Q8.

y

x

b. f(1) = 12

21. a. Exponential

b. Increasing, because the rate of change from

1.99 to 2.01 is positive.

Q10. x = 3

Q9.

y

22. a. Exponential

b. Increasing, because the rate of change from

3.01 to 2.99 is positive.

23. a. Rational algebraic

b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from

3.99 to 4.01 is negative.

1. f(x) = 0.1x2 + 7

b. Increasing, because the rate of change from

2.01 to 1.99 is positive.

2. f(x) = 0.2x2 + 8

a. Approximately 30.8

a. Approximately 22.2

b. Approximately 41.8

b. Approximately 47.1

8 f(x)

f (x)

b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from

4.99 to 5.01 is negative.

26. a. Linear (or polynomial)

b. Increasing, because the rate of change from

7.99 to 8.01 is positive.

27. a. Circular (or trigonometric)

x

2

b. Decreasing, because the rate of change from

0.99 to 1.01 is negative.

tangent line at the point on the graph and

measure its slope.

To estimate a derivative numerically: Take a

small change in x, find the corresponding

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

4. g( x) = 2 x + 5

3. h(x) = sin x

1.99 to 2.01 is negative.

instantaneous rate of change

5 6

a. Approximately 2.0

a. Approximately 7.9

b. Approximately 1.0

b. Approximately 12.2

g ( x)

h(x)

x

3

curve and the x-axis. Each square represents

(5)(20) = 100 feet. So the distance is about

(6.8)(100) = 680 feet.

6. There are approximately 53.3 squares between the

curve and the x-axis. Each square represents

(0.5)(10) = 5 miles. So the distance is about

(53.3)(5) = 266.5 miles.

tan 1.01 tan 0.99

= 3.42K

7. Derivative

1.01 0.99

8. Derivative = 7 (exactly, because that is the

slope of the linear function)

9. a.

v (t )

v(3.01) v(2.99)

= 1.8648K

3.01 2.99

About 1.86 (ft/s)/s

The derivative represents the acceleration.

From t = 0 to t = 5, the object travels about

11.4 cm. From t = 5 to t = 9, the object travels

back about 4.3 cm. So the object is located about

11.4 4.3 = 7.1 cm from its starting point.

See the text for the meaning of derivative.

See the text for the meaning of definite integral.

See the text for the meaning of limit.

d. Rate

11.

12.

13.

14.

Q1. y changes at 30

Q3.

100

Q4. f (3) = 9

y

60

t

5

8.7 10

b. Using the solver, x = 8.6967 8.7 s.

c. By counting squares, distance 150 ft.

The concept used is the definite integral.

v(5.01) v( 4.99)

d. Rate

= 3.1107K

5.01 4.99

About 3.1 (ft/s)/s

The concept is the derivative.

The rate of change of velocity is called

acceleration.

10. a.

10

v (t)

t

1

Domain: 0 t 4

Range: 0 v(t) 9.3203

c. By counting squares, the integral from t = 0

to t = 4 is about 21.3 ft. The units of the

integral are (ft/s) s = ft. The integral tells

the length of the slide.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

100

366 days

Definite integral

a.

Q8. Derivative

Q10. f (x) = 0 at x = 4

v (t )

20,000

t

30

v(20) + v(25) + 0.5v(30)) = 5(56269.45) =

281347.26 281,000 ft

The sum overestimates the integral because

the trapezoids are circumscribed about the

region and thus include more area.

c. The units are (ft/s)(s), which equals feet, so

the integral represents the distance the

spaceship has traveled.

d. Yes, it will be going fast enough, because

v(30) = 27,919.04 , which is greater than

27,000.

2. a. v(t) = 4 + sin 1.4t

v (t )

5

t

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

x-variable times the y-variable. Distance =

rate time. Because v(t) is distance/time

and t is time, their product is expressed in

units of distance.

c. See graph in part a.

Distance 0.5(0.5v(0) + v(0.5) + v(1) +

v(1.5) + v(2) + v(2.5) + 0.5v(3)) =

0.5(26.041) = 13.02064 13.0 ft

d. v(3) = 3.128 3.1 mi/h

Maximum speed was 5 mi/h at about 1.12 h.

Distance 0.6(150 + 230 + 150 + 90 + 40 + 0) =

396 ft

Volume 3(2500 + 8000 + 12000 + 13000 +

11000 + 7000 + 4000 + 6000 + 4500) =

204,000 ft3

Programs will vary depending on calculator. See

the program TRAPRULE in the Instructors

Resource Book for an example. The program

gives T20 = 23.819625.

See the program TRAPDATA in the Instructors

Resource Book for an example. The program

gives T7 = 33, as in Example 2.

a.

9.

f (x )

7

x

1

b. T10 = 18.8955

T20 = 18.898875

T50 = 18.89982

These values underestimate the integral,

because the trapezoids are inscribed in the

region.

c. T10: 0.0045 unit from the exact answer

T20: 0.001125 unit from the exact answer

T50: 0.00018 unit from the exact answer

Tn is first within 0.01 unit of 18.9 when

n = 7.

T7 = 18.8908 , which is 0.0091 unit

from 18.9.

Because Tn is getting closer to 18.9 as n

increases, Tn is within 0.01 unit of 18.9 for

all n 7.

8. a.

10.

11.

12.

13.

b. T10 = 8.6700

T20 = 8.6596

50 = 8.65672475

These values overestimate the integral,

because the trapezoids are circumscribed

about the region.

c. T10: 0.01385 unit from answer

T20: 0.003465 unit from answer

T50: 0.0005545 unit from answer

Tn is first within 0.01 of 8.65617024 when

n = 12.

T12 = 8.665795 , which is 0.009624 unit

from 8.65617024 .

Because Tn is getting closer to the exact

answer as n increases, Tn is within 0.01 unit

of the answer for all n 12.

From the given equation,

y = ( 40/110) 110 2 x 2 . Using the trapezoidal

rule program on the positive branch with n = 100

increments gives 6904.190 for the top half of

the ellipse. Doubling this gives an area of

13,808.38 cm 2 . The estimate is too low

because the trapezoids are inscribed within the

ellipse. The area of an ellipse is ab, where a

and b are the x- and y-radii, respectively. So

the exact area is (110)(40) = 4400 =

13,823.007 cm 2 , which agrees both with the

answer and with the conclusion that the

trapezoidal rule underestimates the area.

Integral = 1(0.0 + 2.1 + 7.9 + 15.9 + 23.8 +

29.7 + 31.8 + 29.7 + 23.8 + 15.9 + 7.9 +

2.1 + 0) = 190.6

The integral will have the units (in.2)(in.) = in.3,

representing the volume of the football.

n = 10: integral 21.045

n = 100: integral 21.00045

n = 1000: integral 21.0000045

Conjecture: integral = 21

The word is limit.

The trapezoidal rule with n = 100 gives

integral 156.0096.

Conjecture: integral = 156

If the trapezoids are inscribed (graph concave

down), the rule underestimates the integral.

If the trapezoids are circumscribed (graph concave

up), the rule overestimates the integral.

g (x )

1

1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Concave down

Inscribed trapezoids

Underestimates integral

Concave up

Circumscribed trapezoids

Overestimates integral

1. Answers will vary.

approximately 23.2.

Distance 23.2 ft (exact answer: 23.2422)

Concept: definite integral

R4. a.

f (x )

Review Problems

15.4 ft.

b. From 3.9 to 4: average rate 40.1 ft/s

From 4 to 4.1: average rate 29.3 ft/s

Instantaneous rate 34.7 ft/s

The distance from water is decreasing, so he is

going down.

d (5.01) d ( 4.99)

70.8

0.02

d. Going up at about 70.8 ft/s

e. Derivative

c. Instantaneous rate

change of a function

Graphical meaning: slope of a tangent line to

a function at a given point

b. x = 4: decreasing fast

x = 1: increasing slowly

x = 3: increasing fast

x = 5: neither increasing nor decreasing

c. From 2 to 2.1:

52.1 52

average rate =

= 43.6547K

0.1

From 2 to 2.01:

52.01 52

average rate =

= 40.5614K

0.01

From 2 to 2.001:

52.001 52

average rate =

= 40.2683K

0.001

Differences between average rates and

instantaneous rates, respectively:

43.6547 40.235947 = 3.4187

40.5617 40.235947 = 0.3255

40.2683 40.235947 = 0.03239

The average rates are approaching the

instantaneous rate as x approaches 2.

The concept is the derivative.

The concept used is the limit.

d. t = 2: 3.25 m/s

t = 18: 8.75 m/s

t = 24: 11.5 m/s

Her velocity stays constant, 7 m/s, from 6 s

to 16 s. At t = 24, Mary is in her final sprint

toward the finish line.

x

1

b. By counting squares, integral 15.0.

(Exact answer is 15.)

c. T 6 = 0.5(2.65 + 5.575 + 5.6 + 5.375 + 4.9 +

4.175 + 1.6) = 14.9375

The trapezoidal sum underestimates the

integral because the trapezoids are inscribed in

the region.

d. T50 = 14.9991; Difference = 0.0009

T100 = 14.999775; Difference = 0.000225

The trapezoidal sums are getting closer to 15.

Concept: limit

R5. Answers will vary.

Concept Problems

C1. a. f (3) = 32 7.3 + 11 1

b. f (x) f (3) = x2 7x + 11 + 1 = x 2 7x + 12

2

c. f ( x ) f (3) = x 7 x + 12 = ( x 4)( x 3) =

x3

x3

x3

x 4, if x 3

d. The limit is found by substituting 3 for x

in (x 4).

Limit = exact rate = 3 4 = 1

C2. The line through (3, f (3)) with slope 1 is

y = x + 2.

f (x )

x

3

a factor of 10 on the point (3, 2) shows that the

graph becomes straighter and looks almost like

the tangent line. (Soon students will learn that

this property is called local linearity.)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

By counting squares, distance 466.

(Exact answer is 466.3496 .)

2

T6.

3

Speed (ft/s)

4 x 2 19 x + 21 ( 4 x 7)( x 3)

=

=

x 3

x 3

4x 7, x 3

When x = 3, 4x 7 = 4 3 7 = 5.

C3. a. f ( x ) =

25

20

15

10

5

b.

Time (s)

5

f (x ) (ft)

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

6

5.8

5

T 7 = 5(2.5 + 5 + 5 + 10 + 20 + 25 + 20 + 5) =

462.5

Trapezoidal rule probably underestimates the

integral, but some trapezoids are inscribed and

some circumscribed.

4.2

4

3

2

1

2.8

1

x (s)

3.2

3

c. 5.8 = 4(3 + ) 7

5.8 = 12 + 4 7

4 = 0.8

= 0.2

d. 4(3 + ) 7 = 5 +

12 + 4 7 = 5 +

4 =

= 14

4.2

4.2

4

= 4(3 ) 7

= 12 4 7

= 0.8

= 0.2

each positive value of , no matter how small

is.

e. L = 5, c = 3. . . . but not equal to 3 is

needed so that you can cancel the (x 3)

factors without dividing by zero.

Chapter Test

T1. Limit, derivative, definite integral, indefinite

integral

T2. See the text for the definition of limit.

T3. Physical meaning: instantaneous rate

T4.

y

6

Speed (ft/s)

25

20

15

10

5

Time (s)

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

(Exact answer is 1.8137 .)

Name: acceleration

T8. The roller coaster is at the bottom of the hill at

25 s because thats where it is going the fastest.

The graph is horizontal between 0 and 10 seconds

because the velocity stays constant, 5 ft/s, as the

roller coaster climbs the ramp.

T9. Distance = (rate)(time) = 5(10) = 50 ft

T10. T5 = 412.5; T50 = 416.3118 ;

T100 = 416.340219

T11. The differences between the trapezoidal sum and

the exact sum are:

For T5: difference = 3.8496

For T50: difference = 0.03779

For T100: difference = 0.009447

The differences are getting smaller, so Tn is

getting closer to 416.349667 .

x

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y(31) y(30)

average rate =

= 1.9098K

1

From 30 to 30.1:

y(30.1) y(30)

= 1.8246K

0.1

From 30 to 30.01:

y(30.01) y(30)

average rate =

= 1.8148K

0.01

T13. The rates are negative because the roller coaster is

slowing down.

T14. The differences between the average rates and

instantaneous rate are:

For 30 to 31: difference = 0.096030

For 30 to 31.1: difference = 0.010833

For 30 to 30.01: difference = 0.001095

average rate =

rates are getting closer to the instantaneous rate.

y( x ) y(30)

= 1.81379936 + 1, getting

x 30

x = 30.092220 . So keep x within 0.092

unit of 30, on the positive side.

T16. Concept: derivative

f ( 4.3) f (3.7) 35 29

T17. f ( 4)

=

= 10

4.3 3.7

0.6

T18. Answers will vary.

T15. Solve

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Problem Set 2-1

h (x )

8 10 + 2 0

=

22

0

No value for f (2) because of division by zero.

1. a. f (2) =

b.

2.7

f (x)

1.997

1.998

1.999

2

2.001

2.002

2.003

2.994

2.996

2.998

undefined

3.002

3.004

3.006

close to 2, but not equal to 2.

c. To keep f (x) within 0.0001 unit of 3, keep

x within 0.00005 unit of 2. To keep f (x)

within 0.00001 unit of 3, keep x within

0.000005 unit of 2. To keep f (x) arbitrarily

close to 3, keep x within 12 that distance

of 2.

d. The discontinuity can be removed by

defining f (2) to equal 3.

cycles infinitely as it approaches x = 3.

Q1.

Q2.

y

Q3.

Q4.

y

y

x

2

x

6

2.

Q5.

g (x )

x

x

3

1

g (x )

x

3

3.

h (x )

x

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

1.

2.

3.

5.

7.

9.

11.

13.

Counting squares

Slope of the tangent line

Instantaneous rate of change

B

See the text for the definition of limit.

f (x) might be undefined at x = c, or might have a

value at x = c that is different from the limit.

Has a limit, 3

4. Has a limit, 2

Has a limit, 3

6. Has a limit, 5

Has no limit

8. Has no limit

Has a limit, 7

10. Has a limit, 20

Has no limit

12. Has no limit

lim f ( x ) = 5. For = 0.5, 0.2 or 0.3.

x 3

x 2

x 6

16. lim f ( x ) = 2. For = 0.8, 0.7 or 0.8.

x4

17. lim f ( x ) = 2. For = 0.3, 0.5 or 0.6.

x 5

18. lim f ( x ) = 6. For = 0.4, 0.1.

x 3

b. lim f ( x ) = 5

x 3

Let 5 2 sin (x 3) = 5 + 0.5 = 5.5.

sin (x 3) = 0.25

x = 3 + sin 1 (0.25)

Max. = 3 [3 + sin 1 (0.25)] = 0.25268

d. Let 5 2 sin (x 3) = 5 + .

sin (x 3) = /2

x = 3 + sin 1 (/2)

Max. = 3 [3 + sin 1 (/2)] =

sin 1 (/2) = sin 1 (/2), which is positive

for any positive value of .

20. a. The graph should match Problem 14.

b. lim f ( x ) = 3

x 2

Let (x 2)3 + 3 = 3 + 0.5 = 3.5.

x = 2 + 3 0.5

Max. = 2 + 3 0.5 2 = 3 0.5 = 0.7937K

d. Let (x 2) + 3 = 3 + .

x = 2 + 1/3

Max. = 2 + 1/3 2 = 1/3, which is

positive for any positive value of .

21. a. The graph should match Problem 15.

b. lim f ( x ) = 4

3

x 6

Let 1 + 3(7 x)1/3 = 4 0.7 = 3.3.

x = 7 (2.3/3)3

Max. = [7 (2.3/3)3] 6 = 0.5493

d. Because the right side is more restrictive, set

1 + 3 3 7 x = 4 .

x = 7 [(3 )/3]3

Max. = 7 [(3 )/3)3] 6 = 1 [(3 )/3]3,

which is positive for all positive values of .

22. a. The graph should match Problem 16.

b. lim f ( x ) = 2

x4

Let 1 + 24 x = 2 + 0.8 = 2.8.

10

24 x = 1.8

log 1.8

x = 4

log 2

log 1.8

Max. = 4 4

= 0.84799K

log 2

1 + 24 x = 2 + .

24 x = 1 +

x = 4

log(1 + )

log 2

log(1 + ) log(1 + )

Max. = 4 4

=

,

log 2

log 2

23. a. The graph should match Problem 17.

b. lim f ( x ) = 2

x 5

Let (x 5)2 + 2 = 2 + 0.3 = 2.3.

x = 5 + 0.3

Max. = (5 + 0.3 ) 5 = 0.54772 K

d. Because the right side is more restrictive, set

(x 5)2 + 2 = 2 + .

x = 5+

Max. = (5 + ) 5 = , which is

positive for all > 0.

24. a. The graph should match Problem 18.

b. lim f ( x ) = 6

x 3

Let 6 2(x 3)2/3 = 6 0.4 = 5.6.

x = 3 + 0.23/2

Max. = (3 + 0.23/2) 3 = 0.08944

d. Let 6 2(x 3)2/3 = 6 .

x = 3 + (/2)3/2

Max. = [3 + (/2)3/2] 3 = (/2)3/2, which

is positive for all > 0.

25. a. f (2) =

=

=

52

0

0

x = 2.

Limit = 22 6(2) + 13 = 5

b. When f (x) = 5.1, x = 1.951191 .

1 = 2 1.951191 = 0.048808

When f (x) = 4.9, x = 2.051316 .

2 = 2.051316 2 = 0.051316

max. = 0.048808

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

instantaneous velocity.

f (x )

L=5

Q1. 13

Q2.

Q3.

y

x

c=2

26. a.

x

4

Q4.

Q5.

y

x

1

There is a removable discontinuity at x = 2.

The limit appears to be 9.

4(2 2 ) 7(2) 2 0

=

22

0

Indeterminate form

( 4 x + 1)( x 2)

c. f ( x ) =

= 4 x + 1, x 2

x2

Limit = 4(2) + 1 = 9

If x 2, then (x 2) 0. Canceling is a

division process, but because (x 2) 0,

you do not risk dividing by zero.

d. If f (x) = 9.001, x = 2.00025.

If f (x) = 8.999, x = 1.99975.

1 = 2.00025 2 = 0.00025

2 = 2 1.99975 = 0.00025

Largest number is 0.00025.

e. L = 9, c = 2, = 0.001, = 0.00025

b. f (2) =

d (t ) d ( 4) 3t 2 48

=

t4

t4

b. Removable discontinuity at x = 4.

27. a. m(t ) =

m (t )

30

t

4

c. Limit = 24 ft/s

3(t 4)(t + 4)

= 3t + 12, if t 4

d. m(t ) =

t4

3t + 12 = 24.12 t = 4.04

3t + 12 = 23.88 t = 3.96

Keep t within 0.04 s of 4 s.

Q7. 75%

Q8. Product of x and y, where x varies and y may

vary

Q9.

3 1

8

22

21

3

15

21

1

5

x 2 5x + 7

Q10. D

1.

y

g+h

10

x

2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x

1.96

1.97

1.98

1.99

2.00

2.01

2.02

2.03

2.04

x 2

x 2

f (x)

9.9640

9.9722

9.9810

9.9902

10

10.0102

10.0209

10.0322

10.0439

2005 Key Curriculum Press

11

2.

y 3 = f (x)

x

y

g

0.997

2.9739

0.998

2.9825

0.999

2.9912

1.001

3.0087

1.002

3.0174

1.003

3.0262

1.8

x 3

x 3

x 3

x 3

f (x)

2.96

2.97

2.98

2.99

3.00

3.01

3.02

3.03

3.04

1.75232

1.76418

1.77608

1.78802

1.8

1.81202

1.82408

1.83618

1.84832

3

6. 2 3 = 8 and sin

= 0.5

3.6

r(3) =

8

= 16

0.5

3.

f (x )

Limit = 7

7

r(x)

2.9997

15.9894

2.9998

15.9929

2.9999

15.9964

16

3.0001

16.0035

3.0002

16.0070

3.0003

16.0105

x

3

no matter what value x takes on. (It shouldnt

bother you that f (x) = 7 for x 3 if you think of

the definition of limit for a while.)

4.

2 3.6

lim f ( x )

, so the limit of a quotient

x 3.6

0

cannot be applied because of division by zero.

7. lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 9 x + 5

x 3

x 3

2

f (x) = x

x 3

Limit = 6

x 3

x 3

x 3

x 6

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

Limit of x

= (3)(3) 9(3) + 5

= 9 27 + 5 = 13

8. lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 + 3 x 6

5.

x 1

y

5

x 1

x 1

y1

y1 y2

x 1

x 1

Limit of a sum

= lim x lim x + 3 lim x 6

y2

x 1

x 1

x 1

x

1

x 1

x 1

x 1

x 1

12

Limit of a sum

(or difference)

x 1

= (1)(1) + 3(1) 6

= 1 3 6 = 8

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

Limit of x

x 1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9.

r (x )

Proof:

x 5

x 5

Limit of a sum

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

x 5

x 5

x 5

( 2) 4( 2) 12 4 + 8 12 0

=

=

0

0

( 2) + 2

( x 6)( x + 2)

r( x ) =

= x 6, x 2

x+2

lim r ( x ) = 2 6 = 8

2

x 5

x 5

x 5

r(2) =

x 2

= 5 5 + 2 5 + 6 = 41, Q .E .D .

Limit of x

12.

f (x )

Proof:

28

lim r ( x ) = lim ( x 6)

Because x 2

Limit of a sum

= 2 6 = 8, Q .E .D .

Limit of x, limit of a

constant

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

10.

x

3

f (x )

13

f (3) =

33 + 32 5(3) 21 27 + 9 15 21 0

=

=

33

0

0

f ( x) =

( x 2 + 4 x + 7)( x 3)

= x 2 + 4 x + 7, x 3

x3

lim f ( x ) = 32 + 4(3) + 7 = 28

52 + 3(5) 40 25 + 15 40 0

f (5) =

=

=

55

0

0

( x + 8)( x 5)

f ( x) =

= x + 8, x 5

x5

lim f ( x ) = 5 + 8 = 13

x 3

Proof:

lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 + 4 x + 7)

x 3

x 3

Because x 3

Limit of a sum

x 5

Proof:

x 3

lim f ( x ) = lim ( x + 8)

Because x 5

= lim x + lim 8

Limit of a sum

= 5 + 8 = 13, Q .E .D .

Limit of x, limit of a

constant

x 5

x 5

x 5

x 5

11.

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

= 3 3 + 4 3 + 7 = 28, Q .E .D .

Limit of x

x 3

x 3

x 3

13.

f (x )

41

f (x )

9

10

53 3(52 ) 4(5) 30

55

125 75 20 30 0

=

=

0

0

f ( 5) =

( x 2 + 2 x + 6)( x 5)

= x 2 + 2 x + 6, x 5

x5

lim f ( x ) = 52 + 2(5) + 6 = 41

f ( x) =

f ( 1) =

=

( 1)3 4( 1) 2 2( 1) + 3

( 1) + 1

1 4 + 2 + 3 0

=

0

0

x 5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

13

f ( x) =

( x 2 5 x + 3)( x + 1)

= x 2 5 x + 3, x 1

x +1

15.

x

lim f ( x ) = ( 1) 5( 1) + 3 = 9

2

4.990

4.991

4.992

4.993

4.994

4.995

4.996

4.997

4.998

4.999

5

5.001

5.002

5.003

5.004

5.005

5.006

5.007

5.008

5.009

x 1

Proof:

lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 5 x + 3)

x 1

x 1

Because x 1

= lim x 2 + lim (5 x ) + lim 3

x 1

x 1

x 1

Limit of a sum

= lim x lim x 5 lim x + 3

x 1

x 1

x 1

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

= (1)(1) + (5)(1) + 3 = 9, Q.E.D.

Limit of x

14.

f (x)

2

17

2 4 11(2 3 ) + 21(2 2 ) 2 10

f (2) =

22

16 88 + 84 2 10 0

=

=

0

0

f (x)

40.8801

40.8921

40.9040

40.9160

40.9280

40.9400

40.9520

40.9640

40.9760

40.9880

undefined

41.0120

41.0240

41.0360

41.0480

41.0600

41.0720

41.0840

41.0960

41.1080

of lim f ( x ) = 41 if we keep x within 0.008 unit

x 5

of 5.

16.

f (x )

( x 9 x + 3 x + 5)( x 2)

x2

3

2

= x 9 x + 3 x + 5, x 2

3

f ( x) =

x

1

x 2

Proof:

lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 3 9 x 2 + 3 x + 5)

x 2

x 2

Because x 2

= lim x 3 + lim ( 9 x 2 ) + lim 3 x + lim 5

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a sum

lim

x

lim

x

lim

x

(

9

)

lim

x lim x

=

+

x 2

x 2

+ 3 lim x + 5

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

= 2 2 2 + (9)(2 2) + 3 2 + 5 = 17,

Q .E .D .

Limit of x

14

x 2 5 x + 6 ( x 2)( x 3) x 2

=

=

x 2 6 x + 9 ( x 3)( x 3) x 3

You cannot find the limit by substituting into

the simplified form because the denominator still

becomes zero.

17. f ( x ) =

18. f ( x ) =

( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)

x3 8

=

( x 2)( x 2)

x 4x + 4

2

x2 + 2x + 4

x2

You cannot find the limit by substituting into

the simplified form because the denominator still

goes to zero.

=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

5(1)1/2 = 5 = v(1)

5(4)1/2 = 10 = v(4)

5(9)1/2 = 15 = v(9)

5(16)1/2 = 20 = v(16)

0.75.01 0.7 4.99

derivative

= 0.05994 K .

2(0.01)

v(9.001) v(9)

= 0.8333101K

9.001 9

Conjecture: a(9) = 0.83 = 5/6

Units of a(t): (mi/h)/s

b. a(9)

integral 11.8235K .

23. Prove that lim x n = c n for any positive integer n.

x c

Proof:

Anchor:

v(t ) v( 9)

5t 1/ 2 15

= lim

t 9

t 9

t9

t9

1/ 2

5(t 3)

= lim 1/ 2

t 9 (t

3)(t 1/ 2 + 3)

5

= lim 1/ 2

t 9 t

+3

5

= , which agrees with the conjecture.

6

d. Distance = integral of v(t) from 1 to 9. By the

trapezoidal rule with n = 100 increments,

integral 86.6657 . The units are

(mi/h) s. To convert to ft, multiply by 5280

and divide by 3600, getting 127.1111

(exact: 127 19 ) . The truck went about 127 ft.

c. a(9) = lim

Proof:

x3 8

= lim ( x 2 + 2 x + 4)

x 2 x 2

x 2

Because x 2

= lim x 2 + lim 2 x + lim 4

lim

x 2

x c

Induction Hypothesis:

Assume that the property is true for n = k.

lim x k = c k

x c

Verification for n = k + 1:

lim x k +1 = lim ( x k x )

x c

x 2

x c

= lim x lim x = c k c

k

x c

x c

By the induction

hypothesis

= c k +1

Conclusion:

lim x n = c n for all integers n 1, Q.E.D.

2.1 2

= 12.61

2.1 2

x 3 8 ( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)

b.

=

=

x2

x2

x 2 + 2 x + 4, provided x 2. This expression

approaches 12 as x approaches 2.

20. a. Derivative

x c

24.

Q1. Instantaneous rate of change

Q2. Product of x and y, where x varies and y

can vary

Q3. 0.0005

Q4.

x 2

Limit of a sum

= lim x lim x + 2 lim x + 4

x 2

x 2

x 2

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

= 2 2 + 2 2 + 4 = 12, Q .E .D .

Limit of x

c. The line through point (2, 8) with slope 12 is

y = 12x 16. The line appears to be tangent

to the graph of f at point (2, 8).

f (x )

12

8

Q6.

y = cos x

x

Q7. (x + 6)(x 1)

Q8. 53

Q9. 120

Q10. 103

1. a. Has left and right limits

b. Has no limit

c. Discontinuous. Has no limit

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15

2. a.

b.

c.

3. a.

b.

c.

4. a.

b.

c.

5. a.

b.

c.

6. a.

b.

c.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Has a limit

Discontinuous. No f (3)

Has left and right limits

Has a limit

Continuous

Has left and right limits

Has a limit

Continuous

Has no left or right limit

Has no limit

Discontinuous. No limit or f (2)

Has left and right limits

Has a limit

Continuous (Note that the x-value 5 is not at

the discontinuity.)

a. Has left and right limits

b. Has a limit

c. Discontinuous. f (1) limit

a. Has left and right limits

b. Has no limit

c. Discontinuous. No limit

a. Has left and right limits

b. Has a limit

c. Discontinuous. No f (c)

a. Has left and right limits

b. Has no limit

c. Discontinuous. No limit, no f (c)

Answers may vary. 12. Answers may vary.

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

f(x)

f (x )

10

5

2

x

2

f(x)

f (x )

6

5

21. Discontinuous at x = 3

22. Discontinuous at x = 11

23. Discontinuous at x = /2 + n, where n is an

integer

24. Nowhere discontinuous

25.

f (x )

3

2

1

x

2

x

4

x 2

26.

g (x )

f (x )

f (x )

2

1

f (2)

x

x

5

16

x

2

approaches 2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

27.

33. a.

d (x )

s (x )

x

2

approaches 2 from the left (no real function

values to the left of x = 2)

x 2

x 2

Continuous.

28.

34. a.

p (x )

h ( x)

3

2

x

1

approaches 2

b. lim h( x ) = 3, lim+ h( x ) = 2. No limit.

29.

x 1

x 1

Not continuous.

h(x )

35. a.

1

m (x )

9

30.

f(x)

x 2

x 2

Not continuous.

36. a.

q (x)

approaches 2

2

31.

c

f (c)

1

2

4

5

4

1

5

none

lim f ( x )

lim+ f ( x )

x c

x c

2

1

5

none

2

1

2

none

lim f ( x )

x c

2

1

none

none

Continuous?

removable

continuous

step

infinite

x 1

32.

c

1

2

3

5

f (c)

3

1

5

5

x 1

Continuous.

37. 9 22 = 2k

k = 2.5

g (x )

lim f ( x )

x c

2

4

5

5

lim+ f ( x )

x c

3

4

5

none

2005 Key Curriculum Press

lim f ( x )

x c

none

4

5

none

Continuous?

step

removable

continuous

infinite

x

2

17

k = 0.6

f (x )

1.4

cross.

if = 90

24,

T( ) = 40

, if 0 < < 90 or 90 < < 180

sin

x

1

40

39. (32)k = 3k 3

k = 1/2.

90

u (x )

1

f (x )

44. a.

x

3

40. k + 5 = (1) k

k = 5/2

2

v (x )

x

1

b. a = 1 b = 0. Continuous at x = 1.

f (x )

a = 1, b = 0

at x = 1.

c. f (1.0000001) = 1.0000001 + 3 + 10 13

4.0000001, which is close to 4.

d. There is a vertical asymptote at x = 0. You

must get x much closer to 1 than x =

1.0000001 for the discontinuity to show up.

45. For any value of c, P(c) is determined by addition

and multiplication. Because the set of real

numbers is closed under multiplication and

addition, P(c) will be a unique, real number for

any real value x = c. P(c) is the limit of P(x) as

x approaches c by the properties of the limit of a

product of functions (for powers of x), the limit

of a constant times a function (for multiplication

by the coefficients), and the limit of a sum (for

the individual terms). Therefore, P is continuous

for all values of x.

46. a. lim |sgn x| = 1 but f (0) = 0

x0

f (x )

x0

b.

g(x )

x

1

e.g., a = 1, b = 2

x

2

x 2

x 2

x 2

x 2

limits must be equal, so find k such that

k 2 4 = 3k

k 2 3k 4 = 0

(k 4)(k + 1) = 0

so k = 4 and k = 1 are the two values of k that

will make f (x) continuous at x = 2.

18

c.

h(x )

1

1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. lim+ f ( x ) = , lim f ( x ) = ,

For x < 0, a(x) = (x)/x = 1 = sgn x.

For x = 0, a(0) is not defined.

a(x) = sgn x for all x 0, Q.E.D.

e.

x 3

x 3

c. 2 +

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

No limit

4

2

No

No

lim f ( x ) =

Q2.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

lim f ( x ) = 3

3

3

No

Yes

Yes

lim f ( x ) = 4

lim f ( x ) = 1

lim f ( x ) =

lim+ f ( x ) = 2

x 3

x 3

2.

exist.

lim g( x ) = 4

lim g( x ) = 2

lim+ g( x ) = 3

lim g( x ) =

x

x 2

lim g( x ) = 3

x 2

x 1

lim g( x ) = 4

x 2

x 3

f (x)

2.00099

2.00099

2.00099

of 2. lim f ( x ) = 2 means that you can keep

x

2

of x arbitrarily large. y = 2 is a horizontal

asymptote.

102

1002

10002

1004

1005

1006

f (x )

3.01

3.001

3.0001

f (x )

f (x)

close enough to 3 on the positive side.

There is a vertical asymptote at x = 3.

1

= 2.001

d. 2 +

x3

1

= 0.001

x3

x 3 = 1000

x = 1003

lim g( x ) = 2

3. Answers may vary.

x 3

x 1

x 2

1

= 100

x 3

1

= 98

x 3

1

x3=

98

1

x = 3 = 3.0102 K

98

lim+ f ( x ) = means that f (x) can be kept

x 3

lim f ( x ) =

x 3+

lim f ( x ) = 2

f (x )

x 3

8. a.

f (x )

f (x )

g (x )

x

x

/2

7. a.

f (x )

b.

x

3

lim g( x ) = , lim + g( x ) =

x / 2

x / 2

arbitrarily far from zero. You cant say

lim g( x ) = because the left and right

x / 2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

19

other is negative).

c. sec x = 1000

cos x = 0.001

x = arccos (0.001) = 1.57179

x

g(x)

1.5717

1.5716

1.5715

1106.5

1244.2

1421.1

x / 2

negative direction by keeping x close enough

to 2 on the positive side.

The line x = 2 is a vertical asymptote.

9. a.

r (x )

x

5

x

sin (28)

= 2.00967K , which is

28

within 0.01 unit of 2.

sin (32)

r(32) = 2 +

= 2.01723K , which is

32

more than 0.01 unit away from 2.

c. r(28) = 2 +

y

r

2.01

1.99

x

28

32

want to keep sinx x < 0.01, or |sin x| <

0.01 |x|. You are looking for a large value of

x, so you know x will be positive, so you

want |sin x| < 0.01x. You cant get rid of the

absolute value symbol on the sine because

sine will keep alternating as x gets larger.

You know |sin x| 1 for all values

of x, so you need to make 0.01x > 1, or

x > 100. So D = 100.

d. The line y = 2 is an asymptote. Even though

r (x) oscillates back and forth across this line,

the limit of r(x) is 2 as x approaches infinity,

satisfying the definition of asymptote.

20

x0

10. a. h( x ) = (1 + 1/ x ) x

h(x )

3

2

lim + g( x ) = means that arbitrarily far

x

10

1, but finite) that wins. (The exact limit is e.)

11. The limit is infinite. y is unbounded as x

approaches infinity. If there were a number E

such that log x < E for all x > 0, then you could

let x = 102E so that log x = log 102E = 2E, which

is greater than E, which was assumed to be an

upper bound.

12. Wanda, heres what happens to a fraction when

the denominator gets close to zero: 01.1 = 10,

1

1

0.0001 = 10, 000, 0.00001 = 100, 000. The answers

just keep getting bigger and bigger. When the

denominators get bigger and bigger, the fraction

gets closer and closer to zero, like this:

1

1

1

10 = 0.1, 100 = 0.01, 1000 = 0.001.

13. a. The definite integral is the product of the

independent and dependent variables. Because

distance = (rate)(time), the integral represents

distance in this case.

b. T9 = 17.8060052

T45 = 17.9819616

T90 = 17.9935649

T450 = 17.9994175

c. The exact answer is 18. It is a limit because

the sums can be made as close to it as you

like, just by making the number of trapezoids

large enough (and thus keeping their widths

close to zero). The sums are smaller than the

integral because each trapezoid is inscribed

under the graph and thus leaves out a part of

its respective strip of the region.

d. Tn is 0.01 unit from 18 when it equals 17.99.

From part b, this occurs between n = 45 and n

= 90. By experimentation,

T66 = 17.9897900 and T67 = 17.9900158 .

Therefore, the approximation is within 0.01

unit of 18 for any value of n 67.

An alternative solution is to plot the graph of

the difference between 18 and Tn as a function

of the number of increments, n, or to do a

regression analysis to find an equation. The

best-fitting elementary function is an inverse

power variation function, y = (5.01004)

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

of the four data points are shown here. Use

TRACE or the solver feature of your grapher to

find n 67.

y

67

0.1

0.01

90

Q7. 1

Q8. +

Q9. Indeterminate

Q10. C

1. IVT applies on [1, 4] because f is a polynomial

function, and polynomial functions are

continuous for all x.

f (1) = 18, f (4) = 3

There is a value x = c in (1, 4) for which

f (c) = 8.

Using the intersect or solver feature,

c = 1.4349 , which is between 1 and 4.

f (x )

integral measures the y-variable times the

x-variable, it represents work in this case.

b. By the trapezoidal rule, T10 = 24.147775

and T100 = 24.004889 . The units are

foot-pounds.

c. The integer is 24.

d. By experimentation, T289 = 24.001003 and

T290 = 24.000998 .

D = 290

15. Length = 100 sec x = 100/cos x

Length > 1000 100/cos x > 1000

cos x < 0.1 (because cos x is positive)

x > cos1 0.1 (because cos is decreasing)

x > 1.4706289

/2 1.4706289 = 0.100167

x must be within 0.100167 radian of /2.

The limit is (positive) infinity.

16. a. f (2) = 5 2 0 (1/0), which has the

form 0 .

g(2) = 5 2 0 (1/0)2, which has the

form 0 .

h(2) = 5 2 02 (1/0), which has the

form 0 .

1

b. f ( x ) = 5 x ( x 2)

= 5 x, x 2

x2

lim f ( x ) = 10

x 2

1

5x

,x2

g( x ) = 5 x ( x 2)

2 =

( x 2)

x2

lim g( x ) is infinite.

x 2

h( x ) = 5 x ( x 2 ) 2

lim h( x ) = 0

1

= 5 x ( x 2), x 2

x2

x 2

zero, infinity, or some finite number.

Q1. 53

Q3. Undefined

Q5. Undefined

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q2. 53

Q4. 5

Q6. Does not exist

f (1)

f (4)

x

1 c

function, and polynomial functions are

continuous for all x.

f (0) = 8, f (6) = 0.224

There is a value x = c in (0, 6) for which

f (c) = 1.

Using the intersect or solver feature,

c = 5.8751 , which is between 0 and 6.

f (x )

0

0.224

c6 x

would be true. But for 2 y 5, it would be

false because there are no values of x in [1, 5]

that give these values for f (x).

b. The conclusion of the theorem is true because

every number y in [4, 6] is a value of g(x) for

some value of x in [1, 5].

4. a. f (2) = 4, f (3) = 8, f (0.5) = 2 = 1.414 K ,

f ( 5) = 8

b. f is continuous at x = 3 because it has a limit

and a function value and they both equal 8.

c. f is continuous nowhere else. Because the

sets of rational and irrational numbers are

dense, there is a rational number between any

two irrational numbers, and vice versa. So

there is no limit of f (x) as x approaches any

number other than 3.

d. The conclusion is not true for all values of y

between 1 and 4. For instance, if y = 3, then

c would have to equal log2 3. But log2 3 is

irrational, so f (c) = 8, which is not between

1 and 4.

Problem Set 2-6

21

continuous and thus the intermediate value

theorem applies. f (1) = 1 and f (2) = 4, so there

is a number c between 1 and 2 such that f (c) = 3.

By the definition of square root, c = 3 , Q .E .D .

6. Prove that if f is continuous, and if f (a) is

positive and f (b) is negative, then there is at least

one zero of f (x) between x = a and x = b.

Proof:

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

22

theorem applies. f (a) is positive and f (b) is

negative, so there is a number x = c between a

and b for which f (c) = 0. Therefore, f has at least

one zero between x = a and x = b, Q.E.D.

The intermediate value theorem is called an

existence theorem because it tells you that a

number such as 3 exists. It does not tell you

how to calculate that number.

Telephone your sweethearts house. An answer to

the call tells you the existence of the

sweetheart at home. The call doesnt tell such

things as how to get there, and so on. Also,

getting no answer does not necessarily mean that

your sweetheart is out.

Let f (t) = Jesses speed Kays speed. f (1) =

20 15 = 5, which is positive. f (3) = 17 19 =

2, which is negative. The speeds are assumed to

be continuous (because of laws of physics), so f

is also continuous and the intermediate value

theorem applies.

So there is a value of t between 1 and 3 for

which f (t) = 0, meaning that Jesse and Kay are

going at exactly the same speed at that time.

The existence of the time tells you neither what

that time is nor what the speed is. An existence

theorem, such as the intermediate value theorem,

does not tell these things.

Let f (x) = number of dollars for x-ounce letter.

f does not meet the hypothesis of the IVT on the

interval [1, 9] because there is a step

discontinuity at each integer value of x. There is

no value of c for which f (c) = 2 because f (x)

jumps from 1.98 to 2.21 at x = 8.

You must assume that the cosine is function

continuous. Techniques:

c = cos 1 0.6 = 0.9272

Using the solver feature, c = 0.9272...

Using the intersect feature, c = 0.9272...

You must assume that 2x is continuous.

f (0) = 20 = 1, because any positive number to the

0 power equals 1.

c = log 2 3 =

log 3

= 1.5849...

log 2

Using the intersect feature, c = 1.5849...

13. This means that a function graph has a high

point and a low point on any interval in which

the function is continuous.

f (x )

x

a

c1

c2

point missing where the maximum or minimum

would have been.

f (x)

x

a

vertical asymptote somewhere between a and b.

14. Prove that if f is continuous on [a, b], the image

of [a, b] under f is all real numbers between the

minimum and maximum values of f (x),

inclusive.

Proof:

By the extreme value theorem, there are numbers

x1 and x2 in [a, b] such that f (x1) and f (x2) are the

minimum and maximum values of f (x) on [a, b].

Because x1 and x2 are in [a, b], f is continuous on

the interval whose endpoints are x1 and x2. Thus,

the intermediate value theorem applies on the

latter interval. Thus, for any number y between

f (x1) and f (x2), there is a number x = c between

x1 and x2 for which f (c) = y, implying that the

image of [a, b] under f is all real numbers

between the minimum and maximum values of

f (x), inclusive, Q.E.D.

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

36 51 + 15 0

R1. a. f (3) =

=

33

0

Indeterminate form

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. f ( x ) = 4 x 5, x 3

definition of limit says but not equal to 3.

y

9

x

9

lim g( x )

x 3

x 3

x 3

x 3

Limit of a sum

= lim x lim x 10 lim x + 2

x 3

c. For 0.01, keep x within 0.0025 unit of 3. For

0.0001, keep x within 0.000025 unit of 3. To

keep f (x) within unit of 7, keep x within

1

4 unit of 3.

R2. a. L = lim f ( x ) if and only if for any number

x c

there is a number > 0 such that if x is

within units of c, but x c, then f (x) is

within units of L.

b. lim f ( x ) = 2

x 1

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

= 3 3 10(3) + 2

Limit of x

= 19, which agrees with the graph.

c.

f (x) = 2x,

x 2 8 x + 15 ( x 3)( x 5)

g( x ) =

=

3 x

3 x

= x + 5, x 3

lim f ( x ) = 8, lim g( x ) = 2

x 3

x 3

lim p( x ) = 8 2 = 16

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 4

x 3

x 3

x 4

lim f ( x ) = 3

x 5

2.997

2.998

2.999

3

3.001

3.002

3.003

c. lim f ( x ) = 3

x 2

d. The left side of x = 2 is the more restrictive.

Let 2 + x 1 = 3 0.4 = 2.6.

x = 1 + 0.62 = 1.36

maximum value of is 2 1.36 = 0.64.

e. Let f ( x ) = 3 .

2 + x 1 = 3

x = (1 )2 + 1

Let = 2 [(1 )2 + 1] = 1 (1 )2,

which is positive for all positive < 1. If

1, simply take = 1. Then will be

positive for all > 0.

R3. a. See the limit property statements in the text.

b.

p(x)

15.9907

15.9938

15.9969

undefined

16.0030

16.0061

16.0092

r( x ) =

f ( x)

g( x )

lim r ( x ) =

x 3

8

=4

2

y

20

15

g (x )

20

f

10

x

3

g

19

apply because the limit of the denominator

is zero.

( x 3)( x 2 10 x + 2)

x3

g(x) = x 2 10x + 2, x 3

g( x ) =

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (t ) f (5)

Average velocity =

=

t5

35t 5t 2 50 5(t 2)(t 5)

=

=

t5

t5

Problem Set 2-7

23

limit = 5(5 2) = 15 m/s.

The rate is negative, so the distance above the

starting point is getting smaller, which

means the rock is going down.

Instantaneous velocity is a derivative.

R4. a. f is continuous at x = c if and only if

1. f (c) exists

2. lim f ( x ) exists

x c

3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)

x c

continuous at every point in (a, b), and

lim+ f ( x ) = f ( a) and lim f ( x ) = f (b).

xa

4

2

x

2

f is discontinuous at x = 2, Q.E.D.

Let 22 = 22 6(2) + k.

k = 12

R5. a. lim f ( x ) = means that f (x) can be kept

x4

by keeping x close enough to 4, but not equal

to 4.

lim f ( x ) = 5 means that f (x) can be made to

xb

b.

lim f ( x )

lim+ f ( x )

lim f ( x )

f (x )

d.

Continuous?

none

infinite

large enough in the positive direction.

removable

none

step

continuous

lim f ( x ) = 1

continuous

lim f ( x ) =

f (c)

x c

x c

x c

none

none

none

4

5

x

x 2

x 2

c. i.

lim+ f ( x ) =

ii.

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2

x

c. f (x) = 6 2 x

lim f ( x ) = 6

x

f (x) = 5.999 = 6 2 x

2 x = 0.001

log 0.001

x=

log 2

x = 9.965...

iii.

iv.

y

x

3

10

20

30

v.

vi.

y

y

f (6)

d.

x

5

5.999023

5.999999046

5.99999999907

g(x) = x 2

lim g( x ) =

x0

g(x) = 106 = x 2

x2 = 10 6

x = 10 3

x

x

1

2

24

x

6

vii.

f (x)

0.0009

0.0005

0.0001

g(x)

1.2345 106

4,000,000

1 108

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1,000,000.

e. v(t) = 40 + 6 t

n

Trapezoidal Rule

50

100

200

400

467.9074

467.9669

467.9882

467.9958

By exploration,

T222 = 467.98995

T223 = 467.99002

D = 223

R6. a. See the text statement of the intermediate

value theorem.

The basis is the completeness axiom.

See the text statement of the extreme value

theorem.

The word is corollary.

b. f (x) = x 3 + 5x 2 10x + 20

f (3) = 8, f (4) = 4

So f (x) = 0 for some x between 3 and 4 by

the intermediate value theorem.

The property is continuity.

The value of x is approximately 3.7553.

c.

f (x )

x

4

graph or by simplifying the fraction to get

f (x) = x + 7, then substituting. You will not

always get a value of x if y is between 1 and

5. If you pick y = 3, there is no value of x.

This fact does not contradict the intermediate

value theorem. Function f does not meet the

continuity hypothesis of the theorem.

x 1

f is continuous at x = 4, Q.E.D.

For the derivative, from the left side,

f ( x ) f (1) x 2 + 3 4 ( x 1)( x + 1)

=

=

=

x 1

x 1

x 1

x + 1, x 1

lim f ( x ) = 1 + 1 = 2

x 1

f ( x ) f (1) x 2 6 x + 9 4 ( x 1)( x 5)

=

=

=

x 1

x 1

x 1

x 5, x 1

lim+ f ( x ) = 1 5 = 4

x 1

value for the derivative there because the rate of

change jumps abruptly from 2 to 4 at x = 1. In

general, if a function has a cusp at a point, then

the derivative does not exist, but the function is

still continuous.

C3. The graph is a y = x2 parabola with a step

discontinuity at x = 1. (Use the rise-run

property. Start at the vertex. Then run 1, rise 1;

run 1, rise 3; run 1, rise 5; . . . . Ignore the

discontinuity at first.) To create the

discontinuity, use the signum function with

argument (x 1). Because there is no value for

f (1), the absolute value form of the signum

function can be used.

| x 1|

y = x2 + 2

x 1

C4. The quantity | f ( x ) L | is the distance between

f (x) and L. If this distance is less than , then

f (x) is within units of L. The quantity |x c|

is the distance between x and c. The right part of

the inequality, |x c| < , says that x is within

units of c. The left part, 0 < |x c|, says that x

does not equal c. Thus, this definition of limit is

equivalent to the other definition.

Chapter Test

Concept Problems

C1.

C2. f (1) = 12 6 1 + 9 = 4

As x 1 from the left, f (x) 12 + 3 = 4.

As x 1 from the right, f (x) 12 6 + 9 = 4.

lim f ( x ) = 4 = f (1)

1. f (c) exists

2. lim f ( x ) exists

x c

3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)

x c

g

x

4

Conjecture: lim f ( x ) = 7

x4

2005 Key Curriculum Press

continuous at all points in (a, b), and

lim+ f ( x ) = f ( a) and lim f ( x ) = f (b) .

xa

xb

25

T2. a.

lim f ( x ) = 3

x 2

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2

lim f ( x ) = 4

lim f ( x ) = 2

Limit of a sum

= lim x lim x + ( 5) lim x + 8

x 2 +

x 6

continuous for all values in (2, 6) and

lim+ f ( x ) = f (2) and lim f ( x ) = f (6) .

x 6

T4. a. Left: 4; right: 4

b. Limit: 4

c. Discontinuous

T5. a. Left: none; right: none

b. Limit: none

c. Discontinuous

T6. a. Left: 6; right: 6

b. Limit: 6

c. Continuous

T7. a. Left: 2; right: 3

b. Limit: none

c. Discontinuous

T8.

x 2

T12. lim f ( x ) = k 2 2

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 2 + k

x 2 +

4k = 2 + k

k = 2/3

T13. See graph in T11.

T14. a. lim T ( x ) = 20

b.

g(x )

f (x )

1

x

d.

h(x)

s (x )

1

x

1

(0 2 5 0 + 8)(0 3) 0

= ,

03

0

an indeterminate form

b. lim f ( x ) = lim ( x 2 5 x + 8), x 3

T10. a. f (3) =

x 3

Definition of limit

x c

26

f(x)

x 3

x 2

f is discontinuous at x = 3.

c.

x 3

x 2 ,

x2

T11. If k = 1, f ( x ) =

x + 1, x > 2

lim f ( x ) = 4, lim+ f ( x ) = 3

T9. a.

x 3

x 3

Limit of a product,

limit of a constant

times a function,

limit of a constant

= 3 3 + (5) 3 + 8 Limit of x

= 2, Q .E .D .

x 6

x 2

x 3

x 3

lim f ( x ) = 2

x 6 +

x 3

then T(x) is within 1 of the limit.

The graph of T has a horizontal asymptote at

T = 20.

b. T = 20 + 8(0.97x) cos 0.5x. The amplitude of

the cosine factor is 8(0.97 x ). Make this

amplitude < 0.1.

8(0.97c) = 0.1

0.97c = 0.0125

log 0.0125

c=

log 0.97

c = 143.8654

T is within 0.1 unit of 20 whenever

x > 143.8654 .

c. The time of day would be mid-afternoon,

when the temperature of the surface is

highest.

T15. a. Use either TRACE or TABLE to show:

d(0) = 0, d(10) = 6, d(20) = 14, d(30) = 24,

d(40) = 36, and d(50) = 50.

d (20.1) d (20)

b. Average rate =

=

20.1 20

14.0901 14

= 0.901 cm/day

20.1 20

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d (t ) d (20)

=

t 20

0.01t 2 + 0.5t 14 0.01(t + 70)(t 20)

=

=

t 20

t 20

0.01t + 0.7, t 20. The limit as t approaches

20 is 0.01(20) + 0.7, which equals

0.9 cm/day. This instantaneous rate is called

the derivative.

d. The glacier seems to be speeding up because

each 10-day period it moved farther than it had

in the preceding 10-day period.

T16. c(0) = p(0) = 10, so each has the same speed at

t = 0. lim c(t ) = 16. lim p(t ) = . Surprise for

c. Average rate =

Phoebe!

kx 2 ,

if x 2

T17. f ( x ) =

10 kx, if x > 2

at x = 2.

10

f(x)

x

2

h(1) and h(2). The intermediate value theorem

allows you to conclude that there is a real

number between 1 and 8 equal to the cube root

of 7.

T19. Answers will vary.

lim f ( x ) = k 2 2 = 4 k

x 2

lim f ( x ) = 10 2 k

x 2 +

2005 Key Curriculum Press

27

and Indefinite Integrals

Problem Set 3-1

Q4.

y

f (5.1) f (5) 3.21 3

2. Average rate =

=

=

0.1

0.1

2.1 km/min

3.

y

Q5. 9x 2 42x + 49

Q6. sign

Q7.

Q8.

x

5

at x = 5.

f (5) f (5) 0

=

r (5) =

55

0

f ( x ) f (5) x 2 8 x + 18 3

5. r ( x ) =

=

x5

x5

( x 5)( x 3)

=

= x 3, x 5

x5

f (5) = lim r ( x )

x 5

( x 5)( x 3)

= lim

= lim ( x 3) = 2

x 5

x 5

x5

The derivative is the velocity of the spaceship,

in km/min.

6. Find the equation of the line through (5, f (5)),

or (5, 3), with slope 2.

y 3 = 2(x 5) y = 2x 7

Q9.

Q10.

1.

2.

D

See the text for the definition of derivative.

Physical: Instantaneous rate of change of the

dependent variable with respect to the

independent variable

Graphical: Slope of the tangent line to the graph

of the function at that point

0.6 x 2 5.4

x 3

x3

0.6( x 3)( x + 3)

= lim

= 3.6

x 3

x3

b. Graph of the difference quotient m(x)

3. a. f (3) = lim

m(x )

3.6

y

x

3

3

c., d.

f (x )

7. As you zoom in, the line and the graph appear to

be the same.

8. Answers will vary.

Q1. Instantaneous rate of change

Q2. x + 9

Q3. 18

28

x

3

0.2 x 2 + 7.2

x 6

x6

0.2( x 6)( x + 6)

= lim

= 2.4

x 6

x6

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

m (x )

x

6

2.4

c., d.

f (x)

x

6

7.2

x 2 + 5x + 1 + 5

x 2

x+2

( x + 2)( x + 3)

= lim

=1

x 2

x+2

5. f (2) = lim

x 2 + 6 x 2 + 10

x 4

x+4

( x + 4)( x + 2)

= lim

= 2

x 4

x+4

6. f ( 4) = lim

x3 4x2 + x + 8 6

7. f (1) = lim

x 1

x 1

( x 1)( x 2 3 x 2)

= lim

= 4

x 1

x 1

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

x3 x2 4x + 6 8

f (1) = lim

x 1

x +1

( x + 1)( x 2 2 x 2)

= lim

=1

x 1

x +1

0.7 x + 2 + 0.1

f (3) = lim

x 3

x3

0.7( x 3)

= lim

= 0.7

x 3

x3

1.3 x 3 2.2

f ( 4) = lim

x4

x4

1.3( x 4)

= lim

= 1.3

x4

x4

55

f (1) = lim

=0

x 1 x + 1

2 + 2

f (3) = lim

=0

x 3 x 3

slope. The tangent line coincides with the graph

of a linear function.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Constant functions are horizontal and dont

change! The tangent line coincides with the

graph.

15. a. Find f ( 1) = 2, then plot a line through point

(1, f (1)) using f ( 1) as the slope. The line is

y = 2x 1.

b. Near the point (1, 1), the tangent line and the

curve appear nearly the same.

c. The curve appears to get closer and closer to

the line.

d. Near point (1, 1) the curve looks linear.

e. If a graph has local linearity, the graph near

that point looks like the tangent line.

Therefore, the derivative at that point could be

said to equal the slope of the graph at that

point.

16. a. f ( x) = x 2 + 0.1 (x 1)2/3

f ( 1) = 12 + 0.1(1 1)2/3 = 1 + 0 = 1, Q .E .D .

The graph appears to be locally linear at

(1, 1), because it looks smooth there.

b. Zoom in by a factor of 10,000.

direction abruptly, not smoothly.

d. If you draw a secant line through (1, 1) from a

point just to the left of x = 1, it has a large

negative slope. If you draw one from a point

just to the right, it has a large positive slope.

In both cases, the secant line becomes vertical

as x approaches 1 and a vertical line has

infinite slope. So there is no real number

equal to the derivative.

17. a.

7

f (x )

x

3

x + 2, if x 3

f ( x) =

if x = 3

7,

29

( x + 2) 7 x 5

m( x ) =

=

x3

x3

m (x )

x 3

b.

f (x)

5

Draw secant lines

from here.

x

3

c.

x

f (x)

2.997

667.66

2.998

1001

2.999

2001

3.000

undefined

3.001

1999

3.002

999

3.003

665.66

The difference quotients are all large positive

numbers on the left side of 3. On the right

side, they are large negative numbers. For a

derivative to exist, the difference quotient

must approach the same number as x gets

closer to 3.

x

3

decreases, the secant lines (solid) approach the

tangent line (dashed).

c. The same thing happens with secant lines

from the left of x = 3. See the graph in part b.

d.

g ( x)

4

Draw secant lines

from here.

18. a.

s (x )

x

3

2

x

1

b. m( x ) =

| sin ( x 1) |

x 1

m(x )

1

x

1

right limits are unequal, there is no derivative

at x = 3.

6 cos x

6

f. m( x ) =

. By table,

x3

x

approaches 1. As x approaches 1 from the

right, m(x) approaches 1. Because the left and

right limits are unequal, there is no derivative

at x = 1.

0.25 x 2 2.5 x + 7.25 2

x 3

x3

0.25( x 3)( x 7)

= lim

x 3

x3

19. a. f ( x ) = lim

30

2.9

2.99

3

3.01

3.1

m(x)

3.1401

3.1415

undefined

3.1415

3.1401

20. From Problem 19, parts b and c, the tangent line

is the limit of the secant lines as x approaches c.

Because the slope of the secant line is the average

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(or from c to x) and the derivative, f (c), is the

limit of this average rate, the slope of the tangent

line equals f (c).

2.

15

y

g'

x

3

Q1. 3

Q2.

points that are typical of a cubic function. As x

increases, the graph starts to roll over and form

a high point, but it starts going back up again

before that happens. This behavior is revealed by

the fact that the derivative is positive everywhere.

Between x = 0 and x = 1, the derivative reaches

a low point, indicating that the slope is a

minimum, but the slope is still positive and

the graph of g is still going up.

y

5

x

2

Q3.

y

x

3. a.

y

200

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

20%

3x 2 2x 8

25x2 70x + 49

log 6

h

x

2

x c

1. a.

y

f

x

2

2.5

graph. Conjecture: Seventh-degree function

has a sixth-degree function for its derivative.

c. By plotting the graph using a friendly window,

then tracing, the zeros of h are 2, 1, 2.5.

d. If h(x) = 0, the h graph has a high point or

a low point. This is reasonable because if

h(x) = 0, the rate of change of h(x) is zero,

which would happen when the graph stops

going up and starts going down, or vice

versa.

e. See the graph in part a.

Q9.

40

4.

y

f

q'

10

f is increasing for these x-values.

c. f ( x) is decreasing for x satisfying |x| > 2.

f (x) < 0 for these values of x.

d. Where the f graph crosses the x-axis, the

f graph has a high point or a low point.

e. See the graph in part a.

f. Conjecture: f is quadratic.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

quartic function. The two high points and the low

point all appear to occur as a high point at

x = 2. The derivative graph crosses the x-axis just

once, at x = 2, indicating that this is the only

place where the function graph is horizontal.

31

5. a.

must be greater than 2. By experimenting, 3 is

too large, but not by much. You can use trial

and error with bases between 2 and 3, checking

the results either by plotting the graph and the

numerical derivative or by constructing tables.

An ingenious method that some students come

up with uses the numerical derivative and

numerical solver features to solve

nDeriv(bx, x, 1) = b1 at x = 1. The answer is

about 2.718281 . (In Section 3-9, students will

learn that this number is e, the base of natural

logarithms.) The graph of f ( x) = 2.781x

and its numerical derivative are shown here.

y

f

c. The graph of f also has amplitude 1 and

period 2.

d.

y

f

4

x

5

f and g

spaced 1 unit apart vertically. The graphs of

f and g are identical! This is to be expected

because the shapes of the f and g graphs are

the same.

6.

f

The amplitude is 1, the period is 2, and the

shape is sinusoidal. cos 0 = 1, and the graph is at

a high point, y = 1, when x = 0.

7.

8.

y

y

f

3

f'

x

4

9.

10.

y

5

x

1

13. a. Maximum area = (12.01)2 = 144.2401 in.2

Minimum area = (11.99)2 = 143.7601 in.2

Range is 143.7601 area 144.2401.

Area is within 0.2401 in.2 of the ideal.

y

4

f and f'

y

f

f

3

f'

x

x

1

Area = x2.

The right side of 12 is more restrictive, so set

x2 = 144.02.

x = 144.021/2 = 12.000833

Keep the tile dimensions within 0.0008 in. of

12 in.

c. The 0.02 in part b corresponds to , and the

0.0008 corresponds to .

14. The average of the forward and backwards

difference quotients equals

1 f ( x + h) f ( x ) f ( x ) f ( x h)

+

2

h

h

1 f ( x + h) f ( x h)

=

2

h

f ( x + h) f ( x h)

=

, Q .E .D .

2h

15. a. f ( x) = x 3 x + 1 f ( 1) = 1

( x 3 x + 1) 1

x 1

x 1

x3 x

x ( x + 1)( x 1)

= lim

= lim

x 1 x 1

x 1

x 1

= lim x ( x + 1) = 2

f (1) = lim

11. The derivative for f ( x) = 2x is consistently below

that of the function itself. This fact implies that

f ( x) does not increase rapidly enough to make the

32

x 1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

=

= 2.31

0.1

0.1

f (1) f (0.9) 1 0.829

Backwards:

=

= 1.71

0.1

0.1

Symmetric:

b. Forward:

=

= 2.01

2(0.1)

0.2

The symmetric difference quotient is closer to

the actual derivative because it is the average

of the other two, and the other two span the

actual derivative.

c. f ( 0) = 1

( x 3 x + 1) 1

f (0) = lim

x0

x0

x3 x

= lim

= lim ( x 2 1) = 1

x0

x0

x

f (0.1) f (0) 0.901 1

d. Forward:

=

= 0.99

0.1

0.1

f (0.1) f (0) 1.099 1

Backwards:

=

= 0.99

0.1

0.1

Symmetric:

f (0.1) f (0.1) 0.901 1.099

=

= 0.99

2(0.1)

0.2

All three difference quotients are equal because

f ( x) changes just as much from 0.1 to 0 as it

does from 0 to 0.1.

16.

h

Backwards

Forward

Symmetric

0.1

1.1544

3.1544

1

0.01 3.6415

5.6415

1

0.001 9

11

1

The backwards difference quotients are becoming

large and negative, while the forward difference

quotients are becoming large and positive. Their

average, the symmetric difference quotient, is

always equal to 1.

17. Answers will vary.

Q1. 9x 2 24x + 16

Q2. a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

Q3. See the text definition of derivative.

f ( x + h) f ( x h)

Q4.

2h

Q5. No limit (infinite) Q6. log 73

Q7. 3

Q8. Pythagorean theorem

Q9. 10

Q10. C

1. f ( x) = 5x 4 f ( x) = 20x3

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3. v = 0.007t 83 dv/dt = 0.581t 84

x 9

1

4. v( x ) =

v ( x ) = x 10

18

2

5. M(x) = 1215 M (x) = 0 (Derivative of a

constant)

6. f (x) = 4.7723 f (x) = 0 (Derivative of a

constant)

7. y = 0.3x 2 8x + 4 dy/dx = 0.6x 8

8. r = 0.2x2 + 6x 1 dr/dx = 0.4x + 6

d

9.

(13 x ) = 1

dx

10. f (x) = 4.5x 2 x f (x) = 9x 1

11. y = x 2.3 + 5x 2 100x + 4

dy/dx = 2.3x1.3 10x 3 100

2

d 2/5

12.

( x 4 x 2 3 x 1 + 14) = x 3/ 5 8 x + 3 x 2

5

dx

13. v = (3x 4)2 = 9x2 24x + 16 dv/dx = 18x 24

14. u = (5x 7)2 = 25x 2 70x + 49

du/dx = 50x 70

15. f (x) = (2x + 5)3 = 8x3 + 60x2 + 150x + 125

f (x) = 24x2 + 120x + 150

16. f (x) = (4x 1)3 = 64x 3 48x 2 + 12x 1

f (x) = 192x2 96x + 12

x2

17. P( x ) =

x + 4 P ( x ) = x 1

2

x3 x2

x + 1 Q( x ) = x 2 + x 1

18. Q( x ) =

+

3

2

19. f (x) = 7x4

7( x + h) 4 7 x 4

f ( x ) = lim

h0

h

3

= lim (28 x + 42 x 2 h + 28 xh 2 + 7h 3 ) = 28 x 3

h 0

20. g(x) = 5x3

5( x + h)3 5 x 3

g( x ) = lim

h0

h

2

= lim (15 x + 15 xh + 5h 2 ) = 15 x 2

h 0

21. v(t) = 10t2 5t + 7

[10(t + h)2 5(t + h) + 7] (10t 2 5t + 7)

h0

h

20th + 10 h 2 5h

= lim

h0

h

= lim (20t + 10 h 5) = 20t 5

v (t ) = lim

h0

checks.

33

[(t + h) 4 6(t + h)2 + 3.7] [t 4 6t 2 + 3.7]

s (t ) = lim

h0

h

4t 3 h + 6t 2 h 2 + 4th 3 + h 4 12th 6h 2

= lim

h0

h

= lim ( 4t 3 + 6t 2 h + 4th 2 + h 3 12t 6h)

h0

3

= 4t 12t

By formula, s(t ) = 4t 3 6 2t = 4t 3 12t , which

checks.

23. Mae should realize that you differentiate

functions, not values of functions. If you

substitute a value for x into f (x) = x4, you get

f (3) = 34 = 81, which is a new function, g(x) =

81. It is the derivative of g that equals zero.

Moral: Differentiate before you substitute for x.

24. a. v(x) = h(x) = 10x + 20

b. The book was going down at 10 m/s.

The velocity is 10, so h(x) is decreasing.

c. The book was 15 m above where he threw it.

d. 2 s. The book is at its highest point when the

velocity is zero. v(x) = 0 if and only if x = 2.

d. f (3) = 6.2

f (3) = 3.8 (by formula)

f (3) 3.8000004 (depending on grapher)

The two values of f (3) are almost identical!

28. a. g(x) = x 1. Conjecture: g(x) = 1 x 2.

Conjecture is confirmed.

y

1

y1

x

1

y 2 and y3

Conjecture is confirmed.

y

2

y1

y2 and y3

25.

Conjecture is refuted!

f

f

x

y

y1

26.

3

g

x

6

g'

y3

x

29. f ( x ) = x 1/ 2 + 2 x 13

f ( x ) = 12 x 1/ 2 + 2, f ( 4) = 94

Increasing by 9/4 y-units per x-unit at x = 4

30. f (x) = x 2 3x + 11

f (x) = 2x 3 3, f (1) = 5

Decreasing by 5 y-units per x-unit at x = 1

27. a.

y

10

x

f

c. There appear to be only two graphs because

the exact and the numerical derivative graphs

almost coincide.

34

y2

f (x) = 1.5x0.5 6, f (9) = 1.5

Decreasing by 1.5 y-units per x-unit at x = 9

32. f ( x ) = 3 x + x + 1

f ( x ) = 23 x 1/ 2 + 1, f (2) = 0.0606K

Decreasing by approximately 0.0607 y-unit per

x-unit at x = 2

33. f ( x ) =

x3

x 2 3 x + 5, f ( x ) = x 2 2 x 3

3

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x-intercepts of the f graph.

y

x

1

x3

2 x 2 + 3 x + 9, f ( x ) = x 2 4 x + 3

3

High and low points of the f graph are at the

x-intercepts of the f graph.

34. f ( x ) =

y

15

f'

1

Proof:

f ( x + h) f ( x )

h

k g( x + h ) k g ( x )

= lim

h0

h

g( x + h) g( x )

= lim k

h0

h

g( x + h) g( x )

= k lim

h0

h

= k g ( x ), Q .E .D .

f ( x ) = lim

h0

results in the new function g(x) = k f (x). What

has been shown is that

d

d

( k f ( x )) = k

f ( x)

dx

dx

That is, dilating a function vertically by a

constant k dilates the derivative function by a

constant factor of k.

36. If f ( x ) = x 5 , then f (c) = 5c 4 .

Proof:

f (c) = lim

x c

= lim

x c

f ( x ) f (c )

xc

x 5 c5

xc

( x c)( x 4 + x 3c + x 2 c 2 + xc 3 + c 4 )

x c

xc

= lim

= lim ( x 4 + x 3c + x 2 c 2 + xc 3 + c 4 )

x c

= c4 + c4 + c4 + c4 + c4

= 5c4, Q .E.D .

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Proof:

( x + h) n x n

h0

h

x n + nx n1h + 12 n(n 1) x n2 h 2 + L + h n x n

= lim

h 0

h

1

= lim nx n1 + n(n 1) x n2 h + L + h n1

h 0

2

= nx n1 + 0 + 0 + L + 0

= nx n 1 , which is from the second term in the

binomial expansion of (x + h)n, Q.E.D.

38. If yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un , where the ui are

differentiable functions of x, prove that

yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un for all integers n 2.

f ( x ) = lim

Proof:

Anchor: For n = 2, y2 = u1 + u2 .

y2 = u1 + u2 by the derivative of a sum of the

two functions property, thus anchoring the

induction.

Induction hypothesis:

Suppose that for n = k > 2,

yk = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk .

Verification for n = k + 1:

Let yk +1 = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk + uk +1 .

Then yk +1 = (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1 , which

is a sum of two terms.

yk +1 = (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1 ,

which, by the anchor,

= (u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk ) + uk +1

= u1 + u2 + u3 + L + uk + uk +1 ,

which completes the induction.

Conclusion:

yn = u1 + u2 + u3 + L + un for all integers

n 2, Q .E .D .

39. a. f ( x ) = 3 x 2 10 x + 5 f ( x ) = x 3 5 x 2 + 5 x

b. g(x) = f (x) + 13 is also an answer to part a

because it has the same derivative as f (x). The

derivative of a constant is zero.

c. The name antiderivative is chosen because it

is an inverse operation of taking the derivative.

d

d

d.

[ g( x )] = [ f ( x ) + C] =

dx

dx

d

d

d

f ( x) + C =

f ( x)

dx

dx

dx

The word indefinite is used because of the

unspecified constant C.

40. a. f (x) = 5x 4 f (x) = x 5 + C

f(2) = 23 (2)5 + C = 23

C = 9

f (x) = x 5 9

b. f (x) = 0.12x2 f (x) = 0.04x3 + C

f (1) = 500 0.04(1)3 + C = 500

Problem Set 3-4

35

C = 499.96

f (x) = 0.04x3 + 499.96

c. f ( x ) = x 3 f ( x ) = 14 x 4 + C

f (5) = 2 14 (5) 4 + C = 2

C = 154.25

f ( x ) = 14 x 4 154.25

Q1. No values of t

Q3. y = 51x

Q2. dy/dx = 10 x

Q6. f (3) = 45

Q7. f (3) = 30

Q8. 45

Q9.

Q10. C

4

2.4

1. y = 5t 3t + 7t

dy

v=

= 20t 3 7.2t 1.4 + 7,

dt

dv

a=

= 60t 2 10.08t 0.4

dt

2. y = 0.3t 4 5t

dy

dv

v=

= 1.2t 5 5, a =

= 6t 6

dt

dt

3. x = t3 + 13t2 35t + 27. The object starts out

at x = 27 ft when t = 0 s. It moves to the left to

x 0.15 ft when t 1.7 s. It turns there and

goes to the right to x = 70 ft when t = 7 s. It

turns there and speeds up, going to the left for all

higher values of t.

y

Turns at t = 7, x = 76

Turns at t = 1.7, x = 0.15

Starts at t = 0, x = 27

x

10

at x = 50 ft when t = 0 s. It moves to the left

to x 30 ft when t 1.0 s. Then it moves to the

right to x 34.8 ft when t 2.4 s. The object

moves to the left again, turning at x 9.4 ft

when t 4.8 s and then moving back to the right

for higher values of t.

y

v = 3t 2 + 26t 35, a = 6t + 26

b. v(1) = 3 + 26 35 = 12

So x is decreasing at 12 ft/s at t = 1.

a(1) = 6 + 26 = 20

So the object is slowing down at 20 (ft/s)/s

because the velocity and acceleration are in

opposite directions when t = 1.

v(6) = 3(6)2 + 26(6) 35 = 13

So x is increasing at 13 ft/s at t = 6.

a(6) = 6(6) + 26 = 10

So the object is slowing down at 10 (ft/s)/s

because the velocity and acceleration are in

opposite directions when t = 6.

v(8) = 3(8)2 + 26(8) 35 = 19

So x is decreasing at 19 ft/s at t = 8.

a(1) = 6(8) + 26 = 22

So the object is speeding up at 22 (ft/s)/s

because the velocity and acceleration are in the

same directions when t = 8.

c. At t = 7, x has a relative maximum because

v(7) = 0 at that point and is positive just

before t = 7 and negative just after. No, x is

never negative for t in [0, 9]. It starts out at

27 ft, decreases to just above zero around

t = 1.7, and does not become negative until

some time between t = 9.6 and 9.7.

6. a. x = t 4 11t 3 + 38t 2 48t + 50 (See Problem 4.)

v = 4t 3 33t 2 + 76t 48, a = 12t 2 66t + 76

b. At t = 1, v(1) = 1 and a(1) = 22. At t = 3,

v(3) = 9 and a(3) = 14 . At t = 5, v(5) = 7

and a(5) = 46 . The object is slowing down at

t = 1 because the velocity and acceleration are

in opposite directions. The object is speeding

up at t = 3 and t = 5 because velocity and

acceleration are in the same direction.

c. v = 0 when t = 1.0475 , 2.3708 ,

or 4.8315 .

d. The displacement is at a maximum or a

minimum whenever v = 0.

y

x

10

t

1

Turns at t 1.0, x 30.0

Starts at t 0, x 50

x

10

36

When a = 0, v is at a maximum or minimum

2005 Key Curriculum Press

times around these values.

y

d(1) = 18 9.8 = 8.2

d(3) = 18 9.8 3 = 11.4

d is called velocity in physics.

b. At t = 1 the football is going up at 8.2 m/s.

At t = 3 the football is going down at

11.4 m/s. The ball is going up when the

derivative is positive and coming down when

the derivative is negative. The ball is going

up when the graph slopes up and coming

down when the graph slopes down.

x

10

t

1

7. a.

y

300

t

10

0 t < 15. Calvin is going up the hill for

the first 15 s.

c. At 15 seconds his car stopped. d(15) = 324,

so distance is 324 feet.

d. 99 + 30t t 2 = 0 (33 t )(3 + t ) = 0 t = 33

or t = 3. Hell be back at the bottom when

t = 33 s.

e. d(0) = 99. The car runs out of gas 99 ft from

the bottom.

8. a.

y

ball is going down at 21.2 m/s. However,

d( 4) = 6.4, which reveals that the ball

has gone underground. The function gives

meaningful answers in the real world only if

the domain of t is restricted to values that

make d(t) nonnegative.

10. a.

y

2

t

v

is 0. The acceleration is greatest at either end

of its swing.

v = 251

200

11.

y

a = v'

30

acceleration decreases because the velocity is

approaching a constant. In the real world, this

occurs because the wind resistance increases as

the velocity increases.

c. The limit is 251 ft/s as t approaches infinity.

The term 0.88t approaches zero as t gets very

large, leaving only 1 inside the parentheses.

d. 90% of terminal velocity is 0.9(251) =

225.9 ft/s.

Algebraic solution:

251(1 0.88t ) = 225.9 0.88t = 0.1

log 0.1

t=

= 18.012394... 18.0 s

log 0.88

Numerical solution gives the same answer.

Graphical solution: Trace to v(t) = 225.9.

T is between 18 and 18.5.

e. Find the numerical derivative.

v(18.0123) 3.2086 , which is

approximately 10% of the initial acceleration.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

t

5

have had t 1.6 in it. The derivative of t1.6 can be

assumed to be 1.6t0.6 . So the coefficient of t 1.6

must be 15/1.6 , or 9.375. But x(0) was 50.

Thus, x(t) = 9.375t1.6 + 50. The derivative x(t)

really does equal v(t). Using this equation,

x(10) = 9.375(101.6 ) + 50 = 423.225K .

So the distance traveled is 423.225 50 =

373.225 , or about 373 ft.

13. The average rate is defined to be the change in

the dependent variable divided by the change in

the independent variable (such as total distance

divided by total time). Thus, the difference

quotient is an average rate. The instantaneous

rate is the limit of this average rate as the change

in the independent variable approaches zero.

Problem Set 3-5

37

m (5) = 14.6299K

m (10) = 23.5616K

Both quantities are in the units ($/yr)yr.

The quantities represent the instantaneous rate of

change of the instantaneous rate of change of the

amount of money in the account. For example,

at t = 5, the rate of increase of the account

(153.50 $/yr) is increasing at a rate of

14.63 ($/yr)/yr.

14. a.

y

3

t

10

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

38

8, .

y is a relative minimum when t 2, 6, 10, .

c. The velocity is a relative maximum when

t 3 or 7. The displacement graph at these

times appears to be increasing the fastest.

d. The equation used in the text is

y = 2 + 0.85t cos t

2

The student could observe that the period is 4,

leading to the coefficient /2. The amplitude

decreases in a way that suggests an exponential

function with base close to, but less than, 1.

The additive 2 raises the graph up two units,

as can be ascertained by the fact that the graph

seems to converge to 2 as t gets larger. The

numerical derivative of the function shown in

part a agrees with the graph of the velocity.

Note that the actual maximum and minimum

values occur slightly before the values of t

read from the graph in part a. For instance,

the maximum near t = 4 is actually at

t = 3.9343 .

dy

d2y

y = 5x 3

= 15 x 2 2 = 30 x

dx

dx

dy

d2y

y = 7x 4

= 28 x 3 2 = 84 x 2

dx

dx

dy

2

5

y = 9x + x

= 18 x + 5 x 4

dx

d2y

= 18 + 20 x 3

dx 2

y = 10 x 2 15 x + 42

dy

d2y

= 20 x 15 2 = 20

dx

dx

m(5) = 153.4979K

m(10) = 247.2100K

These numbers represent the instantaneous rate of

change of the amount of money in the account.

The second quantity is larger because the money

grows at a rate proportional to the amount of

money in the account. Because there is more

money after 10 years, the rate of increase should

also be larger.

Problem Set 3-6

p (14) = 2.4755K

p (14) = 12 p (7)

The fact that these derivatives are negative tells

us that the amount of nitrogen 17 is decreasing.

p (7) = 0.4902K

p (14) = 0.2451K

Both quantities are in units (% of nitrogen

17/s)/s. The quantities represent the rate of

change of the rate of change of the percentage of

nitrogen 17 remaining. For example, at t = 7 s,

the rate of decrease (4.95%/s) is changing at a

rate of 0.49 (%/s)/s.

21.

y

2

f

x

5

of y = cos (x).

22.

y

2

f'

of y = sin (x).

1.

y

3

x

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y

y2 and y 3

y1

x

reciprocal.

f. L(x) = log (sec x). Inside: secant. Outside:

logarithm.

8. Answers will vary.

3. g(x) = sin 3x

Conjecture: g(x) = 3 cos 3x

The graph confirms the conjecture.

3

y

g

x c

Q3. lim f ( x ) = f (c)

x c

Q6. f (x) = 10x 3

Q7. Antiderivative

Q8.

g

x

10

y = sin x

x

4. h( x ) = sin x 2

Conjecture: h( x ) = 2 x cos x 2

The graph confirms the conjecture.

Q9.

y = cos x

x

y

h'

h

Q10. C

1. a. Let y = f (u), u = g(x).

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

b. y = f [ g( x )] g( x )

x

5

5. t ( x ) = sin x 0.7

Conjecture: t ( x ) = 0.7 x 0.3 cos x 0.7

The graph confirms the conjecture.

y

2.

1

x

t

10

f is a composite function.

g is the inside function.

sine is the outside function.

Differentiate the outside function with respect to

the inside function. Then multiply the answer by

the derivative of the inside function with respect

to x.

7. a. f (x) = sin 3x. Inside: 3x. Outside: sine.

b. h(x) = sin3 x. Inside: sine. Outside: cube.

c. g(x) = sin x3. Inside: cube. Outside: sine.

d. r(x) = 2cos x. Inside: cosine. Outside:

exponential.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

differentiate the outside function with respect to

the inside function, then multiply by the derivative of the inside function with respect to x.

f ( x ) = ( x 2 1)3

a. f (x) = 3(x2 1)2(2x) = 6x(x2 1)2

b. (x 2 1)3 = x 6 3x 4 + 3x 2 1,

so f (x) = 6x 5 12x 3 + 6x.

c. From part a, f (x) = 6x(x2 1)2 =

6x(x 4 2x 2 + 1) = 6x 5 12x 3 + 6x, so the

two answers are equivalent.

f ( x ) = cos 3 x f ( x ) = sin 3 x 3 = 3 sin 3 x

f ( x ) = sin 5 x f ( x ) = 5 cos 5 x

g( x ) = cos ( x 3 ) g( x ) = 3 x 2 sin ( x 3 )

h( x ) = sin ( x 5 ) h( x ) = 5 x 4 cos ( x 5 )

y = (cos x)3

y = 3(cos x)2 (sin x) = 3 cos2 x sin x

f ( x ) = (sin x )5

f ( x ) = 5(sin x ) 4 cos x = 5 sin 4 x cos x

y = sin 6 x y = 6 sin 5 x cos x

f ( x ) = cos 7 x

f ( x ) = 7 cos 6 x ( sin x ) = 7 cos 6 x sin x

Problem Set 3-7

39

12. f (x) = 4 cos (5x)

f (x) = 4[sin (5x)] (5) = 20 sin (5x)

d

13.

(cos 4 7 x ) = 4 cos3 7 x ( sin 7 x ) 7

dx

= 28 cos3 7x sin 7x

d

14.

(sin 9 13 x ) = 9 sin 8 13 x cos 13 x 13

dx

= 117 sin8 13x cos 13x

15. f (x) = 24 sin5/3 4x

f (x) = 40 sin2/3 4x cos 4x 4

= 160 sin2/3 4x cos 4x

16. f (x) = 100 sin6/5 (9x)

f (x) = 120 sin1/5 (9x) cos (9x) (9)

= 1080 sin1/5 (9x) cos (9x)

y

5

x

3

dy

velocity =

= 7 cos t + 14.4t0.2

dt

Yes, there are times when the beanstalk is

shrinking. The velocity graph is negative for

brief intervals, and the y-graph is decreasing in

these intervals.

f (x) = 7(5x + 3)6 5 = 35(5x + 3)6

18. f (x) = (x + 8)

f (x) = 9(x2 + 8)8 2x = 18x(x2 + 8)8

2

19. y = (4x3 7) 6

y = 6(4x3 7) 7 12x2 = 72x2(4x3 7) 7

20. y = (x 2 + 3x 7) 5

y = 5(x 2 + 3x 7) 6 (2x + 3)

= 5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3x 7) 6

21. y = [cos (x2 + 3)]100

y = 100 [cos (x2 + 3)]99 [sin (x2 + 3)] 2x

= 200x cos99(x2 + 3) sin (x2 + 3)

22. y = [cos (5x + 3)4]5 y = 5[cos (5x + 3)4]4

[sin (5x + 3)4] 4(5x + 3)3 5 =

100(5x + 3)3 cos4 (5x + 3)4 sin (5x + 3)4

dy

23. y = 4 cos 5x

= 4(sin 5x)5 = 20 sin 5x

dx

d2y

= 20(cos 5x)5 = 100 cos 5x

dx 2

24. y = 7 sin (2x + 5)

dy

= 7 cos (2x + 5)(2) = 14 cos (2x + 5)

dx

2

d y

= 14[sin (2x + 5)](2) =

dx 2

28 sin (2x + 5)

1

25. f (x) = cos 5x f (x) = sin 5x + C

5

26. f (x) = 10 sin 2x f (x) = 5 cos 2x + C

27. f (x) = 5 cos 0.2x

f (x) = 5 sin 0.2x 0.2 = sin 0.2x

f (3) = sin 0.6 = 0.5646 and

f (3) = 4.1266

The line has the equation

y = 0.5646x + 5.8205 .

40

y and v

50

v

t

10

4 3

dV

r

= 4r 2

3

dr

dV/dr is in (cm3/cm), or cm2.

29. a. V =

b. r = 6t + 10

dr

= 6 (not surprising!). Units: cm/min

dt

dV dV dr

d.

=

dt

dr dt

When t = 5, r = 40. So

dV

= 4 ( 40 2 ) = 6400 .

dr

dV

dt

dV/dr has units cm 2, and dr/dt has units

cm

,

cm/min, so dV/dt has units cm 2

min

which becomes cm3/min, Q.E.D. This

matches the commonsense answer that rate of

volume cm 3

change of volume is

=

.

time

min

c.

4

(6t + 10)3

3

dV

dt

dV

When t = 5,

= 24 [6(5) + 10]2 = 38,400 .

dt

e. V =

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y(t ) = 25 + 20 cos

30. a.

u

(t 3)

10

(t 3)

10

10

y(t) is increasing at about 3.7 ft/s.

The fastest that y(t) changes is 2, or

6.28 ft/s. The seat is at y(t) = 25 ft above

the ground then.

y = C + A cos B(x D).

B = 2 /6 = /3 rad/s

D = phase displacement = 1.3 s

A = 0.5(110 50) = 30 cm

C = 110 30 or 50 + 30, which equals 80 cm.

d = 80 + 30 cos (t 1.3)

3

d = 10 sin (t 1.3)

3

3

3

At both times, the pendulum is moving away

from the wall at about 21.0 cm/s. The

answers are the same because the times are

exactly one period apart.

3

The pendulum is moving toward the wall.

Because the derivative is negative, d is

decreasing, which in this problem implies

motion toward the wall.

The fastest is 10 31.4 cm/s, when d = 80.

3

3

1

(t 1.3) = sin 0 (t 1.3) = 0 + n

3

3

t 1.3 = 3n t = 1.3 + 3n.

The first positive time occurs when n = 0,

that is, when t = 1.3 s. When the velocity

is zero, the pendulum is at its maximum

height.

The curb has slope (3.25 0.75)/44 = 2.5/44.

equation is f (x) = 0.75 + (2.5/44)x.

Sinusoid has period 8 ft, so B = 2 /8 = /4.

Amplitude = 0.5(0.75 0.25) = 0.25 ft. Low

end of ramp is a low point on the sinusoid.

sinusoidal axis is at y = 0.25 when x = 0

and goes up with slope 2.5/44.

Sinusoid is at a low point when x = 0. So

phase displacement is zero if the cosine is

subtracted.

b. y (t ) = 2 sin

u

c.

x

d.

zero from the left side. (u does approach zero

as x approaches zero from the left side.)

2. a.

b.

u

b.

c.

u does approach zero as x approaches zero

from either side.

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

f(x) = 9x 8

y = 72x5 (5x6 + 11)1.4

12

Yes (continuous)

Q2.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

dy/dx = 3 sin x

s = 0

1

f (x) = cos x 2

E

d.

f'

e.

x

f.

1. a.

45

d ( x)

25

Increasing

5

3

15

23

Vertical displacement = 25 = C

Amplitude = 0.5(40) = 20 = A

Phase disp. (for cosine) = 3 = D

Period = 60/3 = 20, so B = 2/20 = /10.

(Note that B is the angular velocity in radians

per second.)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3. a.

b.

41

equation is

2.5

x 0.25 cos x

44

4

(There are other correct forms.)

2.5

c. g ( x ) =

+ sin x

44 16

4

2.5

g ( 9) =

+ sin (9) = 0.1956 K ft/ft

44 16

4

Going up at about 0.2 vertical ft per

horizontal ft

2.5

g (15) =

+ sin (15) = 0.0820 K ft/ft

44 16

4

Going down at about 0.08 vertical ft per

horizontal ft. A positive derivative implies

g(x) is getting larger and thus the child is

going up. A negative derivative implies g(x)

is getting smaller and thus the child is going

down.

d. By tracing the g graph, maximum value of

g (x) is 0.2531 ft/ft (about 14.2 up).

Minimum is 0.1395 ft/ft (about 7.9

down).

4. a. Let d = day number and L(d) = number of

minutes.

14 hours 3 minutes is 843 minutes. 10 hours

15 minutes is 615 minutes.

amplitude = (1/2)(843 615) = 114 min.

Sinusoidal axis is at L(d) = 615 + 114 =

729 min.

Assuming a 365-day year, B = 2/365.

Phase displacement = 172

2

L( d ) = 729 + 114 cos

( d 172)

365

On August 7, d = 219.

2

L(219) = 729 + 114 cos

(219 172) =

365

807.67 , or about 13 hours 28 minutes.

228

2

b. L ( d ) =

sin

( d 172)

365

365

On August 7, d = 219.

228

2

sin

(219 172) =

L (219) =

365

365

1.42009

Rate 1.42 min/day

(Decreasing at about 1.42 min/day)

c. The greatest rate occurs when the sine is

1 or 1.

Rate is 228/365 1.96 min/day.

1/4 year is about 91 days. So greatest rate

occurs at day 172 91, which is day 263 or

day 81 (September 20 or March 22).

5. In general, the period for a pendulum formed by

a weight suspended by a string of negligible

mass is 2 L/g , where L is the length from the

pivot point to the center of mass (actually, the

center of percussion) of the weight, and g is the

g( x ) = 0.25 +

42

Consequently, if the pendulum is 1 meter long,

its period will be 2 1/9.8 = 2.007K , or about

2 s. This is the period for a complete back-andforth swing. You must quadruple the length of a

pendulum to double its period. A pendulum hung

from the ceiling will have a period slow enough

to measure fairly precisely. A good way to get

more accuracy is to count the total time for ten

swings, then divide by 10. The period is roughly

constant for any (moderate) amplitude, as long as

the amplitude is not too big. This fact is not

obvious to the uninitiated student and is worth

spending time showing. It is quite dramatic to

watch a pendulum take just as long to make ten

swings with amplitude 2 cm as it does with

amplitude 20 or 30 cm.

6. The following data were computed from actual

sunrise and sunset times for San Antonio for

each ten days. You can get similar information

for your locality from the local weather bureau or

newspaper office, from the Nautical Almanac

Office, U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington,

D.C., 20390, or from the Internet.

Day

Min

Day

Min

Day

Min

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

617

623

632

645

660

676

693

711

729

747

764

780

797

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

811

823

833

840

842

842

836

828

816

803

789

772

755

260

270

280

290

300

310

320

330

340

350

360

738

720

703

686

669

653

639

628

620

615

615

L(d )

800

700

600

0

d

100

200

300

is a noticeable deviation in the fall and winter,

here the day is slightly longer than predicted.

The main reason for the discrepancy, apparently,

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

closer to the Sun and hence moves slightly more

rapidly through its angle with the Sun than

during the spring and summer.

7. a.

y

g

x

1

b. f (x) < g(x) and lim f ( x ) = lim g( x ) = 4

x 1

x 1

f (x) h(x) g(x)

c.

x

f(x)

h(x)

g(x)

0.95

3.795

3.8

3.805

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.00

1.01

1.02

1.03

1.04

1.05

3.8368

3.8782

3.9192

3.9598

4

4.0398

4.0792

4.1182

4.1568

4.195

3.84

3.88

3.92

3.96

4

4.04

4.08

4.12

4.16

4.2

3.8432

3.8818

3.9208

3.9602

4

4.0402

4.0808

4.1218

4.1632

4.205

then both f (x) and g(x) are within 0.1 unit of

4. From the table, = 0.01 or 0.02 will

work, but 0.03 is too large. All the values of

h(x) are between the corresponding values of

f (x) and g(x), and the three functions all

approach 4 as a limit.

sin x

8. Prove that lim

= 0. See the text proof.

x0 x

9. a. The numbers are correct.

b.

x

(sin x)/x

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.99958338541

0.99973335466

0.99985000674

0.99993333466

0.99998333341

the TI-83 in TABLE mode, starting x at 0 and

using x = 107 shows that all values round

to 1 until x reaches 1.8 106, which

registers as 0.999999999999.

d. Answer will depend on calculator. For TI-83

in TABLE mode, (sin 0.001)/0.001 is

0.999999833333, which agrees exactly with

the value published by NBS to 12 places.

e. If students have studied Taylor series

(Chapter 12) before taking this course, they

will be able to see the reason. The Taylor

series for sin 0.001 is

0.0013 0.0015 0.0017

+

+L

3!

5!

7!

= 0.00100 00000 00000 00000 000

0.00000 00001 66666 66666 666

+ 0.00000 00000 00000 00833 333

_______________________________

0.001

10. See the text proof.

11. See the text proof.

12. a. See the text statement of the theorem.

b. Proof:

Given any > 0, there is a f > 0 such that

0 < |x c | < f |f (x) L | < , because

lim f ( x ) = L. Similarly, there is a g > 0

x c

Let be the smaller of f and g. Then 0 <

|x c | < 0 < |x c | < f = |f (x) L| <

f (x) < L + , and also 0 < |x c | <

0 < |x c | < g |g(x) L| <

L < g(x). Then L < g(x) < h(x) < f(x)

< L + , so |h(x) L | < , so lim h( x ) = L .

x c

Q.E.D.

13. a. The limit seems to equal 2.

b.

g

equations g(x) = x + 1 and h(x) = 3 x.

d. Prove that lim y = 2.

x 1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

43

Proof:

lim( x + 1) = 1 + 1 = 2

x 1

lim(3 x ) = 3 1 = 2

x 1

the squeeze theorem applies, and lim y = 2.

x 1

the squeeze theorem applies, and lim+ y = 2.

x 1

2, lim y = 2, Q .E.D .

x 1

the small window formed by the two lines

envelops (a verb) the graph of the function.

1

f. As |x| becomes large, (x 1) sin

=

x 1

sin [1/( x 1)]

takes on the form

1/( x 1)

sin (argument)

as the argument approaches

(argument)

zero. Thus the limit is 1 and y approaches

2 + 1, which equals 3.

14. Answers will vary.

Q1. 1

Q2. sin x

2

d

d

(cos x ) =

( sin x ) = cos x

dx 2

dx

Q4. y = sin x + C

Q5. x 8

Q6. x48

Q7. log 32 = 5 log 2

Q8.

Q3.

0 to 1 year is approximately 6.184%.

1127.50/1061.84 = 1.061836 , so the APR

for 1 to 2 years is approximately 6.184%.

1197.22/1127.50 = 1.06183 , so the APR

for 2 to 3 years is approximately 6.184%.

The APR is higher than the instantaneous

rate. Savings institutions may prefer to

advertise the APR instead of the instantaneous

rate because the APR is higher.

2. a. f (t) = 10e 0.34 t

f (t) = 10(0.34)e 0.34 t = 3.4e 0.34 t

f (0) = 3.4

f (2) = 1.7224

f (4) = 0.8726

f (6) = 0.4420

Factor of change from 0 to 2:

1.7224/3.4 = 0.5066

Factor of change from 2 to 4:

0.8726/1.7224 = 0.5066

Factor of change from 4 to 6:

0.4420/0.8726 = 0.5066

b. f (0) = 10

f (2) = 5.0661

f (4) = 2.5666

f (6) = 1.3002

Factor of change from 0 to 2:

5.0661/10 = 0.5066

Factor of change from 2 to 4:

2.5666/5.0661 = 0.5066

Factor of change from 4 to 6:

1.3002/2.5666 = 0.5066

The factors of change are the same in part a

and part b.

c.

y

10

f

t

Q10. C

1. M(x) = 1000e0.06 x

a. M(x) = 1000(0.06)e0.06 x = 60e0.06 x

M(1) = 63.7101 $/yr

M(10) = 109.3271 $/yr

M(20) = 199.2070 $/yr

b. M(0) = $1000

M(1) = $1061.84

M(2) = $1127.50

M(3) = $1197.22

Increase from year 0 to year 1: $61.84

Increase from year 1 to year 2: $65.66

Increase from year 2 to year 3: $69.72

No, the amount of money in the account does

not change by the same amount each year.

44

f'

amount of 18-F is decreasing as time goes on.

23.5

3. a. A( p) = 63 23.5 ln p A( p) =

p

y

50

A

x

A

10

is decreasing. A(10) = 2.35, so the altitude

is changing at 2.35 thousand feet/psi. That

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

altitude had decreased by 2.35 thousand feet.

The negative sign means that the altitude is

decreasing.

c. A(5) = 4.7 = 4.7

A(10) = 2.35 = 2.35

This shows that the altitude is changing faster

at 5 psi than it is at 10 psi.

d. A(p) = 0

63 23.5 ln p = 0

23.5 ln p = 63

ln p = 2.6808

p = 14.5975

The fact that A(p) is negative for all values of

p greater than 14.5975 means that if the air

pressure is above 14.5975 psi, then the plane

must be beneath sea level.

4. x = 3000e0.05 y

a. ln x = ln (3000e0.05 y)

ln x = ln 3000 + ln e0.05 y

ln x ln 3000 = 0.05y

1

y=

(ln x ln 3000)

0.05

y = 20 ln x 20 ln 3000

b. y(3000) = 20 ln 3000 20 ln 3000 = 0

y(4000) = 20 ln 4000 20 ln 3000 =

5.7536

y(5000) = 20 ln 5000 20 ln 3000 =

10.2165

y(6000) = 20 ln 6000 20 ln 3000 =

13.8629

Number of years to get from $3000 to $4000:

5.7536

Number of years to get from $4000 to $5000:

4.4628

Number of years to get from $5000 to $6000:

3.6464

The time intervals decrease as the amount of

money increases because when there is more

money in the account, it takes less time to

earn the given amount of interest.

20

yr/$

c. y = 20 ln x 20 ln 3000 y =

x

y(3000) = 0.0066

y(4000) = 0.005

y(5000) = 0.004

y(6000) = 0.0033

This shows that the number of years it takes

to earn each dollar decreases as the amount of

money increases.

5. f (x) = 5e3x f (x) = 15e3x

6. f (x) = 7e 6x f (x) = 42e 6x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7. g(x) = 4ecos x

g(x) = 4(ecos x)(sin x) = 4(sin x) ecos x

8. h(x) = 8e sin x

h (x) = 8e sin x (cos x) = 8(cos x)e sin x

9. y = 2 sin (e4x) y = 2 cos (e4x) 4e4x = 8e4x cos (e4x)

10. y = 6 cos (e 0.5 x)

y = 6[sin (e 0.5 x)](0.5) e 0.5 x = 3e 0.5 x sin (e 0.5 x)

10

10

11. f ( x ) = 10 ln (7 x ) f ( x ) =

7 =

7x

x

9

9

12. g( x ) = 9 ln 4 x g ( x ) =

4 =

4x

x

18

54

13. T = 18 ln x 3 T = 3 (3 x 2 ) =

x

x

1000

700

14. P = 1000 ln x 0.7 P = 0.7 0.7 x 0.3 =

x

x

15. y = 3 ln (cos 5x)

3

y =

( sin 5 x )5 = 15 tan 5 x

cos 5 x

16. y = 11 ln (sin 0.2x)

11

y =

(cos 0.2 x ) 0.2 = 2.2 cot 0.2 x

sin 0.2 x

17. u = 6 ln (sin x0.5 )

6

u =

(cos x 0.5 ) 0.5 x 0.5 = 3 x 0.5 cot x 0.5

sin x 0.5

18. v = 0.09 ln (cos x 8 )

v =

0.09

( sin x 8 )8 x 7 = 0.72x7 tan x8

cos x 8

1 x

e = 1

ex

Not surprising because we could have first used

the fact that natural log and exp are inverses:

r(x) = ln ex = x r (x) = 1

c(x) = eln x = x c (x) = 1

c (2) = 1, c (3) = 1, c (4) = 1

f (x) = 3x f ( x ) = ( ln 3 ) 3 x

g (x) = 0.007x g(x) = (ln 0.007) 0.007x

y = 1.6cos x y = (ln 1.6)1.6cos x (sin x) =

ln 1.6 sin x (1.6cos x)

y = sin 5x y = cos 5x (ln 5)5x

dy 1

5

y = ln x 5

=

5 x 4 = = 5 x 1

dx x 5

x

5

d2y

= 5 x 2 = 2

dx 2

x

19. r ( x ) = ln e x r ( x ) =

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

dy

d2y

= 7e 7 x 2 = 49e 7 x

dx

dx

0.7 x

0.7 x

27. y = e

y = 0.7e

y = 0.49e 0.7 x

26. y = e 7 x

45

28. y = ln 8 x y =

1

1

8 = = x 1

8x

x

1

x2

2x

29. f (x) = 12e f ( x ) = 6 e 2 x + C

c. m( x ) =

y = 1x 2 =

30. y = 5x ln 5 y = 5x + C

0.4 x 2 x 0.6

x3

m (x )

2

x

3

Review Problems

R1. a.

x

1.97

f (2) f (1.97)

= 11.82

0.03

1.98

f (2) f (1.98)

= 11.88

0.02

1.99

f (2) f (1.99)

= 11.94

0.01

2.01

f (2.01) f (2)

= 12.06

0.01

2.02

f (2.02) f (2)

= 12.12

0.02

2.03

f (2.03) f (2)

= 12.18

0.03

f ( x ) f (2)

b. r ( x ) =

x2

r(2) is of the form 00 .

lim r ( x ) appears to be 12.

x

3

f. Yes, f does have local linearity at x = 3.

Zooming in on the point (3, 5.6) shows that

the graph looks more and more like the line.

R3. a.

y

y2

50

y1

1

c. The y1 graph has a high point or a low point

at each x-value where the y2 graph is zero.

d.

y

x 2

x 3 8 ( x 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 4)

c. r ( x ) =

=

x2

( x 2)

= x 2 + 2 x + 4, x 2

lim r ( x ) = lim x 2 + 2 x + 4 because x 2.

x 2

x 2

lim r ( x ) = 12

x 2

f ( x ) f (c )

xc

2

b. f (x) = 0.4x x + 5

x c

0.4 x 2 x + 5 5.6

x 3

x3

( x 3)(0.4 x + 0.2)

= lim

x 3

x3

= lim (0.4 x + 0.2) = 1.4

f (3) = lim

x 3

46

20

t

p

and 0.

p(3) 2.688 . Decreasing at about

2.69 psi/h when t = 3.

p(6) 1.959 . Decreasing at about

1.96 psi/h when t = 6.

p(0) 3.687 . Decreasing at about

3.69 psi/h when t = 0.

The units are psi/h. The sign of the pressure

change is negative because the pressure is

decreasing. Yes, the rate of pressure change is

getting closer to zero.

R4. a. See the text for the definition of derivative.

b. Differentiate

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. If y = x n, then y = nx n 1.

d. See solution to Problem 35 in Problem Set

3-4.

e. See the proof in Section 3-4.

dy

f.

is pronounced d y, d x.

dx

d

( y) is pronounced d, d x, of y.

dx

Both mean the derivative of y with respect to x.

63 4 / 5

g. i. f ( x ) = 7 x 9/ 5 f ( x ) =

x

5

x2

ii. g( x ) = 7 x 4

x+7

6

x

g( x ) = 28 x 5 1

3

iii. h(x) = 73 h (x) = 0

h. f (32) = 635 (32) 4 / 5 = 201.6 exactly. The

numerical derivative is equal to or very close

to 201.6.

i.

e.

y

f

x

dy

v=

= 0.03t 2 + 1.8t 25

dt

dv

a=

= 0.06t + 1.8

dt

ii. a( 15) = 0.06(15) + 1.8 = 0.9 (km/s)/s

v(15) = 0.03(152) + 1.8(15) 25

= 4.75 km/s

The spaceship is slowing down at t = 15

because the velocity and the acceleration

have opposite signs.

iii. v = 0.03t2 + 1.8t 25 = 0

By using the quadratic formula or the

solver feature of your grapher,

t = 21.835 or t = 38.164 .

The spaceship is stopped at about 21.8

and 38.2 seconds.

iv. y = 0.01t3 + 0.9t2 25t + 250 = 0

By using TRACE or the solver feature of

your grapher, t = 50.

v(50) = 10

Because the spaceship is moving at

10 km/s when it reaches the surface, it is

a crash landing!

R6. a.

derivative

cosine

x

1

R5. a. v =

a=

dx

or x (t ).

dt

dv

d2x

or v (t ), a = 2 or x (t )

dt

dt

d2y

means the second derivative of y with

dx 2

respect to x.

y = 10x 4 y = 40x 3 y = 120x 2

c. f ( x ) = 12 x 3 f ( x ) = 3 x 4 + C. f (x) is

the antiderivative, or the indefinite integral,

of f (x).

d. The slope of y = f ( x ) is determined by the

value of f ( x ). So the slope of y = f ( x ) at

x = 1 is f (1) = 1, at x = 5 is f (5) = 3, and

at x = 1 is f ( 1) = 0.

b.

x

5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sine graph but inverted in the y-direction.

Thus, (cos x ) = sin x is confirmed.

c. sin 1 = 0.841470984

Numerical derivative 0.841470984

The two are very close!

d. Composite function

f(x) = 2x sin (x2)

dy dy du

R7. a. i.

=

dx du dx

ii. f (x) = g(h(x)) f (x) = g (h(x)) h (x)

iii. The derivative of a composite function is

the derivative of the outside function with

respect to the inside function times the

derivative of the inside function with

respect to x.

b. See the derivation in the text. This derivation

constitutes a proof. u must be nonzero

throughout the interval.

47

c.

d.

e.

f.

R8. a.

f (x) = 3(x 2 4)2 2x = 6x(x2 4)2

ii. f (x) = x 6 12x 4 + 48x 2 64

f(x) = 6x 5 48x 3 + 96x

Expanding the answer to part i gives

f(x) = 6x5 48x3 + 96x, which checks.

i. f(x) = 3x 2 sin x 3

ii. g(x) = 5 cos 5x

iii. h(x) = 6 cos5 x (sin x)

= 6 sin x cos5 x

iv. k (x) = 0

f (x) = 12 cos 3x f (x) =

12(sin 3x)3 = 36 sin 3x

f (x) = 12 cos 3x f (x) = 4 sin 3x + C

f (x) is the second derivative of f (x).

f (x) is the antiderivative, or indefinite

integral, of f (x).

W = 0.6x3 and dx/dt = 0.4

dW dW dx

=

dt

dx dt

If x = 2, W = 0.6 23 = 4.8 lb

dW/dt = 0.72(22) = 2.88

The shark is gaining about 2.88 lb/day.

If x = 10, W = 0.6 103 = 600 lb.

dW/dt = 0.72(102) = 72

The shark is gaining about 72 lb/day.

The chain rule is used to get dW/dt from

dW/dx by multiplying the latter by dx/dt.

sin x

lim

=1

x0

x

x

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

(sin x)/x

0.99958338541

0.99973335466

0.99985000674

0.99993333466

0.99998333341

undefined

0.99998333341

0.99993333466

0.99985000674

0.99973335466

0.99958338541

approaches 0.

b. See the text for the statement of the squeeze

theorem. Squeeze (sin x)/x between cos x and

sec x.

c. See the proof in Section 3-8 of the text.

48

d. cos x = sin ( /2 x)

cos x = cos (/2 x) (1)

= sin x, Q .E .D .

e. d(t) = C + A cos B(t D)

C = 180, A = 20

D = 0 for cosine because hand starts at a high

point.

B = 2/60 = /30 because period is 60 s.

d (t ) = 180 + 20 cos t

30

2

d (t ) =

sin t

3

30

At 2, t = 10: d(10) 1.81 cm/s

At 3, t = 15: d(15) 2.09 cm/s

At 7, t = 35: d(35) 1.05 cm/s

At the 2 and 3, the tip is going down, so the

distance from the floor is decreasing, which is

implied by the negative derivatives. At the 7,

the tip is going up, as implied by the positive

derivative.

R9. a. p( x ) = 100e 0.1x p ( x ) = 100( 0.1)e 0.1x

= 10e 0.1 x

p(0) = 10

p(10) = 3.6787

p(20) = 1.3533

The rates are negative because the amount of

medication in your body is decreasing.

To find the biological half-life, find x such that

1

p( x ) = p(0) = 50

2

100e 0.1x = 50

1

e 0.1x =

2

1

0.1x = ln

2

1

x = 10 ln

2

x = 6.9314

The half-life is 6.9314 h.

p(2(6.9314)) = p(13.8629) =

100e 0.1(13.8629) = 25

After two half-lives have elapsed, 25% of the

medicine remains in your body.

b. i. f (x) = 5e2x f (x) = 5(2)e2x = 10e2x

dy

ii. y = 7 x

= (ln 7)7 x

dx

d

1

iii.

[ln (cos x )] =

( sin x ) = tan x

dx

cos x

dy

1

= 8 = 8 x 1

iv. y = ln x 8 = 8 ln x

dx

x

8

d2y

= 8 x 2 = 2

dx 2

x

c. f ( x ) = 12e 3x f ( x ) = 4e 3x + C

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Chapter Test

d.

y

y1

y3

or 3-4.

T2. Prove that if f (x) = 3x4, then f (x) = 12x3.

y2

x

3

Proof:

y1 = ex is the inverse of y2 = ln x, so y1 is a

reflection of y2 across the line y = x.

f ( x + h) f ( x )

3( x + h) 4 3 x 4

= lim

h 0

h 0

h

h

4

3

2 2

3 x + 12 x h + 18 x h + 12 xh 3 + 3h 4 3 x 4

= lim

h0

h

= lim (12 x 3 + 18 x 2 h + 12 xh 2 + 3h 3 ) = 12 x 3 ,

f ( x ) = lim

Concept Problems

C1. a. f (x) = x7, g(x) = x9. So h(x) = f(x) g(x) = x 16.

b. h(x) = 16x15

c. f (x) = 7x 6, g(x) = 9x 8. So f (x) g(x) =

63x14 h (x).

d. h(x) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g(x) =

7x 6 x 9 + x 7 9x 8 = 16x 15

x sin 2 x

C2. a. f ( x ) =

. f (0) has the form 0/0,

sin x

which is indeterminate. f is discontinuous at

x = 0 because f (0) does not exist.

b. By graph (below) or by TABLE , f (x) seems to

approach 1 as x approaches zero. Define f (0)

to be 1.

h 0

Q .E .D .

graph appears to get closer and closer to the

tangent line. The name of this property is local

linearity.

y

5

Slope = 2

x

5

f (x )

5

of after. Correct solution is f (x) = 7x

f (x) = 7 f (5) = 7.

T5. f (x) = (7x + 3)15 f (x) = 105(7x + 3)14

T6. g(x) = cos (x5) g (x) = 5x 4 sin x 5

x = 0. The derivative should equal zero

because the graph is horizontal at x = 0.

f ( x ) f (0)

d. f (0) = lim

h0

x0

x sin 2 x

(1)

= lim sin x

x0

x

x sin 2 x + sin x

= lim

x0

x sin x

Using TABLE for numerator, denominator, and

quotient shows that the numerator goes to

zero faster than the denominator. For instance,

if x = 0.001,

1.1666 K 10 9

= 0.00116 K

9.999K 10 7

Thus, the limit appears to be zero. (The limit

can be found algebraically to equal zero by

lHospitals rule after students have studied

Section 6-5.)

quotient =

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T7.

d

1

[ln (sin x )] =

cos x = cot x

dx

sin x

T9. f (x) = cos (sin5 7x)

f (x) = sin (sin5 7x) 5 sin4 7x cos 7x 7

= 35 sin (sin5 7x) sin4 7x cos 7x

T10. y = 60x 2/3 x + 25 y = 40x 1/3 1

T11. y = e 9x

dy

d2y

= 9e 9x 2 = 81e 9x

dx

dx

the numerical derivative is 0.6081 .)

T13. y = 3 + 5x 1.6

v(x) = 5(1.6)x 2.6 = 8x 2.6

a(x) = 8(2.6)x 3.6 = 20.8x 3.6

Acceleration is the second derivative of the

displacement function.

T14. f (x) = 72x 5/4 f (x) = 32x 9/4

49

f (x) = 5 cos x + C

13 = 5 cos 0 + C C = 18

f (x) = 5 cos x + 18

Proof:

f (5) = 3 sin 15 = 1.95086

Decreasing at 1.95 y-units per x-unit.

T17. f ( x ) =

sin x

x

f (x )

1

x

1

The squeeze theorem states:

If (1) g(x) h(x) for all x in a neighborhood of c,

(2) lim g( x ) = lim h( x ) = L, and (3) f is a

x c

x c

that neighborhood of c, then lim f ( x ) = L.

x c

T18.

h

0.0003

0.0002

0.0001

0

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

5h 1

h

1.6090

1.6091

1.6093

undefined

1.6095

1.6097

1.6098

5h 1

lim

= ln 5.

h0

h

50

5 x +h 5 x

d x

Definition of derivative.

(5 ) = lim

h 0

dx

h

5h 1

= 5 x lim

Factor out 5x.

h0

h

= 5x ln 5

Evaluate.

t

T19. v(t) = 251(1 0.88 )

a(t) = 251[ ln (0.88)] 0.88t = 251(ln 0.88)0.88t

a(10) = 251(ln 0.88)(0.88)(10) = 8.9360

Numerical derivative gives 8.9360 as well.

T20. If the velocity and the acceleration have opposite

signs for a particular value of t, then the object is

slowing down at that time.

T21. a. v(t) = t1.5 + 3 a(t) = 1.5t0.5

t 2.5

b. d (t ) =

+ 3t + C

2.5

d(1) = 20

12.5

+ 3(1) + C = 20

2.5

3.4 + C = 20

C = 16.6

d(t) = 0.4t2.5 + 3t + 16.6

c. d(9) d(1) = 120.8

This represents the displacement between the

first and ninth seconds.

2

T22. a. c(t ) = 300 + 2 cos

t

365

4

2

c (t ) =

sin

t

365

365

4

2

b. c(273) =

sin

273

365

365

= 0.03442 ppm/day

0.03442 K

1

c. Rate is (6 1015 )

=

1, 000, 000 24 60 60

2390.6627 , which is approximately 2390

tons per second!

T23. Answers will vary.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Problem Set 4-1

1. f (x) = 3 cos x f (x) = 3 sin x

g(x) = 2 sin x g(x) = 2 cos x

2.

6

p (x )

p(x) = f (x)g(x) + f (x)g(x).

p(2) = (3 sin 2)(2 sin 2) + (3 cos 2)(2 cos 2) =

3.9218 , which agrees with Problem 2.

Youll see in Section 4-3 that

f ( x ) g( x ) f ( x ) g ( x )

q ( x ) =

[ g( x )]2

10

q ( 2 ) =

=

(2 sin 2)2

p(2) 3.9218

p(x) is decreasing at x = 2 because p (2) < 0.

This fact corresponds with the graph, which

slopes steeply in the negative direction at x = 2.

f (2) g(2) = (3 sin 2)(2 cos 2) = 2.2704

So p (2) f (2) g (2).

3.

6

q (x )

Q1. y =

Q3.

3 1/ 4

x

4

dy

= 30(5 x 7) 7

dx

q (2) = 1.8141

q( x ) is decreasing at x = 2.

f (2)/g (2) = (3 sin 2)/(2 cos 2) = 3.2775

So q (2) f (2)/g (2).

4.

y

t = 2 here

2

x

3

5. See graph in Problem 4.

x = 3 cos 2.1 3 cos 1.9 = 0.54466

y = 2 sin 2.1 2 sin 1.9 = 0.16618

dy y 0.16618K

=

= 0.3051K

dx x 0.54466 K

dy/dt 2 cos 2

At t = 2,

=

= 0.3051 K ,

dx/dt 3 sin 2

which agrees with the difference quotient.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q4.

d

(sin 2 x ) = 2 cos 2 x

dx

Q6. L = 2m + 5

Q7. y = sin x + C

Q8. y 3

10

Q2. y = 1/x

Q9.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Q10. B

4 ft/s

3

f ( x) = x cos x f (x) = 3x 2 cos x x 3 sin x

f ( x) = x 4 sin x f (x) = 4x 3 sin x + x 4 cos x

g(x) = x1.5 e2x g (x) = 1.5x0.5 e2x + 2x1.5 e2x

h(x) = x 6.3 ln 4x

h (x) = 6.3x 7.3 ln 4x + x 6.3 (1/4x)4

= 6.3x 7.3 ln 4x + x 7.3

5. y = x7(2x + 5)10

dy/dx = 7x6(2x + 5)10 + x7(10)(2x + 5)9 2

= x6(2x + 5)9(34x + 35)

8

6. y = x (3x + 7)9

dy/dx = 8x7(3x + 7)9 + x8(9)(3x + 7)8(3)

= x7(3x + 7)8 (51x + 56)

7. z = ln x sin 3x

z = (1/x) sin 3x + 3 ln x cos 3x

8. v = e5x cos 2x v = 5e5x cos 2x 2e5x sin 2x

9. y = (6x + 11)4(5x 9)7

y = 4(6x + 11)3(6)(5x 9)7

+ (6x + 11)4(7)(5x 9)6(5)

= (6x + 11)3(5x 9)6(330x + 169)

10. y = (7x 3)9(6x 1)5

y = 9(7x 3)8(7)(6x 1)5

+ (7x 3)9(5)(6x 1)4(6)

= (7x 3)8(6x 1)4(588x 153)

51

P = 10(x2 1)9(2x)(x2 + 1)15

+ (x2 1)10(15)(x2 + 1)14(2x)

= 10x(x2 1)9(x2 + 1)14[2(x2 + 1) + 3(x2 1)]

= 10x(x2 1)9(x2 + 1)14(5x2 1)

12. P(x) = (x3 + 6)4(x3 + 4)6

P (x) = 4(x3 + 6)3(3x2)(x3 + 4)6

+ (x3 + 6)4 6(x3 + 4)5 3x2

= 6x2(x3 + 6)3(x3 + 4)5[2(x3 + 4) + 3(x3 + 6)]

= 6x2(x3 + 6)3(x3 + 4)5(5x3 + 26)

13. a( t) = 4 sin 3t cos 5t

a(t) = 12 cos 3t cos 5t + 4 sin 3t(5 sin 5t)

= 12 cos 3t cos 5t 20 sin 3t sin 5t

14. v = 7 cos 2t sin 6t

v = 14 sin 2t sin 6t + 7 cos 2t(6 cos 6t)

= 14 sin 2t sin 6t + 42 cos 2t cos 6t

15. y = cos (3 sin x)

y = sin (3 sin x) 3 cos x

= 3 sin (3 sin x) cos x

16. y = sin (5 cos x)

y = cos (5 cos x) (5 sin x)

= 5 cos (5 cos x) sin x

17. y = cos e6x

dy/dx = 6e6x(sin e6x) = 6e6x sin e6x

d2y/dx2 = 36e6x sin e6x 6e6x(6e6x cos e6x)

= 36e6x sin e6x 36e12x cos e6x

18. y = ln (sin x) dy/dx = (1/sin x) cos x

= (cos x)(sin x) 1 d 2y/dx2

= (cos x) [(sin x)] 2 (cos x) + (sin x) (sin x) 1

=

cos 2 x

+ 1 = cot 2 x + 1 = csc 2 x

sin 2 x

z = 3x2(5x 2)4 sin 6x + x3[(4)(5x 2)3(5) sin 6x

+ (5x 2)4(6 cos 6x)]

= 3x2(5x 2)4 sin 6x + 20x3(5x 2)3 sin 6x

+ 6x3(5x 2)4 cos 6x

20. u = 3x5(x2 4) cos 10x

u = 15x4(x2 4) cos 10x + 3x5[2x cos 10x

+ (x2 4) (10 sin 10x)]

= 15x4 (x2 4) cos 10x + 6x6 cos 10x

30x5(x2 4) sin 10x

21. If y = uvw, where u, v, and w are differentiable

functions of x, then y = uvw + uvw + uvw.

52

Proof:

y = uvw = (uv)w

y = (uv)w + (uv)w = (uv + uv)w + (uv)w

= uvw + uvw + uvw, Q .E .D .

22. If yn = u1u2 u3 un where u1un are differentiable

functions of x, then

yn = u1u2 u3 Kun + u1u2 u3 Kun

+ u1u2 u3 Kun + L + u1u2 u3 Kun K .

23. z = x 5 cos6 x sin 7x

z = 5x4 cos6 x sin 7x + x5 6 cos5 x (sin x)

sin 7x + x 5 cos6 x 7 cos 7x

= 5x 4 cos6 x sin 7x 6x 5 cos5 x sin x sin 7x

+ 7x5 cos6 x cos 7x

24. y = 4x 6 sin3 x cos 5x

y = 24x5 sin3 x cos 5x + 4x6 3 sin2 x cos x

cos 5x + 4x6 sin3 x(5 sin 5x)

= 24x5 sin3 x cos 5x + 12x6 sin2 x cos x

cos 5x 20x6 sin3 x sin 5x

25. y = x4 (ln x)5 sin x cos 2x

y = 4x3(ln x)5 sin x cos 2x + x4 5(ln x)4(1/x)

sin x cos 2x + x4(ln x)5 cos x cos 2x

+ x4(ln x)5 sin x (2 sin 2x)

= 4x3(ln x)5 sin x cos 2x + 5x3(ln x)4 sin x

cos 2x + x4(ln x)5 cos x cos 2x

2x4(ln x)5 sin x sin 2x

26. u = x 5 e2x cos 2x sin 3x

u = 5x 4 e2x cos 2x sin 3x + x5 2e2x

cos 2x sin 3x + x 5 e2x(2 sin 2x) sin 3x

+ x 5 e2x cos 2x 3 cos 3x

= 5x 4 e2x cos 2x sin 3x + 2x52e2x cos 2x sin 3x

2x5 e2x sin 2x sin 3x + 3x5 e2x cos 2x cos 3x

27. a. y(t) = 4 + 3e 0.1 t cos t

v(t) = y(t) = 3(0.1)e 0.1 t cos t

+ 3e 0.1 t( sin t)

= e 0.1 t(0.3 cos t 3 sin t )

b. v(2) = e 0.2 (0.3 cos 2 3 sin 2)

= e0.2(0.3 0) = 0.2456

There is not a high point at t = 2 because

v(2) 0.

v(t) = 0 e 0.1 t(0.3 cos t 3 sin t) = 0

0.3 cos t = 3 sin t t = 1.9898

28. a. y(t) = t sin t v(t) = y(t) = sin t + t cos t

Graph confirms Figure 4-2d.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. v exceeds 25.

25

25

Tacoma Narrows Bridge increased in

amplitude until the bridge collapsed.

29. Prove that the derivative of an odd function is an

even function and that the derivative of an even

function is an odd function.

fk+1 ( x ) = ( x k )( x ) + ( x k )( x ) = ( x k )( x ) + x k .

Substituting for (xk) from the induction

hypothesis,

fk+1 ( x ) = ( kx k 1 )( x ) + x k = kx k + x k = ( k + 1) x k =

(k + 1)x ( k+ 1 ) 1, completing the induction.

fn ( x ) = nx n1 for all integers 1, Q.E.D.

32. Way 1: y = (x + 3)8(x 4)8

y = 8(x + 3)7 (x 4)8 + (x + 3)8 8(x 4)7

= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(x + 3 + x 4)

= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(2x 1)

Way 2: y = (x2 x 12)8

y = 8(x 2 x 12)7(2x 1)

= 8(x + 3)7(x 4)7(2x 1), which checks.

33. a.

Proof:

For any function, the chain rule gives

d

f ( x ) = f ( x ) ( 1) = f ( x ).

dx

For an odd function,

d

d

f ( x ) = [ f ( x )] = f ( x ).

dx

dx

f (x) = f (x) or f (x) = f (x),

and the derivative is an even function.

For an even function,

d

d

f ( x ) =

f ( x ) = f ( x ).

dx

dx

f (x) = f (x) or f (x) = f (x),

and the derivative is an odd function, Q.E.D.

30. f (x) = 2 sin x cos x

f (x) = 2 cos x cos x + 2 sin x(sin x)

= 2 cos2 x 2 sin2 x = 2 cos 2x

g(x) = sin 2x g(x) = 2 cos 2x = f (x), Q.E.D.

f(0) = 0 and g(0) = 0

f (x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x = g(x), by the

uniqueness theorem for derivatives, Q.E.D.

f (x) = cos2 x sin2 x

f (x) = 2 cos x(sin x) 2 sin x cos x

= 4 sin x cos x = 3 sin 2x

g(x) = cos 2x

g(x) = (2 sin 2x) = sin 2x = f (x), Q.E.D.

f(0) = 1 and g(0) = 1

f (x) = cos2 x sin2 x = cos 2x = g(x) by the

uniqueness theorem, Q.E.D.

31. Prove that if fn(x) = xn, then fn ( x ) = nx n1 for all

integers 1.

Proof (by induction on n):

If n = 1, then f1(x) = x1 = x, which implies that

f1( x ) = 1 = 1x 0, which anchors the induction.

Assume that for some integer n = k > 1,

fk ( x ) = kx k 1 .

For n = k + 1, fk+ 1(x) = xk+ 1 = (xk)(x).

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x)

5

f

x

1

The graph in part a is correct.

c. The numerical derivative graph duplicates the

algebraic derivative graph, as in part a, thus

showing that the algebraic derivative is right.

34. a.

f (x )

599,128

500,000

x

1.5

1.4

500,000

1/9

+ (5x 7)4 (5)(2x + 3)4(2)

= 10(5x 7)3(2x + 3)4[2(2x + 3)

+ 5x 7]

= 10(5x 7)3(2x + 3)4(9x 1)

c. f (x) = 0 5x 7 = 0 or 2x + 3 = 0

or 9x 1 = 0

x = 7/5 = 1.4, or x = 3/2 = 1.5,

or x = 1/9

See graph in part a.

d. f (1.4) = 0, f (1.5) = 0, f (1/9) = 599,127.6 .

See graph in part a.

e. False. The graph may have a point where it

levels off and then continues changing in the

same direction, as at x = 1.5 in part a.

35. a. A = L W

dA dL

dW

=

W + L

dt

dt

dt

53

dW

= 2 sin t

dt

dL

L = 3 + 2 sin 2t

= 4 cos 2t

dt

dA

= ( 4 cos 2t )(2 + 2 cos t )

dt

+ (3 + 2 sin 2t )( 2 sin t )

At t = 4, dA/dt = 7.132 , so A is increasing.

At t = 5, dA/dt = 4.949 , so A is

decreasing.

b. W = 2 + 2 cos t

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

1066x1065

f (x) = 12x5 + C

y = 3x2 sin x + x3 cos x

dy/dx = sin (x7) 7x6 = 7x6 sin (x7)

f (x) = 0 (derivative of a constant)

54e9t

See the text for the definition of derivative.

Instantaneous rate of change at a given x

(x 3)4(x 3 + 2x) = 3(x 3)4(x 1)

4

cos 12 x

sin 18 x

12 sin 12 x sin 18 x 18 cos 12 x cos 18 x

y =

sin 2 18 x

6. y =

7. y =

y =

2. f ( x ) =

3 x 2 sin x x 3 cos x

x3

f ( x ) =

sin x

sin 2 x

4 x 3 cos x + x 4 sin x

x4

f ( x ) =

cos x

cos 2 x

cos3 x

ln x

3 cos 2 x ( sin x ) ln x cos3 x (1/ x )

g ( x ) =

(ln x )2

3 ln x sin x cos 2 x (cos3 x )/ x

=

(ln x )2

3. g( x ) =

sin 5 x

e3 x

5 sin 4 x cos x e 3 x sin 5 x 3e 3 x

h ( x ) =

(e 3 x ) 2

4

5 sin x cos x 3 sin 5 x

=

e3 x

sin 10 x

5. y =

cos 20 x

10 cos 10 x cos 20 x + 20 sin 10 x sin 20 x

y =

2

cos 20 x

4. h( x ) =

54

6x + 5

3(6 x + 5) (3 x 7)(6)

(6 x + 5)

57

(6 x + 5)

10 x + 9

5x 3

75

10 (5 x 3) (10 x + 9) 5

y =

=

(5 x 3) 2

(5 x 3)2

8. y =

(8 x + 1)6

dz

(5 x 2 ) 9

dx

6(8 x + 1)5 (8) (5 x 2) 9 (8 x + 1)6 (9)(5 x 2)8 (5)

=

(5 x 2)18

9. z =

(8 x + 1) 5 (120 x + 141)

(5 x 2)10

( 4 x 1) 7

dA

4

(7 x + 2)

dx

7( 4 x 1)6 ( 4) (7 x + 2) 4 ( 4 x 1) 7 4( 7 x + 2)3 ( 7)

=

( 7 x + 2 )8

6

28( 4 x 1) ( 7 x + 2)3 [(7 x + 2) ( 4 x 1)]

=

( 7 x + 2 )8

10. A =

1. f ( x ) =

3x 7

( 7 x + 2 )8

84( 4 x 1)6 ( x + 1)

( 7 x + 2)5

3

11. Q =

3 x 2 e x sin x e x cos x

ex

Q =

sin x

sin 2 x

ln x 4

cos x

4 x 3 (1/ x 4 )cos x (ln x 4 )( sin x )

r =

cos 2 x

( 4 cos x )/ x + (ln x 4 ) sin x 4 cos x + x ln x 4 sin x

=

=

x cos 2 x

cos 2 x

d

13.

(60 x 4 / 3 ) = 80 x 7/3

dx

12. r =

14.

d

(24 x 7/ 3 ) = 56 x 10/3

dx

the power rule or the quotient rule.

12

36

= 12 x 3 r ( x ) = 36 x 4 = 4

x3

x

51

867

16. t ( x ) = 17 = 51x 17 t ( x ) = 867 x 18 = 18

x

x

15. r ( x ) =

2005 Key Curriculum Press

14

= 14(cos 0.5 x ) 1

cos 0.5 x

v(x) = 14(cos 0.5x)2(sin 0.5x)(0.5)

7 sin 0.5 x

=

cos 2 0.5 x

20

a( x ) =

= 20(sin x ) 2

sin 2 x

a (x) = 40(sin x) 3 (cos x)

40 cos x

=

sin 3 x

1

1

r ( x ) = = x 1 r ( x ) = x 2 = 2

x

x

1

2

s( x ) = 2 = x 2 s( x ) = 2 x 3 = 3

x

x

10

3

5

W ( x) = 3

= 10( x 1)

( x 1) 5

W(x) = 150x2(x3 1)4

1

T ( x) =

= (cos x sin x ) 1

cos x sin x

T ( x ) = (cos x sin x ) 2 ( sin x sin x

sin 2 x cos 2 x

+ cos x cos x ) =

,

cos 2 x sin 2 x

which transforms to

cos 2 x

T ( x ) = 1 2

= 4 csc 2 x cot 2 x

4 sin 2 x

sin x

T ( x) =

cos x

(cos x )(cos x ) (sin x )( sin x )

T ( x ) =

cos 2 x

17. v( x ) =

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

cos 2 x + sin 2 x

1

=

= sec 2 x

cos 2 x

cos 2 x

(T is for tangent function.)

cos x

24. C( x ) =

sin x

( sin x )(sin x ) (cos x )(cos x )

C ( x ) =

sin 2 x

=

sin 2 x cos 2 x

1

=

= csc 2 x

2

sin x

sin 2 x

(C is for cotangent function.)

1

0 cos x

C ( x ) =

25. C( x ) =

sin x

sin 2 x

1000

3t

1000

v(1) =

= 500 mi/h

3 1

1000

v(2) =

= 1000 mi/h

32

1000 1000

=

v(3) =

. No value for v(3).

33

0

b. v(t) = 100(3 t) 1

1000

a(t) = 1000(3 t) 2 1 =

(3 t ) 2

1000

a(1) =

= 250 (mi/h)/h

(3 1)2

1000

a(2) =

= 1000 (mi/h)/h

(3 2 ) 2

1000

1000

=

a(3) =

. No value for a(3).

0

(3 3)2

27. a. v(t ) =

c.

a or v

a

2000

t

3

d.

28. a.

b.

c.

1

cos x

=

= csc x cot x

sin x sin x

(C is for cosecant function.)

1

= (cos x ) 1

26. S( x ) =

cos x

S(x) = (cos x) 2(sin x)

sin x

=

= sec x tan x

cos 2 x

(S is for secant function.)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

1000

= 500 2 = (3 t )2

(3 t ) 2

3t = 2 t = 3 2

t = 3 2 = 1.585K in the domain.

Range is 0 t < 1.585 .

Because they are walking in the same

direction, their relative rate is the difference

(x 5).

300

t( x ) =

, assuming Willies rate is

x5

constant.

t(6) = 300 s, t(8) = 100 s, t(10) = 60 s,

t(5) = 300/0, which is infinite, t(4) = 300,

which is not reasonable in the real world,

and t(5.1) = 3000 s. A reasonable domain

is x > 5.

t(x) = 300(x 5) 1

300

t(x) = 300(x 5) 2 =

( x 5)2

t(6) = 300 s/(ft/s)

t(5) does not exist because of division by

zero. More fundamentally, t(5) does not exist

because t(5) does not exist.

29. f ( x ) =

3x + 7

2x + 5

55

3 (2 x + 5) (3 x + 7) 2

1

=

(2 x + 5)2

(2 x + 5) 2

1

f ( 4 ) =

= 0.005917159K

169

Using 4.1, f (4) 0.005827505 .

Using 4.01, f (4) 0.005908070 .

Using 4.001, f (4) 0.005916249 .

f (4) (exact) = 0.005917159

Difference quotients are approaching f (4).

30. a. Sketch. See accurate plot in part b.

f ( x ) =

x2 8

x3

2 x ( x 3) ( x 2 8)(1) x 2 6 x + 8

f ( x ) =

=

( x 3)2

( x 3)2

b. f ( x ) =

y = nx n 1.

Proof:

Let n = p, where p is a positive integer.

1

y = xp = p

x

0 x p 1 px p1

y =

because p is a

x2p

positive integer.

px p1

= 2 p = px p12 p = px p1 .

x

Replacing p with n gives y = nxn 1, Q .E .D .

32.

y

y

y'

y'

f (x )

x

f

f'

3

y2 and y3 both agree with the graph of f .

c.

x

f (x)

2.95

14.05

2.96

2.97

2.98

2.99

3.00

3.01

3.02

3.03

3.04

3.05

19.04

27.363

44.02

94.01

undefined

106.01

56.02

39.363

31.04

26.05

f (x)

399

624

1110.11

2499

9999

undefined

9999

2499

1110.11

624

399

3, shooting off to negative infinity as x

approaches 3 from the negative side and to

positive infinity as x approaches 3 from the

positive side. Note that the rates are

symmetrical about x = 3.

d. There is a relative minimum at x = 4 and a

relative maximum at x = 2.

2 2 6(2) + 8

=0

(2 3)2

4 2 6( 4) + 8

f ( 4 ) =

=0

( 4 3)2

f ( 2 ) =

56

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

1/(sec x) = cos x

sin2 3 + cos2 3 = 1

f (x) = ex sin x + ex cos x

cos x + x sin x

g ( x ) =

cos 2 x

h (x) = (15/7)(3x)12/7

dy/dx = 3(cos x) 4 sin x

Limit = 3

(Function is secant.)

y

y

y'

1

Q10.

1.

2.

3.

4.

C

f (x) = tan 5x f (x) = 5 sec2 5x

f (x) = sec 3x f (x) = 3 sec x tan x

y = sec x7 y = 7x6 sec x7 tan x7

z = tan x9 z = 9x8 sec2 (x9)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6. h(x) = csc e10x h (x) = 10e10x csc (e10x) cot (e10x)

7. r(x) = ln (csc x)

1

r ( x ) =

(csc x cot x) = cot x

csc x

8. p(x) = ln (cot x)

1

1

p ( x ) =

( csc 2 x ) =

cot x

cos x sin x

9. y = tan5 4x

(d/dx)(y) = 5 tan4 4x sec2 4x 4

= 20 tan4 4x sec2 4x

10. y = tan7 9x

(d/dx)(y) = 7 tan6 9x sec2 9x 9

= 63 tan6 9x sec2 9x

11. (d/dx)(sec x tan x) = sec x tan x tan x +

sec x sec2 x = sec x tan2 x + sec3 x

12. (d/dx)(csc x cot x) = csc x cot x cot x +

csc x (csc2 x) = csc x cot2 x csc3 x

13. y = sec x csc x

y = sec x tan x csc x + sec x (csc x cot x)

= sec2 x csc2 x

14. y = tan x cot x = 1 for all x y = 0

tan x

15. y =

= sec x y = sec x tan x

sin x

cot x

16. y =

= csc x y = csc x cot x

cos x

5 ln 7 x

17. y =

cot 14 x

5 7 ( 71x )cot 14 x 5 ln 7 x ( 14 csc 2 14 x )

y =

cot 2 14 x

(The differentiation formulas give the same.)

23. A(x) = sin x 2 A(x) = cos x 2 2x = 2x cos x 2

24. f (x) = cos x3 f (x) = sin x 3 3x 2

= 3x 2 sin x 3

25. F(x) = sin2 x F (x) = 2 sin x cos x

26. g(x) = cos3 x

g(x) = 3 cos2 x (sin x) = 3 cos2 x sin x

27. y = tan x dy/dx = sec2 x

d2y/dx2 = 2 sec x(sec x tan x) = 2 sec2 x tan x

28. y = sec x y = sec x tan x

y = (sec x tan x) tan x + sec x sec2 x

= sec x tan2 x + sec3 x

cos x

sin x

sin x sin x cos x cos x

y =

sin 2 x

1

=

= csc 2 x or:

sin 2 x

1

y=

= ( tan x ) 1

tan x

y = 1 (tan x) 2 sec2 x = csc2 x

29. y = cot x =

1

= (sin x ) 1

sin x

cos x

y = (sin x ) 2 cos x =

= csc x cot x

sin 2 x

31. a. See graph in part b.

b. f (x) = tan x f (x) = sec2 x. Predicted graph

should be close to actual one.

30. y = csc x =

(5 cot 14 x )/ x + 70 ln 7 x csc 2 14 x

=

cot 2 14 x

70 ln 7 x

5

=

+

x cot 14 x cos 2 14 x

18. y =

4 csc 10 x

e 40x

4( 10 csc10 x cot 10 x )e 4 csc10 x ( 40e

40x

(e ) 2

40x

y =

e 40x

19. w = tan (sin 3x)

w = sec2 (sin 3x) 3 cos 3x

= 3 sec2 (sin 3x) cos 3x

20. t = sec (cos 4x)

t = sec (cos 4x) tan (cos 4x) (4 sin 4x)

= 4 sec (cos 4x) tan (cos 4x) sin 4x

21. S(x) = sec2 x tan2 x = 1 S(x) = 0

(The differentiation formulas give the same.)

=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

40x

= 3.42646416 K

2(0.01)

tan 1 = sec2 1 = (1/cos 1)2 = 3.42551882

Difference quotient is within 0.001 of actual.

32. a. f (x) = sec x f (x) = sec x tan x

f (1) = sec 1 tan 1 = 2.8824

b.

c.

y1

y2

57

line is tangent to the graph.

c.

y

f'

x

/2

range of the inverse cosecant to 0 y /2 so

that the function will be continuous, but doing

so throws away the other half of the possible

values.)

7. sin (sin 1 0.3) = 0.3

8. cos 1 (cos 0.8) = 0.8

9. y = sin 1 x sin y = x cos y y = 1

33. a.

b.

c.

34. a.

b.

c.

35. a.

b.

decreasing.

y/10 = tan x y = 10 tan x, Q .E .D .

y = 10 sec2 x. At x = 1, y = 10 sec2 1 =

34.2551 . y is increasing at about

34.3 ft/radian.

(34.2551K)

= 0.5978 ft/degree

180

y = 535 x = tan 1 53.5 = 1.55210

y = 10 sec2 1.55210 = 28632.5

y is increasing at about 28,632.5 ft/radian.

opposite side

y

tan x =

=

adjacent side 500

y = 500 tan x, Q.E.D.

dy/dt = 500 sec2 x dx/dt

dx/dt = 0.3 rad/s

At y = 300, x = tan 1 (300/500) = 0.5404

dy/dt = 500 (sec2 0.5404)(0.3)

= 500(1.36)(0.3) = 204 ft/s

y = sin x + C

y = 12 cos 2 x + C

c. y = 13 tan 3 x + C

d. y = 14 cot 4 x + C

e. y = 5 sec x + C

36. Answers will vary.

sin x = cos x

Q2. cos x = sin x

2

tan x = sec x

Q4. cot x = csc2 x

sec x = sec x tan x Q6. csc x = csc x cot x

f (1) is infinite.

Q8. f (3) is undefined.

f (4) = 1

Q10. f (6) = 0

See Figure 4-5d.

2. See Figure 4-5d.

See Figure 4-5d.

4. See Figure 4-5d.

The principal branch of the inverse cotangent

function goes from zero to so that the function

will be continuous.

6. There are no values of the inverse secant for x

between 1 and 1, so the inverse secant function

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

3.

5.

58

1

1

=

, Q .E .D .

cos y

1 x2

y =

1 x 2

x on the opposite leg and 1 on the hypotenuse.

Adjacent leg = 1 x 2 , and cos y =

(adjacent)/(hypotenuse).]

10. y = cos 1 x cos y = x sin y y = 1

1

1

y =

=

, Q .E .D .

sin y

1 x2

1 x 2

y

x

x on the adjacent leg and 1 on the hypotenuse.

Opposite leg = 1 x 2 , and sin y =

(opposite)/(hypotenuse).]

11. y = csc 1 x csc y = x csc y cot y y

1

1

y =

=

if x > 0

csc y cot y

x x2 1

If x < 0, then y is in Quadrant IV (see Figure 4-5d). So both csc y and cot y are negative,

and thus their product must be positive.

1

y =

, Q .E .D .

| x | x2 1

x 2 1

x on the hypotenuse and 1 on the opposite leg.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(adjacent)/(opposite).]

12. y = cot 1 x cot y = x csc2 y y = 1

1

1

1

, Q .E .D .

y =

=

2 =

csc 2 y

1+ x2

2

1+ x

sec2 y y = l/x

1

1

1

y =

=

2 =

(

ln 2 x )

x sec 2 y

x

1

+

x 1 + ln 2 x

1 + ln2x

ln x

1 + x 2

y

1

y

x

put x on the adjacent leg and 1 on the opposite

leg. Hypotenuse = 1 + x 2 , and csc y =

(hypotenuse)/(opposite).]

Problems 1318 are shown done from scratch, as

in Example 1. If students practice doing them this

way, they will not be dependent on memorized

formulas. Problem 13 shows how an alternate

solution could be found using the formulas and the

chain rule.

13. y = sin 1 4x sin y = 4x cos y y = 4

4

4

y =

=

cos y

1 16 x 2

17. y = sec 1

1

x

x

sec y = sec y tan y y =

3

3

3

1

y =

3 sec y tan y

=

3 (

x

3

, if x > 0

x 9) / 3

sec y and tan y are negative. So their product is

positive.

3

y =

2

|x| x 9

x

x 2 9

y

3

4x

1 16x 2

1

4

y = sin 1 4 x y =

4=

2

1 (4 x )

1 16 x 2

14. y = cos 1 10x cos y = 10x

10

10

sin y y = 10 y =

=

sin y

1 100 x 2

1

x

x

csc y =

10

10

1

csc y cot y y =

10

1

1

y =

=

10 csc y cot y

x x 2 100

10

10

100

If x < 0, then y is in Quadrant IV, where both

csc y and cot y are negative. So their product is

positive.

10

y =

| x | x 2 100

18. y = csc 1

1 100x 2

y

10x

csc 2 y y = 0.5e 0.5x

0.5e 0.5x

0.5e 0.5x

0.5e 0.5x

y =

=

2 =

2

csc y

1+ ex

1+ ex

1 + ex

1

y

e 0.5x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x 2 100

appropriate formula.

19. y = cos 1 5x2

1

10 x

y =

10 x =

2 2

1 (5 x )

1 25 x 4

20. f (x) = tan 1 x3

1

3x 2

2

f ( x ) =

3

x

=

1 + ( x 3 )2

1+ x6

Problem Set 4-5

59

1

g ( x ) = 2 sin x

1 x2

0.5

u = 2 sec 1 x

23.

24.

25.

26.

| x | x2 1

v = x sin 1 x + (1 x2)1/ 2

1

1

+ (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x )

v = 1 sin 1 x + x

2

2

1 x

x

x

= sin 1 x +

= sin 1 x

2

2

1 x

1 x

The surprise is that you now have seen a formula

for the antiderivative of the inverse sine function.

f (x) = cot 1 (cot x) = x f (x) = 1 (Surprise!!)

Application of the formulas gives the same

result.

a. tan = x/100, so = tan 1 (x/100), Q.E.D.

1

1

100

d

b.

=

=

dx 1 + ( x/100)2 100 10000 + x 2

100

d d dx

dx

=

dt dx dt 10000 + x 2 dt

c. If x = 500 ft and d/dt = 0.04 rad/s, then

100

dx

0.04 =

2

10000 + 500 dt

dx (0.04)(260000)

=

= 104

dt

100

The truck is going 104 ft/s.

104(3600/5280) = 70.909 71 mi/h

a. = tan 1 (50/x) tan 1 (30/x) or

= cot 1 (x/50) cot 1 (x/30)

The inverse tangent equation has the

advantage that the function appears on the

calculator. The inverse cotangent equation has

the advantage that x is in the numerator of the

argument, which makes the chain rule less

complicated to use.)

b.

50 x 2

30 x 2

d

=

2

dx 1 + (50/ x )

1 + (30/ x )2

50

30

= 2

+ 2

x + 2500 x + 900

20 x 2 + 30000

= 2

( x + 2500)( x 2 + 900)

20x2 = 30000

x = 1500 = 38.729K

About 38.7 ft

60

x

100

40

27.

x

Num. Deriv.*

Alg. Deriv.

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.666671

1.250000

1.091089

1.020620

1.000000

1.020620

1.091089

1.250000

1.666671

1.666666

1.25

1.091089

1.020620

1

1.020620

1.091089

1.25

1.666666

derivative will depend on the tolerance to

which the grapher is set. The values given

by numerical derivative and the formula are

very close.

dy

1

=

dx | x | x 2 1

dy

1

At x = 2,

=

= 0.288675K .

dx | 2 | 3

The answer is reasonable because the graph

slopes up at x = 2, with slope significantly

less than 1.

b. At x = 2, y = sec 1 2 = cos 1 (1/2) =

1.04719 .

d

(sec y) = sec y tan y

dy

At y = 1.047 ,

d

(sec y) = (sec 1.047K)(tan 1.047K) =

dy

3.464101 .

c. The answer to part b is the reciprocal of the

1

answer to part a. That is, 3.464101

K =

0.288675 . Thus, the derivative of the

inverse secant at x = c is the reciprocal of

the derivative of the secant at y = sec 1 c.

29. a. y = sin 1 x sin y = x cos y y = 1

1

y =

, Q .E .D .

cos y

28. a. y = sec 1 x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

1

=

= 1.25

cos(sin 1 x ) cos(sin 1 0.6)

1

1

1

y =

=

=

= 1.25, Q .E.D .

2

2

0.8

1 x

1 0.6

d

c. y = f 1 ( x ) f ( y) = x f ( y) ( y) = 1

dx

d

1

d

1

[ f 1 ( x )] =

( y) =

,

dx

f ( y )

dx

f [ f 1 ( x )]

Q .E .D .

d. f ( x) = x3 + x = 10 (x 2)(x2 + 2x + 5) = 0

x = 2 (only)

h(10) = 2

Because h(x) = f 1(x) and f (x) = 3x 2 + 1,

1

1

1

/ .

h (10) =

=

=

= 113

f [h(10)] f (2) 3 2 2 + 1

b. y =

csc 1, are the ones whose derivatives are preceded

by a minus sign.

14. a.

f (x)

4

x

2

b. f ( x) = x 2

15. a.

f (x )

x

6

( x 6)( x + 1)

x6

b. f ( x ) =

16. a.

f (x )

Q2. See the text for the definition of derivative.

Q3. y = 6x 2 + C

Q4. cos x = sin x

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

1.

3.

5.

7.

9.

11.

Q6. 1 | x | x 2 1

dy/dx = 15x2(x3 + 1)4

Integral 5.4 (Function is y = 2 x.)

E

Continuous

2. Neither

Neither

4. Both

Neither

6. Neither

Both

8. Neither

Neither

10. Neither

Continuous

12. Both

Equations do not necessarily correspond to the graphs

shown.

13. a.

f (x )

x

1

x 2 ( x 1) , if x 1

b. f ( x ) = x 1

5,

if x = 1

17. a.

f (x )

x

5

x, if x 5

b. f ( x ) =

3 x, if x > 5

18. a.

f (x )

x

3

b. f ( x) = x + 2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

61

b = 1 a = 1 (1.5) b = 2.5

b. f ( x) = (x + 1) 2/3 + 3

19. a.

f (x )

f (x )

7

x

1

x

4

f is differentiable at x = 1.

( x 3)2 + 7, if x 2

26. f ( x ) = 3

if x < 2

ax + b,

For f to be continuous at x = 2,

lim ( ax 3 + b) = lim+ [ ( x 3) 2 + 7]

x 2 9, if x < 4

b. f ( x ) =

11 x, if x 4

20. a. No such function

x 2

x 2

a 23 + b = 6 8a + b = 6 b = 6 8a

For f to be differentiable at x = 2,

lim 3ax 2 = lim+ [ 2( x 3)] 3a 2 2 = 2

f(x )

Not possible.

Differentiability

implies

continuity.

x 2

x 2

a = 1/6

b = 6 8(1/6) b = 14/3

f (x )

6

b. No such function

21. Continuous

22. Both

f (x )

f (x )

f is differentiable at x = 2.

x

3

x

2

23. Both

x 2

24. Neither

x 2

4 12 + b b = 4a + 18

For f to be differentiable at x = 2,

lim 2 ax = lim+ (2 x 6) 2 a 2 = 2 2 6

f (x )

ax 2 + 10,

if x < 2

27. f ( x ) = 2

x 6 x + b, if x 2

For f to be continuous at x = 2,

lim ( ax 2 + 10) = lim+ ( x 2 6 x + 6) 4 a + 10 =

x 2

x

x

/2

x 2

a = 0.5

b = 4(0.5) + 18 b = 16

f (x )

10

x ,

if x < 1

25. f ( x ) =

2

a( x 2) + b, if x 1

For f to be continuous at x = 1,

a( x 2 ) 2 + b ]

lim x 3 = lim[

+

3

x 1

x 1

1 = a(1 2) + b a + b = 1 b = 1 a

For f to be differentiable at x = 1,

lim 3 x 2 = lim+ 2 a( x 2) 3 = 2 a(1 2)

2

x 1

x 1

x

2

f is differentiable at x = 2.

if x 1

a/ x,

28. f ( x ) =

2

12 bx , if x > 1

For f to be continuous at x = 1,

a = 1.5

62

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x 1

f (x )

x 1

a + b = 12

For f to be differentiable at x = 1,

lim ax 2 = lim+ 2 bx a 12 = 2 b 1

x 1

0.5

x 1

a = 2b

2b + b = 12 b = 4

a=24a=8

f is differentiable at x = 2/3.

ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d , if 0 x 0.5

31. a. y =

if x > 0.5

x + k,

f (x )

10

x

1

f is differentiable at x = 1.

e ax ,

if x 1

29. f ( x ) =

b + ln x, if x > 1

For f to be continuous at x = 1,

lim e ax = lim+ (b + ln x ) e a = b

x 1

x 1

For f to be differentiable at x = 1,

lim ae ax = lim+ (1/ x ) ae a = 1

x 1

x 1

b = 1.7632

lim ( 43 x 3 + 2 x 2 ) = lim + ( x + k )

x 0.5

x 0.5

y 20 = 5(x 10) y = 5x 30

x

1

f is differentiable at x = 1.

a sin x, if x < 2 /3

30. f ( x ) = bx

if x 2 /3

e ,

For f to be continuous at x = 2/3,

lim a sin x = lim + e bx

x ( 2 / 3)

a 3

2e 2b / 3

= e 2b / 3 a =

2

3

For f to be differentiable at x = 2/3,

lim a cos x = lim + be bx

x( 2 /3)

a 03 + b 02 + c 0 + d = 0 d = 0

For y = 0 at x = 0, y = 3ax 2 + 2bx + c

0 = 3a 02 + 2b 0 + c c = 0

For y = 1 at x = 0.5, y = 3ax2 + 2bx + c

1 = 3a(0.5)2 + 2b(0.5) + c 1 = 0.75a + b

b = 1 0.75a

For y = 0 at x = 0.5, y = 6 ax + 2 b

0 = 3a + 2b

Solve for a and b:

3a + 2(1 0.75a) = 0 1.5a = 2

a = 4/3 b = 2

b. For the function to be continuous,

43 (0.5)3 + 2(0.5)2 = 0.5 + k

k = 16 = 0.1666 K

f (x )

x ( 2 / 3)

x ( 2 /3)

a

= be 2b / 3 a = 2 be 2b/3

2

2

1

2e 2b/3

So

= 2 be 2b/3

= 2 b b =

3

3

3

2 2 /( 3 3 )

= 0.5773 and a =

e

= 0.3446 K

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ax 3 + bx, if x < 10

y =

5 x 30, if x 10

For y to be continuous at x = 10,

a 10 3 + b 10 = 5 10 30

1000a + 10b = 20 b = 2 100a

For y to be differentiable at x = 10,

3a 10 2 + b = 5

300a + (2 100a) = 5

200a = 3 a = 3/200

b = 2 100(3/200) b = 0.5

2 x2

, if x 2

x

33. f ( x ) =

x2

4,

if x = 2

Simplifying the equation for f (x) gives

x 2 + 1, if x < 2

f ( x ) = x 2 1, if x > 2

4,

if x = 2

63

if x < 2

2 x,

f ( x ) = 2 x,

if x > 2

undefined, if x = 2

lim f ( x ) = 2 2 = 4; lim+ f ( x ) = 2 2 = 4.

x 2

x 2

x2 +1 4

1

,

limit from the left, f ( x ) = lim

x 2

x2

0

which is infinite. The same thing happens from

the right. As the following graph shows, the

secant lines become vertical as x approaches 2

from either side.

f (x )

Secant

slope

becomes

infinite.

x

2

though the right and left limits of f (x) are equal

to each other. The function must be continuous

if it is to have a chance of being differentiable.

0.5 t

60.5 0.5 + t , if t 0.5

34. a. d (t ) =

150 2 1 ,

if t 0.5

t

2

60.5(0.5 + t ) , if t < 0.5

d (t ) =

150t 2,

if t > 0.5

The inequality signs must be < and > because

although the function is defined at x = 0.5,

the derivative is not.

b. d (1) = 150(1) 2 = 150 d is continuous at

x = 1 because it is differentiable there.

c. lim d (t ) = 60.5(0.5 + 0.5) 2 = 60.5

x 0.5

pitchers mound 60.5 feet from home plate.

Substituting zero for t gives d(0) = 60.5,

confirming that the pitcher was on the mound

at that time.

35. a. y = mx + b y = m, which is independent

of x.

linear functions are differentiable for all x.

linear functions are continuous for all x.

b. y = ax 2 + bx + c y = 2ax + b, which

exists for all x by the closure axioms.

quadratic functions are differentiable for

all x.

quadratic functions are continuous for all x.

c. y = 1/x = x1 y = x2, which exists for

all x 0 by closure and multiplicative inverse

axioms.

the reciprocal function is differentiable for

all x 0.

the reciprocal function is continuous for all

x 0.

d. y = x y = 1, which is independent of x.

the identity function is differentiable for

all x.

the identity function is continuous for

all x.

e. y = k y = 0, which is independent of x.

constant functions are differentiable for

all x.

constant functions are continuous for all x.

36. See text proof.

Q1. y = 243x1214

Q2. dy/dx = 2/(x1)2

Q3. f (x) = 1 + ln x

Q4. y(x) = 5e5x cos e5x

Q5. (d/dx)(y) = 3x2, x 0; d2y/dx2 = 6x, x 0

Q7. = 1/ 1 x 2

Q6. y = 0

Q9.

Q10. E

x 0.5+

approaching the plate at 60.5 ft/s.

Just after the ball was hit, it was going away

from the plate at 600 ft/s.

d. Function d is not differentiable at t = 0.5

because d (t) approaches different limits from

both sides of x = 0.5.

Function d is continuous at t = 0.5 because

you get zero as the limit of d(t) as t

approaches zero from either left or right.

64

y'

1

x

/2

1. x = t4 , y = sin 3t

dy dy/dt 3 cos 3t

d 2 y d 3 cos 3t

=

=

=

dx dx/dt

dx 2 dx 4t 3

4t 3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

( 4t 3 ) 2

16t 6

dt

4. a. x = t 2 , y = t 3

t

x

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

64t 9

9t sin 3t 9 cos 3t

=

16t 7

=

2. x = 6 ln t, y = t 3

2

27

8

1

0

1

8

27

b.

dy dy/dt 3t

d y

=

=

= 0.5t 3 2

dx dx/dt 6/t

dx

d

dx

(0.5t 3 ) = 1.5t 2 ( dt/dx ) = 1.5t 2

=

dx

dt

9

4

1

0

1

4

9

1.5t

=

= 0.25t 3

6/t

3. a. x = 2 + t, y = 3 t 2

t

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

2

1

6

c.

d.

b.

y

e.

x

3

5. a.

b.

dy dy/dt 2t

=

=

= 2t

dx dx/dt

1

If t = 1, dy/dx = 2 and (x, y) = (3, 2).

Line through (3, 2) with slope 2 is tangent

to the graph. See part b.

d. x = 2 + t t = x 2 y = 3 (x 2)2

This is the Cartesian equation of a parabola

because only one of the variables is squared.

e. By direct differentiation, dy/dx = 2( x 2).

At (x, y) = (3, 2), dy/dx = 2(3 2) = 2,

which agrees with part c.

dy/dx = 2(x 2) = 2(2 + t 2) = 2t,

which agrees with part c.

c.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

dy dy/dt 3t 2

=

=

= 1.5t

dx dx/dt 2t

If t = 1, dy/dx = 1.5 and (x, y) = (1, 1).

Line through (1, 1) with slope 1.5 is tangent

to the graph. See graph in part b.

x = t 2 t = x 1/ 2 y = ( x 1/ 2 )3 y = x 1.5

The name semicubical is picked because 1.5

is half of 3, the exponent for a cubic function.

The name parabola is used because the equation

looks similar to y = x2 for a parabola.

By direct differentiation, dy/dx = 1.5x0.5 .

At (x, y) = (1, 1), dy/dx = 1.5 10.5 = 1.5,

which agrees with part c.

dy/dx = 1.5x0.5 = 1.5(t2)0.5 = 1.5t, which

agrees with part c.

The graph confirms the figure in the text.

dy 5 cos t 5

=

=

cot t

dx 3 sin t

3

If t = /4, x = 3 2 /2 and y = 5 2 /2.

(x, y) = (2.121 , 3.535)

dy 5

=

cot = 5/3

dx

3

4

y

5

x

3

Problem Set 4-7

65

does not make an angle of 45 with the

x-axis. (This shows that the t in parametric

functions is not the same as the in polar

coordinates.)

e. The tangent line is horizontal if dy/dx = 0.

cos t = 0 and sin t 0.

This happens at t = /2, 3/2, .

Points are (0, 5), (0, 5).

Tangent line is vertical if dy/dx is infinite.

sin t = 0 and cos t 0.

This happens at t = 0, , 2 , .

Points are (3, 0), (3, 0). See graph in part c.

f. x/3 = cos t (x/3)2 = cos2 t

y/5 = sin t (y/5)2 = sin2 t

Adding left and right sides of the equations

gives (x/3)2 + (y/5)2 = cos2 t + sin2 t.

(x/3)2 + (y/5)2 = 1, which is a standard form

of the equation of an ellipse centered at the

origin, with x-radius 3 and y-radius 5.

6. a. The graph confirms the figure in the text.

dy

24 sin 2 t cos t

sin t

b.

=

=

= tan t

2

dx 24 cos t ( sin t )

cos t

dy/dx = tan t

c. If t = 1, x = 8 cos3 1 = 1.2618 , and

y = 8 sin3 1 = 4.7665 ,

(x, y) = (1.2618 , 4.7665).

At t = 1, dy/dx = tan 1 = 1.5574 .

y

8

x

8

d. dx/dt = 24 cos2 t sin t

dy/dt = 24 sin2 t cos t

The cusps occur where t is a multiple of /2.

At each such value, dx/dt and dy/dt equal zero.

t = 0 gives the cusp at (8, 0).

lim ( dy/dx ) = lim ( tan t ) = tan 0 = 0

t0

t0

t = /2 gives the cusp at (0, 8).

lim ( dy/dx ) = lim ( tan t ), which is infinite.

t /2

t /2

e. x/8 = cos3 t (x/8)2/3 = cos2 t

y/8 = sin3 t (y/8)3/2 = sin2 t

(x/8)2/3 + (y/8)2/3 = cos2 t + sin2 t

x 2/3 + y 2/3 = 4

66

7. a. x = 6 + 5 cos t, y = 3 + 5 sin t

y

dy /dx is

infinite

here.

x

6

dy 5 cos t

=

dy/dx = cot t

dx 5 sin t

b.

t = 0.5 , 1.5 , 2.5 ,

dy/dx is infinite if sin t = 0 and cos t 0.

t = 0, , 2 ,

At a point where dy/dx is infinite, dx/dt must

be zero. This happens where t = /2 n ,

so dy/dx = 5 cos t = 0 at those points. See

graph in part a.

x6

y3

d.

= cos t and

= sin t

5

5

2

2

x 6 + y 3 = cos 2 t + sin 2 t

5

5

x 6 + y 3 = 1

5

5

This is an equation of a circle centered at

(6, 3) with radius 5.

e. The 6 and 3 added in the original equations

are the x- and y-coordinates of the center.

The coefficients, 5, for cosine and sine in the

original equations are the x- and y-radii,

respectively. Because the x- and y-radii are

equal, the graph is a circle.

8. x = cos2 t, y = sin2 t

dy 2 cos t ( sin t )

=

= 1 (cos t 0, sin t 0)

dx

2 sin t cos t

2

y

1

x

1

x + y = cos2 t + sin2 t x + y = 1

This is the equation of a line with slope 1,

confirming what was observed on the graph.

The parametric equations restrict the ranges of x

and y to the first quadrant, no matter what is the

domain of t. This is true because cos2 t and sin2 t

are never negative.

The Cartesian equation allows

< x < and < y < .

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

dy 2 cos t 2 cos 2t

cos t cos 2t

=

=

dx 2 sin t 2 sin 2t sin t sin 2t

A graphical solution shows that this occurs at

t = 0, t = 2 /3, t = 4 /3, t = 2 , .

(A cusp could also happen if dx/dt = 0 and

dy/dt 0, but for this figure there is no such

place.)

dx /dt or dy /dt

dx /dt

t

__

2

4

__

3

dy /dt

be horizontal. At t = 2 /3, 4 /3, 8 /3,

10 /3, , there appears to be a tangent

line but not a horizontal one.

A numerical solution shows the following

values as t approaches 2/3:

t

dy/dx

2 /3 0.1

2/3 0.01

2/3 0.001

2/3

2/3 + 0.001

2 /3 + 0.01

2 /3 + 0.1

1.547849

1.712222

1.730052

indeterminate

1.734052

1.752225

1.951213

as t approaches 2/3.

[The exact answer is 3, which students

will be able to prove easily with lHospitals

rule after they have studied Section 6-5. Joan

Gell and Cavan Fang have shown clever

trigonometric transformations that remove

the removable discontinuity and lead to the

same answer. These are

1. Use the sum and product properties on

dy/dx:

dy

2 sin 1.5t sin 0.5t

=

dx 2 sin 1.5t cos 0.5t

= tan 0.5t if dx/dt 0

As t 2 /3, dy/dx tan( /3) = 3 .

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dy/dx:

dy

cos t (2 cos 2 t 1)

=

dx (sin t + 2 sin t cos t )

(1 cos t )(1 + 2 cos t ) 1 cos t

=

=

,

(sin t )(1 + 2 cos t )

sin t

which approaches 3 as t 2/3.]

10. a. The grapher confirms the figure in the text.

dy 4 a cos t ( sin t )

b.

=

= 2 cos3 t sin t

dx

2 a sec 2 t

(The answer is independent of a.)

4 a 2 sin 2 t 4 a 2 (1 cos 2 t )

=

cos 2 t

cos 2 t

2

2

y = 2a cos t cos t = y/(2a)

4 a 2 [1 y/(2 a)] 4 a 2 (2 a y)

x2 =

=

y/(2 a)

y

x2y = 8a3 4a2y (x2 + 4a2)y = 8a3

8a 3

y= 2

x + 4a 2

216

a = 3 y = 2

x + 36

d. y = 8a 3 ( x 2 + 4 a 2 ) 1

16 a 3 x

dy

= 8a 3 ( x 2 + 4 a 2 ) 2 2 x = 2

( x + 4a 2 )2

dx

c. x 2 = 4 a 2 tan 2 t =

From part d,

dy

16 a 3 (2 a)

32 a 4

=

= 1/2

2

2 2 =

dx [(2 a) + 4 a ]

64 a 4

From part b,

dy

= 2 cos3 ( /4) sin ( /4)

dx

= 2( 2 /2)3 ( 2 /2) = 1/2, which agrees.

At t = /4, x = 2a tan (/4) = 2a = 6 and

y = 2a cos2 (/4) = 2a(1/2) = a = 3.

A line through (6, 3) with slope 1/2 is

tangent to the graph at that point.

10

t = /4

x

15

10

10

15

y = sin t t cos t

The grapher confirms the figure in the text.

[Note: In the derivation of these equations

from the geometric definition of involute,

67

y = sin t + t sin (t /2)

(cos t, sin t) is the point of tangency of the

string.

Because the circle is a unit circle, the length

of the string is also t, the central angle in

radians.

The string makes an angle of (t /2) with

the positive x-axis so that

(t cos (t /2), t sin (t /2)) is a vector

representing the unwound string.

The cofunction properties and odd-even

properties from trig are used to simplify the

equations so that the calculus will be easier.]

b.

=

dx

sin t + (sin t + t cos t )

t sin t

=

= tan t

t cos t

be pointing straight up from the x-axis. The

diagram shows that the tangent to the graph is

horizontal at this point.

y

( x, y)

String

1

t=

x

1

y starts at a high point and decreases.

x = 25 + 15 sin Bt

y = 20 + 15 cos Bt

The period is 60 seconds.

So B = 2 /60 = /30

x = 25 + 15 sin t

30

y = 20 + 15 cos

t

30

t

b. dx/dt = cos

2

30

dy/dt = sin

t

2

30

At t = 5,

2

6

2

6

c. The slope of the circular path is dy/dx.

At t = 5,

dy

/4

=

= 1 / 3 = 0.5773K

dx 3 /4

68

x 25

x 25

= sin

= sin 2

t

t

15

15

30

30

2

y 20

y 20

= cos

= cos 2

t

t

15

15

30

30

Because sin 2

t + cos 2

= 1,

30

30

2

2

x 25 + y 20 = 1.

15 15

This is an equation of a circle centered at

(25, 20) with radius 15, confirming that the

path really is a circle.

13. The actual solutions will vary depending on the

period of the pendulum, as determined by the

length of the string. The following solution

supposes that the period turns out to be 3.1

seconds.

2

2

x = 30 cos

t

y = 20 sin

t

3.1

3.1

2

t

( 40 /3.1) cos

dy

3.1 = 2 cot 2 t

=

dx (60 /3.1) sin 2 t

3

3.1

3.1

At t = 5, x 22.8, y 13.0,

and dy/dx 0.78.

If the measurements have been accurate, the

pendulum will be above the coin when t = 5.

14. The graph looks like an ellipse that moves in the

x-direction as t increases. Because y starts at a

high point and varies between 5 and 1, the ellipse

has center at y = 3 and y-radius 2. Thus, an

equation for y would be y = 3 + 2 cos t.

x starts at 0 and increases. If the ellipse had

x-radius 0.5, an equation for x would be

x = 0.5 sin t. The graph of this ellipse is

2

d.

y

5

x

10

each cycle. Thus, if t increases by 2, x increases

by 1. The equations are thus

x = t/(2 ) + 0.5 sin t, y = 3 + 2 cos t

The graph here duplicates the one in the text.

y

5

x

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d. n = 1. (x = cos t, y = sin t)

dy dy/dt

2 sin t

.

=

=

dx dx/dt 1/(2 ) + 0.5 cos t

1 y

2 sin t = 0 t = 0 + n (n an integer)

Thus, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, .

For vertical tangents, dx/dt = 0 and dy/dt 0.

1/(2) + 0.5 cos t = 0 cos t = 1/

Solving numerically for t gives

t = 1.8947 + 2 n or 4.3884 + 2n.

For crossing points, x = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5,

from symmetry on the graph. If x = 0.5, then

1/(2 )t + 0.5 sin t = 0.5.

Solving numerically for the value of t closest to

0, t = 0.8278 .

y(0.8278) = 3 + 2 cos 0.8278 = 4.3529

A crossing point is (0.5, 4.3529) at t =

0.8278 .

15. a. The grapher confirms the figure in the text.

b. (x = cos 4t, y = sin t)

x

1

1 y

x

1

If n = 2, the graph is a parabola.

e. Jules Lissajous (18221880) lived in France.

Nathaniel Bowditch (17731838) lived in

Massachusetts.

1 y

x

1

If n is an even number, the graph comes to

endpoints and retraces its path, making two

complete cycles as t goes from 0 to 2.

If n is an odd number, the graph does not

come to endpoints. It makes one complete

cycle as t goes from 0 to 2.

c. i. (x = cos 5t, y = sin t)

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

y = 2001x2000

5

product

x3 + C

y = ln (2001)2001x

f (u) = csc2 u

1/(1 + 9x2)

Instantaneous rate

2.4033 ft/s

4 y

y'

1 y

Q2.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

x

6

x

1

1. x 3 + 7y 4 = 13 3x 2 + 28y 3y = 0

3x 2

y =

28 y 3

2. 3x 5 y 4 = 22 15x 4 4y 3y = 0 y =

1 y

3. x ln y = 104 1 ln y + x

x

1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15 x 4

4 y3

1

y = 0

y

y ln y

x

ex

4. y = 213 p xy + yex = 0 y = y

y =

69

5. x + xy + y = sin 2x

1 + y + xy + y = 2 cos 2x

y(x + 1) = 2 cos 2x 1 y

2 cos 2 x 1 y

y =

x +1

6. cos xy = x 2y

(sin xy) ( y + xy) = 1 2y

y(x sin xy + 2) = 1 + y sin xy

1 + y sin xy

y =

2 x sin xy

7. x0.5 y0.5 = 13

0.5x0.5 0.5y0.5 y = 0 y = y 0.5 /x0.5

8. x1.2 + y 1.2 = 64 1.2x0.2 + 1.2y0.2 y = 0

y = x 0.2 /y0.2

9. e xy = tan y exy(1 y + x y) = ysec2 y ye xy

+ xye xy = ysec2 y xye xy ysec2 y = ye xy

ye xy

y(xexy sec2 y) = yexy y =

xe xy sec 2 y

10. ln (xy) = tan x tan (ln xy) = x

1

1

2

sec (ln xy) (1 y + yx) = 1 y + yx =

xy

2

xy cos (ln xy) yx = xy cos2 (ln xy) y

xy cos 2 (ln xy) y

x

3 4 5

11. (x y ) = x y

5(x 3y 4)4(3x 2y 4 + x 3 4y 3y) = 1 y

y(20x15y19 + 1) = 1 15x14y20

1 15 x 14 y 20

y =

1 + 20 x 15 y19

y =

12. (xy)6 = x + y

6(xy)5(y + xy) = 1 + y

y(6x6y5 1) = 1 6x5y6

1 6 x 5 y6

y = 6 5

6x y 1

13. cos 2 x + sin2 y = 1

2 cos x (sin x) + 2 sin y cos y y = 0

cos x sin x

y =

cos y sin y

14. sec2 y tan2 x = 1

2 sec y sec y tan y y 2 tan x sec2 x = 0

sec 2 x tan x

y =

sec 2 y tan y

15. tan xy = xy

(sec 2 xy) (y + xy) = y + xy

y(x sec2 xy x) = y y sec2 xy

y(1 sec 2 xy)

y

y =

y =

2

x (sec xy 1)

x

y(1 + sin xy)

y

y =

y =

x (1 sin xy)

x

17. sin y = x cos y y = 1 y = sec y

18. cos y = x sin y y = 1 y = csc y

19. csc y = x csc y cot y y = 1

y = sin y tan y

20. cot y = x csc2 y y = 1 y = sin2 y

21. y = cos 1 x cos y = x sin y y = 1

1

1

=

y =

sin y

1 x2

1 x 2

y

x

1 1

=

ey x

23. y = x 11/5 y 5 = x 11 5y 4 y = 11x 10

11x 10

11x 10

11x 10 11 6 / 5

y =

=

=

= x ,

5y 4

5( x 11/ 5 ) 4 5 x 44 / 5 5

22. y = ln x e y = x e y y = 1 y =

of a power formula, Q.E.D.

24. Prove that if y = xn, where n = a/b and a and b

are integers, then y = nan 1.

Proof:

y = x n = x a/ b y b = x a.

Because a and b are integers,

byb 1 y = ax a 1

ax a 1

ax a 1

ax a 1

a a1( a a/b )

y = b 1 =

=

x

a/b b 1

a a/b =

by

b( x )

bx

b

a

= x a/b 1 = nx n 1, Q .E.D .

b

25. a. x 2 + y 2 = 100

At (6, 8), (6)2 + 82 = 100, which shows

that (6, 8) is on the graph, Q.E.D.

b. x 2 + y 2 = 100 2x + 2y dy/dx = 0

dy/dx = x/y

At (6, 8), dy/dx = (6)/8 = 0.75.

A line at (6, 8) with slope 0.75 is tangent to

the graph, showing that the answer is

reasonable.

10 y

x

10

16. cos xy = xy

(sin xy) (y + xy) = y + xy

70

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. x = 10 cos t

y = 10 sin t

dy 10 cos t

cos t

=

=

dx 10 sin t

sin t

1

At x = 6, t = cos (0.6).

sin [cos1 (0.6)] = 0.8

dy

0.6

=

= 0.75,

dx

0.8

which agrees with part b, Q.E.D.

26. a. x 2 y 2 = 36

At (10, 8), 102 (8)2 = 36, which shows

that (10, 8) is on the graph, Q.E.D.

b. x2 y2 = 36 2x 2y dy/dx = 0

dy/dx = x/y

At (10, 8), dy/dx = 10/(8) = 1.25.

A line at (10, 8) with slope 1.25 is tangent

to the graph, showing that the answer is

reasonable.

10 y

x

10

c. x = 6 sec t

y = 6 tan t

dy 6 sec t tan t tan t

=

=

dx

6 sec 2 t

sec t

1

At x = 10, t = sec (10/6).

tan [sec1 (10/6)] = 8/6.

Choose the negative value because y < 0.

dy 10/6

=

= 1.25,

dx

8/6

which agrees with part b, Q.E.D.

27. a. x 3 + y 3 = 64 3x 2 + 3y 2 dy/dx = 0

dy/dx = x2/y2

x = 0: y 3 = 64 y = 4

dy/dx = 0/16 = 0

The tangent is horizontal (see the next graph).

x = 2: 8 + y 3 = 64 y 3 = 56

y = 3.8258

dy/dx = 22/(3.8258)2 = 0.2732

The tangent line has a small negative slope,

which agrees with the graph.

x = 4: 64 + y 3 = 64 y = 0

dy/dx = 42/0, which is infinite.

The tangent line is vertical.

10 y

x

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. y = x: x 3 + x 3 = 64 x 3 = 32

x = 3.1748

dy/dx = x2/y2 = x2/x2 = 1

c. y = (64 x 3)1/3

As x becomes infinite, (64 x3)1/3 gets closer

to (x3)1/3, which equals x. The graph has

a diagonal asymptote at y = x, and

dy/dx 1.

d. By analogy with the equation of a circle, such

as x 2 + y 2 = 64

28. a. First simplify the equation.

[(x 6)2 + y2][(x + 6)2 + y2] = 1200

(x 6)2(x + 6)2 + (x 6)2y2 + (x + 6)2y2 + y4

= 1200

(x2 36)2 + (x2 12x + 36 + x2 + 12x + 36)y2

+ y4 = 1200

4

x 72x 2 + 1296 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 1200

x 4 72x 2 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 96

Differentiate the simplified equation

implicitly.

4x 3 144x + 4xy 2 + 4x 2y dy/dx

+ 144y dy/dx + 4y3 dy/dx = 0

2

(4x y + 144y + 4y3) dy/dx = 4x3

+ 144x 4xy 2

dy x 3 + 36 x xy 2

= 2

dx

x y + 36 y + y 3

At x = 8: (4 + y2)(196 + y2) = 1200

784 + 200y2 + y4 = 1200

y 4 + 200y 2 416 = 0

200 41664

y2 =

= 2.058806 K or

2

202.0

y = 1.4348542 (No other real solutions)

At (8, 1.434), dy/dx = 1.64211 .

At (8, 1.434), dy/dx = 1.64211 .

Both answers agree with the moderately steep

negative and positive slopes, respectively.

5

x

10

b. At the x-intercepts, y = 0.

(x 6)2 (x + 6)2 = 1200

(x2 36)2 = 1200

x = 36 1200 = 8.4048K or

1.1657

Derivative appears to be infinite at each

x-intercept.

At x = 36 + 1200 = 8.4048K ,

71

=

dx

(8.4 K)2 (0) + 36(0) + 0 3

896.29K

=

, which is infinite, as conjectured.

0

c. From part a,

x 4 72x 2 + 2x 2y 2 + 72y 2 + y 4 = 96

y 4 + (2x 2 + 72)y 2 + (x 4 72x 2 + 96) = 0

y2 =

(2 x 2 + 72) (2 x 2 + 72)2 4(1)( x 4 72 x 2 + 96)

2

2

2

y = x 36 144 x 2 1200

Only the positive part of the ambiguous

sign gives real solutions for y.

y = x 2 36 + 144 x 2 1200

Plot the graph letting y1 equal the positive

branch and y2 equal the negative branch. The

graph is as in the text. The two loops may

not appear to close, depending on the window

you use for x.

d. Repeating the algebra of parts a and c with

1400 in place of 1200 gives

y = x 2 36 + 144 x 2 1400

Plot the graph as in part a. The two ovals in

the original graph merge into a single closed

figure resembling an (unshelled) peanut.

A = r 2

dr /dt

r

3

dr 2

= = 0.6366 K mm/h when r = 3 mm.

dt

dr

varies inversely with the radius.

dt

dr

dV

= 2 cm/s. Want:

.

dt

dt

4

dV

dr

V = r 3

= 4r 2

3

dt

dt

dV

= 72 = 226.1946 K cm 3 /s at r = 3 cm

dt

dV

= 288 = 904.7786 K cm 3 /s at r = 6 cm

dt

2. Know:

dV/dt

500

r

3

dA

dr

dr

6

= 2r

=

dt

dt

dt r

x

10

[(x 6)2 + y2][(x + 6)2 + y2] = 1200

are the squares of the distances from (x, y) to

the points (6, 0) and (6, 0), respectively.

The product of the distances is 1200, a

constant.

Q1. y 2 + 2xyy

Q3. Product rule

Q5. Speeding up

Q4. Chain rule

Q6. smaller

1 dx

Q7. cos x x sin x

Q8.

x dt

x

x

Q10. E

Q9. 2e + xe

dA

dr

1. Know:

= 12 mm2/h. Want: .

dt

dt

72

the faster Phil must blow air to maintain the

2 cm/s rate of change of radius.

dA

da

3. Know:

= 144 cm 2 /s. Want:

.

dt

dt

1

A = ab and a = 2b A = a 2

2

dA

da

da

1 dA

= a

=

dt

dt

dt a dt

da

6

b = 12 a = 24

= = 1.9098K

dt

1.91 cm/s

The length of the major axis is 2a, so the major

axis is decreasing at 12/ cm/s.

dK

dm

4. Know:

= 100, 000 MJ/s;

= 20 kg/s.

dt

dt

dV

Want:

. (Note: 1 megaJouleMJis the

dt

energy required to accelerate a 1-kg mass by

1 km/s through a distance of 1 km; it can be

expressed 1 MJ = 1 kg km2/s2.)

1

dK 1 2 dm

dV

K = mV 2

= V

+ mV

2

dt

2

dt

dt

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dV

1 dK

V dm

=

dt

mV dt 2 m dt

dV

100000 10(20)

=

= 2.02 (km/s)/s

dt 5000 10 2 5000

5. Let y = Milts distance from home plate.

Let x = Milts displacement from third base.

dx

dy

Know:

= 20 ft/s. Want: .

dt

dt

dy

dx

2

2

2

y = x + 90 2 y

= 2x

dt

dt

dy x dx

20 x

=

=

dt y dt

x 2 + 90 2

dy /dt

10

x

90

dy

= 8.944 K 8.9 ft/s

dt

(exact: 4 5 ).

dy

At x = 0,

= 0 ft/s, which is reasonable because

dt

Milt is moving perpendicular to his line from

home plate.

6. Let y = displacement from stern to dock along

pier. Let x = displacement from bow to pier

along dock.

dy

dx

Know:

= 3 m/s. Want:

.

dt

dt

2

2

2

x + y = 200

dx

dy

dx

y dy

3y

+ 2y

=0

=

=

2x

dt

dt

dt

x dt

200 2 y 2

At x = 45,

At y = 120,

dx 360

=

= 2.25 m/s.

dt 160

dx/dt

dH

H dW H dL

=

dt

W dt

L dt

20

20

=

(0.1) 2 (0.3)

LW 2

LW

b.

dH

20 0.1 20 0.3

+ 2

= 0.02

=

dt

5 22

5 2

Depth is increasing at 0.02 m/s.

dx

dy

Know:

= 80 km/s;

= 50 km/s.

dt

dt

dL

Want:

.

dt

dL

dx

dy

L2 = x 2 + y 2 2 L

= 2x

+ 2y

dt

dt

dt

dL

1

=

(80 x 50 y)

dt

x 2 + y2

dL

1

200

(80 500 50 1200) =

=

=

dt 1300

13

15.3846

Distance is decreasing at about 15.4 km/s.

9. a. Let x = distance from bottom of ladder to

wall. Let y = distance from top of ladder to

floor.

dx

dy

20 2 = x 2 + y 2 0 = 2 x

+ 2y

dt

dt

dy

x dx

=

dt

y dt

Note that the velocity of the weight is dy/dt,

so

x

dx

v=

2 dt

400 x

4

6

( 3) =

= 0.6123K ft/s

4

384

dx

40

c. Here x = 20,

= 2, so v =

(!!)

dt

0

10. a.

b. v =

10

D

1200 in.2

L

y

120

200

dL

dW

. Want:

.

dt

dt

dL

dW

LW = 1200

W + L

=0

dt

dt

dW

W

dL

1

dL

=

W2

dt 1200/W dt

1200

dt

Know:

(meters).

dW

dL

Know:

= 0.1 m/s;

= 0.3 m/s.

dt

dt

dH

Want:

.

dt

LWH = 20

dL

dW

dH

WH + L

H + LW

=0

dt

dt

dt

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

W 2 (6) W = 20 in.

1200

L = 60 in.

b. 2 =

73

c. D2 = L2 + W 2 2 D

dD

=

dt

dD

dL

dW

= 2L

+ 2W

dt

dt

dt

dL

dW

L

+W

dt

dt

L + W2

At L = 60 and W = 20,

dD

1

[60(6) + 20( 2)]

=

2

dt

20 + 60 2

320

=

= 1.6 10 = 5.0596 K

4000

Diagonal is increasing at about 5.06 in./min.

11. a. Let h = depth of water. Let r = radius of water

at surface. Let V = volume of water.

dh

dV

Know:

= 5 m/h. Want:

.

dt

dt

1

V = r 2 h

3

r

3

3

By similar triangles,

=

r= h

h

5

5

2

1 3

3 3

V = h h = h

3 5

25

dV

9

2 dh

= h

dt 25

dt

dV 81

At h = 3,

= = 16.2 = 50.8938K

dt

5

3

50.9 m /h.

dV

dh

b. i. Know:

= 2 m3/h. Want:

.

dt

dt

dV

9

dh

dh

25 dV

= h 2

=

dt 25

dt

dt 9h 2 dt

dh

50

=

= 0.1105K

dt 144

0.11 m/h at h = 4 m

dh

ii.

as h 0 m

dt

dV

c. i. Know:

= k h.

dt

dV

= 0.5 at h = 4 k = 0.25

dt

dV

= 0.25 h

dt

dV

ii.

= 0.25 0.64 = 0.2 m 3 /h

dt

at h = 0.64 m

dV

iii.

= 0.2 at h = 0.64 m

dt

dh

25

=

(0.2) = 0.4317K

dt 9 (0.64)2

0.43 m/h

12. Let h = altitude. Let r = radius. Let V = volume

of cone.

dh

dr

dV

= 6 ft/min;

= 7 ft/min. Want:

Know:

.

dt

dt

dt

74

1

dV 2 dr

1

dh

V = r 2 h

= r h + r 2

3

dt 3 dt

3

dt

dV 2

1

2

= (8)(3)(7) + (8) ( 6) =

dt 3

3

16 ft3/min = 50.2654

Volume is decreasing at about 50.3 ft3/min.

13. a. Let = angular velocity in radians per day.

2

2

E =

, M =

365

687

1

1

d

= E M = 2

365 687

dt

644

= 0.008068K 0.00807 rad/day

250755

1

1

1

b. T =

= 778.7422 K

365 687

778.7 days

The next time after 27 Aug. 2003 when the

two planets will be closest is 779 days later,

on 14 Oct. 2005 (or 15 Oct., if the planets

were aligned later than about 6:11 a.m. back

on 27 Aug. 2003). Because the actual orbits

of Earth and Mars are not as simple as

previously assumed, the actual closest

distances are not always the same. In fact, the

approach on 27 Aug. 2003 was the closest

one in nearly 60,000 years! Nor is the period

between close approaches quite so simple.

The next close approach will actually be on

30 Oct. 2005, not 15 Oct.

c. By the law of cosines,

D 2 = 932 + 1412 2 93 141 cos

D = 28530 26226 cos million mi

d.

dD

26226 sin

d

=

dt 2 28530 26226 cos dt

1

1

26226

2 sin

365 687

=

million mi/day

2 28530 26226 cos

1

1

1, 000, 000 26226

2 sin

365 687

=

24 2 28530 26226 cos

1

1

sin

365 687

=

mi/h

28530 26226 cos

To find out how fast D is changing today,

first determine how many days after 27 Aug.

2003 it is today, then multiply that number

d 1

1

by

=

2 to find , then

dt 365 687

substitute into the previous expressions.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dD

, plot the variable part of

dt

sin

.

28530 26226 cos

e. To maximize

dD

, y=

dt

y

0.01

dl

= 1.9963 units/s at x = 5 units.

dt

dl

= 2.6610 units/s at x = 2 units.

dt

The length of AB is at a minimum when dl/dt = 0.

Use your grapher to solve 0.8e0.8x + 2x = 0.

At x = 0.3117 , the length of AB stops

decreasing and starts increasing.

From the graph, it is clear that the maximum

occurs well before = /2 (90). Using the

maximize feature, the maximum occurs at

0.8505 , or 48.7.

(The exact value is cos 1 (93/141). One can

find this by finding (d/dt)(dD/dt) and setting it

equal to zero. One can also see this by

decomposing Earths motion vector into two

componentsone toward/away from Mars and

the other perpendicular to the first. The rate of

change in D is maximized when all of Earths

motion is along the Earth-to-Mars component,

which occurs when the Earth-Mars-Sun

triangle has a right angle at Earth.

93

In this case, cos = 141

.)

1

1

2 t if t = days since

f. =

365 687

27 Aug. 2003.

1

1

2 t

365 687

D

200

t

1000

points are not symmetric.

14. As B moves from negative values of x to positive

values of x, the length of AB decreases to about

0.56 unit, then begins to increase when the xvalue of point B passes about 0.3.

Let l = length of AB.

dl

dx

.

= 2 units/s. Want:

Know:

dt

dt

dl

l = e 0.8 x + x 2

dt

1

dx

dx

= (e 0.8 x + x 2 ) 1/ 2 2 x

+ 0.8e 0.8 x

dt

2

dt

=

0.8e 0.8 x + 2 x

e 0.8 x + x 2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

R1. a. x = g(t) = t3 g(t) = 3t2

y = h(t) = cos t h(t) = sin t

If f (t) = g(t) h(t) = t3 cos t, then, for example,

f (1) = 0.7794 by numerical differentiation.

g(1) h(1) = 3(12) (sin 1) = 2.5244

f (t) g(t) h(t), Q.E .D.

b. If f (t) = g(t)/h(t) = t3/cos t, then, for example,

f (1) = 8.4349 by numerical differentiation.

g(1)/h(1) = 3(12)/(sin 1) = 3.5651

f (t) g(t)/h(t), Q.E .D.

c. y = cos t

x = t3 t = x1/3 y = cos (x1/3 )

dy

1

= sin ( x 1/ 3 ) x 2 / 3

dx

3

dy

1

At x = 1,

= sin 1 = 0.280490 K .

dx

3

If x = 1, then t = 11/3 = 1.

dy/dt sin t sin 1

=

=

= 0.280490 K ,

dx/dt

3t 2

3

which equals dy/dx, Q.E .D.

R2. a. If y = uv, then y = uv + uv.

b. See the proof of the product formula in the

text.

c. i. f (x) = x7 ln 3x

3

= 7x6 ln 3x + x6

f (x) = 7x6 ln 3x + x 7

3x

ii. g(x) = sin x cos 2x

g(x) = cos x cos 2x 2 sin x sin 2x

iii. h(x) = (3x 7)5(5x + 2)3

h(x) = 5(3x 7)4(3) (5x + 2)3

+ (3x 7)5(3)(5x + 2)2(5)

= 15(3x 7)4(5x + 2)2(5x + 2

+ 3x 7)

= 15(3x 7)4(5x + 2)2(8x 5)

iv. s(x) = x8e x s(x) = x8e x + 8x7e x

d. f (x) = (3x + 8)(4x + 7)

i. f (x) = 3(4x + 7) + (3x + 8)(4) = 24x + 53

ii. f (x) = 12x2 + 53x + 56

f (x) = 24x + 53, which checks.

75

u v uv

.

v2

b. See proof of quotient formula in text.

sin 10 x

c. i. f ( x ) =

x5

10 cos 10 x x 5 sin 10 x 5 x 4

f ( x ) =

x 10

10 x cos 10 x 5 sin 10 x

=

x6

(2 x + 3)9

g ( x )

(9 x 5) 4

9(2 x + 3)8 2(9 x 5) 4 (2 x + 3)9 4(9 x 5)3 9

=

(9 x 5)8

18(2 x + 3)8 (5 x 11)

=

(9 x 5)5

ii. g( x ) =

h (x) = 5(100x3 1) 6 300x2

= 1500x2(100x3 1) 6

d. y = 1/x 10

As a quotient:

0 x 10 1 10 x 9 10

y =

= 11 = 10 x 11

x 20

x

As a power:

y = x 10

y = 10x 11, which checks.

sin x

= tan x

e. t ( x ) =

cos x

cos x cos x sin x ( sin x )

t ( x ) =

cos 2 x

cos 2 x + sin 2 x

1

=

=

= sec 2 x

cos 2 x

cos 2 x

t (1) = sec2 1 = 3.4255

t ( x ) t (1) tan x tan 1

f. m( x ) =

=

x 1

x 1

approaches 1 from either side, Q.E.D.

R4. a. i. y = tan 7x y = 7 sec2 7x

ii. y = cot (x4) y = 4x3 csc2 (x4)

iii. y = sec e x y = e x sec e x tan e x

iv. y = csc x y = csc x cot x

b. See derivation in text for tanx = sec2 x.

c. The graph is always sloping upward, which

is connected to the fact that tan x equals the

square of a function and is thus always

positive.

y

f (1) = 20.17

f (1.5) = 1395.44

f (1.57) = 11038634.0

There is an asymptote in the secant graph at

t = /2 = 1.57079 . As t gets closer to this

value, secant changes very rapidly!

3

R5. a. i. y = tan 1 3 x y =

1 + 9x 2

d

1

ii.

(sec 1 x ) =

dx

| x | x2 1

iii. c( x ) = (cos 1 x )2 c( x ) =

/2

1 x2

b. y = sin 1 x y =

m (x)

2 cos 1 x

1 x2

3.42...

x

1

x

1

76

m(x)

0.997

0.998

0.999

1

1.001

1.002

1.003

3.40959

3.41488

3.42019

undefined

3.43086

3.43622

3.44160

y(0) =

1

1 02

graph.

y(1) =

1

2

1

, which is infinite.

0

11

The graph becomes vertical as x approaches 1

from the negative side. y(2) is undefined

because y(2) is not a real number.

R6. a. Differentiability implies continuity.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

f (x )

6t ( dt/dx ) 2e 2 t 3t 2 4e 2 t ( dt/dx )

(2e 2 t ) 2

3t 3t 2 dx 3t 3t 2

=

2e 4 t

e2t

dt

b. x = (t/) cos t

y = (t/ ) sin t

dy dy/dt

(1/ ) sin t + (t/ )(cos t )

=

=

dx dx/dt (1/ ) cos t + (t/ )( sin t )

sin t + t cos t

=

cos t t sin t

Where the graph crosses the positive x-axis,

t = 0, 2 , 4 , 6 , .

If t = 6 , x = 6 and y = 0.

(6, 0) is on the graph.

If t = 6, then

dy sin 6 + 6 cos 6 0 + 6

=

=

= 6 .

dx cos 6 6 sin 6

1 0

So the graph is not vertical where it crosses

the x-axis. It has a slope of 6 = 18.84 .

c. At a high point, y is a maximum and x is zero.

Use cosine for y and sine for x.

For y, the sinusoidal axis is at 25 ft.

For x, the sinusoidal axis is at 0 ft.

Both x and y have amplitude 20 ft, the radius

of the Ferris wheel.

The phase displacement is 3 seconds.

The period is 20 seconds, so the coefficient

of the arguments of sine and cosine is

2 /20 = /10.

x = 20 sin (t 3)

10

y = 25 + 20 cos (t 3)

10

dx/dt = 2 cos (t 3)

10

dy/dt = 2 sin (t 3)

10

When t = 0, dy/dt = 5.0832 .

The Ferris wheel is going up at about

5.1 ft/s.

When t = 0, dx/dt = 3.6931 .

The Ferris wheel is going right at about

3.7 ft/s.

dy dy/dt

=

dx dx/dt

dy/dx will be infinite if dx/dt = 0 and

dy/dt 0.

dx/dt = 0 if 2 cos (t 3) = 0 .

10

(t 3) = + n (where n is an integer)

10

2

t = 8 + 5n

The first positive time is t = 8 s.

=

x

c

f (x )

x

c

c. i.

f (x )

x

1

left limits both equal 2, which equals f (1).

iii. f is differentiable. Left and right limits

of f (x) are both equal to 2, and f is

continuous at x = 2.

sin 1 x,

if 0 x 1

d. g( x ) = 2

x + ax + b, if x 0

(1 x ) 1/2, if 0 < x < 1

g ( x ) =

if x < 0

2 x + a,

lim g( x ) = 0 + 0 a + b = b

x0

lim g( x ) = sin 1 0 = 0

x0 +

b=0

lim g( x ) = 0 + a = a

x0

lim g( x ) = 11/2 = 1

x0 +

a=1

g (x )

1

x

0

continuous at x = 0.

dy dy/dt 3t 2

R7. a. x = e 2 t, y = t 3

=

=

dx dx/dt 2e 2 t

d 2 y d 3t 2

=

dx 2 dx 2e 2 t

2005 Key Curriculum Press

77

R8. a. y = x 8/5 y 5 = x 8

8x 7

8x 7

8 3/ 5

5 y 4 y = 8 x 7 y = 4 =

x

8/ 5 4 =

5y

5( x )

5

Using the power rule directly:

y = x 8/5 y = 85 x 3/ 5

b. y3 sin xy = x4.5

3y2y sin xy + y3(cos xy)(y + xy) = 4.5x3.5

y[3y2 sin xy + xy3 cos xy]

= 4.5x 3/5 y 4 cos xy

dy

4.5 x 3.5 y 4 cos xy

y =

= 2

dx 3 y sin xy + xy 3 cos xy

c. i. 4y 2 xy 2 = x 3

8yy y 2 x 2yy = 3x 2

y(8y 2xy) = 3x 2 + y 2

dy 3 x 2 + y 2

y =

=

dx 8 y 2 xy

At (2, 2), dy/dx = 2. At (2, 2), dy/dx = 2.

Lines at these points with these slopes are

tangent to the graph (see diagram).

y

5

x

2

0/0, which is consistent with the cusp.

iii. To find the asymptote, solve for y.

(4 x)y 2 = x 3

x3

y2 =

4x

As x approaches 4 from the negative side,

y becomes infinite. If x > 4, y2 is negative,

and thus there are no real values of y.

Asymptote is at x = 4.

At z = 200, x = 200 2 70 2 = 30 39

dz 20 30 39

=

= 3 39 = 18.7349...

dt

200

The glass moves at the same speed as the

tablecloth, or about 18.7 cm/s, which is about

1.3 cm/s slower than Rover.

Concept Problems

C1. a. Let (x, y) be the coordinates of a point on the

tangent line.

y y0

= m y = m( x x 0 ) + y0

x x0

b. Substituting (x1, 0) for (x, y) gives

y

0 = m( x1 x 0 ) + y0 x1 = x 0 0 , Q .E.D .

m

c. The tangent line intersects the x-axis at (x2, 0).

Repeating the above reasoning with x2 and x1

in place of x1 and x0 gives

y

x 2 = x1 1

m

Because y1 = f (x1) and m = f (x1),

f ( x1 )

x 2 = x1

, Q .E .D .

f ( x1 )

d. Programs will vary according to the kind of

grapher used. The following steps are needed:

Store f (x) in the Y= menu.

Input a starting value of x.

Find the new x using the numerical

derivative.

Display the new x.

Save the new x as the old x and repeat.

For f (x) = x2 9x + 14, the program should

give x = 2, x = 7.

e. For g(x) = x3 9x2 + 5x + 10, first plot the

graph to get approximations for the initial

values of x.

g (x )

R9.

20

70

x

1

Let z = slant length of tablecloth.

dx

dz

Know:

at z = 200.

= 20 cm/s. Want:

dt

dt

2

2

2

z = x + 70

dz

dx

2z

= 2x

dt

dt

dz x dx 20 x

=

=

dt z dt

z

78

and 8. The values of x are

x = 0.78715388

x = 1.54050386

x = 8.24665002

The answers are the same using the built-in

solver feature. The same preliminary analysis

is needed to find starting values of x.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Starting with x0 = 1, it takes seven iterations

to get x = 0.429699666 .

C2. a. The connecting rod, the crankshaft, and the

y-axis form a triangle with angle = /2

included between sides of 6 cm and

(y 8) cm.

a

500,000

a < 980 for (0.2712 , 2.8703). The

piston is going down (v < 0) for

( /2, 3 /2).

So the piston is going down with acceleration

greater than gravity for between /2 and

2.8703 .

y8

20

20 2 = (y 8)2 + 62 2 6

(y 8) cos ( /2)

202 = (y 8)2 + 62 12(y 8) sin

(y 8)2 12 sin (y 8) 364 = 0

Solve for y 8 using the quadratic formula.

Chapter Test

T1. y = uv y = uv + uv

u + u u

v + v v (v + v)v

T2. y = lim

x 0

(v + v)v

x

(u + u)v u(v + v)

= lim

x 0

x (v + v)v

solution with the negative radical gives a

triangle below the origin, which has no reallife meaning.)

uv + uv uv uv

= lim

x 0

x (v + v)v

u v uv

1

= lim

x 0 ( v + v )v

x

1

u

v

= lim

v u

x 0 ( v + v )v x

x

y = 8 + 6 sin + 2 9 sin 2 + 91

dy

d

18 sin cos d

b. v =

= 6 cos

+

dt

dt

9 sin 2 + 91 dt

v = 6 cos

c. a =

d

9 sin 2

d

+

2

dt

9 sin + 91 dt

d2y

dt 2

d

= 6 sin

dt

+ 18

91 cos 2 9 sin 4 d

(9 sin 2 + 91)3/ 2 dt

91 cos 2 9 sin 4

d 2

= 18

6

sin

(9 sin 2 + 91)3/ 2

dt

(There are many other correct forms of the

answer, depending on how you use the

double-argument properties and Pythagorean

properties from trigonometry.)

Note that the angular velocity is constant at

6000 radians per minute, so

d

= 100 rad/s.

dt

d. See the graph. Note that a line at a = 980

is so close to the x-axis that it does not

show up.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1 du

dv

u v uv

vu =

2

v dx

dx

v2

[Because as x 0, u/x and v/x become

du/dx and dv/dx and v 0, so (v + v)v v 2 ].

cos x

T3. cot x =

sin x

sin x sin x cos x cos x

=

sin 2 x

(sin 2 x + cos 2 x )

1

=

= 2 = csc 2 x

sin 2 x

sin x

T4. y = sin 1 x sin y = x y cos y = 1

=

1

cos 2 y + sin 2 y = 1 cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y

cos y

1

cos y = 1 sin 2 y = 1 x 2 y =

1 x2

y =

T5.

dy dy/dt 4t 3

d2y d

(2t 2 ) =

=

=

= 2t 2 2 =

dx dx/dt 2t

dx

dx

dx 4t

4t ( dt/dx ) = 4t

=

=2

dt 2t

Problem Set 4-10

79

c(x) = 3 csc2 3x, which is negative for all

permissible values of x.

c(5) = 3 csc2 15 = 3/sin2 15 = 7.0943

c(t) is decreasing at about 7.1 y-units/x-unit.

T7. f (x) = sec x f (x) = sec x tan x

f (2) = sec 2 tan 2 = 5.25064633

Use m(x) for the difference quotient.

1/cos x 1/cos 2

m( x ) =

x2

x

m(x)

1.997

1.998

1.999

2.000

2.001

2.002

2.003

5.28893631

5.27611340

5.26335022

undefined

5.23800134

5.22541482

5.21288638

f (x )

7

1

60 x 2

y = 4

15 x 2 =

1 (5 x 3 ) 2

1 25 x 6

T16. 9x 2 20xy + 25y 2 16x + 10y 50 = 0

18x 20y 20xy + 50yy 16 + 10y = 0

y (20x + 50y + 10) = 18x + 20y + 16

dy 18 x + 20 y + 16

y =

=

dx 20 x + 50 y + 10

9 x + 10 y + 8

=

10 x + 25 y + 5

If x = 2, then

36 + 40y + 25y 2 + 32 + 10y 50 = 0

25y 2 + 50y + 18 = 0

Solving numerically gives

y = 0.4708 or y = 1.5291 , both of

which agree with the graph.

(Solving algebraically by the quadratic formula,

y = 1 7 /5 , which agrees with the numerical

solutions.)

At (2, 0.4708), dy/dx = 1.60948 .

At (2, 1.5291), dy/dx = 0.80948 .

The answers are reasonable, because lines of

these slopes are tangent to the graph at the

respective points, as shown here.

5 y

x

2

1 2

T9. f (x) = mx + b

f (x) = m for all x

f is differentiable for all x.

f is continuous for all x, Q.E.D.

T10. f (x) = sec 5x f (x) = 5 sec 5x tan 5x

T11. y = tan7/3 x y = 37 tan4/3 x

T12. f (x) = (2x 5)6(5x 1)2

f (x) = 6(2x 5)5(2) (5x 1)2

+ (2x 5)6 2(5x 1) 5

= 2(2x 5)5(5x 1)[6(5x 1) + 5(2x 5)]

= 2(2x 5)5(5x 1)(40x 31)

e3 x

T13. f ( x ) =

ln x

3e 3 x ln x e 3 x (1/ x ) 3 xe 3 x ln x e 3 x

f ( x ) =

=

(ln x )2

x (ln x )2

T14. x = sec 2t

y = tan 2t3

dy dy/dt

sec 2 2t 3 6t 2

3t 2 sec 2 2t 3

=

=

=

dx dx/dt sec 2t tan 2t 2 sec 2t tan 2t

80

x

5

x 3 + 1,

if x 1

T17. f ( x ) =

2

a( x 2) + b, if x > 1

3 x 2 ,

if x < 1

f ( x ) =

2 a( x 2), if x > 1

For equal derivatives on both sides of x = 1,

lim f ( x ) = 3 12 = 3

x 1

lim f ( x ) = 2 a(1 2) = 2 a

x 1+

2 a = 3 a = 1.5

For continuity at x = 1,

lim f ( x ) = 13 + 1 = 2

x 1

lim f ( x ) = a(1 2) 2 + b = a + b

x 1+

a + b = 2

Substituting a = 1.5 gives b = 3.5.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

x

1

two branches to have slopes approaching 4

as x approaches 1 from either side as long as

a = 1.5. However, f will not be continuous,

and thus will not be differentiable, as shown

here for b = 4.5.

1

1

1

d

T20.

=

=

1 + ( x/5)2 5

5 + 5( x 2 / 25)

dx

1

5

=

=

5 + ( x 2 / 5)

25 + x 2

dx

T21.

= 420 mi/h

dt

5

2100

d d dx

=

=

( 420) =

T22.

25 + x 2

25 + x 2

dt dx dt

T23. The plane is changing fastest when x approaches

zero, when the plane is nearest the station.

y

f (x )

25

x

30

T18. y = x 7/3 y 3 = x 7

3y 2y = 7x 6

7x 6 7 x 6

7

7

y = 2 =

= x 614 / 3 = x 4 / 3

3y

3 ( x 7/ 3 ) 2 3

3

This answer agrees with y = nxn 1. 4/3 is

7/3 1.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

81

Problem Set 5-1

1. f (1000) = 20 + (0.000004)(10002) = 24 $/ft

f (4000) = 20 + (0.000004)(40002) = 84 $/ft

The price increases because it is harder and slower

to drill at increasing depths.

2. T6 = 500(24 + 29)/2 + 500(29 + 36)/2

+ 500(36 + 45)/2 + 500(45 + 56)/2

+ 500(56 + 69)/2 + 500(69 + 84)/2

= 13,250 + 16,250 + 20,250 + 25,250

+ 31,250 + 38,250 = 144,500

About $144,500, an overestimate because the

trapezoids are circumscribed above the curve.

(Note that T6 can be found more easily by first

factoring out the 500, then adding the function

values.)

3. R6 = 500(26.25) + 500(32.25) + 500(40.25) +

500(50.25) + 500(62.25) + 500(76.25) = 143,750

About $143,750

(Note that R6 can be found more easily by first

factoring out the 500, then adding the function

values.)

R6 is close to T6. (They differ by less than 1%.)

4. T100 = 144,001.8, T500 = 144,000.072

Conjecture: Exact value is $144,000.

5. g (x) = 20x + 13 (0.000004)x 3 + C

g (4,000) g (1,000) = (165,333.3333 + C)

(21,333.3333 + C) = 144,000,

which is the conjectured value of the definite

integral!

The other name for antiderivative is indefinite

integral.

6. a. f (x) = x 7 + C

b. y = cos x + C

2x

c. u = 0.5e + C

d. v = 321 (4x + 5)8 + C

Q7. 1

Q8. That constant.

Q9. 0

Q10. B

1. f (x) = 0.2x4 f (x) = 0.8x3 f (3) = 21.6;

f (3) = 0.2(34) = 16.2

y 16.2 = 21.6(x 3) y = 21.6x 48.6

x

dx

Q3. f (x) = (ln 2)2 x

Q4. y = sin x + C

Q5. y = 4 m/s

Q6. sec x tan x (derivative)

82

f (x)

Error

0.04 1.87184 1.86143 0.01041

0.001 2.003471 2.003464 7.01 10 6

3. a. f (x) = x 2 f (x) = 2x f (1) = 2

Tangent line: y 1 = 2(x 1) y = 2x 1

The graph shows a zoom by factor of 10.

1

graph

tangent line

1

function because if you keep x close to 1 (in

the locality of 1), the curved graph of the

function looks like the straight graph of the

tangent line.

x

x

a

Error

b.

Area = product

of x and y

3.1

18.47042

18.36

0.11042

3.001 16.22161 16.2216 0.0000108

2.999 16.17841 16.1784 0.0000107

2. g (x) = sec x g (x) = sec x tan x

g ( /3) = 2 3 = 3.464

g ( /3) = sec ( /3) = 2

Linear function is y 2 = 2 3 (x /3)

y = 2 3 (x /3) + 2.

Q1. Answers may vary.

f (x)

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

1.01

1.02

1.03

f (x)

Error, f (x) y

0.9409

0.9604

0.9801

1

1.0201

1.0404

1.0609

0.94

0.96

0.98

1

1.02

1.04

1.06

0.0009

0.0004

0.0001

0

0.0001

0.0004

0.0009

2005 Key Curriculum Press

point of tangency), the tangent line is a close

approximation to the function values.

4. f (x) = x2 0.1(x 1)1/3

Zooming in on (1, 1) shows that the graph goes

vertical at x = 1. This observation is confirmed

algebraically.

f (x) = 2x (1/3)(0.1)(x 1) 2/3

f (1) = 2 (1/3)(0.1)(0) 2/3 , which is infinite.

292.32 918.350 mm3

4

Actual volume is V = (6.033) =

3

292.341636 918.418 mm3.

V = 43 (6.033 ) 43 (6 3 ) = 4.341636

13.640 mm3

Error is 292.32 292.341636 = 0.021636,

or about 0.068 mm3 too low.

7. a. (6000 0.05)/365 = 0.8219 , or about

82 cents.

1

graph

tangent line

1

the slope of the graph becomes infinite, no linear

function can approximate the graph there. If f is

differentiable at x = c, then f is locally linear

there. The converse is also true. If f is locally

linear at x = c, then f is differentiable there.

5. a. Let A be the number of radians in degrees.

x

By trigonometry, tan A =

100

x

A = tan 1

.

100

Because 1 radian is 180/ degrees,

180

x

, Q .E . D .

=

tan 1

100

1

180

1

b. d =

dx

2

1 + ( x / 100)

100

1.8 /

=

dx

1 + ( x / 100)2

x = 0: d = 0.5729 dx

x = 10: d = 0.5672 dx

x = 20: d = 0.5509 dx

c. At x = 0, = 0. For x = 20, dx = 20.

(0 + 0.5729)(20) = 11.459

The actual value is (180/)(tan 1 0.2) =

11.309 .

The error is 0.1492, which is about 1.3%.

d. 0.5729 is approximately 0.5, so multiplying

by it is approximately equivalent to dividing

by 2. For a 20% grade, this estimate gives 10,

compared to the actual angle of 11.309, an

error of about 11.6%. For a 100% grade, this

estimate gives 50, compared to the actual

angle of 45, an error of about 11.1%.

6. dV = 4 r 2 dr

dr = 0.03 and r = 6, so dV = 4 (62)(0.03) =

4.32 13.57 mm3

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. m = 6000e (0.05/365)t

dm = 6000(0.05/365)e(0.05/365)t dt

Substituting t = 0 and dt = 1 gives dm =

0.8219 , the same as part a.

Substituting t = 0 and dt = 30 gives dm =

24.6575 $24.66.

Substituting t = 0 and dt = 60 gives dm =

49.3150 $49.32.

c. t = 1: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(1) 6000 =

0.8219 , almost exactly equal to dm.

t = 30: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(30) 6000 =

24.7082 , about 5 cents higher than dm.

t = 60: m = 6000e (0.05/365)(60) 6000 =

49.5182 , about 20 cents higher than dm.

As t increases, dm is a less accurate

approximation for m.

8. a. dS = 1.636 dt

March 11: dS = 1.636(10) = 16.36

minutes

Sunrise time 6:26 0:16 = 6:10 a.m.,

which agrees with the tabulated value.

March 21: dS = 1.636(20) = 32.72 minutes

Sunrise time 6:26 0:33 = 5:53 a.m.,

which agrees with the tabulated value.

b. By September 1, t = 185, giving

dS = 1.636(185) = 302.66, or 5:04 hours.

So the predicted sunrise time would be

6:26 5:04 = 1:22 a.m. Because the sunrise

reaches its earliest in mid-June, the time

predicted by dS is not reasonable.

9. y = 7x3 dy = 21x2 dx

10. y = 4x11 dy = 44x10 dx

11. y = (x4 + 1)7 dy = 28x3(x4 + 1)6 dx

12. y = (5 8x)4 dy = 32(5 8x)3 dx

13. y = 3x2 + 5x 9 dy = (6x + 5) dx

14. y = x2 + x + 9 dy = (2x + 1) dx

15. y = e 1.7x dy = 1.7e 1.7x dx

Problem Set 5-2

83

15 1 2 / 3 5

x

= dx

x 1/ 3 3

x

y = sin 3x dy = 3 cos 3x dx

y = cos 4x dy = 4 sin 4x dx

y = tan3 x dy = 3 tan2 x sec2 x dx

y = sec3 x dy = 3 sec3 x tan x dx

y = 4x cos x dy = (4 cos x 4x sin x) dx

y = 3x sin x dy = (3 sin x + 3x cos x) dx

y = x 2 /2 x/4 + 2 dy = (x 1/4) dx

y = x 3 /3 x/5 + 6 dy = (x 2 1/5) dx

sin (ln x )

y = cos (ln x) dy =

dx

x

y = sin (e0.1 x) dy = 0.1e0.1 x cos (e0.1 x) dx

dy = 20x3 dx y = 5x4 + C

dy = 36x4 dx y = 7.2x5 + C

dy = sin 4x dx y = (1/4) cos 4x + C

dy = cos 0.2x dx y = 5 sin 0.2x + C

dy = (0.5x 1)6 dx y = (2/7)(0.5x 1)7 + C

dy = (4x + 3) 6 dx y = ( 1/20)(4x + 3) 5 + C

dy = sec2 x dx y = tan x + C

dy = csc x cot x dx y = csc x + C

dy = 5 dx y = 5x + C

dy = 7 dx y = 7x + C

dy = (6x2 + 10x 4) dx y = 2x3 + 5x 2 4x + C

dy = (10x2 3x + 7) dx

y = (10/3)x3 (3/2)x 2 + 7x + C

dy = sin5 x cos x dx y = (1/6) sin6 x + C

dy = sec7 x tan x dx = sec6 x(sec x tan x dx)

y = (1/7) sec7 x + C

a. y = (3x + 4)2(2x 5)3

y = 2(3x + 4)(3)(2x 5)3

+ (3x + 4)2 3(2x 5)2 2

= 6(3x + 4)(2x 5)2[2x 5 + 3x + 4]

dy = 6(3x + 4)(2x 5)2(5x 1) dx

b. dy = 6(7)( 3)2(4)( 0.04) = 60.48

c. x = 1 y = (7)2( 3)3 = 1323

x = 0.96 y = 1383.0218

y = 1383.0218 ( 1323)

= 60.0218

d. 60.48 is close to 60.0218 .

a. y = sin 5x dy = 5 cos 5x dx

b. dy = 5 cos (5 /3) 0.06 = 0.15

c. x = /3 y = sin (5 /3) = 3 /2

= 0.86602

x = /3 + 0.06 y = 0.679585565

y = 0.679 ( 0.866)

= 0.186439

d. 0.15 is (fairly) close to 0.186439... .

16. y = 15 ln x 1/3 dy =

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

84

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Antiderivative = x3 + C

Indefinite integral = (1/6)x6 + C

y = 3x 2

Q4. y = ln 3(3x)

dy = ln 3(3x) dx

Q6. y = 5 x 4

Integral = sin x + C Q8. y = sin x

1

Q10. E

1

x 10 dx = x 11 + C

11

1 21

20

x dx =

x +C

21

4

4 x 6 dx = x 5 + C

5

3 6

7

9 x dx = x + C

2

cos x dx = sin x + C

sin x dx = cos x + C

4

4 cos 7x dx = 7 sin 7x + C

20

20 sin 9 x dx = 9 cos 9 x + C

5

5e dx = 0.3 e + C

2e dx = 200e + C

0.3 x

0.3 x

0.01 x

0.01 x

4m

+C

ln 4

8.4 r

8.4 r dr =

+C

ln 8.4

1

( 4v + 9)2 dv =

( 4v + 9)2 ( 4 dv)

4

1

= ( 4 v + 9) 3 + C

12

1

(3 p + 17)5 dp =

(3 p + 17)5 (3 dp)

3

1

= (3 p + 17) 6 + C

18

1

(8 5 x )3 dx =

(8 5 x )3 ( 5 dx )

5

1

= (8 5 x ) 4 + C

20

4 m dm =

14.

15.

16.

1

= (20 x ) 5 + C

5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

1

(cos x ) sin x dx = 9 cos x + C

1

cos sin d = 5 cos + C

1

sin cos d = 6 sin + C

1

3

( x + 3x 5) dx = 3 x + 2 x 5x + C

1

( x 4 x + 1) dx = 3 x 2 x + x + C

( x + 5) dx = ( x + 15x + 75x + 125) dx

7

=

24.

(x

1 7

x + 3x 5 + 25x 3 + 125x + C

7

6)2 dx = ( x 6 12 x 3 + 36) dx

1

= x 7 3x 4 + 36x + C

7

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

e

sec

csc

tan

cot

csc

e

sec x

sec x tan x dx = e

tan x

sec 2 x dx = e tan x + C

sec

Let h( x ) =

d

d

h ( x ) =

f ( x ) dx +

g( x ) dx.

dx

dx

By the definition of indefinite integral applied

twice to the right side of the equation,

h (x) = f (x) + g (x).

By the definition of indefinite integral applied in

the other direction,

1 8

tan x + C

8

1

8

x csc 2 x dx = cot 9 x + C

9

x sec 2 x dx =

1.5

2.5

3.5

Sum:

Integral 50.75

1

sec7 x + C

7

33. v (t) = 40 + 5 t = 40 + 5t1/ 2

=

D(t ) = ( 40 + 5t 1/ 2 ) dt = 40t +

10 3/ 2

t +C

3

10 3/ 2

0 +CC=0

3

10 3/ 2

D (t) = 40t +

t

3

D (10) = 505.4092... 505 ft

34. a. f (x) = 0.3x 2 + 1

T100 = 9.300135

b. g( x ) = (0.3 x 2 + 1) dx = 0.1x 3 + x + C

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d

( x sin x + cos x + C )

dx

= 1 sin x + x (cos x) sin x + 0 = x cos x

By the definition of indefinite integral, she knew

that Calvin was right.

37. a.

C

v (t)

x dx = cot x + C

D (0) = 0 0 = 40 0 +

f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx.

Q .E .D .

x dx = tan x + C

Proof:

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx = f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx,

1

= csc9 x + C

9

32.

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx = f ( x ) dx + g( x ) dx.

h( x ) = [ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx

+C

sec x

9.3, which is about equal to the definite

integral! It is also interesting that the constant

C drops out.

35. Prove that if f and g are functions that can be

integrated, then

12.25

16.25

22.25

50.75

b.

c

v (t)

1.25

1.75

2.25

2.75

3.25

3.75

Sum:

11.5625

13.0625

15.0625

17.5625

20.5625

24.0625

101.8750

Problem Set 5-3

85

Riemann sum with six increments has

smaller regions included above the graph and

smaller regions excluded below the graph, so

the Riemann sum should be closer to the

integral.

d. Conjecture: Exact value is 51.

By the trapezoidal rule with n = 100,

integral 51.00045, which agrees with the

conjecture.

e. The integral is the product of v (t) and t, and

thus has the units (ft/min)(min), or ft. So the

object went 51 ft. Average velocity = 51/3 =

17 ft/min.

38. Answers will vary.

3.

7.

2.

1.25

1.5625

1.75

3.0625

2.25

5.0625

2.75

7.5625

3.25 10.5625

3.75 14.0625

Sum = 41.8750

R6 = (0.5)(41.875)

= 20.9375

86

f (c)

f (c)

0.1

0.995004

0.3

0.955336

0.5

0.877582

0.7

0.764842

0.9

0.621609

Sum =

4.214375

R5 = (0.2)(4.21)

= 0.842875

1.2

tan x dx

L4 = 0.73879 , U 4 = 1.16866

M 4 = 0.92270 , T4 = 0.95373

M4 and T4 are between L4 and U4, Q.E.D.

x 3 dx

8.

L4 = 9.5, U 4 = 12.8333

M 4 = 10.89754 , T4 = 11.1666

M4 and T4 are between L4 and U4, Q.E.D.

f (c)

2.25

11.390625

2.75

20.796875

3.25

34.328125

3.75

52.734375

4.25

76.765625

4.75 107.171875

5.25 144.703125

5.75 190.109375

Sum = 638.000000

R8 = (0.5)(638) = 319

10/x dx:

1

f (c)

cos x dx

0.4

Q10. No

0.75

0.59460

0.25

0.84089

0.25

1.18920

0.75

1.68179

1.25

2.37841

1.75

3.36358

Sum =

10.04849

R6 = (0.5)(10.04)

= 5.024249

6.

1.1

0.891207

1.3

0.963558

1.5

0.997494

1.7

0.991664

1.9

0.946300

Sum =

4.790225

R5 = (0.2)(4.79)

= 0.958045

f (c)

sin x dx

2 x dx

x 2 dx

f (c)

5.

y = sin x + x cos x

tan x + C

f (x) = sec2 x

(1/4)x4 + C

z = 7 sin 7x

cos u + C

Limit = 8

4.

0.75

0.43869

0.25

0.75983

0.25

1.31607

0.75

2.27950

1.25

3.94822

1.75

6.83852

2.25

11.84466

2.75

20.51556

Sum =

47.94108

R8 = (0.5)(47.94)

= 23.97054

1.

3 x dx

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

9.

1

y

y

2

x

5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10.

+ (3/n)(3 3/n)2 + + (3/n)(n 3/n)2

d. U n = (3/n)3(12 + 22 + 32 + + n 2)

= (3/n)3(n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1)

= (4.5/n2)(n + 1)(2n + 1)

U100 = (4.5/1002)(101)(201) = 9.13545, which

is correct.

e. Using the formula, U1000 = 9.013504 ,

which does seem to be approaching 9

n + 1 2n + 1

f. Un = 4.5

n

n

= 4.5(1 + 1/n)(2 + 1/n)

As n approaches infinity, 1/n approaches zero.

Un approaches 4.5(1 + 0)(2 + 0),

which equals 9, exactly!

y

x

1

For an upper sum, take sample points at x

equals 1, /2, 2, 3, 4, and 6.

b. For a lower sum, take sample points at x

equals 0, 1, 3, 4, 3/2, and 5.

c. U6 = 1[h (1) + h (/2) + h (2) + h (3) + h (4)

+ h (6)] = 21.71134

L 6 = 1[h (0) + h (1) + h (3) + h (4) + h (3/2)

+ h (5)] = 14.53372

12. Programs will vary depending on the type of

grapher used. See the program in the Programs

for Graphing Calculators section of the

Instructors Resource Book.

13. a. For

b. L100 = 20.77545, L500 = 20.955018.

Ln seems to be approaching 21.

c. U100 = 21.22545, U500 = 21.045018.

Un also seems to be approaching 21.

f is integrable on [1, 4] if Ln and Un have the

same limit as n approaches infinity.

d. The trapezoids are circumscribed around the

region under the graph and thus contain more

area (see left diagram). For rectangles, the

triangular part of the region that is left out

has more area than the triangular part that is

added, because the triangles have equal bases

but unequal altitudes (see right diagram).

x 3 dx

1 2/n, 2 2/n, 3 2/n, . . . , n 2/n.

Un = (2/n)(1 2/n)3 + (2/n)(2 2/n)3

+ (2/n)(3 2/n)3 + + (2/n)(n 2/n)3

= (2/n)4(13 + 23 + 33 + + n 3)

= (2/n)4[(n/2)(n + 1)]2

= 4/n2 (n + 1)2 = 4(1 + 1/n)2

lim Un = 4(1 + 0)2 = 4

n

Q1. x 2/2 + 2x + C

Q3. cot x + C

5(ln x ) 4

Q5.

+C

x

10 t

+C

ln 10

Q4. csc x cot x

Q2.

Q6.

y

x

1 2

y

Rectangle

leaves out

more area.

y

Trapezoid

includes

more area.

15.

y

y

5

x

x

14. a.

x

2

dx

Conjecture: Integral equals 9 exactly.

b. The sample points will be at the right of each

interval, 1 3/n, 2 3/n, 3 3/n, . . . ,

n 3/n.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1. See the text for the statement of the mean value

theorem.

2. See the text for the statement of Rolles

theorem.

87

h (x) = (1/2)x 1 / 2

( 1/2)c 1/2 = 1/4 c = 4

Tangent at x = 4 parallels the secant line.

7. f (x) = x cos x on [0, /2]

g (x )

6

f (x )

x

c

6/4 6

m=

= 3/2

4 1

g (x) = 6x 2

6c 2 = 3/2 c = 2

Tangent at x = 2 parallels the secant line.

4. f (x) = x4; [ 1, 2]

f (x )

10

x

c

m=

f (x )

4c = 5 c = 3 5 / 4 = 1.077K

3

5. c( x ) = 2 + cos x; 0,

2

c (x )

x

c

c1

f is differentiable for all x.

x cos x = 0 x = 0 or cos x = 0

cos x = 0 at /2 + 2 n, where n is an integer

hypotheses are met on [0, /2].

Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0 at

c = 0.86033 .

Horizontal line at x = 0.86033 is tangent.

8. f (x) = x 2 sin x

16 1

=5

2 (1)

g (x) = 4x3

m=

/2

= 2/ = 0.6366 K

/2 0

c(x) = sin x

sin c = 2/ c = 0.69010

Tangent at x = 0.690 parallels the secant line.

x

c

f is differentiable for all x.

x 2 sin x = 0 x = 0 or sin x = 0

sin x = 0 at x = 0 + n , where n is an integer

Interval: [0, ]

Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0 at

c = 2.28892 .

Horizontal line at x = 2.288 is tangent.

9. f (x) = (6x x 2) 1/2

f (x )

3

6. h( x ) = 5 x ; [1, 9]

x

0

h (x)

5

x

1

m=

88

24

= 1/4

9 1

f ( x ) = 12 (6 x x 2 ) 1/ 2 (6 2 x )

f is differentiable on (0, 6).

f is continuous at x = 0 and x = 6.

(6x x 2)1/2 = 0

x(6 x) = 0 x = 0 or 6

Interval: [0, 6]

(6c c2) 1/2(3 c) = 0 c = 3

Horizontal line at x = 3 is tangent.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

x

4

f ( x ) = 43 x 1/ 3 43 x 2 / 3

f is differentiable for all x 0.

f is continuous at x = 0.

f (x) = 0 x 4/3 4x 1/3 = 0

x 1/3 (x 4) = 0 x = 0 or 4

Interval: [0, 4]

4

3

c1/ 3 43 c 2 / 3 = 0

c 2 / 3 (c 1) = 0 c = 1

Horizontal line at x = 1 is tangent.

11. a. d(t) = 1000(1.09t )

d(50) = 1000(1.0950) = 74,357.520

= $74,357.52 (Surprising!)

74357.5K 1000

b. Average rate is

=

50

1467.150 $1,467.15 per year.

c. d (t) = ln (1.09)1000(1.09)t

d (0) $86.18 per year

d (50) $6,407.96 per year

The average of these is $3,247.07 per year,

which does not equal the average in part b.

d. Solving 1000(1.90)t ln 1.09 =

4

3

1000(1.09)50 1000

algebraically gives

50

50

1.09 1

(1.09)t =

50 ln 1.09

1.09 50 1

50 ln 1.09

= ln (1.0950 1) ln 50 ln (ln 1.09)

t ln 1.09 = ln

as [1, 2].

The conclusion is true if the instantaneous

velocity, d (t), ever equals the average velocity.

The average velocity equals

d (2) d ( 0)

m=

= 28.5 ft/s for [0, 2],

2

d (2) d (0.5)

m=

= 57.111K ft/s for [0.5, 2],

1.5

d (2) d (1)

m=

= 100 ft/s for [1, 2].

1

Between t = 0 and t = 1, d (t) is negative.

Above t = 1, d (t) = 200t 2.

For d(c) = 28.5 ft/s,

200c 2 = 28.5 c = 2.649 .

But 2.649 is outside (0, 2), so the conclusion

is not true. See the left graph.

For d (c) = 57.111 ft/s,

200c 2 = 57.111 c = 1.871 .

Because 1.871 is in (0.5, 2), the conclusion is

true. See the right graph.

d (t )

d (t )

200

200

c is outside

(0, 2).

c is in

(0.5, 2).

100

100

t

0.5

c?

t

0.5

c? 2

Because 1.414 is in (1, 2), the conclusion is

true, as is guaranteed by the mean value theorem.

The fact that the conclusion is true when the

hypotheses are met illustrates the fact that the

hypotheses are sufficient. The fact that the

conclusion can be true even if the hypotheses are

not met proves that the hypotheses are not

necessary.

13. See Figure 5-5d.

14. Answers may vary.

ln 1.09

= 32.893K years.

f (x )

t=

x

a

1 t

43 1 + t , if t 1

12. d (t ) =

1

200 1 , if t 1

t

apply on any interval that contains t = 1 as an

interior point, such as [0, 2] and [0.5, 2], because

d is not differentiable there. The hypotheses do

apply on any interval not containing 1 and on

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x )

f (x )

d

x

a

89

f (x )

f (x )

f (x )

5

x

1

x

a

Sources will vary.

19. f (x) = x 2 4x

20. f (x) = x 2 6x + 5

f (1) = 3 0

f (2) = 3 0

Conclusion is not true. Conclusion is not true.

f (2) = 0, but 2 is not

f (3) = 0, but 3 is not

in the interval (0, 1).

in the interval (1, 2).

f (x )

f (x )

x

0

f is not differentiable

at x = 3.

Conclusion is

not true.

f (x) never equals 0.

x 3 6 x 2 + 11x 6

x2

f is not continuous or

differentiable at 2.

Conclusion is

not true.

There is no point at x = 2

to draw the tangent line.

f (x )

f (x )

2

1

3

1

21. f (x) = x 4x

22.

f (2) = 4 0

Conclusion is not true.

f (2) = 0, but 2 is not in

the open interval (0, 2).

2

f (x) = x 6x + 5

f (4) = 3 0

Conclusion is true.

f (3) = 0, and 3 is in

the interval (1, 4).

f (x )

f (x )

1

c

1

x

4

23. f (x) = x 2 4x

f (3) = 3 0

24. f (x) = |x 2| 1

f is not differentiable

at x = 2.

Conclusion is true.

Conclusion is not

true.

f (2) = 0, and 2 is in

f (x) never equals 0.

the interval (0, 3).

c

x 3 7 x 2 + 13 x 6

x2

( x 2)( x 2 5 x + 3)

=

= x 2 5 x + 3, x 2

x2

Thus, g is discontinuous at x = 2, and the

hypotheses of the mean value theorem are not

met. The conclusion is not true for [1, 3],

because the tangent line would have to contain

(2, g (2)), as shown in the left graph. The

conclusion is true for (1, 5), because the slope of

the secant line is 1, and g (x) = 1 at x = 3, which

is in the interval (1, 5). See the right graph.

29. g( x ) =

g (x )

g (x )

3

1

x

3

x

3

x

1

f (0) does not exist.

Conclusion is

not true.

90

No point of

tangency

f (x )

f (x )

f is discontinuous at

1 and 2.

Conclusion is

not true.

h is differentiable for all x 0.

h (0) would be 0 1/3 = 1/(01/3) = 1/0, which is

infinite. The hypotheses of the mean value

theorem are met on the interval [0, 8], because

the function need not be differentiable at an

endpoint. The hypotheses are not met on [ 1, 8],

because the point x = 0 where h is not

differentiable is in the open interval ( 1, 8). To

see if the conclusion of the mean value theorem

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(see next graph).

4 1

m=

= 1/3

8 (1)

The tangent line has slope h (c) = 1/3. Therefore,

(2/3)c 1/3 = 1/3 c 1/3 = 1/2 c1/3 = 2 c = 8.

So the conclusion of the mean value theorem is

not true because 8 is at the endpoint of the

interval, not in the open interval ( 1, 8).

The graph agrees with Figure 5-5l.

b. f (x) = 2(x 5) 4 sin 2 (x 5) 2 =

2x + 10 8 sin 2 (x 5) f (5) = 0

Because the derivative at x = 5 is 0, the

tangent line at x = 5 is horizontal. This is

consistent with x = 5 being a high point on

the graph.

c.

h(x)

m (x )

y1

4

20

y2

x

4

x

1

3 x 3, if x 3

31. a. f ( x ) =

x + 3, if x < 3

f (x )

x

3

left limits both equal 6. f is not differentiable

at x = 3 because the left limit of f (x) is 1

and the right limit is 3.

c. f is not differentiable at x = 3, which is in (1, 6).

The secant line has slope 11/5. The tangent line

has slope either 1 or 3, and thus is never 11/5.

d. f is integrable on [1, 6]. The integral equals

41.5, the sum of the areas of the two trapezoids

shown in this diagram.

15

f (x )

6

4

x

1

t = number of hours driven

For the mean value theorem to apply on

[a, b], f must be differentiable on (a, b) and

continuous at t = a and t = b.

b. The 60 mi/h equals the slope of the secant

line. Therefore, there must be a tangent line

at some value t = c in (a, b) with slope equal

to 60. This tangent lines slope is the

instantaneous speed at t = c. Therefore, the

speed was exactly 60 at some time between

t = a and t = b, Q .E.D .

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

m (x)

3.0

2

3.5

6.8333

4.0

1

4.5 16.5

5.0

no value

m (x)

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

16.5

1

6.833

2

less than 5 and negative when x is greater

than 5.

d. In the proof of Rolles theorem, the left limit

of the difference quotient was shown to be

positive or zero and the right limit was

shown to be negative or zero.

The unmentioned hypothesis is

differentiability on the interval (a, b). The

function f is differentiable. Because there is a

value of f (5), both the left and right limits

of the difference quotient must be equal. This

number can only be zero, which establishes

the conclusion of the theorem. The

conclusion of Rolles theorem can be true

even if the hypotheses arent met. For

instance, f (x) = 2 + cos x has zero derivatives

every units of x, although f (x) is never

equal to zero.

f ( 4.5) f (2) 5.5 4

=

= 0.6

2.5

2.5

g (x) 4 = 0.6(x 2)

g (x) = 0.6x + 2.8

Your graph should agree with Figure 5-5m.

b. f (x) = 1 sin x

Using the solver feature, f (c) = 0.6 at

c = 2.0406 , 2.9593 , and 4.0406 ,

all of which are in (2, 4.5).

34. a. m =

91

f (c) g (c) = 0

f (c) = g (c)

f (c) = the slope of the secant line, Q.E.D.

35. The hypotheses of the mean value theorem

state that f should be differentiable on the open

interval (a, b) and continuous at x = a and x = b.

If f is differentiable on the closed interval [a, b],

it is automatically continuous at x = a and x = b,

because differentiability implies continuity.

36. a. h (x) = f (x) g (x)

The mean value theorem applies to h because

both f and g are given to be differentiable, and

a linear combination of differentiable

functions is also differentiable.

b. By the mean value theorem, there is a number

c in (a, b) for which

y

y

y1

x

2

y3

For c1 = 2.0406 :

x

h(x)

1.7906

1.8406

1.8906

1.9406

1.9906

2.0406

2.0906

2.1406

2.1906

2.2406

2.2906

0.2925

0.1865

0.1022

0.0411

0.0041

0.0081

0.0039

0.0397

0.0977

0.1760

0.2723

x

2.7093

2.7593

2.8093

2.8593

2.9093

2.9593

3.0093

3.0593

3.1093

3.1593

3.2093

h( b ) h( a )

.

ba

If f (a) = g (a) + D1 and f (b) = g (b) + D2,

then h (a) = D1 and h (b) = D2.

D D1

h ( c ) = 2

ba

c. If D1 D2, then h (c) 0.

But h (x) = f (x) g (x) by the derivative of

a sum, and thus h (x) = 0 for all x in the

domain.

h (c) = 0, which contradicts h (c) 0.

So the supposition that D1 D2 is false,

meaning that D1 and D2 are equal, Q.E.D.

h ( c ) =

h(x)

h(x)

1.3274

1.4237

1.5021

1.5601

1.5959

1.6081

1.5958

1.5589

1.4979

1.4136

1.3077

3.7906

3.8406

3.8906

3.9406

3.9906

4.0406

4.0906

4.1406

4.1906

4.2406

4.2906

0.5075

0.6134

0.6977

0.7588

0.7958

0.8081

0.7960

0.7602

0.7022

0.6239

0.5276

integral), g( x ) = 0 dx if and only if g (x) = 0.

from g (x) by a constant. Thus the antiderivative

of zero is a constant function, Q.E.D.

38. f (x) = (cos x + sin x)2, and g (x) = sin 2x

y

f

1

x

1

So h(c1) is an upper bound for h(x).

h (c2) = h (2.9593) = 1.60811669

So h (c2) is a lower bound for h (x).

h (c3) = h (4.0406) = 0.808116698

So h (c3) is an upper bound for h (x).

d. f meets the hypotheses of the mean value

theorem, because f is differentiable for all x.

h (x) = f (x) g (x)

h (x) = f (x) g (x)

h (c) = f (c) g (c)

For each of the values of c in part b, h (c) = 0.

92

f (x)

g (x)

0

1

2

3

4

1

1.9092

0.2431

0.7205

1.9893

0

0.9092

0.7568

0.2794

0.9893

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Proof:

(cos x + sin x) = cos x + 2 cos x sin x + sin x

= 2 cos x sin x + 1 = sin 2x + 1, Q .E .D .

39. The hypotheses of Rolles theorem say that f

is differentiable on the open interval (a, b).

Because differentiability implies continuity,

f is also continuous on the interval (a, b).

Combining this fact with the hypothesis of

continuity at a and at b allows you to conclude

that the function is continuous on the closed

interval [a, b].

40. The intermediate value theorem applies to

continuous functions, whereas the mean value

theorem applies to differentiable functions. Both

are existence theorems, concluding that there

is a value x = c in the open interval (a, b). For

the intermediate value theorem, f (c) equals a

pre-selected number v between f ( a) and f ( b).

For the mean value theorem, f (c) equals the

slope of the secant line connecting (a, f ( a))

and (b, f ( b)).

41. Answers will vary.

2

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

r(x) = m(x)

See the text for the definition of derivative.

Increasing at 6 units/unit

dy = sec x tan x dx

y = 8x(x 2 + 3)3

d2z/dz2 = 25 sin u

f (x) = 0

4.5

See Figure 5-5b.

E

1. a. I =

10 x

1.5

dx

= 20/3 + 20/2 = 10/3 = 3.33333

The +C and C add up to zero.

b.

y

x

9

for U5 and at right ends for L5.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f ( x)

1.25

0.89442719

0.68041381

0.53994924

0.44194173

Sum =

3.80673199

U5 = (1)(3.80673199) = 3.80673199

0.89442719

0.68041381

0.53994924

0.44194173

0.37037037

Sum =

f ( x)

2.92710236

L5 = (1)(2.92710236) = 2.92710236

Average = (U5 + L5)/2 = 3.36691717 .

Average overestimates the integral,

3.33333 .

This fact is consistent with the fact that the

graph is concave up.

d. Use sample points at the midpoints.

M10 = 3.32911229

M100 = 3.33329093

M1000 = 3.33333290

Sums are converging toward 10/3.

2. I =

1.5

= 0.92926279

Using sample points at the midpoints,

M10 = 0.93013455

k

2

M100 = 0.92927151

M1000 = 0.92926288

Integral = 0.92926279

The sums are converging toward the integral.

The rectangle and the region differ by the two

triangular regions. Because the sample point

is at the midpoint of the subinterval, the

triangles have equal bases. Because the graph

is concave down, the triangle below the

horizontal line has a larger altitude, and

thus a larger area, than the one above the line.

So the rectangle includes more area on the left

93

overestimates the integral.

y

Rectangle

includes

more area.

the text.

4. See the work in the text preceding the proof of

the fundamental theorem for a derivation of a

Riemann sum that is independent of the number

of subintervals.

5. See the text proof of the fundamental theorem.

6. If c is picked as the point in (a, b) where the

mean value theorem is true for g( x ) =

f ( x ) dx,

A(u + u) A(u)

< h(u + u)

u

But the limits of h(u) and h(u + u) both equal

h(u) because h is continuous and h(u) is

independent of u. Therefore, by the squeeze

theorem,

A(u + u) A(u)

lim

= h(u). But the limit on

u0

u

the left is defined to be dA/du.

dA/du = h(u), Q.E.D.

d. dA = h(u) du

A(u) = h(u) du = u1/2 du = (2/3)u3/2 + C

A(u) = (2/3)u3/2 16/3

e. A(9) = 12 23 , which agrees with M 10 = 12.667 .

(Note also that A(9) < M10, which is expected

because the graph of h is concave down.)

9. a. Answers may vary.

b. Answers may vary.

c. h(u) <

f (x )

f (x )

g(b) g( a)

(b a), which equals g(b) g(a).

(b a)

Distance =

[100 20(t + 1)

1/ 2

] dt

f (x )

f (x )

40

(t + 1)3/ 2

3

0

40 3/ 2

40 3/ 2

= 800

( 9) 0 +

(1)

3

3

1

= 453 ft

3

8. a. h(x) = x 1/2

= 100t

f (x )

f (x )

f ( x)

1

4.25

2.0615528

2

4.75

2.1794494

3

5.25

2.2912878

4

5.75

2.3979157

5

6.25

2.5

6

6.75

2.5980762

7

7.25

2.6925824

8

7.75

2.7838821

9

8.25

2.8722813

10

8.75

2.9580398

Sum =

25.3350679

M10 = (0.5)(25.3350679) = 12.66753

b. h(u)u and h(u + u)u are terms in a lower

sum and an upper sum, respectively, because

h(x) is increasing.

h(u)u < A(u + u) A(u) < h(u + u)u

94

Q1.

x6 + C

1

6

Q2.

Q3. 13 x 3 + C

Q5.

Q4.

sin 5 x + C

1

5

Q6. x + C

Q7. tan x + C

Q8. y = 1/x 2

Q9. definite

1.

2.

1

x dx = x 3

3

x 3 dx =

6

1

18 (3 x + 7) + C

6

1

6 sin x + C

1 4

x

4

1

5

2

Q10. indefinite

1

1

= (64) (1) = 21

3

3

=

1

1

609

1

(625) (16) =

= 152

4

4

4

4

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

4.

3

1

(1 + 3 x )3

2

9

2

1

1

= (1000) ( 125) = 125

9

9

(1 + 3 x )2 dx =

1

(5 x 2) dx = (5 x 2)3

1

15

60 x

2/3

6.

24 x

8.

3/ 2

10.

11.

50

dx = x

50

= 9.6(32 1) = 297.6

= 40 10 = 30

= 50 20 = 30

( x 2 + 3 x + 7) dx =

0

2

1 3

x + 2 x 2 + 10 x

3

3

= 0 (9 + 18 30) = 21

1

1 1

4 x + 5 dx =

( 4 x + 5)1/ 2 ( 4 dx )

1

4 1

( x 2 + 4 x + 10) dx =

1

2 x + 10 dx =

2

1

1

1

13

1

(27 1) =

=4

6

3

3

/2

15.

/3

/6

/ 2

6 cos x dx = 12 sin x

22.

23.

24.

/2

= 12(1) 0 = 12

2 dx

0

= 20 0 = 20

(cos x + 10 x 3 tan x ) dx = 2

1

0

cos x dx

0

interval.

26.

27. Integral = (area)

28. Integral = area

f (x )

f (x )

(sec x + cos x ) dx

/6

1 4 2

sin x

4

1

( x 7 6 x 3 + 4 sin x + 2) dx = 2

= 2 sin x

= tan x + sin x

= e ln 3 + e 0

0.2

= 2( 2 x )

= 6(1) 6( 1) = 12

/3

ln 3

0

1 2 ln 4 1 0

e

e = 7.5

2

2

0.2

1

cos 3 x dx = sin 3 x

0.1

3

0.1

1

= (sin 0.6 sin 0.3) = 0.0897074 K

3

0.4

0.4

1

sin 2 x dx = cos 2 x

0

2

0

1

= (cos 0.8 cos 0) = 0.1516466K

2

21.

25.

/2

symmetric limits.

1

(sin 4 2 sin 4 1) = 0.045566 K

4

3

3

1

20.

(1 + cos x ) 4 sin x dx = (1 + cos x )5

3

5

3

1

1

= (1 + cos 3)5 + [1 + cos(3)]5 = 0

5

5

or: Integral equals zero because an odd function is

integrated between symmetric limits.

(2 x + 10) (2 dx )

6 cos x dx = 6 sin x

/2

e x dx = e x

ln 4

sin 3 x cos x dx =

1/ 2

/ 2

14.

1 2x

e

2

e 2 x dx =

1

2

= +1 =

3

3

3

1 2

1

56

2

= (2 x + 10)3/ 2 = (64 8) =

= 18

2 3

3

3

3

3

13.

1 2

( 4 x + 5)3/ 2

4 3

ln 3

1

1 + 1 = 1.5

2

20

18.

/3

1 3 3 2

x + x + 7x

2

3

2

8

32

2

= 0 + 6 14 =

= 10

3

3

3

ln 4

5 dx = 5x

=

12.

17.

19.

= 36(32 1) = 1116

5/ 3

dx = 9.6 x 5/ 2

8

20

9.

7.

dx = 36 x

/3

=2

1

6175 1235

2

[5832 (343)] =

=

= 411

15

15

3

3

=

5.

16.

= 3 + 3 /2 1/ 3 1/2

-5

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

95

f (x )

39. Statement:

If f ( x) < g(x) for all x in [a, b],

f (x )

then

x

8

If

12

32.

f ( x ) dx =

g( x ) dx = g( x ) dx + g( x ) dx

a

= 12 + 13 = 25

34.

g( x ) dx.

a

g( x ) dx,

f ( x ) dx <

The converse can be shown to be false by any

counterexample in which the area of the region

under the g graph is greater than the area under

the f graph, but the g graph touches or crosses

the f graph somewhere in [a, b]. One

counterexample is

f ( x) = 1.5 and g(x) = 2 + cos x on [0, 2].

f ( x ) dx = 4(7) = 28

f ( x ) dx = 7

4 f ( x ) dx = 4

c

33.

f ( x ) dx <

Converse:

31.

y

3

f ( x ) dx cannot be determined.

35.

36.

f ( x ) dx +

g( x ) dx cannot be determined.

a

[ f ( x ) + g( x )] dx =

40.

f ( x ) dx +

g( x ) dx = 7 + 12 = 19

a

37.

y

x 2 dx =

1 3

x +C

3

4

1

1

1

= ( 4 3 ) + C (13 ) C = 21

3

3

The two Cs will always cancel, so it is not

necessary to write them.

f (3) = 7

7

y = f(x )

Q1. 30x2.4 + C

Q2. 30(42.4 1) = 805.72

y = f' (x)

x

5

10

Q3. y = 1/ 1 x 2

Q4. f (x) = 3x2 sin x + x3 cos x

Q5.

f (x ) and f' (x )

38.

f

y

8

f (1) = 8

f'

y = f (x )

Q7. Increasing at x = 7

x

7

y = f' ( x )

Q8. f ( a) = f ( b) = 0

Q9. v(9) = 450 ft/s

Q10. a(9) = 25 (ft/s)/s

96

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1. a.

3. a.

v

100

(x , y)

(t, v )

dx

50

dt

2

t

t=a

t=b

b. dA = y dx = 10e0. 2x dx

dy = v dt = (55 + 12t0.6 ) dt

b. Displacement =

1

(55 + 12t

0.6

(55 + 12t

c.

0.6

) dt

) dt = 55t + 7.5t

2

c.

(55 + 12t

0.6

(55 + 12t

0

55t

b

+ 7.5t 1.6 0

dx

= 300

y

300

x

4.134

e. v(4.13372) = 55 + 12(4.13372)0.6 =

83.1181 . At the end of the trip, you were

going about 83 mi/h.

2.

v

t

10

dy = v dt = 15e 0.1t dt

0

20

0

= 129.6997 ft

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

54. The area of the parabolic region is two-thirds

this area.

5. a. dA = [x + 2 (x2 2x 2)] dx

The top and bottom of the strip are not

horizontal, so the area of the strip is slightly

different from dA. As dx approaches zero, the

differences in height at different values of x in

the strip become smaller, so the difference

between dA and the area of the strip gets

smaller.

b. y1 = y2 x + 2 = x 2 2x 2

0 = x 2 3x 4 0 = (x 4)(x + 1)

x = 4 or x = 1

4

4

1

3

( x 2 + 3 x + 4) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 4 x

1

3

2

1

1 3 3 2

= 4 + 4 + 44

3

2

1

3

( 1)3 + ( 1)2 + 4 ( 1)

2

3

125

=

= 20.83333K

6

( t, v )

dv

1

1

(6 x x 2 ) dx = 3 x 2 x 3 = 3 6 2 6 3 = 36

0

3 0

3

b 4.13372 4.134 h

20

( x, y )

dA = (6x x2 ) dx

) dt = 300

1.6

10

dx = 24.59123K

2

0

0.6

0.2 x

4.

which equals the sum of the two integrals

above.

d.

= 50e 0.4 50

height 2 and bases 10 and y(2). y(2) =

14.9182 , so the area of the trapezoid is

2/2(10 + 14.9182) = 24.9182 .

2

0

1.6

10e

d.

= 55 + 7.5 0 0 = 62.5 mi

2

= 150e 2 + 150

97

6.

9. a.

y

( x, y )

20 (x, T )

dx

( x, y )

dx

0.5

dA = (cos x sin x) dx

/4

/4

c. D =

0.5

0.5

0

= 7.75482 7.75 degree-days

= 2 1

7. a.

D=

(x , F )

b. dW = F dx = 0.6x dx

0.5

0.6 x dx = 0.3 x 2

9

0

c. The region under F from x = 0 to x = 9 is a

triangle with base 9 and height F(9) = 5.4. So

the area is 1/2 9 5.4 = 24.3.

d. dW is found by multiplying F by dx. F is

measured in pounds, and dx is measured in

inches, so the units of dW are

(pounds)(inches), or inch-pounds.

1

0.5

= 12.24517 12.25 degree-days

The total number of degree-days is

D = 7.75482 + 12.24517 =

20 degree-days.

Note that this answer can be found more

easily by observing that in one full cycle of a

sinusoid, there is just as much area above the

sinusoidal axis, T = 20, as there is below it.

So the average temperature difference for the

day is 20 degrees, making the number of

degree-days for one day equal to 20.

x

0

dx

W=

x

1

10. a.

C

1000

8.

F

dT

( x, F )

30

10

dx

30

dH = C dT

= (0.016T 3 + 0.678T 2 + 7.45T + 796) dT

dW = 50 cos

10

50 cos

x dx

20

1000

x dx =

sin

x

20

20

H=

10

0

1000

1000

1000

sin

sin 0 =

2

= 318.3098

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives

318.313 , which is close to the answer found

using integration.

=

98

30

10

(0.016T 3 + 0.678T 2

+ 7.45T + 796) dT

= 0.004T 4 + 0.226T 3 + 3.725T 2

30

+ 796T 10 = 3240 + 6102 + 3352.5

+ 23880 + 40 226 372.5 7960

= 21,576 Btu

b. (2000)(21576) = 43,152,000 Btu

The property is the integral of a constant

2005 Key Curriculum Press

30

10

2000

y = x 2 + 6x 5 = (x 1) ( x 5) = 0 x = 1,

5, which confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (y 0) dx = (x2 + 6x 5) dx

2000C dT =

30

C dT .

10

11. a.

A=

(x , P )

1000

dx

x

100

200

1

( x 2 + 6 x 5) dx = x 3 + 3 x 2 5 x

3

C=

100

(x, y )

6

and x = 3.

y = x 2 x 6 = (x + 2)(x 3) = 0 x = 2,

3, which confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (0 y) dx = (x2 + x + 6) dx

A=

0.02(1003) = 150000

200

P dx =

100

P dx +

1

1

( x 2 + x + 6) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 6 x

2

3

2

9

8

5

+ 18 2 + 12 = 20

2

3

6

(x , y )

(0, y )

100

x

2

and y = 4.

x = (y 1) ( y 4) = 0 y = 1, 4, which

confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (0 x) dy = (y 1) ( y 4) =

(y2 + 5y 4) dy

A=

=

5

1

5

( y 2 + 5 y 4) dy = y 3 + y 2 4 y

3

2

y

(x, y )

x

(x, 0)

64

1 5

1

+ 40 16 + + 4 = 4

3

3 2

2

(0, y )

P dx,

16.

(x , y )

15.

200

y

4

= 9 +

the same integrand applies.

12. Using trapezoids, the area is approximately

10(0/2 + 38 + 50 + 62 + 60 + 55 + 51 + 30 +

3/2) = 3475 ft2. The fundamental theorem cannot

be used because the function is specified only by

data, not by an equation whose antiderivative can

be found.

Plan of attack for area problems:

Do geometry to get dA in terms of sample

point (x, y).

Do algebra to get dA in terms of one variable.

Do calculus to sum the dAs and take the limit

(i.e., integrate).

13.

200

100

Thus,

x

3

= 100b + 0.02b 3 0 0

C = 100b + 0.02b3

c. b = 100: C = 100(100) + 0.02(1003) =

$30,000

b = 200: C = 100(200) + 0.02(2003) =

$180,000

For 100 m to 200 m, the cost should be

180,000 30,000 = $150,000.

As a check,

200

(x, 0)

125

1

2

+ 75 25 + 3 + 5 = 10

3

3

3

14.

b. dC = P dx = (100 + 0.06x ) dx

5

1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

99

and y = 5.

x = 5 + 4y y 2 = (1 + y) ( 5 y) = 0 y =

1, 5, which confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (x 0) dy = (5 + 4y y2) dy

A=

1

(5 + 4 y y 2 ) dy = 5 y + 2 y 2 y 3

1

3

= 25 + 50

0.5x 2 + 2x = x 2 + 2x + 6 1.5x 2 = 6 x =

2, 2, which confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (y2 y1) dx = (1.5x2 + 6) dx

A=

(1.5 x 2 + 6) dx = 0.5 x 3 + 6 x

2

2

= 4 + 12 4 + 12 = 16

20.

125

1

+ 5 2 = 36

3

3

17.

5

(x, y1 )

(x, y2)

2

0

(x, y2 )

x

4

0.2x 2 + 3 = x 2 4x + 3 0.8x 2 4x = 0

0.8x(x 4) = 0 x = 0, 5, which confirms the

graphical solution.

dA = (y1 y2) dx = (0.8x2 + 4x) dx

(x, y1 )

x 2 2x 2 = x + 2 x 2 3x 4 = 0 x =

1, 4, which confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (y2 y1) dx = (x2 + 3x + 4) dx

A=

1

3

( x 2 + 3 x + 4) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 4 x

3

2

A=

4

1

64

1 3

5

=

+ 24 + 16 + 4 = 20

3

3 2

6

(0.8 x 2 + 4 x ) dx =

4 3

x + 2x2

15

5

0

500

2

+ 50 + 0 0 = 16

15

3

21.

18.

y

y

(x, y1 )

10

2

(x, y1)

x

0

2

(x, y2 )

2x + 7 = x 2 4x 1 x 2 2x 8 = 0

(x + 2)(x 4) = 0 x = 2, 4, which confirms

the graphical solution.

dA = (y1 y2) dx = (x2 + 2x + 8) dx

A=

1

( x 2 + 2 x + 8) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 8 x

2

3

(x , y 2 )

dA = (y1 y2) dx = (2e0. 2x cos x) dx

A=

22.

(x, y2 )

64

8

=

+ 16 + 32 4 + 16 = 36

3

3

(x, y1 )

19.

(x , y 2 )

( x, y1 )

x

2

A=

0

2

100

2005 Key Curriculum Press

23.

A=

( x 3 3 x 2 + 4) dx =

1 4

x x3 + 4x

4

2

1

= 48+8

(x 1 , y )

( x 2 , y)

1

3

1+ 4 = 6

4

4

26.

x

2

Write y = x + 3 as x = y 3.

y 3 = y 2 + 6y 7 y 2 5y + 4 = 0

(y 1)(y 4) = 0 y = 1, 4, which confirms

the graphical solution.

dA = (x2 x1) dy = (y2 + 5y 4) dy

A=

( y

1

5

+ 5 y 4) dy = y 3 + y 2 4 y

3

2

4

1

64

1 5

1

+ 40 16 + + 4 = 4

3

3 2

2

24.

5

(x1 , y)

(x2 , y)

x

1

(0.25 y 2 + 6.25) dy =

1 3 25

y +

y

12

4

2

+

+

= 41

12

4

12

4

3

5

5

x 2/3 = (x + 1)1/2 + 1 x = 1, 8 numerically,

which confirms the graphical solution.

Or x2/ 3 1 = (x + 1)1/ 2 (x2/ 3 1)2 = x + 1.

Write t = x1/ 3, so (t2 1)2 = t3 + 1

t4 t3 2t2 = t2(t + 1)(t 2) = 0

t = 0, 1, 2 x = t3 = 0, 1, 8.

But x = 0 is extraneous from the irreversible step

of squaring both sides. So x = 1, 8.

dA = (y 2 y 1) dx = [(x + 1)1/2 + 1 x 2/3] dx

Write y = 2x 1 + 11 as x 1 = 5.5 0.5y.

5.5 0.5y = 0.25y 2 0.5y 0.75

0.25y2 = 6.25 y = 5, 5, which confirms the

graphical solution.

dA = (x1 x2) dy = (0.25y2 + 6.25) dy

5

(x, y1 )

A=

A=

(x, y2 )

2

[( x + 1)1/ 2 + 1 x 2 / 3 ] dx

2

3

( x + 1)3/ 2 + x x 5/ 3

3

5

8

1

96

3

1

0 +1 = 7

5

5

5

27. Wanda: You can always tell the right way

because the altitude of the strip should be

positive. This will happen if you take

(larger value) minus (smaller value). In this case,

if you slice vertically, its line minus curve

(see graph).

= 18 + 8

y

line

25.

y

4

curve

x

(x , y1 )

x

1

(x , y 2 )

x 3 4x = 3x 2 4x 4 x 3 3x 2 + 4 =

(x + 1) ( x 2)2 = 0 x = 1, 2, which

confirms the graphical solution.

dA = (y1 y2) dx = (x3 3x2 + 4) dx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

the right answer. Note that if you slice

horizontally, it would be curve minus line.

28. a. Peter: Horizontal slicing would be awkward

because for some values of y the length of the

strip would be given by line minus curve, but

in others it would be boundary minus curve,

and yet elsewhere it would be curve minus

curve. If you use vertical slices, the length

101

altitude is 7 times as much.

A = (2)(1/5)(7) = 2.8

(See graphs.)

y

y

(x, y1)

31.

x

8

(x, y2 )

(x, y 2)

(x, y1 )

be positive. Because y2 is negative, you will

get (pos.) (neg.), which is equivalent to

(pos.) + (pos.). Thus, the altitude for the strip

is positive.

x

3

dA = (y2 y1) dx = (x2 + x + 6) dx

29.

A=

y

(x, ah2)

1

1

( x 2 + x + 6) dx = x 3 + x 2 + 6 x

2

3

2

3

2

9

8

5

+ 18 2 + 12 = 20 = 20.8333K

2

3

6

R 10 = 20.9375

R100 = 20.834375

R1000 = 20.83334375

The Riemann sums seem to be approaching the

exact answer.

= 9 +

x

h

h

(x , y )

x = h to x = h and a strip from the graph to a

horizontal line at y = ah2.

dA = (ah2 y) dx = (ah2 ax2) dx

h

h

1

A = ( ah 2 ax 2 ) dx = 2 ah 2 x ax 3

0

h

3

1

4

= 2 a h 3 h 3 = ah 3

3 3

Area of rectangle = 2h(ah2) = 2ah3

area of region

( 4/3)ah 3 2

=

= , Q. E . D .

area of rectangle

2 ah 3

3

2

The graph shows y = 67 0.6x and the line

y = 7, with a circumscribed rectangle.

32.

t (x )

67

sin x dx = cos x

= ( 1) + 1 = 2, which

is a rational number.

y

1

y = cos x

t(x) = 1 + cos x

t(x) = 0 cos x = 1

x = + 2 n = , , 3 , 5 ,

t(x) is never negative, so t(x) does not change

signs. These points are plateau points.

Q1.

1 3 1 2

x + x + x+C

3

2

Q3. y =

2 1/ 3

x

3

Q2.

4 7/4

x +C

7

1

Q4. e 3 x + C

3

Q5. csc x + C

Q6. x 1

Q9.

Q10.

7 y

y = 7 cos 5x

(x, y )

102

7 = 67 0.6x 2 0.6x 2 = 60 x = 10

Rectangle has width 10 (10) = 20 and length

67 7 = 60. Area of region = 23 (20)(60) = 800.

30. dA = sin x dx

y=7

A=

10

x

x

/10

/10

x

1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Do geometry to get dV in terms of sample

point (x, y).

Do algebra to get dV in terms of one variable.

Do calculus to add up the dVs and take the limit

(i.e., integrate).

1. a. dV = x 2 dy

y = 9 x2 x2 = 9 y

dV = (9 y) dy

V=

( 4 x x 2 )2 dx =

(16 x

16

1

= x3 2x4 + x5

3

5

8 x 3 + x 4 ) dx

= 30.6 = 96.132

96.1341 , which is close to the answer found

using integration.

5. y = x 1.5 is rotated about the x-axis.

y

27

b. V =

(9 y) dy = (9 y 0.5y )

= 127.2345

(x, y )

= 254.4690 . Half of this is 127.2345 ,

equal to the volume of the paraboloid.

2. dV = x2 dy

y = 10 2x x = 5 0.5y

dV = (5 0.5y)2 dy

V=

10

dV = y 2 dx = x3 dx

2

(5 0.5 y)2 dy = (5 0.5 y)3

3

10

0

2

2

250

= (0) + (125) =

= 261.7993

3

3

3

1

1

V cylinder = r2h, so of that is V = r 2 h.

3

3

1

Here, r = 5 and h = 10, so V = (52 )(10) =

3

250

, as found by integrating.

3

3. a. dV = y 2 dx = (3e 0.2 x)2 dx = 9 e 0.4 x dx

5

b.

9e

0.4x

dx = 22.5e 0.4x

(x, y )

x

1

dV = y 2 dx = (4x x2)2 dx

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x 3 dx =

1 4

x

4

= 1640 = 5152.2119

y

1

(x, y )

dV = x 2 dy = e2y dy

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives

61.1185 , which is close to the answer

found using integration.

c. Slice perpendicular to the axis of rotation, so

slice vertically if rotating about the x-axis and

horizontally if rotating about the y-axis.

4. y = 4x x2 is rotated about the x-axis.

y

V=

V=

e 2 y dy =

2y

e

2

1

0

2

(e 1) = 10.0359K

2

y

8

(x, y )

1

x

1

16

dV = x 2 dy = y 8/3 dy

8

8

3

6141

V = y 8/3 dy = y11/3 =

1

11

11

1

= 1753.8654

8. y = x14 and y = 8x2, intersecting at (0, 0) and

(2, 16), are rotated about the y-axis. Area of cross

section is x12 x 22 .

103

x 1 = y 1/ 4, and x 2 =

1

y

8

dV =

1 2

dy = y1/2

y dy

64

V=

16

( x12

x 22 )

(x 1 , y )

1 2

y1/2

y dy

64

2

1 3

= y 3/2

y

3

192

16

64

= 67.0206 K

3

0

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives V

67.0341 , which is close to the answer found

using integration.

9. y1 = e0.4 x and y2 = x + 1, from x = 0 to x = 3, are

rotated about the x-axis.

Area of cross section is y22 y12 .

dV = ( y22 y12 ) dx = [( x + 1) 2 e 0.8 x ] dx

3

[( x + 1)

V=

(x2 , y)

e 0.8 x ] dx

1

= ( x + 1)3 1.25e 0.8 x

3

64

1

= 1.25e 2.4 + 1.25

3

3

= (22.25 1.25e 2.4 ) = 26.6125 ft 3

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives

V = 26.6127 , which is close to the answer

found using integration.

10. y1 = x1/3 and y2 = 10e 0.1 x are rotated about the

x-axis. Only the back half of the solid is shown.

x

1

dV = ( x 22 x12 ) dy = [( 4 y) ( 4 y) 2 ] dy

= (y2 + 7y 12) dy

V=

( y

+ 7 y 12) dy

1

7

= y 3 + y 2 12 y

3

4

3

64

63

=

+ 56 48 + 9

+ 36

3

2

1

= = 0.523598

6

12. y = ax2 x = (y/a)1/2, from (0, 0) to (r, h), is

rotated about the y-axis.

y

h

(x, y )

x

r

dV = x 2 dy = (y/a) dy = ( /a)y dy

h

h

1

1

V = ( /a) y dy = ( /a) y 2 = ( /a)(h) 2 0

0

2

2

0

y

10

(x, y2)

(x, y1)

x

8

V=

(100e

0.2 x

= ( 500e

= ( 500e

x ) dx

(x, y )

0.6 x )

5/3

+ 480.8) = 1193.3394

11. y = 4 x 1 x 1 = 4 y, and y = 4 x 22 x2 =

4 y , intersecting at x = 0 and x = 1, are

rotated about the y-axis. Only the back half of

the solid is shown.

104

y

2

2/3

0.2 x

1.6

1

1

V = ( /a)( ar 2 )2 = ar 4

2

2

Volume of circumscribed cylinder is

V c = r2h = r2(ar2) = ar4.

Thus, the volume of the paraboloid is half the

volume of the circumscribed cylinder, Q.E.D.

13. a. y = 0.3x1.5 is rotated about the x-axis.

dV = y 2 dx = (0.3x1.5 )2 dx = (0.09x3) dx

V=

(0.09 x 3 ) dx = 0.0225x 4

4

0

= 5.76 = 18.09557

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. R10 = 5.7312

R100 = 5.75971

R1000 = 5.7599971

Values are getting closer to V = 5.76.

14. y = 4 x 2 x = (4 y)1/2 dy

Inner radius is 3 x; outer radius is 3.

dV = [32 (3 x)2] dy

= {9 [3 (4 y)1/2]2} dy

= [6(4 y)1/2 4 + y] dy

V=

[6(4 y)

1/2

x 2 )2 dx

2/5

2 x 11/ 5 + x 4 ) dx

5

5

1

= x 7/5 x 16/5 + x 5

7

8

5

=

0

81

= 0.2892 K

280

of edge 2x, where (x, y) is a sample point on the

line in the xy-plane.

15

y

y = (15/4)x + 15

(x, y)

= (0 16 + 8 + 32 + 0 0) = 24

= 75.3982

15. y = 4 x2 is rotated about the line y = 5. Only

the back half of the solid is shown.

y

(x, y )

1/ 5

4 + y] dy

= [ 4( 4 y)3/2 4 y + 0.5 y 2 ]

(x

= (x

V=

x

4

Equation of line is

15

4

y = x + 15 x = 4 y.

4

15

2

4

2

dV = (2 x ) dy = 4 4 y dy

15

2

1

= 64 1 y dy

15

y = 5

15

= [(9 x2)2 52] dx = (56 18x2 + x4) dx

V=

(56 18x

+ x 4 ) dx

= (56 x 6 x 3 + 0.2 x 5 )

2

0

= (112 48 + 6.4 0 + 0 0)

= 70.4 = 221.168

16. Cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are

squares with side length (y2 y1). The curves

intersect at (0, 0) and (1, 1).

(1 0.08x

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

+ 0.0016 x 4 ) dx

0.08 3 0.0016 5

= x

x +

x

3

5

3 15

= 320 cm3

The circumscribed rectangular box has volume

l w h = 8 8 15 = 960 = 3V, so the pyramid

is 1/3 the volume of the circumscribed rectangular

solid, Q.E.D.

The volume of a pyramid is one-third the volume

of the circumscribed rectangular box, just as the

volume of a cone is one-third the volume of the

circumscribed cylinder.

18. Center line: y = 0.2x2

Upper bound: y = 0.16x2 + 1

Radius of circular cross section is 1 0.04x2.

The tip of the horn is where 0.2x2 = 0.16x2 + 1

with x 0, which is at x = 5.

dV = (1 0.04x2)2 dx

= (1 0.08x2 + 0.0016x4) dx

V=

1

1

64 1 y dy = 320 1 y

15

15

5

0

10

= 5 + 1 0 + 0 0

3

8

= = 8.3775 8.4 cm 3

3

Problem Set 5-9

105

19. a. y = x 0.6

Pick sample point (x, y) on the curve within

the slice. One leg of the isosceles triangle is

y, so the other leg is also equal to y.

1

1

dV = y 2 dx = x 1.2 dx

2

2

b. V =

1 1.2

1 2.2 4

1

x dx =

x

=

4 2.2 0

2

4.4

4

.

4

0

= 4.7982

The midpoint Riemann sum R100 gives

4.7981 , which is close to the answer found

using integration.

c. If the cross sections were squares, they would

have twice the area of the triangles, so dV

1

would be twice as much and V =

4 2.2 =

2.2

9.5964 .

20. y = ex, y = 3, and x = 0. Cross sections

perpendicular to the x-axis are rectangles with

height equal to 4 times the base. Each base has

length (3 y).

60

1

2b

1

1

3

bh dx = ( y2 y1 )

( y2 y1 ) dx

2

2

2

3

3

=

( y2 y1 )2 dx =

(2 x 2 x 2 )2 dx

4

4

3

=

(2 2 x 2 )2 dx

4

1 3

V=

(2 2 x 2 )2 dx

0 4

3 1

=

( 4 8 x 2 + 4 x 4 ) dx

4 0

3

8

4 1

=

4x x3 + x5

4

3

5 0

dV =

3

8 4

4 + 0+00

4

3 5

8 3

=

= 0.9237...

15

to the y-axis are rectangles with height equal to

1/2 the base. Each base has length x.

y

2

1

2b

= (3 e x )[ 4(3 e x )] dx = 4(3 e x )2 dx

V=

ln 3

4(3 e x )2 dx = 4

ln 3

(9 6e x + e 2x ) dx

ln 3

1

= 4 9 x 6e x + e 2x

2 0

1

1

= 4 9 ln 3 6 3 + 9 0 + 6

2

2

= 7.5500

21. y = x2 and y = 2 x2, intersecting at x = 1.

Cross sections perpendicular to the x-axis are

equilateral triangles. Each base has length (y2 y1).

y

1

dV = x 12 x dy = 12 x 2 dy

Solve y = ln x for x, to get x = e y.

dV = 12 (e y )2 dy = 12 e 2 y dy

V=

11

2

0

e 2 y dy =

b. The log has radius = 6, so the circle is

x2 + z2 = 36, or z = 36 x 2 = (36 x 2 )1/2 .

1

c. dV = y 2z dx = x 2(36 x 2)1/2 dx

2

= (36 x2)1/2 (x dx)

6

(36 x ) ( x dx )

1

= (36 x ) ( 2 x dx )

2

V=

2 1/2

can find that an equilateral triangle with

3

base b has height

b.

2

106

1 2y 1 1 2 1

e

= e = 1.5972 K

4

4

4

0

2 1/2

6

1 2

(36 x 2 )3/2 = 72 in.3

2 3

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

on the line running up the top surface, so the

h

line is y = x. The circle forming the boundary

r

for the bottom surface has radius = r and center

(0, 0) in xz-coordinates, so the circle is x2 + z2 =

r2, or z = r 2 x 2 . The slab at x = x0 is

hx

rectangular of height y = 0 , width

r

2 z = 2 r 2 x 02 , and thickness dx, so

2 hx 2

dV =

r x 2 dx, and

r

2h r

V=

x r 2 x 2 dx

r 0

h r 2

(r x 2 )1/ 2 ( 2 x dx )

=

r 0

r

2 h

2 h

= (r 2 x 2 )3/2 = (0 3/ 2 r 3 )

3 r

3 r

0

26 gives dV = x2 dy = (r2 y2) dy.

V=

1

(r 2 y 2 ) dy = r 2 y y 3

r

3

with sample points (x, y) and (x, z).

b

(x , y )

r2 2

x dx

h2

h

h

r 2 1

1

x 2 dx = 2 x 3 = r 2 h, Q .E.D .

0

h 3 0 3

dV = y 2 dx =

10

V=

(c/b)(b/a)2 ( a 2 x 2 ) dx

1

= (c/b)(b/a)2 a 2 x x 3

a

a

4

4

= (c/b)(b/a) a 3 = abc

3

3

Note that the volume formula for a sphere is a

special case of the volume formula for an

ellipsoid in which a = b = c = r, the radius of the

sphere.

2

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dV = (c/b)(b/a)2(a2 x2) dx

(100 y 2 ) dy

1

= 100 y y 3

3 10

1

1

= 1000 (1000) + 1000 (1000)

3

3

4

3

= (1000) cm

3

b. Formula: V = 43 r 3 = 43 10 3 = 43 (1000) cm3,

which agrees with the answer by calculus.

27. Sphere can be generated by rotating about the

y-axis the circle x2 + y2 = r2.

a

b

r 2

h2

26. a. Equation of circle in xy-plane is x 2 + y 2 = 100.

dV = x2 dy = (100 y2) dy

constant. Subtracting this term from both sides

of the equation gives an equation of the form

2

2

y + z = k 2 , where k2 = 1 (x/a)2.

b

c

Dividing both sides by k2 gives

2

2

y + z = 1. Thus, the y- and z-radii are

kb

kc

kb and kc, which have the original ratio b/c.

Therefore, each elliptical cross section is similar

to the ellipse at the yz-plane, Q.E.D.

dV = yz dx

Because z = (c/b)y, dV = (c/b)y2 dx.

The ellipse in the xy-plane (z = 0) has equation

V=

(x, z )

x

y

z

Equation of ellipsoid is + + = 1.

a

b

c

2 2

r h

3

25. A cone of radius r and altitude h can be generated

by rotating about the x-axis the line

r

y = x from x = 0 to h.

h

10

(x, y )

V=

x

c

1

1

4

= r 3 r 3 r 3 + r 3 = r 3, Q.E.D.

3

3 3

29.

50 + 2 L

L

y

50

107

cross section has length 50 + 2L yards, where

y

52

= tan (52) L = y cot (52) = y cot

.

L

180

1

So each slab is dV = 2 (50 + 2 L + 50) y dx;

52

dV = 50 y + y 2 cot

dx, and

180

19

V=

50 y

+ yk2 cot

k =0

7.

y

2

52

30

180

sin 2 x dx = 4.9348K

because we do not know an antiderivative for

sin 2 x.

Cost = 12 1,649,443.6 $19,793,324

8.

Q1.

1 3

x + x+C

3

Q2. 24

Q3.

sec

x dx = tan x + C

x

5

(ln x )

2

dx = 14.6673K

because we do not know an antiderivative for

(ln x)2.

9. a.

(t, v )

dt

Q8. d(disp) = v dt

Si x

Q9.

Q10. A

v dt

cos x dx 0.6899295233K

( x 3x + 5) dx = 13.5

2 dx 10.0988652K

tan x dx 1.76714178K

a

1.4

1.

0.3

4

2.

1

3

3.

20

0

1.4

4.

0.1

5.

1.4

0.3

cos x dx = sin x

1.4

0.3

0.6899295233

For the ten digits of the answer shown by

calculator, there is no difference between this

solution and the solution to Problem 1.

6.

1

3

( x 3 x + 5) dx = x 3 x 2 + 5 x

3

c. Answers will vary depending on the grapher

used. The TI-83 gives Si 0.6 = 0.58812881

using TRACE or 0.588128809608 using TABLE,

both of which are correct to as many decimal

places as the NBS values.

d. By TABLE, Si x seems to be oscillating between

about 1.53 and 1.61 when x is between 20

and 30. The limit is somewhere between

these two numbers, say about 1.57. The

actual limit is /2, which equals 1.570796 .

e.

Si x

1

3

= ( 4)3 ( 4)2 + 5( 4)

2

3

1

3

(1)3 (1)2 + 5(1) = 13.5

2

3

the solution to Problem 2.

108

20

x

20

20

and (as well as elsewhere), and has its

greatest values there, which agrees with the

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

region. Each place where the Si x graph has a

high or low point, the f ( x) graph has a zero,

corresponding to the zero slope of the Si x

graph. So f ( x) is the derivative of Si x.

2 x t2

10. a. erf x =

e dt

0

closer, because the graph is represented by

curved segments instead of straight ones.

12. (Data and CAT scans for this problem were

provided by Dr. James Stewart of San Antonio.)

integrated between symmetrical limits. Thus,

rather than using the entire interval [x, x],

one may find the integral on [0, x] and double

the result.

+ 4 33.9 + 2 15.8 + 4 6.1 + 2.3)

= (0.8/3)(643.5) = 171.6 cm3

b. The mass will be 171.6 g, which is within

the normal range of 150 to 200 g.

13. a.

b.

a.

y = erf x

Force (lb)

1

300

Distance (in.)

0.5

x

erf x

1

2

3

4

0.842700792

0.995322265

0.999977909

0.999999984

fraction of the data between x and x is

virtually 100% when x is beyond 4.

d. Answers will vary depending on the

grapher used. The TI-83 gives erf 0.5 =

0.52049987781 using TABLE, which is

correct to as many decimal places as the NBS

value.

e.

y = erf x

1

x

2

1 when x = 0 and decreases toward zero as x

increases, which agrees with the graph of f.

11. a.

12

(speed) dt [(2/60)/3](33 + 4 25 + 2 27

+ 4 13 + 2 21 + 4 5 + 9)

= (1/90)(310) = 3.444 3.4 nautical miles

b. T 6 = (1/30)(33 0.5 + 25 + 27 + 13 + 21 + 5

+ 9 0.5)

= (1/30)(112) = 3.7333 3.7 nautical miles

2005 Key Curriculum Press

W=

0.5

F dx

+ 2 370 + 4 330 + 2 290 + 4 280

+ 2 270 + 4 270 + 190)

= (0.05/3)(7970) = 132.8333

132.8 inch-pounds

14. Let C = heat capacity (Btu/lb mole)/F,

T = temperature (F), H = heat (Btu/lb-mole).

Approximate values of C to the nearest 0.02 are

from the given figure.

T

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Simpsons factor

8.44

9.24

10.08

10.84

11.48

11.98

12.36

12.68

12.94

1

4

2

4

2

4

2

4

1

4500

500

[8.44 + (9.24)( 4)

3

+ (10.08)(2) + (10.84)(4) + (11.48)(2)

+ (11.98)(4) + (12.36)(2)

+ (12.68)(4) + 12.94]

500

=

(268.18) = 44696.6666 K 44,697 Btu

3

The answers students get will vary slightly.

H=

500

C dT

109

answer because the function y = sin x is

approximated better by quadratic functions

than by straight lines.

b. S4 = (1/3)( /4)[sin 0 + 4 sin ( /4) +

2 sin (/2) + 4 sin (3 /4) + sin ] = 2.0045

T4 = (1/2)( /4)[sin 0 + 2 sin (/4) +

2 sin ( /2) + 2 sin (3 /4) + sin ] = 1.8961

sin x dx = cos x

2 x2

e . A Simpsons rule program

0.5204998778 . There is little difference

between the two estimations, and both are close

to the tabulated value.

19. a.

y

from t = 1 to t = x varies also.

Review Problems

= cos cos 0 = 2

approximation of the integral because S4 is

closer to 2 than is T4.

16. Programs will vary depending on the type of

grapher used. See the program in the Programs

for Graphing Calculators section of the

Instructors Resource Book.

17. Using a Simpsons rule program, the mass of the

spleen is 171.6 cm3.

18. Enter Y1 =

d. f (2) = 0.6931

f ( 3) = 1.0986

f ( 6) = 1.7917

f ( 2) + f ( 3) = f ( 2 3). This is a property of

logarithmic functions.

t0

.

0

approach does not work.

c. Graph Y1 = fnint(x 1, x, 1, x). (Entries may

be different for different calculators.) The

graph looks like y = ln x. The value of f (x)

is negative for x < 1 because for these values

the lower limit of integration is larger than the

upper limit, resulting in negative values for dx.

R1. a. The width of each region is 4. So

T3 = (4/2)[v(4) + 2v(8) + 2v(12) + v(16)] =

2[22 + 2(26.9705) + 2(30.7846) + 34] =

343.0206 . T3 underestimates the integral

because v(t) is concave down, so trapezoids

are inscribed under the curve.

b. R3 = 4[v(6) + v(10) + v(14)] = 4(24.6969 +

28.9736 + 32.4499) = 344.4821

This Riemann sum is close to the trapezoidalrule sum.

c. T50 = 343.9964 , and T100 = 343.9991

Conjecture: The exact value of the integral

is 344.

d. g ( t) = 10t + 4t1.5

g(16) g(4) = 344

This is the value the trapezoidal-rule sums are

approaching.

R2. a. The slope of the linear function is the same

as the slope of the curve at x = 1. So the

slope is

f ( x) = sin x f (x) = cos x

f ( 1) = cos =

At x = 1, y = sin = 0

y 0 = (x 1) l(x) = x +

y

l (x)

f (x)

x

1

f (x )

l (x )

0.2

0.8

1.2

x

5

close to the line l(x) for values near x = 1.

110

2005 Key Curriculum Press

[ ( 1.1) + ] = 0.0051

For x = 1.001, the error is sin [ ( 1.001)]

[(1.001) + ] = 5.1677 10 9 .

iii. M6 = 2.209073

iv. T6 = 2.359018

d. U6

L6

5

iii. y = (7 3x)4 dy = 12(7 3x)3 dx

x

0.2

iv. y = 5e 0. 3x dy = 1.5e 0. 3x dx

M6

1

v. y = ln (2 x ) dy =

4(2 x )3 2 dx

(2 x ) 4

4

1

dy = 4

2 dx = 4/x dx

2x

c. i. dy = sec x tan x dx y = sec x + C

1

ii. dy = (3 x + 7)5 dx y = (3 x + 7)6 + C

18

iii. dy = 5 dx y = 5x + C

iv. dy = 0.2e 0.2 x y = e 0.2 x + C

v. dy = 6 x dx y =

6x

+C

ln 6

ii. x = 10 and dx = 0.3

dy = 25 1/2 0.3 = 0.06

iii. y = (2 10.3 + 5)1/2 (2 10 + 5)1/2

= 0.059644

iv. 0.06 is close to 0.059644 .

R3. a. See the text for the definition of indefinite

integral.

b. i.

12 x

ii.

sin

iii.

(x

iv.

12e

v.

7 dx = ln 7 + C

2/3

dx = 7.2 x 5/3 + C

x cos x dx =

1

sin 7 x + C

7

8 x + 3) dx =

3x

1 3

x 4 x 2 + 3x + C

3

dx = 4e 3x + C

7x

b. See the text for the definition of definite

integral.

c.

1.4

sec x dx

0.2

i. U6 = 2.845333

ii. L6 = 1.872703

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1.4

0.2

1.4

T6

x

0.2

1.4

x

0.2

1.4

e.

y

f (x)

and the conclusion is the then part. (Hypomeans under, and -thesis means theme.)

b. d (t ) = 20 + 3 sin t

4

d (2) d ( 0)

Average velocity =

= 1.5 m/s

20

4

4

4

c = 1.12132 1.12 s

c. g(x) = x 4/3 4x 1/3 = x 1/3(x 4)

g(x) = 0 x = 0 or x = 4. Interval is [0, 4].

g(x) = (4/3)x1/3 (4/3)x 2/3 = (4/3)x 2/3(x 1)

g(c) = 0 c = 1

At x = 0, g(0) takes the form 1/0, which is

infinite.

Thus, g is not differentiable at x = 0.

However, the function need not be

differentiable at the endpoints of the interval,

just continuous at the endpoints and

differentiable at interior points.

d. For a function to be continuous on a closed

interval, the limit needs to equal the function

value only as x approaches an endpoint from

within the interval. This is true for function f

111

at x = 2. The graphs show that the conclusion

of the mean value theorem is true for f but

not for g.

f (x )

b.

x

c

g (x )

(10 x 2 ) dx = 10 x (1/3) x 3

No tangent

parallels

secant

R7. a. i.

Secant

x 2 dx = x 1 = 5 1 + 11 = 4/5

1

4

(x

ii.

x

2

c. T100 = 30.6656, which is close to 92/3.

d. M 10 = 30.72

M 100 = 30.6672

M 1000 = 30.666672

These Riemann sums are approaching 92/3.

Secant

= 12.4, which is the exact value of the

integral.

.

Point c = 4.4825 .)

e. g is the linear function containing the points

(a, f (a)) and (b, f (b)). h is the function h (x) =

f ( x) g(x). Thus, h(a) = h ( b) = 0, satisfying

one hypothesis of Rolles theorem. The other

two hypotheses are satisfied because f and g

are differentiable and continuous at the

appropriate places, and a difference of

differentiable and continuous functions also

has these properties. The c in (a, b) for which

h(c) = 0 turns out to be the c in (a, b) for

which f (c) equals the slope of the secant line,

g(c), which equals [f (b) f (a)]/(b a).

f.

= (1/2)

( x2 )

f (x )

+ 3) 5 ( x dx )

4

(x

+ 3)5 (2 x dx )

4

= (112

/ )( x 2 + 3)6 3

= (1/12)(19)6 (1/12)(12)6

= 3,671,658.08

iii.

(sin x 5) dx = cos x 5 x

= cos 5 + cos 0 + 0 = 2 5

iv.

ln 5

ln 5

4e 2 x dx = 2e 2 x

0

3

1

ln 3

= 70.9986

v.

= 2e 2 ln 5 2e 0 = 48

3 x dx =

=

1

34

31

78

=

ln 3 ln 3 ln 3

b.

y

x

5

g. If r(x) = s(x) for all x in an interval, then

r(x) = s(x) + C for some constant C.

Without loss of generality, let C = 0.

g(2) g(1)

g(c1 ) =

= 1.862741K

2 1

c11.5 = 1.862741

c1 = (1.862741)1/1.5 = 1.513915927

Similarly, c2 = 2.50833898 .

c3 = 3.505954424

For

x 1.5 dx,

the Riemann sum is negative.

c.

10

10

( 4 sin x + 6 x 7 8 x 3 + 4) dx = 2

= 8x

10

0

10

4 dx

= 80

f (x )

x

a

112

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. y = x 1 + 2 x 1 = y 2

1

y = 3x 2 6 x 2 = y + 2

3

Graphs intersect at y = 6. Diameter of circular

cross section is (x2 x1).

dV = [0.5(x2 x1)]2 dy

2

2

1

= y + 2 ( y 2) dy = 4 y dy

4 3

4

3

R8. a.

v

(t, v)

dt t

dy = v dt = 150t0.5 dt

9

150t

y=

0.5

0

4

150t

For [ 4, 9], y = 150t

For [0, 4], y =

0

9

0.5

0.5

= 1900.

V=

dt = 800.

R10. a.

= v(t ) dt + v(t ) dt.

0

e y dy = e y

ln 4

t

1

= e ln 4 e 0 = 4 1 = 3

the x-axis.

10

3

0.2 x

v(t ) dt = 1/3(0.2)[29 + 4(41) + 2(50) + 4(51)

2

c.

(x, y )

+ 2(11) + 4(25) + 39] = 67.6

Values of velocity are more likely to be

connected by smooth curves than by straight

lines, so the quadratic curves given by

Simpsons rule will be a better fit than the

straight lines given by the trapezoidal rule.

x

0

dV = y2 dx = e0.4 x dx

V=

log x dx = 6.0913K

v (t )

b. dA = x dy

y = ln x x = e y

dA = ey dy

ln 4

10

squares gives approximately 6.

So

radius 2 also has volume 13 2 2 6 = 8 .

dt = 2700 800

dV 25.1327 (exactly 8)

4

0

= 2.5 (e 1) = 31.0470

b. y = x10.25 and y = x2, intersecting at (0, 0) and

(1, 1) in Quadrant I, is rotated about the

y-axis. Only the back half of the solid is

shown.

1.6

Concept Problems

C1. a.

f (b)

5

(x 1 , y )

/2

b

1

(x 2 , y )

5

x

1

y = x10.25 x1 = y 4

y = x2 x2 = y

dV = ( x 22 x12 ) dy = ( y 2 y 8 ) dy

1

1

1

V = ( y 2 y 8 ) dy = y 3 y 9

3

0

9

2

= = 0.6981K

9

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

f (b)

1

3

113

the inverse of y1.

c. The graph of f in part a is a reflection of

the graph of y = tan x in part b across the line

y = x. Function f seems to be the inverse

tangent function, f (b) = tan 1 b. (In Chapter 9,

students will learn that this is actually true.)

C2. f (x) = ax2 + bx + c

Induction hypothesis:

Assume that for some integer n = k > 1,

S(k) = (k/6)(k + 1)(2k + 1).

Verification for n = k + 1:

S( k + 1) = 0 2 + 12 + L + k 2 + ( k + 1)2

= (0 2 + 12 + L + k 2 ) + ( k + 1)2

= (k/6)(k + 1)(2k + 1) + (k + 1)2

= [(k + 1)/6][k(2k + 1) + 6(k + 1)]

= [(k + 1)/6][2k2 + 7k + 6]

= [(k + 1)/6][(k + 2)(2k + 3)]

= [(k + 1)/6][(k + 1) + 1]

[2(k + 1) + 1],

which is the formula with (k + 1) in place of

k, thus completing the induction.

S(n) = (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1) for any positive

integer n, Q.E.D.

x

d

f (d) = ad2 + bd + c

f (e) = ae2 + be + c

ae 2 + be + c ( ad 2 + bd + c)

m =

ed

a( e 2 d 2 ) + b ( e d )

=

= a( e + d ) + b

ed

f (x) = 2ax + b f (k) = 2ak + b

2ak + b = a(e + d) + b

2ak = a(e + d)

k = (1/2)(e + d)

k is at the midpoint of [d, e], Q.E.D.

C3. S(n) = 0 2 + 12 + 2 2 + 32 + L + n 2

a. S(0) = 0, S(1) = 1, S(2) = 5, S(3) = 14

S(n) = an3 + bn2 + cn + d

0=0+0+0+d

1=a+b+c+d

5 = 8a + 4b + 2c + d

14 = 27a + 9b + 3c + d

Solving this system gives a = 1/3, b = 1/2,

c = 1/6, d = 0.

S(n) = (1/3)n3 + (1/2)n2 + (1/6)n

= (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1)

b. By equation,

S(4) = (4/6)(5)(9) = 30

S(5) = (5/6)(6)(11) = 55

By addition,

S(4) = 0 + 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 = 30, which checks.

S(5) = 0 + 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 = 55, which

checks.

S(1000) = (1000/6)(1001)(2001) =

333,833,500

c. Prove that S(n) = (n/6)(n + 1)(2n + 1) for any

positive integer n.

Proof (by induction on n):

Anchor:

For n = 1, S(n) = (1/6)(2)(3) = 1, the correct

answer, which anchors the induction.

114

d. S(n) = 0 3 + 13 + 2 3 + 33 + L + n 3

S(0) = 0

S(1) = 0 + 1 = 1

S(2) = 0 + 1 + 8 = 9

S(3) = 0 + 1 + 8 + 27 = 36

S(4) = 0 + 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 = 100

(The answers are perfect squares!)

Assume that S(n) = an4 + bn3 + cn2 + dn + e.

0=0+0+0+0+e

1=a+b+c+d+e

9 = 16a + 8b + 4c + 2d + e

36 = 81a + 27b + 9c + 3d + e

100 = 256a + 64b + 16c + 4d + e

Solving this system gives

a = 1/4, b = 1/2, c = 1/4, d = 0, e = 0.

S(n) = (1/4)n4 + (1/2)n3 + (1/4)n2

= (1/4)n2(n2 + 2n + 1)

= [(n/2)(n + 1)]2,

which agrees with the observation that S(n) is

a perfect square.

By equation,

S(5) = [(5/2)(6)]2 = 225

S(6) = [(6/2)(7)]2 = 441

By addition,

S(5) = 03 + 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 = 225,

which checks.

S(6) = 03 + 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 + 63 =

441, which checks.

C4. a.

4 sin x sin 10 x dx

0

2

2

sin 11x sin ( 9 x )

11

9

0

= 0 0 + 0 + 0 = 0, Q .E .D .

There is just as much area below the x-axis as

there is above it, so the integral is 0.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

4 sin x sin nx dx

0

2

2

sin [(1 + n) x ] +

sin [(1 n) x ]

1+ n

1 n

0

2

2

=

sin (1 + n) +

sin (1 n)

1+ n

1 n

2

2

sin 0

sin 0

1+ n

1 n

If n is an integer, the first two terms will

involve sines of integer multiples of , and

are thus equal to 0. The last two terms are 0

unless n = 1. Thus, the integral equals 0 for

any integer n > 1, Q.E.D.

C5. a. Algebraic solution:

Pick sample points ck at the right end of each

subinterval. Because f (x) is increasing on the

interval [1, 9], the high points of f (x) are

located at the right ends of the subintervals

and the low points are at the left ends.

Un =

As ||P|| approaches zero, the rightmost

member of the inequality goes to zero. By the

squeeze theorem, lim (Un Ln ) = 0, which

P 0

P 0

Proof:

Partition the interval [1, 4] into n

subintervals whose widths are not necessarily

equal. Let ||P|| be the norm of the partition.

Pick sample points ck at the left end of each

subinterval. Because g (x) is decreasing on

[1, 4], the high points are located at the left

ends of the subintervals and the low points

are at the right ends (graph).

y

1

f (ck )x k and Ln =

f (c

k 1 ) x k

k =1

k =1

x

1

Un Ln =

P 0

Q .E .D .

c. Prove that g(x) = 1/x is integrable on [1, 4].

[ f (c ) f (c

k

k 1 )]x k

k =1

+ [ f ( cn) f ( cn 1)]xn

[ f ( c1) f ( c0)] ||P|| + [ f ( c2) f ( c1)] ||P||

+ L + [ f (cn ) f (cn1 )] || P ||

= [ f (c1 ) f (c0 ) + f (c2 ) f (c1 ) + L + f (cn )

f ( cn 1)] ||P||

= [ f ( cn) f ( c0)] ||P|| = ||P||(1.29 1.21)

Un Ln ||P||(1.29 1.21), Q.E.D.

Graphical solution:

The difference Un Ln is equal to the area of

the spaces between the lower and upper

rectangles in Figure 5-11g. Imagine these

spaces moved over to the left so that they

align at x = 1 (graph). The spaces can be

circumscribed with a rectangle of base ||P||

and altitude (1.29 1.21). Thus, Un Ln

||P|| (1.29 1.21), Q.E.D.

part a, Un Ln ||P||(1 1/4). As ||P||

approaches zero, Un Ln is squeezed to zero.

Thus, Un and Ln approach the same limit,

which implies that g is integrable on [1, 4],

Q .E .D .

d. This reasoning cannot be applied directly to

h (x) = sin x on the interval [0, 3] because

h (x) is both increasing and decreasing on

different parts of the interval. Thus, the high

points are not always at the same end of the

subinterval and the high point at /2 may not

be at either end of a subinterval (graph).

y = sin x

1

x

0

/2

f (x )

1.29

first splitting the interval [0, 3] into [0, /2]

and [ /2, 3] so that h(x) is increasing on one

and decreasing on the other.

Chapter Test

1.21

x

1 Norm

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Norm = largest

x 9

g( x ) =

Problem Set 5-11

115

Let Ln and Un be lower and upper sums of f (x)

on the interval [a, b]. Then

f ( x ) dx = lim Ln = lim Un ,

n

T3. Fundamental theorem:

If f is an integrable function, and

g( x ) =

f ( x ) dx, then

f ( x ) dx = g(b) g( a).

T12.

(12 x 3 + 10 x 2 ) dx = 3 x 4 +

10 3

x

3

2

2

80

80

1

= 48

48

= 53

3

3

3

d

[( x )

T13.

( x 2 )2 ] dy

the slope of the curve at x = 1. So the slope is

found by y = x3 y = 3x2 y(1) = 3.

At x = 1, y = 1.

y 1 = 3(x 1) y = 3x 2

y

[3, 8] and differentiable on (3, 8). It does not

matter that it is not differentiable at the

endpoints.

T5.

x

1

f (x )

1.2

1

(1, 1)

x

c 8

Differentiable on (a, b).

Continuous at x = a and x = b.

Conclusion: There is a c in (a, b) such that

f (c) = 0.

f(x )

T7.

f (x )

x

8

of y = x3 is locally linear.

T15. a.

0

b. M 50 = 53.6154

T50 = 53.6170

S50 = 53.61600081

The midpoint Riemann sum error is

0.000502646712 .

The trapezoidal-rule error is 0.0010052962 .

The midpoint Riemann sum error is half of

the trapezoidal-rule error, because

2(0.000502646712) = 0.0010052962 .

The Simpsons rule error is

0.000000015077 , which is much smaller

than the error for the other two methods.

T16. a.

y

1

y = cos x

T9.

T10.

T11.

(4 x

116

(x, y )

0.1 dx = ln 0.1 + C

x

0.1

+ 13)5 ( x 2 dx ) =

x3

x dx =

3

1.2

1

( 4 x 3 + 13)6 + C

72

4 3 13

= 21

3 3

1 2

1

y dx dV = cos 2 x dx

2

2

/2 1

V=

cos 2 x dx

0

2

b. dV =

2005 Key Curriculum Press

because we do not know an antiderivative for

cos2 x.

/2 1

V=

cos 2 x dx = 0.3926 K

0

2

b.

f (x )

g(x )

x

1

2.64...

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

1

2.64...

=

= 2.1

4 1

3

g(x) = f ( x) = 0.3x 2

0.3c2 = 2.1 c = 7 = 2.6457513

In the right graph in part b, the tangent line at

x = 2.64 is parallel to the secant line from

x = 1 to x = 4.

d. f ( 2.645) = 0.3(2.645)2 = 2.1 (exactly)

The point is (2.645 , 2.1).

Area of region under graph equals area of

rectangle, as shown in the graph on the left in

part b.

T18. Answers will vary.

c. m =

117

and Logarithmic Functions

Problem Set 6-1

Q5. differentiable

division by zero.

N

1000

1500

2000

2500

500

100

1

0

P 0 , which involves

Integral

0

0.4054

0.6931

0.9162

0.6931

2.3205

N

2000

7.

10

0.05 dt = 0.05t

10

8.

9.

values of the left integral for N = 1500 and

N = 2000.

N 1

By solver,

dP = 0.5 when

1000 P

N = 1648.7212 , or about 1649 people.

3. At 20 years, the integral on the right equals 1. At

0 years, the integral equals 0. Solving for N at

these times gives N = 2718.2818 for 20 years,

and N = 1000 (as expected!) for 0 years.

10.

11.

Population

3000

2000

12.

1000

Time (yr)

5

10

15

20

4. ln 1648.7212 ln 1000 = 0.5, exactly. This

is the value of the integral on the left!

1 0.7

x +C

0.7

Q3. f ( x) = 2 cos x sin x

Q1.

118

1 x2

Q7. y = csc x cot x

Q9. indefinite integral, or antiderivative

0.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Integral

2.

Q10. log 12

1000

Q6. y =

Q2. 9

Q4. continuous

y = ln 7x y = 1/(7x) 7 = 1/x

y = ln 4x y = 1/(4x) 4 = 1/x

f (x) = ln x5 f (x) = 1/(x5) 5x4 = 5/x

f (x) = ln x3 f (x) = 1/(x3) 3x2 = 3/x

h (x) = 6 ln x 2 h (x) = 6/(x 2) (2x 3) = 12/x

g (x) = 13 ln x 5

g (x) = 13/(x 5) (5x 6) = 65/x

r(t) = ln 3t + ln 4t + ln 5t

r (t) = 1/(3t) 3 + 1/(4t) 4 + 1/(5t) 5 = 3/t

v (z) = ln 6z + ln 7z + ln 8z

v (z) = 1/(6z) 6 + 1/(7z) 7 + 1/(8z) 8 = 3/z

y = (ln 6x)(ln 4x)

y = 1/(6x) 6 (ln 4x) + (ln 6x)[1/(4x) 4]

ln 24 x 2

= (1/x)(ln 4x + ln 6x) or

x

z = (ln 2x)(ln 9x)

z = 1/(2x) 2 (ln 9x) + (ln 2x)[1/(9x) 9]

ln 18 x 2

= (1/x)(ln 9x + ln 2x) or

x

ln 11x

y =

ln 3 x

1/(11x ) 11 (ln 3 x ) (ln 11x )1/(3 x ) 3

y =

(ln 3 x )2

ln 3 x ln 11x

ln(3/11)

=

or

2

x (ln 3 x )2

x (ln 3 x )

ln 9 x

y=

ln 6 x

1/(9 x ) 9 (ln 6 x ) (ln 9 x ) 1/(6 x ) 6

y =

(ln 6 x )2

ln 6 x ln 9 x

ln(2/3)

or

=

x (ln 6 x )2

x (ln 6 x )2

p = (cos x)(ln x) + (sin x)(1/x)

14. m = (cos x)(ln x)

m = (sin x)(ln x) + (cos x)(1/x)

15. y = cos (ln x) y = sin (ln x) (1/x)

16. y = sin (ln x) y = cos (ln x) (1/x)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y = (1/cos x) (sin x) = tan x (Surprise!)

18. y = ln (sin x), where sin x > 0

y = (1/sin x) (cos x) = cot x (Surprise!)

19. T (x) = tan (ln x) T (x) = sec2 (ln x) (1/x)

20. S (x) = sec (ln x)

S (x) = sec (ln x) tan (ln x) (1/x)

21. y = (3x + 5)1

y = (3x + 5)2 3 = 3(3x + 5)2

22. y = (x3 2)1

y = (x3 2)2 3x2 = 3x2(x3 2)

23. y = x 4 ln 3x

y = 4x 3 ln 3x + x 4 1/(3x) 3

= 4x 3 ln 3x + x 3

24. y = x 7 ln 5x

y = 7x 6 ln 5x + x 7 1/(5x) 5

= 7x 6 ln 5x + x 6

25. y = ln (1/x) y = 1/(1/x) (x 2) = 1/x

26. y = ln (1/x4) y = 1/(1/x)4 (4x5) = 4/x

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

7/x dx = 7 ln | x | + C

5/x dx = 5 ln | x | + C

1

1/(3x ) dx = 3 ln | x | + C

1/(8x ) dx = 8 ln | x | + C

1

x2

1

1

(3 x 2 dx )

dx =

x +5

3 x3 + 5

1

= ln | x 3 + 5 | + C

3

x5

1

1

dx =

(6 x 5 dx )

6

x 4

6 x6 4

1

= ln | x 6 4 | + C

6

x5

1

1

dx =

(6 x 5 dx )

9 x6

6 9 x6

1

= ln | 9 x 6 | + C

6

x3

1

1

(4 x 3 dx )

4 dx =

10 x

4 10 x 4

1

= ln | 10 x 4 | + C

4

sec x tan x dx

= ln | 1 + sec x | + C

1 + sec x

sec 2 x dx

= ln | 1 + tan x | + C

1 + tan x

cos x dx

= ln | sin x | + C

sin x

sin x dx

sin x dx

=

= ln | cos x | + C

cos x

cos x

39.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

0.5

(1/w ) dw = ln | w |

= ln 4 ln 0.5

0.5

= ln 8 = 2.079441

40.

10

0.1

(1/v) dv = ln | v |

10

= ln 10 ln 0.1

0.1

= ln 100 = 4.605170

41.

0.1

(1/ x ) dx = ln | x |

3

0.1

= ln | 3 | ln | 0.1 |

= ln 3 ln 0.1 = ln 30 = 3.401197

42.

0.2

(1/ x ) dx = ln | x |

4

0.2

= ln | 4 | ln | 0.2 |

= ln 4 ln 0.2 = ln 20 = 2.995732

x 1/ 2 dx 2 9 1

3 1/ 2

x dx

3/ 2 =

3/ 2

4 1+ x

3 4 1+ x

2

9

2

2

= ln| 1 + x 3/ 2 | = (ln 28 ln 9) = 0.756653K

3

4 3

43.

44.

45.

46.

x 1/ 3 dx 3 8 1

2

x 1/ 3 dx

2/3 =

1 2+x

2 1 2 + x 2/3 3

8

3

3

= ln | 2 + x 2 / 3 | = (ln 6 ln 3) = 1.5 ln 2

2

2

1

= 1.039720

dx 1

(ln x )5

= (ln x )6 + C

x 6

ln x

dx 1

dx = (ln x )1

= (ln x )2 + C

x

x 2

8

cos 3t dt f ( x ) = cos 3x

f ( x ) = (t + 10t 17) dt

47. f ( x ) =

48.

f ( x ) = x 2 + 10 x 17

49.

50.

dx

dx

tan 3 t dt = tan 3 x

2 t dt = 2 x

g( x ) =

h( x ) =

51. f ( x ) =

x2

3t dt f ( x ) = 2 x 3 x

cos x

52.

0

3 x 5

53.

t dt g( x ) = cos x ( sin x )

1 + t 2 dt

h( x ) = 3 1 + (3 x 5)2

54. p( x ) =

55.

x3

(t 4 + 1) 7 dt p( x ) = ( x 12 + 1) 7 3 x 2

(5 / x ) dx = 5 ln | x |

= 5 ln 3 5 ln 1 = 5 ln 3

= 5.493061

Problem Set 6-2

119

Trapezoidal rule: T100 = 5.493209

Numerical integration: 5.493061

56. Answers will vary.

57. a. By finding areas, g (0) 2.7, g (1) = 0,

g(2) = 1, g(3) 0.3, g(4) 0.3, g(5) 0.7,

g (6) 3.3, g (7) = 6, and g (8) = 7.

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

b.

30

(h, F )

dh

b. h( x ) =

dW = F dh = (600/h 30) dh

f (t ) dt h ( x ) = f ( x 1) 2x

g (2) = 0, g (3) = 1.5, g (4) = 2, g (5) = 1.5,

g (6) = 0.75, g (7) = 0.5, g (8) = 0.75,

g (9) = 1.5, and g (10) = 2.75.

y

x

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 2 3 4 5

b. h( x ) =

7 8 9 10

10

1000

f (t ) dt h( x ) = f (2 x ) 2

(1/ P) dP = ln | P |

0.05 dt = 0.05t

= ln N ln 1000

1000

10

= 0.5

ln N ln 1000 = 0.5

N

ln

= 0.5

1000

N

= e 0.5

1000

N = 1000e0.5 1648.721

1649 people

60. a. F + 30 = k/h

0 + 30 = k/20 k = 600

F + 30 = 600/h F = 600/h 30

120

10

(600/h 30) dh

20

10

20

= 115.8883 116 inch-pounds

This number is negative because each value of

dh is negative and F is positive, making their

product negative.

e. Distance is measured in inches, force is

measured in pounds, and we are finding their

product.

61. a. d(f ) = a + b ln f

0 = a + b ln 53, 10 = a + b ln 160

10 = b ln 160 b ln 53

10

b=

= 9.050741...

ln 160 ln 53

a = 9.050741 ln 53 = 35.934084

d( f ) = 35.934084 + 9.050741 ln f

b.

2x

59.

= 600 ln | h | 30 h

h(2) = f (3) 4 = 1 4 = 4

4

3

2

1

20

Because the force varies, a definite integral

must be used.

d. The work done compressing the air a small

amount, dh, is approximately equal to the

force at the sample point (h, F ) times dh

(see part b).

W=

x 2 1

h

10

x

1

2

3

f

53

60

70

80

100

120

140

160

d cm

0

1.1227

2.5197

3.7265

5.7461

7.3962

8.7914

10.0

d (part c)

0.1707

0.1508

0.1292

0.1131

0.0905

0.0754

0.0646

0.0565

should be close to the calculated distances.

c. d ( f ) = b/f = 9.050/f. See table in part b.

d. d ( f ) is in cm/10 kHz.

e. d ( f ) decreases as f gets larger; this is

consistent with the spaces between the

numbers getting smaller as f increases.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

62. a. ln 2 = 0.693147

ln 3 = 1.098612

ln 6 = 1.791759

ln 2 + ln 3 = ln 6

Conjecture: ln (ab) = ln a + ln b

b. ln (10/2) = ln 5 = 1.609437

ln 10 = 2.302585

ln 2 = 0.693147

ln (10/2) = ln 10 ln 2

Conjecture: ln (a/b) = ln a ln b

c. ln (210) = ln 1024 = 6.931471

ln 2 = 0.6931471

ln (210) = 10 ln 2

Conjecture: ln (ab ) = b ln a

ln 2

d.

= 2.30258

log 2

ln 3

= 2.30258

log 3

They seem to be the same.

ln 10 = 2.30258

1

= 2.30258

log e

log 4 = 0.60205 and

ln 4

1.3862 K

=

= 0.60205K

ln 10 2.30258K

63. Answers will vary.

Q1. y = 1/(1 + x 2)

Q3. 1

Q5. 35

Q7.

1

ln | 4 x + 1 | + C

4

Q4. 1/4

Q6. 8

Q2.

y

1

x

2

Q9. f is continuous at x = a and x = b.

Q10. B

1. ln 6 + ln 4 = 1.79175 + 1.38629 =

3.17805

ln 24 = 3.17805

2. ln 5 + ln 7 = 1.60943 + 1.94591 =

3.55534

ln 35 = 3.55534

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1.09861

ln (2001/667) = ln 3 = 1.09861

4. ln 1001 ln 77 = 6.90875 4.34380 =

2.56494

ln (1001/77) = ln 13 = 2.56494

5. 3 ln 1776 = 3(7.48211) = 22.44635

ln (17763) = ln 5,601,816,576 = 22.44635

6. 4 ln 1066 = 4(6.97166) = 27.88667

ln (10664) = ln 1,291,304,958,736 = 27.88667

7. See the text for the proof of the uniqueness

theorem.

8. See the text for the proof.

9. Prove that ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for

all a > 0, b > 0.

Proof:

Let f (x) = ln (x/b), g(x) = ln x ln b for x, b > 0

Then f (x) = (b/x)(1/b) = 1/x, and

g (x) = (1/x) 0 = 1/x.

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0.

f (b) = ln (b/b) = ln 1 = 0

g(b) = ln b ln b = 0

f (b) = g (b).

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0 by the uniqueness

theorem.

ln (x/b) = ln x ln b for all x > 0.

ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for all a > 0 and b > 0,

Q .E .D .

10. Prove that ln (ab) = b ln a for all a > 0 and all b.

Proof:

Let f (x) = ln (xb); g (x) = b ln x for x > 0.

Then f (x) = 1/(xb) bxb 1 = b/x and

g (x) = b (1/x) = b/x.

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0.

f (1) = ln (1b) = ln 1 = 0

g(1) = b ln 1 = b 0 = 0

f (1) = g (1).

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0 by the uniqueness

theorem.

ln (xb) = b ln x for all x > 0.

ln (ab) = b ln a for all a > 0 and all b, Q.E.D.

11. Prove that ln (a/b) = ln a ln b for

all a > 0, b > 0.

Proof:

ln (a/b) = ln (a b 1) = ln a + ln b 1 =

ln a + (1) ln b = ln a ln b

ln (a/b) = ln a ln b, Q.E.D.

12. Example: ln (2 + 3) = ln 5 = 1.60943

ln 2 + ln 3 = 0.69314 + 1.09861 =

1.79175

ln (2 + 3) ln 2 + ln 3.

ln (a + b) = ln a + ln b is false, Q.E.D.

121

f (5) = 0.182047

The graph shows a tangent line with a small

positive slope.

f (x )

x

5

f (4) = 1.120355

The graph shows a tangent line with slope 1.

f (x )

5

4

10

18. h (x) = 10 ln (x0.4 ) = 4 ln x h (x) = 4/x

19. T(x) = log5 (sin x) T ( x ) =

1

cos x

sec x ln 5

20. R (x) = log4 (sec x)

1

tan x

R( x ) =

sec x tan x =

sec x ln 4

ln 4

21. p (x) = (ln x)(log5 x)

p (x) = (1/x) (log5 x) + (ln x) [1/(x ln 5)]

1 ln x

ln x

2 ln x

=

+

=

x ln 5 x ln 5 x ln 5

ln x ln 3

ln 3 1

=

=

ln 9 ln x 2 ln 3 2

q (x) = 0 because q(x) is constant.

x3

3

23. f ( x ) = ln

= ln x ln sin x

sin

x

24. f (x) = ln (x4 tan x) = ln x4 + ln (tan x)

= 4 ln x + ln (tan x)

4 sec 2 x 4

1

f ( x ) = +

= +

x tan x

x sin x cos x

122

d

d

(ln x 3 x ) =

(3 x ln x ) =

dx

dx

3x

3 ln x +

= 3 ln x + 3

x

d

d

(ln 5sec x ) =

(sec x ln 5)

26.

dx

dx

= ln 5 sec x tan x

27. a. y = 7 (2 0.9x)

dy/dx = 7(0.9x)(ln 0.9)

dy/dx = 0.737523(0.9x)

x = 0: dy/dx = 0.737 mi/h

x = 1: dy/dx = 0.663 mi/h

x = 5: dy/dx = 0.435 mi/h

x = 10: dy/dx = 0.257 mi/h

The lava is slowing down.

b. y/7 = 2 0.9x

0.9x = 2 y/7

x ln 0.9 = ln (2 y/7)

x = (1/ln 0.9)[ln (2 y/7)]

dx

1

1

c.

= (1/ln 0.9)

dy

2 y/7 7

dx 9.491221K

=

dy

14 y

y = 10: dx/dy = 2.372 h/mi

d. If x = 10, then y = 7(2 0.910), so

dx

9.491221K

=

= 3.888651 .

dy 14 7(2 0.910 )

25.

ln x log a x

14. log b x =

=

ln b log a b

value of dy/dx when x = 10, not when y = 10.

28. a. 1000(1.06t) = M 1.06t = M/1000

log1.06 1.06t = log1.06 (M/1000)

t = log1.06 (M/1000)

1

1

b. dt/dM =

1

=

M ln 1.06

1

=

c. If M = 1000, dt/dM =

1000 ln 1.06

0.01716 yr/$. At this rate, with $1000 in

the account, it would take 0.017 year, or

about 6 days, to earn a dollar of interest.

d. dt/dM gets smaller as M increases; more

interest is earned when M is larger, so it takes

less time to accumulate $1000.

29. The intersection point is at x = 2.7182818 ,

which is approximately e.

30. Answers will vary.

Q1. y = 3/x

Q3. 15 ln 5 x + C

Q2. (1/10)(5x) 2 + C

Q4. y = 1/ 1 x 2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q7.

Q9.

0.

1.

Q6.

ln 23

ln 17

36

Q8. 8

B

Q10. E

Answers will vary.

a. R(t) = aekt

60,000 = aek0 a = 60,000

2,400,000 = aek2 = 60,000e2k

40 = e2k 2k = ln 40

k = (ln 40)/2 = 1.844

(Store 1.844 without round-off as k.)

R(t) = 60,000e1.844t

b. R ( 5 ) = 60,000e1.844(5) = 607,157,310.7

About 607 million rabbits.

c. 2 = 60,000e1.844t 1/30,000 = e1.844t

ln 30,000 = 1.844t t = 5.589

So the first pair of rabbits was introduced

about 5.6 years earlier, or in about 1859.

2. a. v (t) = 20,000e 0.1 t

v(0) = 20,000e0 = 20,000

$20,000 when built.

b. v (10) = 20,000e 1 = 7357.588

v(11) = 20,000e 1.1 = 6657.421

At 10 years, value is $7357.59.

At 11 years, value is $6657.42.

So depreciation is 7357.59 6657.42 =

$700.17.

c. v (t) = 2000e 0.1 t

v (10) = 2000e 1 = 735.758 ,

or about $736 per year.

This rate is higher than the actual depreciation

in part b because the latter rate is an average

for the year. The rate at the end will be lower

than 736 to give the average of 700.

d. 5,000 = 20,000e 0.1 t

0.25 = e 0.1 t

ln (0.25) = 0.1t

t = (ln 0.25)/(0.1) = 13.8629

14 yr.

3. a. m(t) = 1000(1.06)t

ln m(t) = ln 1000 + t ln 1.06

1/m(t) m (t) = 0 + ln 1.06

m (t) = m (t) ln 1.06

m (t) = 1000(1.06)t (ln 1.06)

m (0) = 58.27 $/yr

m (5) = 77.98 $/yr

m (10) = 104.35 $/yr

b. m(0) = $1000.00

m(5) = $1338.23

m(10) = $1790.85

The rates are increasing. $338.23 is earned

between 0 and 5 years; $452.62 is earned

2005 Key Curriculum Press

the increasing derivatives shown in part a.

m(t ) 1000(1.06)t (ln 1.06)

c.

=

= ln 1.06

m( t )

1000(1.06)t

m (t)/m(t) = ln 1.06, a constant

d. m(1) = 1060.00. So you earn $60.00.

The rate starts out at only $58.27/year but

has increased enough by years end to make

the total for the year equal to $60.00.

4. d(t) = 200t 2 t ln d(t) = ln 200t t ln 2

1

d (t ) = 1/t ln 2

d (t )

d (t ) = (200t 2 t )(1/t ln 2)

d (1) = (200 2 1)(1 ln 2) = 30.685

d (2) = (400 2 2)(1/2 ln 2) = 19.314

So the door is opening at about 30.7/s at

1 second and closing at about 19.3/s at

2 seconds, which agrees with the graph.

d (t )

100

t

1 2

Solving numerically for t in

(200t 2 t)(1/t ln 2) = 0,

t = 1.44269 .

d(1.44269) = 106.147

So the widest is about 106 at t 1.4 s.

n

1

5. e = lim 1 + and e = lim(1 + n)1/ n

n

n0

n

When you substitute for n in the first equation,

you get the indeterminate form 1 . When you

substitute 0 for n in the second equation, you

also get the indeterminate form 1 .

n

(1 + 1/n)n

6.

7.

8.

9.

100

1000

10000

2.70481

2.71692

2.71814

(1 + n)1/ n

0.01

2.70481

0.001

2.71692

0.00001

2.71826

5x

y = 17e y = 85e 5x

y = 667e 3x y = 2001e 3x

h(x) = x3ex h (x) = 3x2ex + x3ex = x2ex (3 + x)

g (x) = x 6ex

g (x) = 6x 7ex + x 6ex = x 7ex (6 + x)

123

30. g (x) = 4(7x) ln g (x) = ln 4 + x ln 7

1

g ( x ) = ln 7 g ( x ) = 4(7 x ) ln 7

g( x )

1

1

2 ln x ln x

y = 2 ln x y =

x = 2 ln x xln x1

y

x

x

1

36. y = (csc 5x)2x ln y = 2x ln (csc 5x) y =

y

1

2 ln (csc 5 x ) + 2 x

(5 csc 5 x cot 5 x )

csc 5 x

y = (csc 5x)2x [2 ln (csc 5x) 10x cot 5x]

37. y = (cos 2x)3x ln y = 3x ln (cos 2x)

1

1

y = 3 ln (cos 2 x ) + 3 x

(2 sin 2 x )

y

cos 2 x

y = (cos 2x)3x [3 ln (cos 2x) 6x tan 2x]

38. Two solution methods are possible.

Differentiate directly:

5x + 2

y = ln

7x 8

7 x 8 5(7 x 8) (5 x + 2) 7

y =

(7 x 8)2

5 x + 2

54

=

(5 x + 2)(7 x 8)

Or simplify using properties of logarithms first:

y = ln (5x + 2) ln (7x 8)

5

7

54

y =

=

5 x + 2 7 x 8 (5 x + 2)(7 x 8)

39. Two solution methods are possible.

Differentiate directly:

y = ln [(4x 7)(x + 10)]

1

y =

[ 4( x + 10) + ( 4 x 7) 1]

( 4 x 7)( x + 10)

8 x + 33

=

( 4 x 7)( x + 10)

Or simplify using properties of logarithms first:

y = ln (4x 7) + ln (x + 10)

4

1

8 x + 33

y =

+

=

4 x 7 x + 10 ( 4 x 7)( x + 10)

1

x ln 1.03

h ( x ) = ln 1.03

h( x )

h ( x ) = 1000(1.03x) ln 1.03

32. c (x) = x5 3x ln c (x) = 5 ln x + x ln 3

1

c ( x ) = 5/ x + ln 3

c( x )

c ( x ) = x5 3x(5/x + ln 3)

33. m(x) = 5x x 7 ln m(x) = x ln 5 + 7 ln x

1

m ( x ) = ln 5 + 7/ x

m( x )

m (x) = 5x x7(ln 5 + 7/x)

34. y = (ln x)0.7 x ln y = 0.7x ln (ln x)

1

1

y

x ln x

0.7

y = 0.7 ln (ln x ) +

(ln x ) 0.7 x

ln x

1

ln y = 3 ln (2x + 5) + ln ( 4 x 1)

2

1

6

2

+

y =

y

2x + 5 4x 1

6

2

y =

+

[(2 x + 5)3 4 x 1 ]

2 x + 5 4 x 1

(28 x + 4)(2 x + 5)2

=

4x 1

(10 + 3 x )10

ln y = 10 ln (10 + 3 x )

41. y =

( 4 5 x )3

1

30

15

3 ln ( 4 5 x ) y =

+

y

10 + 3 x 4 5 x

30

15 (10 + 3 x )10

y =

+

10 + 3 x 4 5 x ( 4 5 x )3

(270 105 x )(10 + 3 x )9

=

(4 5x )4

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

s (t) = et tan t s (t) = et tan t + et sec2 t

u = 3exe x = 3 u = 0

v = e4xe 4x = 1 v = 0

ex

e x ln x e x (1/ x )

y=

y =

ln x

(ln x )2

ln x

(1/ x )e x ln x e x

y = x y =

e

e2 x

y = 4esec x y = 4esec x sec x tan x

y = 7ecos x y = 7ecos x sin x

y = 3 ln e 2x = 6x ln e = 6x y = 6

y = 4 ln e 5x = 4 5x = 20x y = 20

y = (ln e3x)(ln e4x) = 3x 4x = 12x2 y = 24x

y = (ln e 2x)(ln e5x) = 2x 5x = 10x2

y = 20x

g(x) = 4eln 3x = 4 3x = 12x g (x) = 12

h (x) = 6eln 7x = 6 7x = 42x h (x) = 42

y = ex + e x y = ex e x

y = ex e x y = ex + e x

3

26. y = e 5 x y = e 5 x 15 x 2 = 15 x 2 e 5 x

5

27. y = 8e x y = 8e x 5 x 4 = 40 x 4 e x

1

f ( x ) = 2 ln 0.4 f ( x ) = 0.4 2 x 2 ln 0.4

f ( x)

29. f (x) = 10 0.2 x ln f (x) = 0.2x ln 10

1

f ( x ) = 0.2 ln 10

f ( x)

124

2005 Key Curriculum Press

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

dx

10

3

dx

dx

4x

x2

dx

dt = 10 x

ln t dt = ln x

6.3

log 2 t dt = 4 log 2 ( 4 x )

5

d2

d2

d 5

5

(ln

)

=

= 2

x

2

2 (5 ln x ) =

dx

dx

dx x

x

e = lim(1 + n)1/ n

n0

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

72 x

+C

2 ln 7

1.05 x

1.05 x dx =

+C

ln 1.05

72 x dx =

6e dx = 6e + C

e dx = 5e + C

e cos x dx = e + C

e sec x dx = e + C

1

e dx = x dx = 4 x + C

60e dx = 60 5x dx = 150 x + C

1

(1 + e ) e dx = 102 (1 + e ) + C

1

(1 e ) e dx = 404 (1 e ) + C

x

3 ln x

2 x 50 2 x

2 x 51

4 x 100 4 x

61.

4 tan 3 x

0

x0

5x

0

2

12 sec 3 x 12

= lim

=

x0

5

5

2. lim

4 x 101

e ) dx = e + e

x

2

0

= e + e 1 1 = 5.524391...

Numerically: integral 5.524391... (Checks.)

2

tan x

ln 5 x

(e

x

e

ex

E

sin x

tan x

1

Q4.

x

Q6.

(ln x)/(ln b)

Q8.

x

e + C

Q10.

2 sin 5 x

0

1. lim

x0

3x

0

10 cos 5 x 10

= lim

=

x0

3

3

0.2 x

sin x

60.

0.2 x

1

Q2. e = lim 1 + or

n

n

Q1. e 2.71828

n

d 2 7x

d

47.

(7e 7 x ) = 49e 7 x

2 (e ) =

dx

dx

1

48. e 5 x dx = e 5 x + C

5

1

49. e 7 x dx = e 7 x + C

7

50.

reciprocal; distribute division over addition.

Step 6: 1/x does not depend on h, so it is a

constant with respect to h.

Step 7: Logarithm of a power, applied in reverse.

Step 9: The expression in parentheses has the form

(1 + n)1/n, whose limit is e as n approaches zero.

63. Answers will vary.

64. Answers will vary.

(e x + e x ) dx = (e x e x )

2

1

= e2 e2 e1 + e1 = 9.604123

Numerically: integral 9.604123... (Checks.)

62. Step 2: Definition of derivative.

Step 3: Logarithm of a quotient, applied in

reverse.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

tan x

0

x

0

sec 2 x

=1

= lim

x0

1

sin x

0

4. lim

x0

x

0

cos x

= 1, a well-known limit.

= lim

x0

1

3. lim

x0

125

1 cos x

0

x0

x2

0

sin x

0

= lim

x0 2 x

0

cos x 1

=

= lim

x0

2

2

5. lim

6. lim

x0

x2

0

cos 3 x 1

0

2x

0

= lim

x 0 3 sin 3 x

0

= lim

x0

2

2

=

9 cos 3 x

9

sin x

0

7. lim+ 2

x0

x

0

cos x

= lim+

=

x0

2x

1 cos x

0

8. lim

2

x0 x + x

0

sin x

=0

= lim

x0 1 + 2 x

ln x

9. lim+

x 0 1/ x

= lim+

x0

x 1

= lim ( x ) = 0

x 2 x0 +

1

e3 x

10. lim 2 = Form is .

x0 x

0

ex e

0

x 1 5 ln x

0

ex

e

= lim 1 =

x 1 5 x

5

11. lim

ln x x + 1

0

12. lim 2

x 1 x 2 x + 1

0

x 1 1

0

= lim

x 1 2 x 2

0

x 2

1

= lim

=

x 1

2

2

3x + 5

11

13. lim

=

= 26.43297K

x 2 cos x

cos 2

14. lim

x 2

tan x

tan 2

.

= Form is

x2

0

e

15. lim 2

x x

ex

x 2 x

ex

= lim

=

x 2

= lim

126

x3

x

x e

3x 2

= lim x

x e

6x

= lim x

x e

6

6

= lim x = 0 Form: .

x e

16. lim

3 x + 17

3 3

= lim =

4 x 11 x 4 4

2 7x

7

7

18. lim

= lim

=

x 3 + 5 x

x 5

5

17. lim

x 3 5 x 2 + 13 x 21

4 x 3 + 9 x 2 11x 17

19. lim

3 x 2 10 x + 13

2

x 12 x + 18 x 11

= lim

6 x 10

24 x + 18

6 1

= lim

=

x 24

4

= lim

3x 5 + 2

5

x 7 x 8

15 x 4

15 3

= lim

=

4 = lim

x 35 x

x 35

7

20. lim

21. L = lim+ x x 0 0

x0

ln L = lim+ ( x ln x ) = lim+

= lim+

x0

1

x0

x0

ln x

1

x

x

= lim ( x ) = 0

x 2 x0 +

L = e0 = 1

22. L = lim+ (sin x )sin x 0 0

x0

ln sin x

csc x

1/(sin x ) cos x

1

= lim+

= lim+

x0

x 0 csc x

csc x cot x

x0

x0

= lim+ ( sin x ) = 0

x0

L = e0 = 1

23. L = lim (sin x ) tan x 1

x / 2

x / 2

ln sin x

0

x /2

cot x

0

(1/sin x ) cos x

= lim

x /2

csc 2 x

= lim

= lim

x / 2

cos x sin 2 x

sin x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

cos x 1

0

x cos x + sin x

0

sin x

= lim

=0

x 0 x sin x + 2 cos x

= lim

x / 2

x0

L = e0 = 1

24. L = lim+ x 1/( x 1) 1

x 1

ln L = lim+ [1/( x 1) ln x ]

= lim+

x 1

2

2

tangent are defined, the Pythagorean properties

tell us that f (x) = 1.

31. f ( x ) = sec 2

x 1

ln x

0

1/ x

= lim+

=1

0 x1 1

x 1

L = e1 = e

f (x )

x

ln (1 + ax )

x

x

x

1/(1 + ax ) a

a

= lim

= lim

=0

x

x 1 + ax

1

L = e0 = 1

x0

ln (1 + ax )

0

x0

x0

x

0

1/(1 + ax ) a

a

= lim

= lim

=a

x0

x 0 1 + ax

1

L = ea

ln L = lim [1/ x ln (1 + ax )] = lim

x0

x0

3

x0

L = e = 20.08553...

28. L = lim+ (7 x )5/(ln x ) 0 0

x0

x0

= lim+

5 ln (7 x )

ln x

= lim+

5 [1/(7 x )] 7

=5

1/ x

x0

x0

L = e 5 = 148.4131...

x

1

ex 1

0

x

x 0 1(e 1) + x e

0

tan x

sec 2 x

= lim

x /2 sec x

x /2 sec x tan x

sec x

= lim

, the original expression!

x /2 tan x

= lim

reduces to

sec x

lim

= lim csc x = 1

x /2 (sec x )/(csc x )

x /2

33. L = lim+ x k /(ln x ) 0 0

x0

x0

ex 1

0

x

x

x 0 e 1 + xe

0

ex

1

= lim x

x

x =

x 0 e + e + xe

2

1

1

30. lim

x0 x

sin x

x0

x0

L = ek

The graph turns out to be a horizontal line,

y = ek, defined for x > 0.

y

y = ek

= lim

= lim

sec x

sec x tan x

lim

= lim

x /2 tan x

x /2

sec 2 x

1

1

29. lim x

x0 x

e 1

x

e 1 x

0

= lim

x

x 0 x (e 1)

0

= lim

sin x x

0

x sin x

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x k /( ln x ) = ( x k )1/ln x = (e k ln x )1/ln x = e k

g( x )

0.3 x 2 2.7

=

h( x ) 0.2 x 2 2 x + 4.2

g(3) = 0.3(9) 2.7 = 0,

h(3) = 0.2(9) 2(3) + 4.2 = 0, Q .E.D .

34. a. f ( x ) =

h (x) = 0.4x 2 h (3) = 0.8

127

For g: y1 = 1.8(x 3)

For h: y2 = 0.8(x 3)

y

1.8( x 3)

c. 1 =

= 2.25, for x 3.

y2 0.8( x 3)

g(3) 1.8

=

= 2.25, which equals y1/y2,

h(3) 0.8

Q .E .D .

d. Because the ratio g (x)/h(x) approaches the

ratio y1/y2 as x approaches 3, and because

y1/y2 equals g (3)/h (3) for all x 3, the ratio

g (x)/h(x) also approaches g (3)/h (3) as x

approaches 3. This is what lHospitals rule

concludes.

If g (3) or h (3) were any number other than 0,

the canceling of the (x 3)s in part c could

not be done, and the ratio would almost

certainly not equal 1.8/(0.8).

e. The graph shows a removable discontinuity at

(3, 2.25):

f (x )

1

3

1000(1 + 0.06)t. For semiannual compounding, m ( t) = 1000(1 + 0.06/2)2t because there

are two compounding periods per year, each

of which gets half the interest rate.

b. m(t) = 1000(1 + 0.06/n)nt

lim m(t ) = lim 1000(1 + 0.06/n) nt

nt

c.

t

5

20

50

m(t),

m(t), Annual Continuous

1,338.23

1,349.86

3,207.14

3,320.12

18,420.15

20,085.54

Difference

11.63

112.98

1,665.38

m (t) = 1000e0.0 7t .

36. a. f (x) = x n, g (x) = ln x, h (x) = ex

f ( x)

xn

lim

= lim

x g( x )

x ln x

nx n 1

= lim nx n = , if n > 0

x 1/ x

x

= lim

natural log function.

f ( x)

xn

lim

= lim x

x h( x )

x e

nx n 1

, if n 1 > 0

x

x e

become zero, in which case the limit takes the

form constant/, which is 0.

a power function is lower-order than an

exponential function.

Using < to represent is lower-order than,

natural log < power < exponential.

ln 3 x

x 100

b. i. lim 5 = 0

ii. lim 0.01x = 0

x x

x e

= lim

e 0.3 x

=

x 100 ln x

1

x

= lim

=0

iv. lim

x x

x x

iii. lim

ex

0.8 x

=

0.2 x = lim e

x

x e

37. Answers will vary.

v. lim

n

ln (1 + 0.06/n)

0

n

1/(nt )

0

= lim

n

n 2 /t

= lim

= lim

0.06t

= 0.06t

(1 + 0.06/n)

n

m(t) = 1000e0. 06t .

128

1. y = ln (3x + 4) y = 3/(3x + 4)

2. y = ln (3x 5) = ln 3 + 5 ln x y = 5/x

3. y = ln (e 3x) = 3x y = 3

4 cos 4 x

= 4 cot 4x

4. y = ln (sin 4x) y =

sin 4 x

5. y = ln (cos5 x) = 5 ln (cos x)

5 sin x

y =

= 5 tan x

cos x

6. y = ln (e5) = 5

y = 0 (Derivative of a constant!)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sin (tan x )

y =

sec2 x = tan (tan x) sec2 x

cos (tan x )

1

8. y = ln x 2 2 x + 3 = ln ( x 2 2 x + 3)

2

1 2x 2

x 1

y =

=

2 x2 2x + 3 x2 2x + 3

9. y = cos (ln x) y = (1/x) sin (ln x)

10. y = sin x ln x y = cos x ln x + (1/x) sin x

11. y = e7x y = 7e7x

3

3

12. y = e x y = 3 x 2 e x

5

13. y = e 5 ln x = e ln x = x 5 y = 5 x 4

14. y = ecos x

y = ecos x (sin x) = ecos x sin x

15. y = cos (ex) y sin (ex) ex = ex sin ex

16. y = (cos3 x)(e3x)

y = 3 cos2 x (sin x) e3x + cos3 x e3x 3

= 3e3x cos2 x sin x + 3e3x cos3 x

= 3e3x cos2 x (sin x + cos x) (Factoring

optional)

5

5

17. y = e x y = 5 x 4 e x

x

x

18. y = e e y = e e e x

19. sin y = ex cos y y = ex

ex

ex

(See sketch.)

=

cos y

1 e2 x

y =

1

sin y = e x

(Showing cos y = 1 e 2 x )

20. y = e x ln x

y = ex ln x + ex (1/x) = ex (ln x + 1/x)

21. y =

1/t dt y = 1/x

1

ex

ex

y =

=

(See sketch.)

2

sec y 1 + e 2 x

x

1 + e 2x

ex

y

1

23. y = ln (e ln x) = ln x y = 1/x

24. y = 2x ln y = x ln 2 (1/y)y = ln 2

y = y ln 2 = 2x ln 2

x

25. y = e x ln 2 = e ln 2 = 2 x

y = 2x ln 2 (See Problem 24.)

2

26. y = e2 ln x = e ln x = x 2 y = 2x

27. y = x 2 y = 2x

28. y = ex ln x (which equals xx)

y = ex ln x [ln x + x (1/x)] = xx (ln x + 1)

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y = xx (ln x + 1) (See Problem 28.)

30. y = x ln x x y = ln x + x (1/x) 1 = ln x

(Note: This answer reveals that the integral of

ln x is x ln x x.)

31. y = ex(x 1) y = ex(x 1) + ex 1 = xex

1

1

32. y = (e x + e x ) y = (e x e x )

2

2

1

1

33. y = (e x e x ) y = (e x + e x )

2

2

(Problems 32 and 33 are the hyperbolic cosine

and sine functions, respectively. See Chapter 8.)

ex

1+ ex

e x (1 + e x ) e x (e x )

y =

(1 + e x )2

34. y =

ex

(1 + e x )2

35. y = 5x ln y = x ln 5 (1/y)y = ln 5

y = y ln 5 = 5x ln 5

ln x

1/ x

1

36. y = log5 x =

y =

=

ln 5

ln 5 x ln 5

37. y = x 7 log2 x = x 7

ln x

ln 2

1

1

7 x 8 ln x + x 7

x

ln 2

8

x

(7 ln x + 1)

=

ln 2

y =

38. y = 2 x cos x

y = 2 x (ln 2) cos x + 2 x (sin x)

= 2 x(ln 2 cos x + sin x) (Factoring optional)

39. y = e 2x ln 5x

y = 2e 2x ln 5x + e 2x (1/x)

= e 2x (2 ln 5x + 1/x)

40. y =

7x

1

y =

7 x ln 7 = 7 x

ln 7

ln 7

41. y =

log 3 x

1

= log e x = ln x y =

log 3 e

x

42. y =

log10 x

1

= log e x = ln x y =

log10 e

x

ln x

ln 8 = ln x

ln 8

1

x

44. y = (log4 x)10

y =

y = 10(log4 x)9

1

10(log 4 x )9

=

x ln 4

x ln 4

7 ln x

7

y =

ln 5

x ln 5

129

47. y = esin x y = esin x cos x

69.

70.

71.

72.

1

73.

54. y = tan 1

74.

1

x y =

1+ x2

75.

76.

57.

58.

59.

60.

e

e

4x

dx =

1 4x

e +C

4

77.

x e dx = 4 e (4 x

cos x e dx = e

1

x4

sin x

sin x

dx ) =

1 x4

e +C

4

61.

62.

79.

(ln x )

1

1

dx = (ln x )5 dx = (ln x )6 + C

x

x

6

= (1/ln 5) e

x

dx = e x ln 5 dx

x ln 5

80.

ln 5 dx

1 x ln 5

5x

e

+C=

+C

ln 5

ln 5

=

63.

x ln 5

dx = 5 x dx =

81.

5x

+C

ln 5

64.

65.

x1

t

e

dt = ln x (By definition!)

83.

67.

68.

130

82.

1 x

1

(e + e x ) dx = (e x e x ) + C

2

2

66.

78.

(cos x dx )

= e sin x + C

5

dx = e

dx =

+C

(ln x ) x dx = 10 (ln x ) + C

cos x dx = sin x + C

1

e dx = x dx = 2 x + C

9

ln x

10

ln (e ) dx = 3x ln e dx = 3x dx = 2 x

0 dx = C (Integral of zero is a constant.)

cos x sec x dx = 1 dx = x + C

1

sec 2 x dx = 2 sec 2 x (2 dx )

3

3x

+C

1

ln | sec 2 x + tan 2 x | + C

2

1

tan 3 x dx =

tan 3 x (3 dx )

3

1

= ln | sec 3 x | + C

3

1

cot 4 x dx =

cot 4 x ( 4 dx )

4

1

= ln | sin 4 x | + C

4

1

csc 5 x dx =

csc 5 x (5 dx )

5

1

= ln | csc 5 x + cot 5 x | + C

5

1 cos x

0

lim

x0

x

0

sin x

=0

= lim

x0 1

x

0

lim

x 0 1 cos x

0

1

= lim

= (Reciprocal of Problem 81.)

x 0 sin x

x

/2

lim

=

=

x / 2 1 cos x

1 cos ( /2) 2

= Form:

1 + cos x

0

5 x sin 5 x

0

85. lim

3

x0

x

0

5 5 cos 5 x

0

= lim

2

x0

3x

0

x

2

+C

ln 2

84. lim

dx = e 4 x + C

3 x4

1 x

48. y = ln csc x

52. y = sin 1 x y =

(3/x ) dx = 3 ln | x | + C

4

12

4 dx = ln 4 = ln 4 = 8.656170K

3x

+C

ln 3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25 sin 5 x

0

x0

6x

0

125 cos 5 x 125

= lim

=

= 20.8333K

x0

6

6

= lim

= lim

x0

= lim

x0

3(e 3 x

3 3e 3 x

0

3x

1) + 3 x 3e

0

9e 3 x

9 e 3 x

1

3x

3x =

+ 9e + 27 xe

2

x

x

= lim [ x ln (1 + 0.03/ x )]

x

ln (1 + 0.03 x 1 )

0

x

x 1

0

= lim

= lim

= 0.03

x

x 2

L = e0.03 = 1.03045

87. lim (1 + 0.03 x )

1/ x

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

R1. a. dM/dt = 0.06M M 1 dM = 0.06 dt

100

x

ln (1 + 0.03 x )

x

1/(1 + 0.03 x ) 0.03

= lim

=0

x

1

L = e0 = 1

= lim

2x

88. lim 2

x x

= lim

2 ln 2

2x

2

2 (ln 2)

=

x

2

2x

or: lim 2 = by (exponential)/(power)

x x

= lim

0.06 dt = 0.06t

0

5

0

= 0.3

M 1 dM = 0.3

gives x 134.9858 .

c. There will be $134.99 in the account, so the

interest will be $34.99.

R2. a. Integrating x 1 by the power rule results in

x 1+1

division by zero:

+ C.

1 + 1

b. If g( x ) =

x1

ln x =

dt

1 t

d

d x1 1

(ln x ) =

dt =

dx

dx 1 t x

M 1 dM =

100

x 2

Let L = ln (0.5x)3/(2 x) .

3

ln L = lim

ln 0.5 x 0

x 2 2 x

3 ln 0.5 x

0

2x

0

3/(0.5 x ) 0.5

3

= lim

=

x 2

1

2

L = e 3/2 = 0.22313

= lim

x 2

1

1

90. lim 3 x

x0 e

1 3x

3 x (e 3 x 1)

0

3x

x0 3 x (e

1)

0

= lim

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ii. f (x) = ln x 9 = 9 ln x f (x) = 9/x

iii. y = csc (ln x)

y = csc (ln x) cot (ln x) (1/x)

iv. g( x ) =

d. i.

x2

csc t dt g ( x ) = 2 x csc x 2

sec x tan x

dx =

sec x

= ln | sec x | + C

3 10

1

dx = 10 ln | x | 2

x

= 10 ln | 3 | 10 ln | 2 |

= 10(ln 3 ln 2) = 4.054651

1

iii. x 2 ( x 3 4) 1 dx =

( x 3 4) 1 (3 x 2 dx )

3

1

= ln | x 3 4 | + C

3

ii.

131

h (6) = 2.7, h (10) = 0, and h (11) = 2.5.

y

ii.

y

y = h (x )

1 2

10

x or t

11

x

2

y = f (t )

iii.

y(1) = 1 name; 100% remembered

101

ii. y =

100 + x

y (100) = 101/(200) = 0.505 names/person

y (1) = 101/101 = 1 name/person

iii. Paula has probably not forgotten any

names as long as x y < 0.5. After

meeting 11 people, she remembers about

10.53 11 names, but after meeting

12 people, she remembers about 11.44

11 names.

R3. a. i. See the text for the definition of logarithm.

ii. See the text for the definition of ln x.

iii. See the text for the statement of the

uniqueness theorem.

iv. See the text for the proof.

v. See the solution to Problem 10 in

Lesson 6-3.

b. i. e = lim (1 + n)1/ n or e = lim (1 + 1/n) n

n0

ln x

ii. log b x =

ln b

c. i. y = log 4 x =

ln x

1

y =

ln 4

x ln 4

f ( x ) =

ln (cos x )

ln 2

1

( sin x )

(cos x )(ln 2)

x

5

f (x) = 1.4x0.4 e5x + 5x1.4 e5x

ii. g (x) = sin (e 2x) g (x) = 2e 2x cos(e 2x)

d ln x

d

iii.

(e ) =

( x) = 1

dx

dx

iv. y = 100x y = (ln 100)100 x

v. f (x) = 3.7 100.2 x

f (x) = 0.74 ln 10 100.2 x

v i . r(t) = t tan t ln r = tan t ln t

tan t

1

r = sec 2 t ln t +

r

t

tan t

r = t tan t sec 2 t ln t +

t

c. y = (5x 7)3 (3x + 1)5

ln y = 3 ln (5x 7) + 5 ln (3x + 1)

1

15

15

y =

+

y

5x 7 3x + 1

15

15

y =

+

(5 x 7)3 (3 x + 1)5

5 x 7 3 x + 1

= (120x 90)(5x 7)2 (3x + 1)4

d. i.

ii.

tan x

ln 2

iii.

R4. a. i.

iv.

10

x

2

2 x

cos x

dx = 5e 2 x + C

sin x dx = e cos x + C

= 10e

132

10e

e

10

0.2x

0.2

+ 10e

dx =

0.2

2

2

= 4.02672 K

0.2x

10

+C

0.2 ln 10

where C (t) varies. Thus, a definite integral

must be used.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ii. E( x ) =

150e

0

0.16 t

dt = 937.5( e 0.16 x + 1)

516.25 ppm days E (10) =

937.5(e 1.6 + 1) = 748.22 ppm days

As x grows very large, E (x) seems to

approach 937.5.

iii. E (x) = 150e 0.16 x = C (x)

E (5) = 67.39 ppm (or ppm days

per day)

E (10) = 30.28 ppm

f. i. From Figure 6-7d, the maximum

concentration is about 150 ppm at about

2 hours. (These values can be found more

precisely by setting the numerical or

algebraic derivative equal to zero, solving

to get t = 1/ln 0.6 = 1.9576 . Then

C (1.9576) = 200/(e ln 0.6) =

144.0332 .)

ii. C (t) = 200t 0.6t

C (t) = 200t 0.6t ln 0.6 + 200 0.6t

C (1) = 200 0.61(ln 0.6 + 1) = 58.70

C(5) = 200 0.65(5 ln 0.6 + 1)

= 24.16 < 0

C(t) is increasing at about 58.7 ppm/h

when t = 1 and decreasing at about

24.2 ppm/h when t = 5. The concentration

is increasing if C (t) is positive and

decreasing if it is negative.

iii. Solving 50 = 200t 0.6t numerically for t

gives t 0.2899 and t 6.3245 .

So C(t) > 50 for 6.3245 0.2899 =

6.03 , or about 6 hours.

iv. C 1(t) = 200t 0.3t

c. lim x 3e x 0

x

x3

x

x e

3x

= lim x

x e

6x

= lim x

x e

6

= lim x = 0 (Form: 6/)

x e

= lim

x 1

x 1

= lim

ln x

0

cot ( x/2)

0

= lim

2

1/ x

1

=

=

2

( /2)csc x/2 /2

x 1

x 1

L = e 2/ = 0.529077

e. lim 3 x 4 = 48

x 2

f.

x /2

x /2

0/0, /, 0 , 00, 1 , 0,

C (t )

100

50

t

1

60 ppm around t = 1. (Exactly, t = 1/ln 0.3 =

0.8305 , for which C (0.8305) =

200/(e ln 0.3) = 61.11092 61.1 ppm.)

Repeating the computations of part iii

gives C (t) > 50 for 0.409 < t < 1.473 ,

or for about 1.06 hours.

In conclusion, the concentration peaks

sooner at a lower concentration and stays

above 50 ppm for a much shorter time.

ln 0.5 = 0.025t

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2x2 3

2

x 7 5 x

4x

2

= lim

=

x 10 x

5

2

x cos x + 1

0

b. lim

x

x0

e x 1

0

2 x + sin x

0

= lim

x0

ex 1

0

2 + cos x 2 + 1

= lim

=

=3

x0

ex

1

R5. a. lim

y = 4(1/sin 7x) cos 7x 7 = 28 cot 7x

ii. y = x 3e2x

y = 3x 4 e2x + x 3 2e2x

= x 4e2x (2x 3)

iii. y = cos (2x) y = sin (2x) 2x ln 2

4 ln x

4

iv. y = log 3 x 4 =

y =

ln 3

x ln 3

b. i.

ii.

e

2

= e

1.7 x

sec x

dx = ( 1 / 1.7) e 1.7 x + C

sec x tan x dx

ln 2 sec x

sec x tan x dx

133

ii. E( x ) =

150e

0

0.16 t

dt = 937.5( e 0.16 x + 1)

516.25 ppm days E(10) =

937.5(e 1.6 + 1) = 748.22 ppm days

As x grows very large, E(x) seems to

approach 937.5.

iii. E (x) = 150e 0.16x = C (x)

E (5) = 67.39 ppm (or ppm days

per day)

E (10) = 30.28 ppm

f. i. From Figure 6-7d, the maximum

concentration is about 150 ppm at about

2 hours. (These values can be found more

precisely by setting the numerical or

algebraic derivative equal to zero, solving

to get t = 1/ln 0.6 = 1.9576 . Then

C (1.9576) = 200/(e ln 0.6) =

144.0332 .)

ii. C (t) = 200t 0.6t

C (t) = 200t 0.6t ln 0.6 + 200 0.6t

C (1) = 200 0.61(ln 0.6 + 1) = 58.70

C(5) = 200 0.65(5 ln 0.6 + 1)

= 24.16 < 0

C(t) is increasing at about 58.7 ppm/h

when t = 1 and decreasing at about

24.2 ppm/h when t = 5. The concentration

is increasing if C (t) is positive and

decreasing if it is negative.

iii. Solving 50 = 200t 0.6t numerically for t

gives t 0.2899 and t 6.3245 .

So C(t) > 50 for 6.3245 0.2899 =

6.03 , or about 6 hours.

iv. C1(t) = 200t 0.3t

C (t )

c. lim x 3e x 0

x

x3

x

x e

2

3x

= lim x

x e

6x

= lim x

x e

6

= lim x = 0 (Form: 6/)

x e

= lim

x 1

x 1

= lim

0

ln x

0

cot ( x/2)

= lim

1/ x

1

2

=

=

2

( /2)csc x/2 /2

x 1

x 1

L = e 2/ = 0.529077

e. lim 3 x 4 = 48

x 2

f.

2

x /2

x /2

0/0, /, 0 , 00, 1 , 0,

100

50

t

1

60 ppm around t = 1. (Exactly, t = 1/ln 0.3

= 0.8305 , for which C (0.8305) =

200/(e ln 0.3) = 61.11092 61.1

ppm.)

Repeating the computations of part iii

gives C (t) > 50 for 0.409 < t < 1.473

, or for about 1.06 hours.

In conclusion, the concentration peaks

sooner at a lower concentration and stays

above 50 ppm for a much shorter time.

ln 0.5 = 0.025t

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2x2 3

2

x 7 5 x

4x

2

= lim

=

x 10 x

5

2

x cos x + 1

0

b. lim

x

x0

e x 1

0

2 x + sin x

0

= lim

x0

ex 1

0

2 + cos x 2 + 1

= lim

=

=3

x0

ex

1

R5. a. lim

y = 4(1/sin 7x) cos 7x 7 = 28 cot 7x

ii. y = x 3e2x

y = 3x 4 e 2x + x 3 2e2x

= x 4e2x (2x 3)

iii. y = cos (2x ) y = sin (2x ) 2x ln 2

4 ln x

4

iv. y = log 3 x 4 =

y =

ln 3

x ln 3

b. i.

ii.

e

2

= e

1.7 x

sec x

dx = ( 1 / 1.7) e 1.7 x + C

sec x tan x dx

ln 2 sec x

sec x tan x dx

133

ln x M for all x > 0. Let x = e M +1. Then

ln x = ln e M +1 = (M + 1) ln e = M + 1 > M.

This contradicts ln x M for all x > 0. Thus

the supposition is false, and there can be no

such number M that is an upper bound for

ln x, Q .E .D .

b. If M were a lower bound for ln x, then M

would be an upper bound for ln (1/x), but

part a shows no such number can exist.

c. ln x = 1/x, which shows that ln is

differentiable for all x > 0. Thus, ln is

continuous for all x > 0 because

differentiability implies continuity.

d. Because ln is continuous for all x > 0, the

intermediate value theorem applies. Thus, if k

is between ln a and ln b, there is a number c

between a and b such that ln c = k.

y = ln x

ln b

k

ln a

x

a

ln, so there must be some b > 0 such that

ln b > k. Similarly, part b shows k is not

a lower bound, so some a > 0 exists for

which ln a < k. By part d there is some

number c between a and b such that ln c = k,

Q .E .D .

f. The domain of ln is the positive reals, and the

range is all reals; the domain of the inverse to

ln (i.e., exp) is the range of ln (i.e., all reals),

and the range of the inverse is the domain of

ln (i.e., positive reals).

C5. a. g( x ) =

x2

sin t dt =

g (x) = 2x sin

b. g( x ) =

=

x2

sin t dt

x2

x2

sin t dt

x1

dt

n

1

T2. e = lim 1 + or e = lim (1 + n)1/n

n

n0

n

T3. If g (x) =

f (t ) dt and f ( t ) is continuous in a

T4. If (1) f ( x ) = g (x) for all x in the domain and

(2) f ( a) = g ( a) for some a in the domain, then

f ( x ) = g ( x ) for all x in the domain.

T5. Prove that ln x = loge x for all x > 0.

Proof:

Let f ( x ) = ln x, and g (x) = loge x.

f ( x ) = 1/x and

g (x) = (1/x) loge e = (1/x) 1 = 1/x

f ( x ) = g (x) for all x > 0

f ( 1 ) = ln 1 = 0 and g (1) = loge 1 = 0

f ( 1 ) = g (1)

by the uniqueness theorem,

f ( x ) = g (x) for all x > 0.

ln x = loge x for all x > 0, Q .E .D .

T6. f ( x ) = ln (x3ex )

1

a. f ( x ) = 3 x (3 x 2 e x + x 3e x ) = 3/ x + 1

x e

b. f ( x ) = 3 ln x + x ln e = 3 ln x + x

f ( x ) = 3/x + 1 (Checks.)

T7. y = e2x ln x3 = 3e2x ln x

y = 6e 2 x ln x + 3e 2 x (1 / x )

= 3e 2 x (2 ln x + 1/x )

T8. v = ln (cos 10x)

v = 1/(cos 10x) (10 sin 10x) = 10 tan 10x

T9. f ( x ) = (log2 4x)7 = [(ln 4x)/(ln 2)]7

f ( x ) = 7[(ln 4x)/(ln 2)]6 [(1/4x) 4 (1/ln 2)]

7(log 2 4 x )6

=

x ln 2

T10. t ( x ) = ln (cos2 x + sin2 x) = ln 1 = 0

t (x) = 0

tan x

T11. p( x ) =

sin t dt

T1. ln x =

tan x

sin t dt +

c. g( x ) =

Chapter Test

v( x )

u( x )

2005 Key Curriculum Press

e t sin t dt

T12.

T13.

T14.

f (t ) dt

C6. log cabin

(or log cabin + C, which equals houseboat)

ln x

1 5x

e +C

5

1

(ln x )6 ( dx/x ) = (ln x ) 7 + C

7

1

sec 5 x dx = ln | sec 5 x + tan 5 x | + C

5

5x

dx =

135

1 x2

1

5 =

(25 1)

0

ln 5 0 ln 5

= 14.9120

5 3x

T16. lim

x ln 4 x

3

= lim

= lim(3 x ) =

x [1/( 4 x )] 4

x

T15.

5 x dx =

x / 2

x / 2

ln (tan x )

= lim

x / 2

tan x

= lim

x / 2

L=e =1

T18. a.

0

(1 / tan x ) sec 2 x

= lim cot x = 0

x / 2

sec 2 x

all values of x.

h (c) = 0

This result thus contradicts the mean value

theorem, Q.E.D.

T22. a. F ( x ) = 60e0.1 x F ( x ) = 6e0.1 x so

F ( 5 ) = 6e0.5 = 9.8923 lb/ft

F ( 1 0 ) = 6e = 16.3096 lb/ft

b. Work equals force times displacement. But the

force varies at different displacements. Thus, a

definite integral has to be used.

c.

F

100

(x, F )

y

5

4

3

2

1

dx

5

dW = F dx = 60 e0.1 x dx

t or x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

W=

60e

0.1 x

dx

0

b. h( x ) =

3 x 5

W 389.23 ft-lb

f (t ) dt h ( x ) = f (3 x 5) 3,

h(3) = f (9 5) 3 = f ( 4) 3 = 1 3 = 3

T19. ln x =

x1

dt, so ln 1.8 =

1.8 1

dt

t

1

1

1

1

M4 = 0.2

+

+

+

= 0.58664 K

1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7

t

T20. g( x ) =

x2

sin t dt = cos t

x2

2

2

d x

g ( x ) =

sin t dt = 2 x sin x 2

dx 2

T21. Let h ( x ) = f ( x ) g (x).

Then h ( a) = f ( a) g (a) = 0 and

h ( b ) = f ( b ) g (b) 0.

h( b ) h( a )

0

ba

By the mean value theorem, there is a number c

between a and b such that

h( b ) h( a )

h ( c ) =

.

ba

h (c) 0

136

1. f ( x ) = 2x

2 3.1 2 2.9

f (3)

= 5.549618K

0.2

2. There are about 10.0 squares, each 20 units.

50

10

g( x ) dx 200

2

x, so exact

15

answer is 200.)

3. L = lim

f ( x ) if and only if for any > 0, there is

x c

a > 0 such that if x is within units of c but

not equal to c, f ( x ) is within units of L.

4. Answers may vary.

f (x )

4

x

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f ( x + h) f ( x )

h

f ( x ) f (c )

or f (c) = lim

x c

xc

6. f (x) = x 3

( x + h)3 x 3

f ( x ) = lim

h0

h

3

x + 3 x 2 h + 3 xh 2 + h 3 x 3

= lim

h0

h

2

= lim(3 x + 3 xh + h 2 ) = 3 x 2 , Q.E.D.

5. f (x) = lim

h0

y=x2

10

x

1

= 24.875

x3

8. f (x) =

x 2 dx

h0

7. f (x) = f (x) = 3x 2

f (5) = 352 = 75

5.013 4.99 3

= 75.0001

f (5)

0.02

5.0013 4.999 3

f (5)

= 75.000001

0.002

The symmetric differences are getting closer to

75 as x gets closer to zero.

13. M 10 = 20.9775

M 100 = 20.999775

Sums seem to be approaching 21.

1

14. a. cos 5 x sin x dx = cos 6 x + C

6

(1/x ) dx = ln | x | + C

tan x dx = ln | sec x | + C = ln | cos x | + C

sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x | + C

1

(3x 5) dx = 3 (3x 5) (3 dx )

b.

3 x 5 = (3 x 5)

1

f (x) = (3 x 5) 1/ 2 3 = 1.5(3 x 5) 1/ 2

2

f (7) = 1.5(21 5)1/2 = 1.5/4 = 0.375 = 3/8

9. Line with slope of 3/8 is tangent to the graph at

x = 7.

1/ 2

c.

d.

1/ 2

e.

f (x )

15.

x

5

10. a. y = e 2x cos 3x

y = 2 e2x cos 3x 3e2x sin 3x

ln x

b. q( x ) =

q ( x ) =

tan x

2

(tan x )/x ln x sec x

1

ln x

=

2

2

tan x

x tan x sin x

d2 x

d

[(ln 5)5 x ] = (ln 5)2 5 x

c.

2 (5 ) =

dx

dx

11. For the function to be differentiable,

lim ( ax 2 + 1) = lim+ ( x 2 + 6 x + b) and

x 2

x 2

lim 2 ax = lim+ ( 2 x + 6) .

x 2

x 2

4a + 1 = 8 + b and 4a = 2 a =

y

1

and b = 5

2

1/ 2

2

1 2

(3 x 5)3/ 2 + C = (3 x 5)3/ 2 + C

9

3 3

1 3 4 64 1

=

= 21,

x

1

3

3 3

1

which agrees with the conjecture in Problem 13.

x 2 dx =

to the secant line.

f (x )

x

a

c b

Statement:

If f is differentiable on (a, b) and continuous at

x = a and x = b, then there is a number x = c in

f (b) f ( a)

(a, b) such that f ( x ) =

.

ba

17. y = x9/7

y7 = x9

7y6 y = 9x 8

9x8

9x8

9

9

9

= x 854 / 7 = x 2 / 7 = x 9/ 71

6 =

7y

7( x 9/ 7 )6 7

7

7

as from the derivative of a power formula

y =

x

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

137

power would have to be x0. But x0 = 1, so its

derivative equals 0, not x 1. Thus, x 1 is not the

derivative of a power, Q.E.D.

19. f ( x ) =

tan x

cos 3t dt

20. f ( x ) =

1

x > 0.

Proof:

Let f (x) = ln xa and g (x) = a ln x.

1

1 a

Then f ( x ) = a ax a1 = a = and

x

x x

1 a

g ( x ) = a = .

x x

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0

f (1) = ln (1a) = ln 1 = 0 and g(1) = a ln 1 = 0

f (1) = g (1)

f (x) = g (x) for all x > 0, and thus

ln xa = a ln x for all x 0, Q .E .D .

22. x = 5 cos t, y = 3 sin t

dy dy/dt 3 cos t

3

=

=

= cos t

dx dx/dt 5 sin t

5

23. At t = 2, (x, y) = (5 cos 2, 3 sin 2)

= (2.08 , 2.72).

dy

3

At t = 2,

= cot 2 = 0.2745 .

dx

5

The graph shows that a line of slope 0.27

at point (2.08 , 2.72) is tangent to the

curve.

y

n0

1

ln L = lim ln (1 + n) 0

n0 n

ln (1 + n)

0

= lim

n0

n

0

1/(1 + n)

= lim

=1

n0

1

L = e1 = e, Q.E.D.

dx

dy

27. Know:

= 30 ft/s,

= 40 ft/s

dt

dt

dz

Want:

when x = 200 and y = 100

dt

x2 + y2 = z2

dx

dy

dz

2x

+ 2y

= 2z

dt

dt

dt

When x = 200 and y = 100, z = 50, 000 = 100 5 .

2(200)( 30) + 2(100)( 40) = 2 100 5

dz

dt

dz 20

=

= 8.94427K ft/s

dt

5

The distance z is decreasing.

28.

= (1/3)(0.5)(3340) = 556 23

29. Area of cross section = y2

Because the end of the radius is on a line through

the origin with slope r/h, y = (r/h)x.

r 2

Area = [(r/h) x ]2 = 2 x 2

h

Area

x

(x, Area)

dx

x

h

24. y = tan 1 t

dy

1

v=

=

= (1 + t 2 ) 1

dt 1 + t 2

dv

2t

a=

= 1(1 + t 2 ) 2 2t =

dt

(1 + t 2 )2

3x

e 1

0

25. lim

x 0 sin 5 x

0

3e 3 x

3

= lim

=

x 0 5 cos 5 x

5

138

dV = (Area) dx

V=

( Area ) dx =

h r 2

h2

x 2 dx

r 2 1 3 h 1 r 2 3

1

x =

(h 0 3 ) = r 2 h, Q .E.D .

h2 3 0 3 h2

3

30. Answers will vary.

=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Problem Set 7-1

Q9.

1. D (0) = 500

D (10) = 895.4238482

D (20) = 1603.567736

2. D (t) = 500(ln 1.06)(1.06t ) $/yr

D (0) = 29.13445406

D (10) = 52.17536994

D (20) = 93.43814108

The rate of change, in $/yr, increases as the

amount in the account increases.

D(t ) 500 (ln 1.06) (1.06 t )

=

D(t )

500 (1.06 t )

= ln 1.06 = 0.0582689081

R(0) = ln 1.06

R(10) = ln 1.06

R(20) = ln 1.06

4. The percent interest rate stays the same:

approximately 5.83%.

5. f (x) = a bx

f (x) = a (ln b) bx = (ln b)(a bx )

= (ln b) f (x)

So f (x) is directly proportional to f (x).

6. See Problem 11 in Section 7-2.

3. R(t ) =

Q1.

Q2.

y

Q3.

Q4.

y

Q6.

y

y

x

x

x

4

3

t = number of hours

dB/dt = kB dB/ B = k dt ln | B| = kt + C

| B| = e kt +C = e kt e C B = C1e kt

b. 5 = C1e k0 C1 = 5

7 = 5e3k ln (7/5) = 3k

1

7

k = ln = 0.112157K

3

5

7

B = 5e (1/3) ln( 7/5)t = 5

5

t/3

= 5e 0.112157Kt

c.

B

5

10

d. B = 5(7/5)24/3 = 73.78945

About 74 million

e. 1000 = 5(7/5)t/3 ln (1000/5) = t/3 ln (7/5)

3 ln 200

t=

= 47.24001K

ln (7/5)

About 47 hours after start, so in a little less

than 2 days

2. a. N = number of units of radiation from N17;

t = number of seconds

Q5.

dN /dt = kN dN / N = k dt

x

1

Q10.

y

ln |N| = kt + C

| N | = e kt +C N = C1e kt

5.6 1013 = 3 1017e60k

ln(1.866 K 10 4 ) = 60 k

k = 0.143103

N = 3 1017 e 0.143103Kt

c.

N

Q7.

Q8.

y

3 1017

y

3

x

x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

139

d. t = 5(60) = 300 s

N = 3 1017 e ( 0.143103K)(300 ) = 0.067991K

It will not be safe because 0.067 > 0.007.

3. a. F = number of mg; t = number of minutes

dF/dt = kF dF/ F = k dt ln | F| = kt + C

| F| = e kt +C F = C1e kt

50 = C 1ek0 C 1 = 50

30 = 50e20k ln (30/50) = 20k

k = (1/20) ln (0.6) = 0.025541

F = 50e ln ( 0.6 )t / 20 = 50(0.6)t / 20 = 50e 0.025541Kt

b.

F

50

t

50

d. 0.007 = 50(0.6)t/20

ln (0.007/50) = ln (0.6)t/20

t = 347.4323

About 5 h 47 min

4. a. V = number of dollars trade-in value;

t = number of months from the present

dV /dt = kV dV /V = k dt ln |V | = kt + C

|V | = e kt +C V = C1e kt

4700 = 4200e ( k )( 3) ln( 4700/4200) = 3k

k = (1/3) ln (4700/4200) = 0.037492

V = 4200e 0.037492Kt

c.

V

4200

t

30

30

V = 4200e ( 0.037492)(9) = 2997.116

About $3000

e. 1200 = 4200e 0.037492t

ln (1200/4200) = 0.037492t

t = (1/0.037492) ln (1200/4200)

= 33.4135

About 33 months from the present

f. 31 months before V = 4700, t = 34.

V = 4200e ( 0.037492K)( 34 ) = 15026.795K

About $15,000

g. The difference between $16,000 and $15,000

is the dealers profit.

140

5. a. dC/dt = kC

b.

dC/C = k dt ln |C| = kt + D

| C | = e kt + D C = D1e kt

0.00372 = D1e k0 D1 = 0.00372

0.00219 = 0.00372e8k

ln (0.00219/0.00372) = 8k

k = (1/8) ln (219/372) = 0.0662277

C = 0.00372e 0.0662277t

c. Either: C = 0.015

0.015 = 0.00372e 0.0662277t

ln 4.0322 = 0.0662277t

t = 21.05 , which is before the poison was

inhaled,

or: t = 20 C = 0.00372e 0.0662277( 20)

C = 0.0139 , which is less than 0.015

the concentration never was that high.

d.

P

100

50

t

20,000

ln (1/2) = 0.0662277t t = 10.4661

About 10.5 hours

6. a. dP/dt = kP

b.

dP/P = k dt ln | P | = kt + C

| P| = e kt +C P = C1e kt

100 = C1e k0 C1 = 100

50 = 100e5750k ln 0.5 = 5750k

k = 0.0001205473

P = 100e 0.0001205473t

c. P = 100e( 0.0001205473)(4000) = 61.74301

About 61.7%

d. 48.37 = 100e 0.0001205473Kt

ln 0.4837 = 0.0001205473t

t = 6024.939

The wood is about 6025 years old. For 1996,

the flood would have been 1996 (4004) =

6000 years ago, so the wood is old enough.

e.

100

61.7

50

t

4000 5750

20,000

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Problems 16, where C is the initial investment.

M varies exponentially with t.

Let i = the interest rate as a decimal.

dM/dt = Ck ekt

At t = 0, dM/dt = Ci.

Ci = Ck e0 k = i M = Ce it

Examples:

$1000 at 7% for 5 yr: $1419.07

$1000 at 7% for 10 yr: $2013.75

$1000 at 14% for 5 yr: $2013.75

$1000 at 14% for 10 yr: $4055.20

Leaving the money in the account twice as long

has the same effect as doubling the interest rate.

Doubling the amount invested obviously doubles

the money at any particular time, but that doesnt

tell us how that compares with doubling the time

or the interest rate.

Algebraically, Cei 2t = Ce2i t shows that doubling

the time is equivalent to doubling the interest

rate. Solving Ce2it > 2Ceit gives Ce2it 2Ceit > 0

Ceit(eit 2) > 0 eit > 2 (because Ceit > 0, so

C > 0, being an investment) it > ln 2. So

doubling either the time or the interest rate will

always eventually yield more than doubling the

investment, once t is high enough. For example,

at 7%, 0.07t > ln 2 t > (ln 2)/0.07 =

9.9021 t, so by 9 years 11 months,

doubling the time or interest rate will yield more

than doubling the investment.

8. Assume an investment of $1000 at 7% per year.

For 5 years, as in Problem 7:

Annually: M = 1000(1.07)5 = $1402.55

Quarterly: M = 1000(1.0175)20 = $1414.78

Monthly: M = 1000(1.00583)60 = $1417.63

Daily: M = 1000(1.0001917808)1825 =

$1419.02

Continuously (Problem 7): $1419.07

Note that compounding continuously is only

5 cents better than compounding daily for a

$1000 investment in 5 years!

M = M 0(1 + k/n)nt

Let L = lim (1 + k/n) nt 1.

n

9.

dy

= 0.3 y

dx

20

compounding equation.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x

5

10

20

10.

dy

= 0.2 y

dx

dy

= 0.2 x dx

y

ln |y| = 0.2x + C

| y | = e 0.2 x +C = e 0.2 x e C

y = eC e 0.2 x = C1e 0.2 x

30 = C1e 1.4

30

= 7.3979K

e1.4

y = 7.3979e 0.2 x

C1 =

| y | = e kx +C1 y = Ce kx

y(0) = Ce k0 C = y(0) y = y0 e kx , Q.E.D.

Q1. Cekx

Q3. kx + C

Q2. (kx2)/2 + C

Q4. cos x + C

Q5. 1/ 1 x 2

Q6. 5 cos x

Q7. tan x

Q8.

t ln (1 + k/n)

= lim

n 1

1

2

t

( kn )

1 + k /n

= lim

n

n 2

kt

= lim

= kt

n 1 + k /n

L = ekt

lim M = M0 e kt , which is the continuous

dy

= 0.3 dx

y

ln |y| = 0.3x + C

| y | = e 0.3 x +C = e 0.3 x e C

y = eC e0.3 x = C1e0.3 x

4 = C1e0 C1 = 4, showing that C1 can be

negative.

y = 4e0.3 x

y' or y

y

x

1

y'

x 0

x 0

Q10. B

1. a. dM/dt = 100 S

b. S = kM dM/dt = 100 kM

Problem Set 7-3

141

c.

k dM

100 kM = dt k 100 kM = dt

dM

1

ln |100 kM | = t + C

k

|100 kM| = e kte kC

100 km = C 1e kt kM = 100 C 1e k t

1

M = (100 C1e kt )

k

Substitute M = 0 when t = 0.

1

0 = (100 C1e 0 ) C1 = 100

k

100

M =

(1 e kt )

k

d. k = 0.02 M = 5000(1 e0.02 t)

e.

M

5000

t

30

60

90

t = 60: $3494.03 ($6000 in, $2505.97 spent)

t = 90: $4173.51 ($9000 in, $4826.49 spent)

g. t = 365: (365.23 or 366 could be used.)

M = 5000(1 e 7.30 ) = 4996.622

$4996.62 in the account

dM/dt = 100 0.02(4996.622) = 0.06755

Increasing at about $0.07 per day

h. lim M = lim 5000(1 e 0.02 t )

t

= 5000(1 0) = 5000

dM

1

k dM

= dt

= dt

100 + kM

k 100 + kM

1

ln |100 + kM | = t + C |100 + kM | = e kt e kC

k

100 + km = C 1e kt kM = 100 + C 1e kt

1

M = (C1e kt 100)

k

Substitute M = 0 when t = 0.

1

0 = (C1e 0 100) C1 = 100

k

100 kt

M =

(e 1)

k

Let k = 0.0002 (0.02% per day).

M = (500000)(e0.0002 t 1)

142

deposits far exceed the interest for the first few

years.

M

50,000

t

500

numbers of years. Neglect leap years.

Years

0

1

10

20

dM/dt

0

37865

537540

1652980

100.00

107.57

207.51

430.60

the account. After 10 years, the interest has

started putting in more than the $100/day. After

20 years, the interest puts in about $331 a day,

while the winnings still put in only $100 a day.

As t approaches infinity, the amount in the

account becomes infinite!

3. a. E = RI + L(dI/dt)

b. L dI/dt = E RI

L dI

L R dI

= dt

= dt

E RI

R E RI

L

ln | E RI | = t + C

R

| E RI | = e ( R/ L )t e ( R/ L )C

1

E RI = C1e ( R/ L )t I = [ E C1e ( R/ L )t ]

R

Substitute I = 0 when t = 0.

1

0 = ( E C1e 0 ) C1 = E

R

E

I = [1 e ( R/ L )t ]

R

110

c. I =

[1 e (10 / 20 )t ]

10

I = 11(1 e 0.5 t)

I

11

t

5

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

0.99 = 1 e 0.02t

e 0.02t = 0.01

0.02t = ln 0.01

t = 50 ln 0.01 = 230.258

About 230 seconds

iii. lim I = lim 11(1 e 0.5t ) = 11(1 0)

t

= 11 amps

e. I = 0.95(11) = 10.45

10.45 = 11(1 e 0.5t )

5. a.

0.95 = 1 e 0.5t

b.

e 0.5t = 0.05

0.5t = ln 0.05

t = 2 ln 0.05 = 5.9914

About 6 seconds

4. a. R = C(dT/dt) + hT

b. C dT/dt = R hT

C dT/( R hT ) = dt

h dT

C

h

C

ln | R hT | = t + D

h

R hT = dt

1/2

dV = k dt

2V 1/2 = kt + C V =

kt + C

2

c. Initial conditions t = 0; V = 196;

dV/dt = 28:

k0+C

1961/2 =

C = 28

2

and 28 = k 1961/ 2 k = 2

2

| R hT | = e

e

R hT = D1e ( h /C )t

T = (1/ h)[ R D1e ( h /C )t ]

Substitute T = 0 when t = 0.

1

0 = ( R D1e 0 ) D1 = R

h

R

T = [1 e ( h / C )t ]

h

(0.04/ 2)t

c. T = (50/0.04)[1 e

T = 1250(1 e 0.02t )

d.

out at 28 ft3/min only when t = 0. For

instance, at t = 5, dV/dt = 18, which

means water flows out at only 18 ft3/min.

So it takes longer than 7 min to empty

the tub.

e. 0 = (t 14)2 the tub is empty at

t = 14 min.

f.

V

]

100

t

1250

14

t

100

200

t = 10: T = 226.586 227

t = 20: T = 412.099 412

t = 50: T = 790.150 790

t = 100: T = 1080.830 1081

t = 200: T = 1227.105 1227

f. lim T = lim 1250(1 e 0.02 t ) = 1250(1 0)

t

2 t + 28

V =

V = (14 t ) 2

2

( h / C )t ( h / C ) D

dV

= kV 1/2

dt

Set 7-7.

6. The following data were gathered in the authors

class in December 1994. Times t are in seconds

and volumes V are in mL. Note that a burette

reads the amount of fluid delivered, so you

must subtract the reading from 50 to find the

volume remaining. Use food coloring in the

water to make the liquid level easier to read.

Read from the bottom of the meniscus (the

curved surface of the liquid).

= 1250

g. T = 0.99(1250) = 1237.5

1237.5 = 1250(1 e 0.02t )

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

143

Seconds

Reading

Volume

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

M

320

360

0

2.4

4.4

6.4

8.5

10.5

12.4

14.3

16.1

17.8

19.9

21.2

22.8

24.5

25.6

27.4

28.6

30.0

31.3

32.6

33.8

35.1

36.4

37.4

38.5

39.5

40.6

M

46.1

49.3

50

47.6

45.6

43.6

41.5

39.5

37.6

35.7

33.9

32.2

30.1

28.8

27.2

25.6

24.4

22.6

21.4

20.0

18.7

17.4

16.2

14.9

13.6

12.6

11.5

10.5

9.4

M

3.9

0.7

V = 0.000209255t2 0.20964t + 49.54 .

The data and the equation can be plotted on the

grapher, as shown.

position of the stopcock and the time when the

fluid would all be gone if the burette were of

uniform diameter all the way down to the

stopcock. For the preceding data, the vertex is at

0.20964 K

t=

500 s

(2)(0.000209255K)

V 3.0 mL

So the stopcock should be found at a point

corresponding to about 3 mL below the bottom

mark.

7. a. n = 1, k = 1, C = 3:

dy/dx = y dy/ y = dx ln | y | = x 3

y

1

x

1

b. n = 0.5, k = 1, C = 3:

dy/dx = y 0.5 y 0.5 dy = dx

1

2 y 0.5 = x 3 y = ( x 3)2

4

Note: x 3 because y0.5 is a positive number.

y

x

3

c. n = 1 dy/dx = ky 1 y dy = k dx

1

y 2 = kx + C y = 2 kx + 2C

2

k = 1, C = 3 y = 2 x 6

5

V

50

x

3

t

100

time. Because there is still fluid in the burette

when V = 0, the graph crosses the t-axis, unlike

the graphs in Problem 5 and Example 1. The

144

n = 2 dy/dx = ky 2 y 2 dy = k dx

1 3

y = kx + C y = 3 3kx + 3C

3

k = 1, C = 3 y = 3 3 x 9

2005 Key Curriculum Press

M kB = C1e kct

d. For n > 1,

dy

= ky n y n dy = k dx

dx

( n 1)

y

= kx + C because n > 1,

n 1

1

so y =

n 1 ( n 1) ( kx + C )

which has a vertical asymptote at x = C/k

because the denominator equals zero for this

point.

Note that the radical will involve a sign

when the root index is even (for example,

when n is odd).

For n = 2, k = 1, C = 3: y = ( x 3) 1

1

( M C1e kct )

k

Use the initial condition B = 0 when t = 0.

0 = (1/k) ( M C 1e0) C 1 = M

M

B = (1 e kct )

k

Use the initial condition kB = 80 when

B = 1000.

80 = k(1000) k = 0.08

Use the initial condition dB/dt = 500 when t = 0.

From dB/dt = c (M kB), 500 = c (M 0)

c = 500/M.

particular equation is

B=

y

2

B = 12.5 M[1 e ( 40 / M )t ]

Assume various values of M:

M = 1000: B = 12500(1 e 0.04 t)

M = 5000: B = 62500(1 e 0.008 t )

M = 10000: B = 125000(1 e 0.004 t )

x

3

B

M = 10000

100,000

M = 5000

1

For n = 3, k = 1, C = 3: y =

2x 6

M = 1000

250

t

500

y

2

x

3

dy

e. For n = 0,

= ky 0 = k , so y = kx + C,

dx

a linear function. For k = 1, C = 3, y = x 3.

increasing at the same rate (500 bottles/day). As

t increases, the number of bottles/day increases,

approaching a steady state equal to 12.5M.

To find the break-even time, first find the total

number of bottles sold as a function of time. B is

in bottles per day, so the total sales in x days,

T(x), is

T ( x) =

B dt.

T ( x) =

125000(1 e

0.004 t

) dt

x

0

= 125000[ x 250(1 e 0.004 x )]

8. dB/dt = c ( M kB), where k and c are constants.

dB

1 k dB

= c dt

= c dt

M kB

k M kB

1

ln | M kB | = ct + C

k

2005 Key Curriculum Press

total numbers of dollars are

D25(x) = 31250[x 250(1 e 0.004 x)]

D50(x) = 62500[x 250(1 e 0.004 x)]

145

or A(x) = 10000x.

The three graphs can be plotted by grapher. For

$0.25/bottle, the break-even time is 207 days.

For $0.50/bottle, the break-even time is 90 days

(less than half!).

Dollars (millions)

$0.25/bottle

$0.50/bottle

2

1

x

90

207

and L = h (T 70), where h is a proportionality

constant.

dT/dt = k(1200 + 70h hT )

dT/(1200 + 70h hT ) = k dt

(1/h) ln |1200 + 70h hT | = kt + C

ln |1200 + 70h hT | = kht h C

|1200 + 70h hT | = e kht e hC

1200 + 70h hT = C 1e kht

hT = 1200 + 70h C 1e kht

T = 1200/h + 70 (C 1/h) e kht

Use T = 70 when t = 0.

70 = 1200/h + 70 C 1/h e kh 0

C 1 = 1200

T = 1200/h + 70 1200/h e kht

T = 70 + (1200/h)(1 e kht)

Substitute t = 0, L = 0, and dT/dt = 3 into the

original differential equation.

3 = k(1200 0) k = 0.0025

T = 70 + (1200/h)(1 e 0.0025 ht)

Using T = 96 when t = 10,

26 = (1200/h)(1 e 0.025 h).

Solving numerically gives h 11.7347 .

equation is T 70 + 102.26(1 e 0.02933t ).

Time data for various temperatures can be found

by grapher or by substituting for T and

solving for t.

T

Never reaches 180

140

160

170

100

t

39

146

72

130

140

39 min

61 min

72 min

130 min

Never!

155

160

170

180

102.26(1 + 0), which equals 172.26. Thus,

the temperature never reaches 180. When the

heater turns off, the differential equation becomes

dT

= kh (T 70) T = 70 + C2 e kht .

dt

Using T = 160 at time t = 0 when the heater

turns off, T = 70 + 90e 0.02933t.

To find the time taken to drop to 155, substitute

155 = 70 + 90e 0.02933Kt .

Solving numerically or algebraically gives

t = 1.9 . Thus, it takes only 2 minutes for the

temperature to drop 5! By contrast, from the

preceding table, it takes 11 minutes

(t = 61 to t = 72 in the table) to warm back up

from 155 to 160.

The design of the heater is inadequate because it

takes much longer to warm up by a certain

amount than it does to cool back down again.

Near 172, a slight increase in the thermostat

setting for the heater makes a great increase in

the time taken to reach that setting. For instance,

it takes an hour (72 minutes to 130 minutes) to

warm the 10 degrees from 160 to 170. These

inadequacies could be corrected most easily by

adding more insulation. The resulting decrease in

h would make the heater cool more slowly, heat

up faster, and reach the 180 degrees it currently

cannot reach. Decreasing h would also reduce the

power consumption.

10. a. dP/dT = kP/T 2

dP/P = k dT /T 2 ln | P | = kT 1 + C

| P| = e

k /T + C

P = C1e k / T

3.95 = C1e k /343

(3.95 / 0.054) = e ( k /343+ k /293)

ln (3.95/0.054) = k/343 + k/293

k = [ln (3.95 / 0.054)]/( 1/ 343 + 1/ 293)

= 8627.812641K

From ln |P| = kT 1 + C,

C = ln 0.054 + 8627.812641/293.

C = 26.52768829 C1 = e26.52768829

P = e 26.52768829e 8627.812641/T

P = e ( 26.52768829K8627.812641K/T )

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

Temperature

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

283

293

303

313

323

333

343

353

90

100

110

200

Actual*

0.0190

0.054

0.142

0.354

0.832

1.85

3.95

8.05

363

373

383

473

the melting point, but not below it.

d. Using the equation for liquid naphthalene,

760 = e(18.33140949 5734.569702/ T ) ,

ln 760 = 18.33140949 5734.569702/T

5734.569702 K

T =

= 490.214 K

18.33140949K ln 760

About 490 K, or 217C (actual: 218C)

e. Answers will vary.

15.7

29.8

54.6

3972.1

0.021

0.054

0.133

0.320

0.815

1.83

3.95

7.4

(melting

point)

12.6

18.5

27.3

496.5

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

y = 5x 4

Q2. y = 5x ln 5

8

(1/8)x + C

Q4. 7 x/ln 7 + C

y = y/x or y = 3x 2

87.5

Q8.

y

melting point, but not above it. The

differences between the predicted and actual

answers are most likely due to the fact that

naphthalene changes from solid to liquid at

80C; the constants for solid and liquid

naphthalene differ.

Use initial conditions for T = 90, 110 as in

part b to get a better equation for the liquid:

12.6 = C1e k/ 363

496.5 = C1e k/ 473

k = [ln (496.5/12.6)]/(1/473 + 1/363)

= 5734.569702

C = ln 12.6 + 5734.569702/363

= 18.33140949

C1 = e18.33140949

P = e(18.33140949 5734.569702/ T )

With the new equation,

Temperature

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

283

293

303

313

323

333

343

353

90

100

110

200

363

373

383

473

2005 Key Curriculum Press

P

0.144

0.289

0.551

1.01

1.78

3.03

5.01

8.05

12.6

19.2

28.7

496.5

Q10. E

1. a. dy/dx = x/(2y)

At (3, 5), dy/dx = 3/10 = 0.3.

At (5, 1), dy/dx = 5/2 = 2.5.

On the graph, the line at (3, 5) slopes upward

with a slope less than 1. At (5, 1) the line

slopes downward with a slope much steeper

than 1.

b. The figure looks like one branch of a

hyperbola opening in the y-direction. (The

lower branch shown on the graph is also part

of the solution, but students would not be

expected to find this graphically.)

Actual

0.021

0.054

0.133

0.320

0.815

1.83

3.95

7.4

(melting

point)

12.6

18.5

27.3

496.5

(3, 5)

(5, 1)

(1, 2)

(5, 1)

right branch of a hyperbola opening in the

x-direction. (The left branch is also part of the

147

to find this graphically.)

dy

x

1

d.

=

2 y dy = x dx y 2 = x 2 + C

dx 2 y

2

x = 5, y = 1 C = 1 12.5 = 11.5

By algebra, x2 2y2 = 23. This is the

particular equation of a hyperbola opening in

the x-direction, which confirms the

observations in part c.

2. At (3, 3), dy/dx = 0.1(3) = 0.3, which is

reasonable because the slope is positive and less

than 1. At (0, 2), dy/dx = 0.1(2) = 0.2, which

is reasonable because the slope is negative and

less than 1 in absolute value. The next graph

shows the two particular solutions. For the first,

y (6) 4.0. For the second, y (6) 3.6.

dy

= 0.1y y = C1e 0.1x

dx

For (3, 3), the particular solution is

y = 2.2224e0.1 x, giving y(6) = 4.0495 .

For (0, 2), the particular solution is

y = 2e0.1 x, giving y(6) = 3.6442 .

Both graphical answers are close to these actual

answers.

1 2

x +C

2

1

( 1)2 = (1)2 + C C = 1.5

2

2

y = 1.5 0.5x 2

y2 =

y = 1.5 0.5 x 2

(Use the negative square root because of the

initial condition.)

The graph agrees with part b.

From the next-to-last line, add 0.5x2 to both

sides, getting 0.5x2 + y2 = 1.5, which is the

equation of an ellipse because x2 and y2 have

the same sign but unequal coefficients.

dy

= 3(1 1) = 0.

dx

dy

At (1, 2),

= 1(1 2) = 1.

dx

dy

At (0, 1),

= 0(1 + 1) = 0.

dx

4. a. At (3, 1),

y

3

y

4

3

2

1

2 1

1

x

1

2

3

horizontal asymptote at y = 1.

dy

3

=

= 0.75.

dx

(2)(2)

dy

1

At (1, 0),

=

, which is infinite.

dx

(2)(0)

3. a. At (3, 2),

dy

x

2

1

2

resemble half-ellipses.

dy

x

c.

=

dx

2y

2y dy = x dx

2 y dy = x dx

148

dy

= x (1 y)

dx

dy

= x dx

1 y

1 y = x dx

c.

ln |1 y| = 0.5x 2 + C

2

1 y = e 0.5 x e C

2

y = 1 + C1e 0.5 x (C1 can be positive or

negative.)

1 = 1 + C 1e 0 C 1 = 2

2

y = 1 2e 0.5 x

The grapher confirms the graph in part b.

2

As | x | , e 0.5 x 0. So y 1,

which agrees with the horizontal asymptote

at y = 1.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9. a.

5.

2

1.5

(3, 2)

0.5

x

2 1.5 1 0.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

(1, 2)

1

1.5

2

b.

6.

2

1.5

1

0.5

x

2 1.5 1 0.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

1

1.5

dy

= 0.2 xy

dx

Evidence: At (1, 1) the slope was given to

be 0.2, which is true for this differential

equation. As x or y increases from this

point, the slope gets steeper in the negative

direction, which is also true for this

differential equation. In Quadrants I and III the

slopes are all negative, and in Quadrants II

and IV they are all positive. (Note: The

2

algebraic solution is y = Ce 0.1x .)

y

7.

2

y

5

1.5

1

(0, 2)

0.5

x

2 1.5 1 0.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

5

(0,2.5)

(0, 5)

1.5

2

8.

2

1.5

1

0.5

x

2 1.5 1 0.5

0.5

0.5

1

1.5

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1.5

(0, 5). The graph goes toward in the

y-direction instead of toward +.

c. If a ruler is aligned with the slope lines, the

lines that form a straight line are the ones

crossing the y-axis at 2.5 with slope 1/2.

(In courses on differential equations, students

will learn that the given equation is a firstorder linear equation that can be solved using

an integrating factor. The general solution is

y = Ce0.2 x 0.5x 2.5. For C = 0, the curve

is the line y = 0.5x 2.5, which intersects

the y-axis at (0, 2.5).)

149

P

(0, 18)

d.

10.5

e.

f.

(0, 2)

(4, 2)

(4, 2). The graph is the same as that in part a

but shifted over 4 months. This behavior is

to be expected because dP/dt depends only on

P, not on t, and both initial conditions have

the same value of P.

c. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(0, 18). The population is decreasing to the

same asymptote, P = 10.5, as in parts a

and b.

d. The asymptote at P = 10.5 indicates that the

island can sustain only 1050 rabbits. If the

population is lower than that, it increases. If

the population is higher than that, it

decreases. The number 10.5 is a value of P

that makes dP/dt equal zero. Note that there is

another asymptote at P = 0, which also

makes dP/dt equal zero.

12. a. dv/dt = 32.16 0.0015v2

The slope at (5, 120) appears to be about 1,

but dv/dt actually equals 32.16

0.0015(120)2 = 10.56. The answers are

different because the graph is scaled by a

factor of 10.

b. Initial condition (0, 0)

v

(0,180)

146.4...

13. a.

b.

c.

above about 15 seconds.

See the graph in part b with initial condition

(5, 0). The graph is identical to the one in

part b except shifted 5 seconds to the right.

This behavior is to be expected because the

differential equation is independent of t.

See the graph in part b. This graph decreases

to the terminal velocity because the diver

starts out going faster.

Similarities include: Both models have a

horizontal asymptote that the particular

solutions approach from above or below.

Both models decrease rapidly and gradually

level off for values above the asymptotic

limit.

Differences include: For values below the

asymptotic limit, one model starts with rapid

increase and gradually slows its growth,

whereas the other starts with a slow increase

that becomes more rapid growth before

slowing toward the asymptote.

mg

ma = 2

By hypothesis

r

dv

dv g

Divide by m; a =

.

= 2

dt

dt r

dv dr g

Chain rule

=

dr dt r 2

dr

dv

g

v=

(r = distance)

v = 2

dt

dr

r

dv

g

Divide by v.

= 2

dr r v

dv

(5, 2) = 1.2488

dr

dv

(1, 10) = 6.244

dr

dv

(10, 4) = 0.1561

dr

These slopes agree with those shown.

Initial condition (r, v) = (1, 10)

From the graph, the velocity is zero at r 5.

So the spaceship is about 4 Earth radii, or

about 25,000 km, above the surface.

v

(5,120)

(1,18)

14.11...

(1,12)

50

(1,10)

t

(0, 0)

(5, 0)

0 = 32.16 0.0015v2

v = (32.16/0.0015)1/2 = 146.424 146 ft/s

150

(2,10)

6.12...

5 4.37...

(10,4)

(5,2)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

algebraically.

dv 62.44

62.44

=

v dv =

dr

dr

r 2v

r2

v 2 62.44

=

+C

r

2

For the solution through (1, 10), C = 50

62.44 = 12.44, so the ship starts falling

when v = 0 at r = 62.44/12.44 5.

d. See the graph in part c with initial condition

(r, v) = (1, 12). The graph levels off between

4 and 5 km/s. The precise value of v can be

found algebraically.

v 2 62.44

C = 72 62.44 = 9.56

=

+ 9.56

2

r

Because r > 0, v is never zero, so the

spaceship never stops and falls back.

As r approaches infinity, v2/2 approaches

9.56, and thus v approaches

(2)(9.56) = 4.37 km/s.

(r, v) = (2, 10). The graph levels off at

about 6 km/s, so the spaceship does escape.

Alternatively, note that the solution through

(2, 10) lies above the solution through

(1, 12). The precise value of v can be found

algebraically as in parts d and e. For the

solution through (2, 10), C = 50 31.22 =

18.78. As r , v (2)(18.78) =

6.12 km/s.

14. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators

section of the Instructors Resource Book.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(r, v) = (1, 18). The graph levels off at

v 14 km/s. Here the spaceship loses about

4 km/s of velocity, whereas it loses 7 or

8 km/s when starting at 12 km/s. Both cases

lose the same amount of kinetic energy,

which is proportional to v2 (the change in v2

is the same in both cases). The precise value

of v can be found algebraically as in part d.

For the solution through (1, 18),

C = 162 62.44 = 99.56. As r ,

v (2)(99.56) = 14.11 km/s.

Q1. k y

Q3. 4.8

Q5. ln |1 v| + C

Q7.

Q2. y = Ce3x

Q4. 100

Q6. sec x tan x

y'

y'

Q8. 3x 2y 5 + 5x 3y 4y = 1 + y

Q9. continuous

Q10. A

1. a. dy = (x/y) dy

For (1, 3), dy = (1/3)(0.5) = 0.1666 ,

so new y 3 0.1666 = 2.8333 at

x = 1.5.

For (1.5, 2.8333), dy =

(1.5/2.8333)(0.5) = 0.2647 ,

so new y 2.8333 0.2647 = 2.5686

at x = 2.

x

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

y

3.2456

3.1666

3

2.8333

2.5686

2.1793

1.6057

values because the tangent lines are on the

convex side of the graph and the convex side

is upward.

b. dy = (x/y) dy

y dy = x dx

0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + C

0.5(32) = 0.5(12) + C C = 5

0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + 5

y = 10 x 2 (Use the positive square root.)

At x = 3, y = 10 32 = 1.

The particular solution stops at the x-axis

because points on the circle below the x-axis

would lead to two values of y for the same

value of x, making the solution not a

function.

The Eulers value of 1.6057 overestimates

the actual value by 0.6057 .

2. a. dy = (x/y) dy

For (1, 2), dy = (1/2)(0.5) = 0.25, so new

y 2 + 0.25 = 2.25 at x = 1.5.

For (1.5, 2.25), dy = (1.5/2.25)(0.5) =

0.3333 , so new y 2.25 + 0.3333 =

2.5833 at x = 2.

151

1.6071

0.5

1.75

1.5

2.25

2.5833

2.5

2.9704

3.3912

4

3

2

1

x

1

values because the tangent lines are on the

convex side of the graph and the convex side

is downward. The error is greater at x = 0

because the graph is more sharply curved

between x = 0 and x = 1 than it is between

x = 1 and x = 3.

b. dy = x/y dy

y dy = x dx

0.5y = 0.5x 2 + C

0.5(22) = 0.5(12) + C C = 1.5

0.5y 2 = 0.5x 2 + 1.5

y = x 2 + 3 (Use the positive square root.)

At x = 0, y = 0 + 3 = 3 = 1.7320 .

The particular solution stops at the x-axis

because points on the circle below the x-axis

would lead to two values of y for the same

value of x, making the solution not a

function.

The Eulers value of 1.6071 underestimates

the actual value by 0.1249 unit.

3. dx = 0.2. Make a table showing values of dy =

0.2(dy/dx) and new y = old y + dy.

x

152

dy/dx

dy

0.6

2.2

1.0

1.6

2.4

0.8

2.6

2.6

0.2

3.4

2.8

0.6

3.6

1.2

3.0

3.2

1.0

1.8

3.4

0.6

0.8

3.6

0.2

0.2

3.8

0.2

0.0

0.4

0.2

overestimate or an underestimate because the

convex side of the graph is downward in some

places and upward in other places.

4. dx = 0.3. Make a table showing values of dy =

0.3(dy/dx) and new y = old y + dy.

x

dy/dx

dy

0.9

1.3

0.6

1.1

1.6

0.3

0.5

1.9

0.2

2.2

0.3

0.2

2.5

0.6

0.5

2.8

0.9

1.1

3.1

1.2

3.4

1.5

3.2

3.7

1.8

4.7

3.9

2.1

6.5

y

5

4

3

2

1

x

1

actual values of y because the convex side of the

graph is down.

5. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators

section of the Instructors Resource Book.

6. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators

section of the Instructors Resource Book.

dy

7. a. and b.

= 0.2 xy

dx

y

(3, 2)

(1, 2)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

8. a. and b.

dy

= 0.1x + 0.2 y

dx

field from which the spacecraft would not

escape Earths gravity.

Solving for C gives

0.5v12 = 62.44 + C

C = 0.5v12 62.44

5

(0, 4)

(0, 2)

number when r is large enough. If

v1 > 2(62.44), then C is positive, making v

a positive real number for all positive

values of r. (The asymptote is v = C .)

1

seem to follow a straight path using (0, 2.5)

as an initial condition. Eulers method

confirms this.

(In differential equations, students will learn

how to solve such first-order linears by

multiplying both sides by the integrating

factor e 0.2x . The general solution is

y = Ce 0.2x + 0.5x 2.5. For C = 0, the

particular solution is y = 0.5x + 2.5.)

9. a. Using dr = 0.6, v(13.6) 0.1414 and

v(14.2) 1.2900 , so the spacecraft seems

to reverse direction somewhere between these

two values of r, as shown in the graph in

part b.

b. Using dr = 0.1, v(20) 4.5098 , and the

values are leveling off, as shown in the

graph.

v(6) = 129.7139 , v(8) = 139.9323 ,

v(10) = 143.9730 , v(20) = 146.4066

These values will be overestimates because

the graph is concave down (convex side up),

so the Eulers tangent lines will be above the

actual graph, as in the next graph.

200 v

Euler

100

Actual

20 v

10

10

20

Actual

dr = 0.1

dr = 0.6

r

10

c.

20

dv 62.44

=

dr

r 2v

v dv = 62.44 r

dr

0.5v = 62.44r + C

0.5(12)2 = 62.44(1) 1 + C C = 9.56

0.5v 2 = 62.4r 1 + 9.56

2

v = 124.88r 1 + 19.12

When r = 20, v = 5.0362 .

Because the graph is concave up (convex side

down), the Eulers solution underestimates

the actual velocity. The first increment, where

the graph is so steep, makes a large error that

accumulates as the iterations continue,

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

v(6) = 147.9234 , v(8) = 146.9777 ,

v(10) = 146.6290 , v(20) = 146.4254

These values will be underestimates because

the graph is concave up (convex side down),

so the Eulers tangent lines will be below the

actual graph.

c.

dv

= 0 0.0015v 2 = 32.16

dt

32.16

v=

= 146.42404 K(store)

0.0015

The terminal velocity is about 146.4 ft/s.

errors, Euler minus actual. The errors increase

only for a while, then approach zero because

both the Eulers solution and the actual

solution approach the same asymptote. (It is

not always true that values farther from the

Problem Set 7-5

153

Eulers approximation.)

t

Eulers v

Actual v

Error

2

4

6

8

10

20

61.6831

106.2850

129.7139

139.9323

143.9730

146.4066

60.4791

103.3298

126.8383

137.9573

142.8466

146.3792

1.2040

2.9552

2.8756

1.9749

1.1264

0.0274

solutions from parts a and b, and the actual

solution from part c, thus confirming

graphically the numerical answers to this

problem.

11. a. For x 5, the radicand 25 x2 is nonnegative, giving a real-number answer for y.

For x > 5, the radicand is negative, giving no

real solution.

b. The slope field shows that the graph will be

concave up (convex side down), making the

Eulers tangent lines lie below the graph,

leading to an underestimate.

At x = 4.9, y = 0.6 25 4.9 2 = 0.5969 .

The Eulers solution at x = 4.9 is

0.8390 , which is an underestimate

because 0.8390 < 0.5969 but is

reasonably close to the actual value.

c. The Eulers solutions for the given points are

Q1.

Q2.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

fundamental theorem of calculus

definition of indefinite integral

the intermediate value theorem

Rolles theorem

the mean value theorem

the chain rule

Q8. general

particular

Q10. initial

a. dB/dt is proportional to B, which means that

the larger the population is, the faster it

grows. But dB/dt is also proportional to

(30 B)/30, which means that the closer B is

to 30, the slower it grows. dB/dt > 0 when

0 < B < 30 because when the population is

less than 30 million the population will

increase until it reaches the carrying capacity.

dB/dt < 0 when B > 30 because when the

population is greater than 30 million, the

population will decrease until it reaches the

carrying capacity.

b.

B

40

30

Actual

20

Euler

5.1

5.2

5.3

6.6

0.3425

0.1935

0.7736

26.9706

(9)(5.1)

(0.1)

(25)(0.3425K)

= 0.5360 , indicating that the graph is still

taking upward steps.

(9)(5.2)

(0.1)

From 5.2 to 5.3, dy =

(25)(0.1935K)

= 0.9672 , indicating that the graph takes

a relatively large downward step. The sign

change in dy happens whenever the prior

Eulers y-value changes sign. The graph starts

over on another ellipse representing a different

particular solution.

d. Eulers method can predict values that are

outside the domain, which are inaccurate.

10

t

10

30

40

grows, leveling off at B = 30. For the initial

condition (10, 40), the population drops

because it is starting out above the maximum

sustainable value (carrying capacity).

154

20

c.

t

0

10

20

30

40

3

13.8721

26.4049

29.5565

29.9510

the Eulers points and graphical solution are

close to each other.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d.

dB

30 B

= 0.21B

dt

30

30

dB = 0.21 dt

B(30 B)

Separate the variables.

1

1

+

dB = 0.21 dt

B 30 B

By partial fractions

(see Example 1).

ln |B| ln |30 B| = 0.21t + C

Why the sign?

ln |B| + ln |30 B| = 0.21t C

To simplify later

steps.

30 B

= C1e 0.21t

B

C1 = e C

27

= C1e 0 C1 = 9

3

Substitute the initial

condition (0, 3) to

find C1.

30 B

= 9e 0.21t

B

30 B = 9 Be 0.21t

30

Solve for B explicitly

B =

in terms of t.

1 + 9e 0.21t

30

At t = 20, B =

= 26.4326 K .

1 + 9e 4.2

The Eulers value, B 26.4049 , is very

close to this precise value.

e.

d dB

= 0.014 B + 30(0.007)

dB dt

Derivative = 0 if 0.014B + 30(0.007) = 0,

which is true if and only if B = 15.

This value is halfway between B = 0 and

B = 30.

30

15 =

t 10.4629

1 + 9e 0.21t

The point of inflection is (10.4629 , 15).

number of houses grows at an increasing rate

for a while, then slows down as the number

approaches 120, the carrying capacity of the

subdivision.

b.

dy

120 y

= 0.9 y

dx

120

120

dy = 0.9 dx

y(120 y)

1

1

+

dy = 0.9 dx

y 120 y

2005 Key Curriculum Press

ln |y| + ln |120 y| = 0.9x C

120 y

= C1e 0.9 x

C1 = e C

y

115

= C 1e0 C 1 = 23

5

Substitute the initial

condition (0, 5) to

find C1.

120 y

= 23e 0.9 x

y

120 y = 23 ye 0.9 x

120

1 + 23e 0.9 x

The graph confirms that the particular

solution follows the slope lines.

y=

y (houses)

100

50

x (years)

5

10

120

84 =

x 4.4253K , or about

1 + 23e 0.9 x

4 years 5 months

Solve numerically

for x.

1 lot left means 119 lots built on.

120

119 =

x 8.7940 , or about

1 + 23e 0.9 x

8 years 10 months.

dy

120 y 0.9

d.

(120 y y 2 )

= 0.9 y

=

dx

120

120

d dy 0.9

=

(120 2 y)

dy dx 120

The derivative is zero if 120 2y = 0, which

is true if and only if y = 60. This value is

halfway between y = 0 and y = 120.

If y < 60, the derivative is positive, so dy/dx

is increasing. If y > 60, the derivative is

negative, so dy/dx is decreasing. Therefore,

dy/dx is a maximum when y = 60, and the

number of houses is increasing the most

rapidly at this point of inflection.

155

3. a.

dy

My

= ky

dx

M

k

k

0.5

(10)( M 10)

=

M

M 10( M 10)

k

k

1.1

1.1 = (24)( M 24)

=

M

M 24( M 24)

0.5 =

0.5

1.1

=

10( M 10) 24( M 24)

Eliminate k by

equating the two

values of k/M.

12(M 24) = 11.0(M 10)

12M 11M = 288 110 M = 178

Solve for M.

k

0.5

89

=

k=

=

178 10(178 10)

1680

0.05297 (Store this.)

Ajax expects to sell 178,000 CDs based on

this mathematical model.

dy

89

178 y

b.

=

y

dx 1680

178

200

y (thousand CDs)

178

100

x (days)

50

100

about y = 178, thus confirming M = 178.

M

c. The general solution is y =

.

1 + ae kx

Substitute M = 178 and k = 89/1680 =

0.05297 and the initial condition y = 10 at

x = 0.

178

10 =

a = 16.8

1 + ae 0

178

The equation is y =

.

1 + 16.8e 0.05297Kx

See the graph in part b. The graph follows the

slope lines.

d. At x = 50, y = 81.3396 .

At x = 51, y = 83.6844 .

83.6844 81.3396 = 2.35447

They expect to sell about 2354 CDs on the

51st day.

e. The point of inflection is halfway between

y = 0 and y = 178, that is, at y = 89.

156

178

1 + 16.8e 0.05297Kx

Solving numerically gives x 53.2574 ,

or on the 54th day.

dy

My

4.

= ky

dx

M

M dy

= k dx

y( M y )

1

1

+

dy = k dx

y M y

See Section 9-7 for a

quick way to resolve

into partial fractions.

ln |y| ln |M y| = kx + C

The differential of the

second denominator

is dy.

ln |y| + ln |M y| = kx C

My

ln

= kx C

y

89 =

My

= e kx C = e C e kx

y

My

= e C e kx = C1e kx

C1 = e C

y

M y = C 1ye kx

y + C 1ye kx = M

M

M

y=

kx =

1 + C1e

1 + ae kx

a = C 1, Q .E .D .

5. a. At t = 5.5, F 1.7869 2 fish left.

At t = 5.6, F 11.0738 , meaning no

fish are left.

The fish are predicted to become extinct in

just over 5.5 years.

F (fish)

Part b

1000

500

200

Parts c and d

Part a, dt = 0.1

t (years)

5

10

(3, 1200), showing that the fish population

will decrease because the initial condition is

above the 1000 maximum sustainable.

c. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(0, 300), showing that the population rises

slowly at first, then faster, eventually

2005 Key Curriculum Press

the 1000 maximum sustainable (carrying

capacity).

d. Let F = y + 200.

dy

y

800 y

= 130

dt

200

1000

200000

dy = 130 dt

y(800 y)

shown in this graph), especially if you use

several values of the maximum number of

people as shown in the table.

25

20

250

250

+

dy = 130 dt

800 y

y

See Section 9-7 for

quick partial fractions.

250 ln |y| 250 ln |800 y| = 130t + C

Why ?

15

10

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

3

6

13

21

25

25

25

25

x

1

7. a. and b.

800 y

= e (13/25)t e C

y

800 y

= C1e (13/25)t

y

Substitute y = 100 (F = 300) when t = 0.

800 100

= C1e 0 C1 = 7

100

800 y

= 7e (13/25)t

y

800

y=

1 + 7e (13/25)t

800

F=

+ 200

1 + 7e (13/25)t

See the graph in part a, showing that the

sketch from part c reasonably approximates

this precise algebraic solution.

6. Answers will vary. Here is a typical run with a

class of 25 people.

Year

P/t

(P/t)/P

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

131.7

151.4

179.3

203.2

226.5

248.7

2.38

2.59

2.36

2.275

0.01571

0.01444

0.01161

0.01004

because you dont know values of P both

before and after these values.

c. Using linear regression on the values of

(P/t)/P without round-off gives

1 P

0.02802596 0.0000792747 P.

P t

The correlation coefficient is r = 0.98535 .

For the other types of regression:

r = 0.978 for logarithmic

r = 0.981 for exponential

r = 0.971 for power

Thus, a linear function fits best because r is

closest to 1.

d.

1 dP

0.02802596 0.0000792747 P

P dt

dP

= P(0.02802596 0.0000792747 P)

dt

e.

500

25.5083K

N=

1 + 43.1120 K e 1.3032Kx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

t

50

50

100

157

f.

Year

Euler

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

50

44.6

56.9

71.7

89.2

109.3

131.7

155.4

180.1

204.7

228.2

249.9

269.3

286.1

300.2

311.8

321.1

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Actual*

Euler**

62.9

76.0

92.0

105.7

122.8

131.7

151.4

179.3

203.2

226.5

248.7

281.4

46.1

58.3

72.9

90.1

109.8

131.7

155.0

179.2

203.5

226.9

248.8

268.6

**Note that although linear regression gives the

best fit for ( P/ t ) /P versus P, actually plotting

the graph shows that the data point for 1960 is

considerably out of line.

0.015

0.014

( P/ t)/P

1950

1960

0.013

0.012

0.011

150

1980

200

Year

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

70

80

90

100

110

Euler

486.1

444.5

417.7

399.7

387.1

population will drop, approaching the

ultimate value of 353.5 million from above.

This behavior shows up in the slope field of

part e because the slopes are negative for

populations above 353.5.

1

A

B

A(10 y) + By

8. a.

= +

=

y(10 y) y 10 y

y(10 y)

1970

equal that of the last fraction for all values

of y. That is, 1 = 10A Ay + By. The

constant and linear coefficients on the left

must equal the corresponding ones on the

right. Thus, 1 = 10A and 0 = Ay + By.

So A = B = 0.1.

gives (P/t)/P = 0.002716

0.00007557P. Using this equation gives

populations much closer to the actual ones

for the given years, as shown in the

rightmost column of the table in part f. This

is, of course, no guarantee that the later

model fits any better in the future than the

former one.

g. The population growth rate is zero

if dP/dt = 0.

Let

P(0.02802596 0.0000792747P) = 0.

P = 0 or P = (0.02802596)/

(0.0000792747) = 353.5

Predicted ultimate population 353.5 million

Differential equation: P = 353.5 makes

dP/dt = 0.

Graph: P = 353.5 is a horizontal

asymptote.

158

solution.

i. Sample answer: The predicted populations

agree fairly well with the data for the six

given years. The fit is exact for 1940 because

this point was used as an initial condition.

For the other five years, the predicted

populations are a bit higher than the actual

population.

j. Actual data are given in the table in part f.

k. The predicted population for 2010 from part f

is 286.1 million. Using 486.1 million as

an initial condition in 2010 gives the

following predictions:

b.

0.1

0.1

+

dy

y 10 y

y(10 y) dy =

1

1

1

= 0.1

dy, which equals 3 dx.

y y 10

ln

y

y 10

= ln

= 30 x + 10C

y 10

y

y 10

10

= 1

= e ( 30 x +10 C )

y

y

10

= 1 e 10 C e 30 x

y

10

y=

, where k = e 10 C , Q .E.D .

1 + ke 30 x

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c.

dP

= P(0.02802 0.00007927 P)

dt

= 0.00007927P(353.5 P)

1

dP = 0.00007927K dt

P(353.5K P)

1

1

1

dP

=

353.5K P P 353.5K

= 0.00007927K

dt

d.

Year

Algebraic

Euler

Actual

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

0

10

20

30

40

50

131.7

155.5

180.2

204.7

228.2

249.8

131.7

155.4

180.1

204.7

228.2

249.9

131.7

151.4

179.3

203.2

226.5

248.7

mathematical model agree almost perfectly.

However, the fact that they agree with each

other is no guarantee that they will fit the real

world as closely as they match each other.

10.

11.

dR

dR

= k1 R

= k1dt ln | R| = k1t + C

dt

R

C k1t

| R| = e e R = C1e k1t

R is increasing because k1 > 0.

dF

dF

= k2 F

= k2 dt

dt

F

ln | F| = k2 t + C

| F| = e C e k2t F = C2 e k2t

F is decreasing because k2 < 0.

dR

= k1 R k3 RF

dt

dF

= k2 F + k4 RF

dt

2005 Key Curriculum Press

F

ln |P| ln |P 353.5|

= 353.5(0.00007927t + C)

P

P 353.5K

ln

= ln

P 353.5K

P

= 0.02802t + 353.5C

P 353.5K

= e ( 0.02802t +353.5C )

P

353.5K

= 1 + ke 0.02802t

P

353.5K

P=

1 + ke 0.02802...t

For the initial condition t = 0, P = 131.7,

353.5K

k=

1 = 1.684 .

131.7

9.

dF dF/dt k2 F + k4 RF

=

=

dR dR/dt

k1 R k3 RF

The dt cancels out.

13. R = 70, F = 15

dF 15 + 0.025 1050 11.25

=

=

= 0.4017K

dR

70 0.04 1050

28

12.

50

(70, 15)

R

100

dR

dF

= 28, and

= 11.25,

dt

dt

which are both positive. So both populations are

increasing and the graph starts up and to the

right.

15. The populations vary periodically and the graph

is cyclical. The fox population reaches its

maximum 1/4 cycle after the rabbit population

reaches its maximum.

16. Neither population changes when dR/dt =

dF/dt = 0.

dF/dt = 0 F = 0 or R = 1/0.025 =

40 (4000 rabbits)

dR/dt = 0 R = 0 or F = 1/0.04 = 25 foxes

17. Assume that dF/dt still equals F + 0.025RF.

dF dF/dt

F + 0.025 RF

=

=

dR dR/dt R 0.04 RF 0.01R 2

dF 11.25

R = 70 and F = 15

=

= 0.5357K

dR

21

18.

At R = 70, F = 15,

50

(70, 15)

R

100

19. The populations now spiral to a fixed point. The

rabbit population stabilizes at the same value as

in Problem 16, R = 40 (4000 rabbits), which is

surprising. The stable fox population decreases

from 25 to 15.

Problem Set 7-6

159

dF dF/dt

F + 0.025 RF

=

=

dR dR/dt R 0.04 RF 0.01R 2 10

dF 11.25

R = 70 and F = 15

=

= 0.3629K

dR

31

b.

dV

= k dt

ln |V| = kt + C

| V | = e kt +C = e C e kt

V = C 1e kt

C1 can be positive or negative, so the

absolute value sign is not needed for V. In the

real world, V is positive, which also makes

the absolute value sign unnecessary.

21.

F

50

c. 400 = Ce k0 C = 400

500 = 400e k 40

(70, 30)

ln 1.25

= 0.005578

40

V = 400e0.005578t

k=

(70, 15)

R

100

22. The fox and rabbit populations spiral toward a

fixed point. Again, and even more surprisingly,

the rabbits stabilize at R = 40 (4000). But the

stable fox population is reduced to 8 or 9. Along

the way, the model shows that the foxes are

reduced to about 1, thus becoming in danger of

extinction!

23. See the graph in Problem 21 with initial

condition (70, 30). With this many foxes and

hunters chasing rabbits, the rabbits become

extinct. At this point, the foxes have been

reduced to just 5. After the rabbits become

extinct, the foxes decrease exponentially

with time, eventually becoming extinct

themselves.

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

R1. P(t) = 35(0.98 t )

P(t) = 35(0.98t) ln 0.98

P(t)

0

10

20

35

28.5975

23.3662

1/ 2

dy = 6 dx y = (3 x + C )2

because at (3, 5), dy/dx = 30 but 6y1/2 = 30.)

2

c.

y

(3, 25)

10

x

1

e. i. dN/dt = 100 kN

dN

= dt

100 kN

(1/k) ln |100 kN| = t + C

Using (0, 0) gives (1/k) ln 100 = C.

Substituting this value for C gives

(1/k) ln |100 kN| = t (1/k) ln 100.

ln |100 kN| ln 100 = kt

ln |1 (k/100)N| = kt

1 ( k / 100) N = e kt

N = (100 / k )(1 e kt )

Using (7, 600) and solving numerically

gives k 0.045236.

N = 2210.6(1 e 0.045236 t)

ii. t = 30: About 1642 names

P(t)

0.7070

0.5777

0.4720

P(t)/P(t)

0.2020

0.2020

0.2020

=

= ln 0.98

P( t )

35(0.98t )

= 0.2020 , which is a constant, Q.E.D.

R2. a. V = speed in mi/h; t = time in s

dV

= kV

dt

160

R3. a.

d. At x = 2, y = 12 and y = 4.

See graph in part c.

A line through (2, 4) with slope 12 is tangent

to the graph.

d. 750 = 400e0.005578t

ln 1.875

t =

= 112.68 113 s

0.005578...

2005 Key Curriculum Press

t

iv. Let dN/dt = 30.

70

30 = 100 kN N =

= 1547.4

k

names. Substituting this for N gives

1547.4 K = 2210.6 K(1 e 0.045236 t ).

1547.4 K

e 0.045236 t = 1

= 0.3 (exactly)

2210.6 K

ln 0.3

t=

= 26.6 27 days

0.04523K

or:

30 = N(t) N(t 1)

= 2210.6 K[ e 0.045236 t + e 0.045236( t 1) ]

= 2210.6 Ke 0.045236 t ( t 1) ( e 0.045236 + 1)

t 27 days

20

dy

=

+ 0.05 y

dx

xy

At (2, 5), dy/dx = 1.75.

At (10, 16), dy/dx = 0.675.

The slopes at (2, 5) and (10, 16) agree with

these numbers.

b. Initial conditions (1, 8) and (1, 12)

R4. a.

y

(10, 16)

y (x = 1)

x

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

M

28.9

29

9

7.227

6.205

5.441

4.794

4.200

3.616

3.007

2.326

1.488

0.2185

8.091

y (x = 0.1)

9

7.707

6.949

6.413

5.999

5.662

5.377

5.130

4.910

4.712

4.529

4.359

4.199

4.045

3.896

3.750

3.604

3.457

3.306

3.150

M

0.1344

0.3810

y

(1, 12)

(1, 10)

(1, 8)

5

(1, 9)

(2, 5)

x

5

x = 0.1

x = 1

x-axis near x = 7, converges asymptotically

to the y-axis as x approaches zero, and is

symmetric across the x-axis. The solution

containing (1, 12) goes to infinity as x goes

to infinity.

c. See the graph in part b with initial condition

(1, 10). The solution containing (1, 10)

behaves more like the one containing

(1, 12), although a slight discrepancy in

plotting may make it seem to go the

other way.

R5. a.

dy

20

=

+ 0.05 y

dx

xy

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

5

about x = 11.

b. See the table in part a for x = 0.1.

See the graph in part a.

c. The accuracy far away from the initial

condition is very sensitive to the size of the

increment. For instance, in part a the first

step takes the graph so far down that it

crosses the x-axis before running off the

edge of the grid. The greater accuracy with

x = 0.1 shows that the graph actually does

not cross the x-axis before x = 20.

161

graph crosses the x-axis close to x = 28.9.

See the table in part a.

R6. a.

y (hundred beavers)

(Note that the general solution to the differential equation is (x 6)2 + 2(y 7)2 = C,

and the specific solution for the given initial

condition is (x 6)2 + 2(y 7)2 = 0, whose

graph is a single point.)

e. Initial condition (9, 7)

10

(6, 7) (9, 7)

(15, 7) (19, 7)

x (years)

5

above the maximum sustainable, 900 beavers

(y = 9). By Eulers method, y 9.3598 , or

about 936 beavers, at x = 3 years.

b. See the graph in part a with initial condition

(3, 100), showing that the population is

expected to increase slowly, then more

rapidly, then more slowly again, leveling off

asymptotically toward 900. This happens

because the initial population of 100 is below

the maximum sustainable.

c.

dy

9 y

= 0.6 y

dx

9

9

y=

1 + ae 0.6 x

general equation.

9

Substitute the initial

condition (3, 1).

1 + ae 1.8

a = 8e1.8 = 48.3971 Solve for a.

9

9

y=

=

1 + 8e1.8e 0.6 x 1 + 48.3971K e 0.6 x

The point of

inflection is halfway

between the

asymptotes at y = 0

and y = 9.

1=

4.5 =

9

1 + 8e1.8e 0.6 x

d.

162

dy 0.5( x 6)

=

dx

( y 7)

dy = 0 when x = 6, and dx = 0 when y = 7. So

the stable point is (6, 7), corresponding to the

present population of 600 Xaltos natives and

7000 yaks.

10

number of prey, so the yak population

declines. Because y is decreasing from (9, 7),

the graph follows a clockwise path.

f. See the graph in part e with initial condition

(19, 7). The graph crosses the x-axis at

x 14.4, indicating that the yaks are hunted

to extinction. (The Xaltos would then starve

or become vegetarian!)

g. See the graph in part e with initial condition

(15, 7). The graph never crosses the x-axis,

but crosses the y-axis at y 2.3, indicating

that the yak population becomes so sparse

that the predators become extinct. (The yak

population would then explode!)

Concept Problems

C1. a.

dy

= k y1/2 y 1/2 dy = k dx

dx

2 y1/2 = kx + C, so y = [0.5( kx + C )]2 .

become y1/3 after it is integrated. So the

original equation would have to contain

y 2 /3 after the variables have been separated.

dy

Conjecture:

= ky 2/3

dx

c. Confirmation:

dy

= ky 2 /3 y 2 /3 dy = k dx

dx

3y1/ 3 = kx + C y = [(1/3)(kx + C)]3, a

cubic function, Q.E.D.

dy

d. For n 0,

= k y ( n1)/n

dx

y ( n1)/n dy = k dx ny1/n = kx + C

y = [(1/n)(kx + C)]n

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dy

= y 7/8 y 7/8 dy = dx

dx

= x + C y = [(1/8)( x + C )]8

For example:

8 y1/8

C2. a.

Ticket Price

People

2.00

2.50

3.00

4.00

4.50

5.50

6.00

460

360

320

260

140

120

80

b.

N

500

population.

b. a = 421.3692 , c = 0.7303036 , and

k = 0.01589546 , either by twice taking

logarithms as suggested, or by this method:

Taking ln once ln a ce kt = ln P, so

ln a ce10k = ln 179

ln a c = ln 203

ln a ce 10 k = ln 226

Then substituting ln a = c + ln 203 into the

first and third equations gives

c(1 e10k) = ln 179 ln 203

c(1 e 10 k ) = ln 226 ln 203

Substituting c(1 e 10 k ) = c(e10 k 1)e 10 k =

e 10 k (ln 179 ln 203) into the previous

equation yields

ln 226 ln 203 ln 226 ln 203

e 10 k =

=

ln 179 ln 203 ln 203 ln 179

1 ln 226 ln 203

so k = ln

= 0.01589K .

10 ln 203 ln 179

Then find c using c(1 e 10 k ) = ln 226

ln 203 and find a using 203 = ae c .

c = 0.7303 and a = 421.3692

Let N = number of tickets and P = number of

$/ticket.

By linear regression, N 90.83P + 605.4,

with correlation coefficient r = 0.9747 .

c. Let M = total number of dollars.

M P N = P(90.83P + 605.4)

M 90.83P 2 + 605.4P

d. Maximize M: M 181.66P + 605.4

605.4

= 3.332

181.66

Maximum M at P 3.332 because M

changes from positive to negative there (or

because the graph of M is a parabola opening

downward).

Charge $3.30 or $3.35.

e. M has a local maximum at this price because

charging more than the optimum price

reduces attendance enough to reduce the total

amount made, whereas charging less than the

optimum price increases attendance, but not

enough to make up for the lower price per

ticket.

0.5 t

C3. a. g(t ) = 10e 0.8e

The graph does look like Figure 7-7e.

0.5 t

0.5 t

lim 10e 0.8e

= 10e limt e

M = 0 P

= 10e 0.80 = 10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

g (t )

431.3...

100

t

100

population of lim P(t ) 421 million.

t

k = 0.01186428 , and the ultimate

population is lim P(t ) 551 million. Thus,

t

small change in initial conditions. The

predicted ultimate population increased by

130 million with only a 1 million change in

one data point!

C4. dV/dt = 2V1/ 2 + F, where F is a constant.

dV

= dt

F 2V 1/2

The integral on the right is not the integral of

the reciprocal function because the numerator

cannot be made the differential of the

denominator. A slope field gives information

about the solutions. The following graph is for

F = 20 ft3/min flowing in. (The dashed line

shows the solution with F = 0, the original

condition.) Starting with 196 ft3 in the tub, the

volume levels off near 100 ft3. Starting below

100 ft3, the volume would increase toward 100.

163

V

196

F = 20

F=0

14

overflow. The next graph is for F = 40 ft3/min.

In this case, the stable volume is above the

initial 196 ft3.

V

F = 40

196

F=0

14

the algebraic substitution method of Problem

Set 9-11, Problems 101106. The general

solution is

F

t + C = ln ( F 2V 1/2 ) V 1/2

2

and the particular solution for V = 196 at t = 0 is

F

F 28

t 14 = ln

V 1/2

2

F 2V 1/2

Unfortunately, it is difficult or impossible to

solve for V. The volume will asymptotically

approach F2/4, overflowing the tub if F2/4 > tub

capacity.

Chapter Test

dy

= ky

dx

T2. Solving a differential equation means finding the

equation of the function whose derivative appears

in the differential equation.

T3. The general solution involves an arbitrary

constant of integration, C. A particular solution

has C evaluated at a given initial condition.

T4.

T1.

y

5

x

5

(0, 4)

actual graph curves up from the Eulers tangent

lines, making the Eulers method values an

164

is down, so the Eulers tangent lines are below

the actual graph.)

T6. General logistic differential equation:

dy

My

= ky

dx

M

dy

T7.

= 0.4 y

dx

dy

= 0.4 dx

y

ln |y| = 0.4x + C

|y| = eCe0.4 x

y = C1e0.4 x

5 = C 1 e 0.4(0) = C 1

y = 5e0.4 x

dy

T8.

= 12 y1/2 y 1/2 dy = 12 dx

dx

2 y1/ 2 = 12 x + C

dP

= kP P = Ce kt

dt

P = 3000 at t = 0 P = 3000ekt

b. P = 2300 at t = 5

1 2300

k = ln

= 0.05314 K

5 3000

P(25) = 794.6

Phoebe will not quite make it because the

pressure has dropped just below 800 psi by

time t = 25.

or:

800 = 3000e 0.05314Kt

1

800

t=

ln

= 24.87K

0.05314 K 3000

Phoebe will not quite make it because the

pressure has dropped to 800 just before t = 25.

T10. a. y = number of grams of chlorine dissolved

t = number of hours since chlorinator was

started

dy

= 30 ky

dt

dy

= dt

30 ky

1

ln |30 ky| = t + C

k

ln |30 ky| = kt + C 1

30 ky = C 2e k t

y = 0 when t = 0 C 2 = 30

ky = 30(1 e kt)

30

y=

(1 e kt )

k

The rate of escape is ky = 13 when y = 100.

So k = 0.13.

30

y =

(1 e 0.13t ) = 230.7K(1 e 0.13t )

0.13

T9. a.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

200

e 0.13t = 1

= 0.1333K

230.7K

ln 0.1333K

t=

= 15.499K 15.5 hr

0.13

dy

16 y

= 0.5 y

T11. a.

dx

16

16

16

y=

2=

a=7

1 + ae 0.5 x

1 + ae 0

16

y=

1 + 7e 0.5 x

b. At x = 0, y = 2:

dy = 0.5(2)(16 2)/(16)(0.1) = 0.0875

At x = 0.1, y 2 + 0.0875 = 2.0875,

so dy = 0.5(2.0875)(16 2.0875)/(16)(0.1) =

0.09075 .

At x = 0.2, y 2.0875 + 0.09075 =

2.17825 .

16

=

The precise solution is y =

1 + 7e 0.1

2.18166 , which is greater than

2.17825 , as expected because the

graph is concave up (convex side downward).

16

c. 4 =

x = [ln (3/7)]/0.5 =

1 + 7e 0.5 x

1.6945

About 1 month 21 days

d.

y (hundred lilies)

right from (80, 700) because the coyote

population is relatively high, thus decreasing

the number of roadrunners.

b. There can be two different values for the

roadrunner population for a particular coyote

population because the two events happen at

two different times. For example, coyotes are

increasing from 80 when there are 700 roadrunners, but later they are decreasing from 80

when there are about 200 roadrunners.

T13. Answers will vary.

Cumulative Review, Chapters 17

1.

v(t)

200

( t , v ( t ))

t

8

2. Definite integral

8

3.

(t

1 4

t 7t 3 + 50t 2 + 80t

4

= 1280 mi

4. M 100 = 1280.0384

M1000 = 1280.000384

=

T12. a.

as n increases. Thus, the 1280 that was found by

purely algebraic methods seems to give the

correct value of the limit of the Riemann sum.

x (months)

expected to decrease toward 1600 (y = 16)

because of overcrowding.

5.

v(t)

200

( t , v ( t ))

R (roadrunners)

t

(80, 700)

C (coyotes)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

corresponding lower and upper sums. That is,

L n R n U n.

By the definition of integrability, the limits of Ln

and Un are equal to each other and to the definite

integral. By the squeeze theorem, then, the limit

of Rn is also equal to the definite integral.

Problem Set 7-8

165

7. Definition:

18. z 2 = x 2 + y 2 2 z

f ( x ) dx = lim Ln = lim Un

x 0

dz 1

= [0.3 x + 6e 0.5 x (0.9e 0.5 x )]

dt z

At x = 2, z = 2 2 + 2.2072 K2 = 2.9786 ,

x 0

Fundamental theorem: If f is integrable on

[a, b] and g( x ) = f ( x ) dx,

then

f ( x ) dx = g(b) g( a).

Or: If F( x ) =

f (t ) dt, then F ( x ) = f ( x ).

counting, there are approximately 52 squares.

Thus, the integral 52(25)(1) = 1300.

v( 4.1) v(3.9)

(mi/min )

9. v ( 4)

= 19.9

0.2

min

v( 4.01) v(3.99)

(mi/min)

v ( 4 )

= 19.9999

0.02

min

f ( x ) f (c )

or

10. f (c) = lim

x c

xc

f ( x + x ) f ( x )

f ( x ) = lim

x 0

x

2

v(t)

=

+

11.

3t

42t 100 v(4) = 20

12. Slowing down. v(4) < 0 and v(4) = 208 > 0

velocity is positive but decreasing speed is

slowing down.

13. The line has slope 20, and passes through

(4, 208). The line is tangent to the graph.

dm

= km

19.

dt

dm

= k dt ln |m | = kt + C

20.

m

| m | = e kt +C m = C1e kt

21. Exponentially

22. General

23. 10000 = C1e0 C1 = 10000

10900 = 10000e k1

k = ln 1.09 m = 10000e ln(1.09) t

= 10000(1.09)t

24. False. The rate of increase changes as the amount

in the account increases. At t = 10,

m = 10000(1.09)10 23673.64.

The amount of money would grow by

$13,673.64, not just $9,000.

25. By Simpsons rule,

42

y dx

30

5

Slope

= 20

dz

1

=

(0.6 0.7308K) = 0.04391K .

dt 2.9786 K

so

v(t)

200

dz

dx

dy

= 2x

+ 2y

dt

dt

dt

2

(74 + 4 77 + 2 83 + 4 88 + 2 90

3

+ 4 91 + 89) = 1022.

90 83

y

= 1.75.

2( 2 )

100

100

x = a and x = b, and if f ( a) = f ( b) = 0, then there

is a number x = c in (a, b) such that f (c) = 0.

t

0

10

28.

f(x)

14. Acceleration

15. At a maximum of v(t), v(t) will equal zero.

3t2 42t + 100 = 0 t =

42 42 2 4 3 100

6

t = 3.041 or 10.958

So the maximum is not at exactly t = 3.

16. v(t) = 6t 42

dx

dy

dz

17. Know:

= 0.3. Want:

and

.

dt

dt

dt

dy

dx

y = 6e 0.5 x

= 3e 0.5 x

= 0.9e 0.5 x

dt

dt

dy

At x = 2,

= 0.9e 1 = 0.3310 K .

dt

y is decreasing at about 0.33 unit per second.

166

tangent

f (b )

secant

f (a )

x

a c

29.

f(x) and f(x)

5

f

x

10

2005 Key Curriculum Press

30.

36.

f(x)

x

1

Step discontinuity at x = 1.

31. g(x) = x1/ 3(x 1)

1

1

g( x ) = x 13/ + x 2/3 ( x 1) = x 2/3 ( 4 x 1)

3

3

g(0) is undefined because 0 2 /3 takes on the form

1 / 0 2 /3 or 1/0.

x

1

Or x 7.5606 (Store as b.)

dA = (0.6x e0.2 x) dx

A=

(0.6 x e

a

0.2x

) dx 0.8787K

(Integrate numerically.)

33. dV = [(e0.2 x)2 (0.6x)2] dx

V =

(e

0

0.4x

0.36 x 2 ) dx 8.0554K

(Integrate numerically.)

34.

dy

x

= 0.25

dx

y

Initial conditions: (0, 3) and (10, 4)

dy

10

= 0.25

= 0.625.

dx

4

Using x = 0.5, y(10.5) 4 + (0.625)(0.5) =

4.3125, which is close to the exact value of

4.30842 .

d

3x 2

(sin 1 x 3 ) =

dx

1 x6

1

dx/dt =

( sin t ) = tan t

cos t

dy/dt = sec t tan t

dy dy/dt sec t tan t

=

=

= sec t = y

dx dx/dt

tan t

dx

1

41.

= ln |4 3 x | + C

4 3x

3

x

42. h( x ) = 5 = e xln 5 h( x ) = ln 5 e 5ln 5 = 5 x ln 5

sin 5 x + cos 3 x 5 x 1

0

43. lim

x0

x2

0

5 cos 5 x 3 sin 3 x 5

0

= lim

x0

2x

0

25 sin 5 x 9 cos 3 x

= lim

= 4.5

x0

2

sin 5 x + cos 3 x 5 x 1

, showing a

44. y =

x2

removable discontinuity at (0, 4.5).

(10, 4)

(0, 3)

= 0.125 x 2 + C1

39.

g (x )

x 2 4y 2 = C

Initial condition: (10, 4)

100 64 = C C = 36

x 2 4 y 2 = 36 y = 0.5 x 2 36

y dy = 0.25 x dx 0.5y

x

x

condition for which y = 0.5x, such as (2, 1),

gives the asymptote.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

(0, 4.5)

5

46. Answers will vary.

167

Problem Set 8-1

1. f (x) = x 3 6x 2 + 9x + 3

f (x) = 3x 2 12x + 9

Q1.

Q2.

y

x

1

x

1

Q3.

Q4.

y

g (x) = x 3 6x 2 + 15x 9

g (x) = 3x 2 12x + 15

y

f

f

Q5.

Q6.

y

y

x

1

x

1

h (x) = x 6x + 12x 3

h (x) = 3x 2 12x + 12

3

x

1

Q7.

Q8.

y

f

f

1

x

1

Q9.

2.

3.

4.

5.

168

Negative derivative decreasing function

Zero derivative function could be at a high

point or a low point, but not always.

The functions have vertex points at values of x

where their derivatives change sign. If the

derivative is never zero, as for function g, the

function graph has no vertex points. If the

derivative is zero but does not change sign, as

for function h, the function graph just levels

off, then continues in the same direction, with

no vertex.

g (x) = (d/dx)(3x2 12x + 15) = 6x 12

h (x) = (d/dx)(3x2 12x + 12) = 6x 12

All the second derivatives are the same!

The curves are concave up where the second

derivative is positive and concave down where the

second derivative is negative.

Points of inflection occur where the first

derivative graph reaches a minimum.

Points of inflection occur where the second

derivative graph crosses the x-axis.

Q10.

y

1

y

1

x

1

x

2

1.

max.

f (x )

f(x)

2

no p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

2.

min.

f ( x)

f' ( x)

2

no p.i.

f(x )

f"(x)

x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3.

9.

plateau

no max./min.

f (x )

f(x)

f (x )

+

f(x)

undef.

no p.i.

p.i.

f (x )

f (x )

f(x)

f(x)

undef.

10.

4.

no max.min.

max.

f (x )

f (x)

f' (x)

f'(x )

undef.

2

no p.i.

no p.i.

f (x )

f (x )

f"(x )

undef.

undef.

f"(x )

undef.

11.

5.

max.

min.

f (x )

f(x)

min.

max.

f (x )

undef.

f(x)

0

2

0

3

no p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

p.i.

0

undef.

p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

6.

no max./min.

f (x )

f'(x )

f (x )

undef.

2

p.i.

f (x )

f"(x )

undef.

+

2

7.

12.

no max./min.

min.

f (x )

plateau

max.

f(x )

f(x)

f'(x)

p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

p.i.

p.i.

p.i.

f (x )

f"(x)

8.

0

2

no max./.min.

f (x )

f'(x )

f (x )

p.i.

f (x )

f"(x)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

0

2

x

3

169

13.

16.

max.

plateau

min.

max.

min.

max.

f (x )

f (x )

f(x)

f' (x )

no p.i.

e.p. + 0

0 + e.p.

p.i.

no p.i.

f(x)

f (x )

f(x)

f"(x)

e.p.

f (x )

zero

e.p.

7

f (x )

x

2

17.

14.

y

3

max.

none

max.

f(x )

f'(x)

0 +

p.i.

18.

f (x )

f"(x )

x

3

f (x )

f'

f'

x

f'

x

2

19.

y

15.

min.

max.

min.

f (x )

f(x)

e.p.

zero

e.p.

x

4

no p.i.

f (x )

f(x)

e.p.

zero

e.p.

5

20.

y

f (x )

4

2

f'

x

1

170

x

4

2005 Key Curriculum Press

f (x) = 3ex ex xex = ex (2 x)

f (2) = e2 (2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2

f (x) = 2ex ex xex = ex (1 x)

f (2) = e2 (1 2) = 7.3890... < 0

local maximum at x = 2

f (x )

f (x )

1

x

2

x

1

22. f ( x ) = sin

x

4

f (x) = 3(x 2)2

f (2) = 3(2 2)2 = 0 critical point at x = 2

f (x) = 6(x 2)

f (2) = 6(2 2) = 0, so the test fails.

f (x) goes from positive to positive as

x increases through 2, so there is a plateau

at x = 2.

cos x

4

4

4

4

at x = 2

f (x )

f ( x ) =

sin x

16

4

2

f (2) =

16

4

local minimum at x = 2

x

2

f ( x ) =

f (x )

1

x

2

1

26. f (x) = (2 x)4 + 1

f (x) = 4(2 x)3

f (2) = 4(2 2)3 = 0 critical point at x = 2

f (x) = 12(2 x)2

f (2) = 12(2 2)2 = 0, so the test fails.

f (x) changes from negative to positive as

x increases through 2, so there is a local

minimum at x = 2.

f (x )

23. f (x) = (2 x)2 + 1

f (x) = 2(2 x)

f (2) = 2(2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2

f (x) = 2 f (2) = 2 > 0

local minimum at x = 2

f (x )

x

2

24. f (x) = (x 2)2 + 1

f (x) = 2(x 2)

f (2) = 2(2 2) = 0 critical point at x = 2

f (x) = 2 f (2) = 2 < 0

local maximum at x = 2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

2

27. a. f (x) = 6x5 10x3

f (x) = 30x4 30x2 = 30x2(x + 1)(x 1)

f (x) = 0 x = 1, 0, or 1 (critical points

for f (x))

f ( x ) = 120 x 3 60 x = 60 x ( 2 x + 1)( 2 x 1)

f (x) = 0 x = 0, 1/2 (critical points for

f (x))

b. The graph begins after the f-critical point at

x = 1; the f -critical point at x = 1/2 is

shown, but is hard to see.

c. f (x) is negative for both x < 0 and x > 0.

171

f (x) = 0.4x 3 3.2 = 0.4(x 2)(x 2 + 2x + 4)

x2 + 2x + 4 has discriminant = 22 4 4 < 0,

so f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x)).

f (x) = 1.2x2

f (x) = 0 x = 0 (critical point for f (x))

b. f (x) does not change sign at x = 0.

( f (x) 0 for all x)

c. f (c) = 0, but f (c) 0

29. a. f ( x ) = xe x

f ( x ) = xe x + e x = e x (1 x )

f (x) = 0 x = 1 (critical point for f (x))

f ( x ) = xe x 2e x = e x ( x 2)

f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x))

b. Because f (x) approaches its horizontal

asymptote (y = 0) from above, the graph must

be concave up for large x; but the graph is

concave down near x = 1, and the graph is

smooth; somewhere the concavity must

change from down to up.

c. No. e x 0 for all x, so xe x = 0 x = 0.

30. a. f (x) = x 2 ln x

f (x) = x + 2x ln x = x (1 + 2 ln x)

f (x) and f (x) are undefined at x = 0, so

f ( x ) = 0 ln x = 0.5 x = e 0.5 =

0.6065 (critical point for f (x)).

f (x) = 3 + 2 ln x

f ( x ) = 0 ln x = 1.5 x = e 1.5 =

0.2231 (critical point for f (x)).

concavity is down for both sides, but there is

an inflection point at x = 1.

32. a. f ( x ) = x 1.2 3 x 0.2

f ( x ) = 1.2 x 0.2 0.6 x 0.8 = 0.6 x 0.8 (2 x 1)

f (x) = 0 x = 0.5, and f (x) is undefined

at x = 0 (critical points for f (x)).

f ( x ) = 0.24 x 0.8 + 0.48 x 1.8 = 0.24 x 1.8 ( x + 2)

f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point for f (x);

f (0) is undefined, so f has no critical point

at x = 0).

b. f (0) = 01.2 3 00.2 = 0 has only one value.

c. Curved concave up because f (x) > 0 for

x < 2

33. a. f (x) = x 3 + 5x 2 6x + 7

f (x )

7

x

1

b.

ln x

1/ x

= lim

x 2 x 0 + 2 x 3

= lim+ 0.5 x 2 = 0 by LHospitals rule.

b. lim+ x 2 ln x = lim+

x0

x0

x0

c.

x0

c. All critical points from part a appear,

although the inflection point at x = e 1.5 is

hard to see on the graph.

31. a. f (x) = x 5/3 + 5x 2/3

5

10

5

f ( x ) = x 2/3 + x 1/3 = x 1/3 ( x + 2)

3

3

3

f (x) = 0 x = 2, and f (x) is undefined

at x = 0 (critical points for f (x)).

10 1/3 10 4/3 10 4/3

=

f ( x ) =

x x

x ( x 1)

9

9

9

f (x) = 0 x = 1 (critical point for f (x);

f (0) is undefined, so f has no critical point

at x = 0).

b. The y-axis (x = 0) is a tangent line because

the slope approaches from both sides.

172

d.

34. a.

points of inflection (1.7, 6.3)

No global maximum or minimum

f (x) = 3x 2 + 10x 6

1

f ( x ) = 0 x = (5 7 ) = 2.5485K or

3

0.7847

5

f ( x ) = 6 x + 10; f ( x ) = 0 x = =

3

1.666

f (0.7847) = 6(0.7847) + 10 =

5.2915 > 0, confirming local minimum.

Critical and inflection points occur only

where f, f , or f is undefined (no such points

exist) or is zero (all such points are found

above).

f (x) = x 3 7x 2 + 9x + 10

f (x )

10

x

1

points of inflection (2.3, 5.6)

No global maximum or minimum

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. f (x) = 3x 2 14x + 9

1

f ( x ) = 0 at x = (7 22 ) = 3.896 K or

3

0.769

7

f ( x ) = 6 x 14; f ( x ) = 0 at x = = 2.333K

3

c. f (0.769) = 6(0.769) 14 =

9.3808 < 0, confirming local maximum.

d. Critical and inflection points occur only

where f, f , or f is undefined (no such points

exist) or is zero (all such points are found

above).

35. a. f (x) = 3x 4 + 8x 3 6x 2 24x + 37,

x [3, 2]

f (x )

80

x

3

b.

c.

d.

36. a.

minimum (2, 45), (1, 18), points of

inflection (1.5, 45.7), (0.2, 32.0)

Global maximum at (3, 82) and global

minimum at (1, 18)

f (x) = 12x 3 + 24x 2 12x 24

= 12(x + 2)(x 1)(x + 1)

f (x) = 0 x = 2, 1, 1

f (x) is undefined x = 3, 2.

f (x) = 36x 2 + 48x 12 = 12(3x 2 + 4x 1);

1

f ( x ) = 0 x = (2 7 ) = 0.2152

3

or 1.5485

f (x) is undefined x = 3, 2.

f (2) = 12[3(4) + 4(2) 1] = 36 > 0,

confirming local minimum.

Critical and inflection points occur only

where f, f , or f is undefined (only at

endpoints) or is zero (all such points are found

above).

f (x) = (x 1)5 + 4, x [1, 3]

f (x) = 0 x = 1; f (x) is undefined

x = 1, 3.

f (x) = 20(x 1)3;

f (x) = 0 x = 1; f (x) is undefined

x = 1, 3.

c. f (1) = 20(1 1)3 = 0, so the test fails.

d. Critical and inflection points occur only

where f, f , or f is undefined (only at

endpoints) or is zero (all such points are found

above).

37. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d; f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c;

f (x) = 6ax + 2b f (x) = 0 at x = b/(3a)

Because the equation for f (x) is a line with

nonzero slope, f (x) changes sign at x = b/(3a),

so there is a point of inflection at x = b/(3a).

38. f (x) may not have a local maximum or

minimum (if f (x) is never zero); if this is not

the case, then the maximum and minimum occur

where f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c = 0, at

2 b 4b 2 4 3a c b

b 2 3ac

=

,

6a

3a

3a

and the maximum and minimum occur at

x=

inflection point b/(3a) (see Problem 33).

39. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c; f (x) = 6ax + 2b

Points of inflection at (2, 3) f (3) = 0

18a + 2b = 0

Maximum at (5, 10) f (5) = 0 75a + 10b +

c=0

(3, 2) and (5, 10) are on the graph

27a + 9b + 3c + d = 2.

125a + 25b + 5c + d = 10

Solving this system of equations yields

1

9

15

5

f ( x) = x 3 + x 2 x .

2

2

2

2

f (x )

(5, 10)

5

(3, 2)

3

x

5

f (x )

10

1

x

1

plateau and points of inflection (1, 4)

Global maximum at (3, 36) and global

minimum at (1, 28)

2005 Key Curriculum Press

of inflection (3, 2).

40. f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

f (x) = 3ax2 + 2bx + c; f (x) = 6ax + 2b

Points of inflection at (2, 7) f (2) = 0

12a + 2b = 0

Maximum at (1, 61) f (1) = 0

3a 2b + c = 0

Problem Set 8-2

173

8a + 4b + 2c + d = 7.

a + b c + d = 61

Solving this system of equations yields

f (x) = x 3 6x 2 15x + 53.

80

d.

f (x )

f (x )

x

c

x

e.

f ( x)

points of inflection (2, 7).

41. a. f (x) = x 3 f (x) = 3x 2

f (0.8) = 1.92

f (0.5) = 0.75

f (0.5) = 0.75

f (0.8) = 1.92

b. The slope seems to be decreasing from 0.8

to 0.5; f (x) = 6x < 0 on 0.8 x 0.5,

which confirms that the slope decreases. The

slope seems to be increasing from 0.5 to 0.8;

f (x) = 6x > 0 on 0.5 x 0.8, which

confirms that the slope increases.

c. The curve lies above the tangent line.

42. Ima could notice that y = 0 at x = 0

(or y = 3 at x = 1), so the graph could not

possibly be a straight line with slope = 1.

43. a.

(Locally

constant)

x

c

f (1) = 2, so f (1) is defined.

40

f ( x ) =

( x 1)1/ 3

3

f (1) = 0, so f is differentiable at x = 1.

40

f ( x ) =

( x 1) 2 / 3

9

40

40

f (1) has the form (0 2 / 3 ) or

(1/0) , so

9

9

f (1) is infinite.

There seems to be a cusp at (1, 2), but zooming

in on this point reveals that the tangent is

actually horizontal there.

f (x )

f (x )

x

x

c

b.

f (x )

x

c

c.

f (x )

x

c

174

calculation of curvature.

45. f (x) = e0.06 x, f (x) = 0.06e0.06 x,

f (x) = 0.0036e0.06 x

g (x) = 1 + 0.06x + 0.0018x2 + 0.000036x3

g (x) = 0.06 + 0.0036x + 0.000108x2

g (x) = 0.0036 + 0.000216x

f (0) = 1 and g (0) = 1

f (0) = 0.06 and g (0) = 0.06

f (0) = 0.0036 and g (0) = 0.0036

(In fact, f (0) = g (0).)

But f (10) = e0.6 = 1.822 g (10) = 1.816;

f (10) = 0.109 g (10) = 0.1068.

Because f (x) > 0 for all x, f has no x-intercept.

But g (0) = 1 and g (100) = 23.

By the intermediate value theorem, g (x) = 0

somewhere between x = 100 and x = 0, meaning

that g does have an x-intercept.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Domains: 0 x 300, 0 y 200

Maximize A(x) = xy.

2

2 x + 3 y = 600 y = 200 x

3

2 2

A( x ) = 200 x x

3

( x 1)3 sin 1 + 2, if x 1

46. f ( x ) =

x 1

2, if x = 1

2.01

f (x )

1.99

A (x)

1

+ 2 = 2 = f (1)

x 1

(The limit of the first term is zero because

(x 1)3 approaches zero and the sine factor is

bounded.)

f is continuous at x = 1.

f ( x ) f (1)

f (1) = lim

x 1

x 1

[( x 1)3 sin(1/( x 1))] + 2 2

= lim

x 1

x 1

1

2

= lim ( x 1) sin

=0

x 1

x 1

(x 1)2 0 and the sine factor is bounded.

f (1) = 0

max.

x 1

x 1

2.001

1.999

0.9

1.1

Q2. ln |x + 6| + C

Q4. 3x 1/3 + C

Q6. x + C

Q10. D

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

14.28...

Algebraically, P (x) = 12 2450x 2.

P (x) = 0 2450x 2 = 12

x = 2450/12 = 35/ 6 = 14.288

Minimum is at x = 35/ 6 , y = 10 6 =

24.49 .

Make rooms 14.3 ft across and 24.5 ft deep.

b. For 10 rooms, P (x) = 20x + 11y =

20x + 3850x 1.

Minimum at x = 192.5 = 13.87 ,

y"

x

4

Algebraically, A( x ) = 200 x.

3

A(x) = 0 x = 150, confirming the graph.

2

x = 150 y = 200 150 = 100

3

Make the total width 150 ft and length 100 ft.

(Note: The maximum area was not asked for.)

2. a. Let x = width of a room across the front,

y = depth of a room from front to back.

Domains: x 0, y 0

Minimize P (x) = 12x + 7y.

xy = 350 y = 350x 1

P (x) = 12x + 2450x 1

Q9.

300

P (x )

ways. The graph does appear to be locally linear

at x = 2. Although the sine factor makes an

infinite number of cycles in any neighborhood of

x = 1, the (x 1)3 factor approaches zero so

rapidly that the graph is flattened out. The

name pathological is used to describe the fact that

the graph makes an infinite number of cycles in a

bounded neighborhood of x = 1.

47. Answers will vary.

Q1. y = 3(3 x + 5) 2

2

Q3. x 5/ 3

3

Q5. x 1 + C

Q7. ln |sin x| + C

Q8.

x

150

x

2

Make rooms 13.9 ft across and 25.2 ft deep.

For 3 rooms, P (x) = 6x + 4y = 6x + 1400x 1.

P (x) = 6 1400x 2 = 0 at x = 1400/6 =

10 7/3

Problem Set 8-3

175

y = 5 21 = 22.91

Make rooms 15.3 ft across and 22.9 ft deep.

3. a. Let x = width of rectangle, 2x = length of

rectangle, y = width of square.

A rect = 2x 2, A sq = y 2

For minimal rectangle, 2x2 800 x 20.

For minimal square, y2 100 y 10.

Perimeter P = 6x + 4y = 600

y = 150 1.5x

150 1.5x 10 x 140/1.5 =

93.3333

Domain: 20 x 93.3333

b. Total area A(x) = 2x2 + y2

= 2x2 + (150 1.5x)2

= 22500 450x + 4.25x2

A(x)

20,000

A(159.154) = 79577.471

Minimum area at r = 70.012 ,

s = 1000/(4 + ) = 140.024

For square, 4(140.024) 560.

For circle, 2(70.012) 440.

Use 440 yd for square and 560 yd for circle.

(You could build a square corral with side 140

around the circular fence of radius 70 to

enclose a total area of only 19,607 yd2 , but

Big Bill might not like your solution!)

b. The graph of A versus r shows that the

maximum area occurs at the largest possible

circle. Big Bill should use all 1000 yards for

the circular fence and not build a corral.

5. a. Let x = length of square base, z = height

of box.

Domain of x: 0 x 120 = 10.954

Maximize V(x) = x2z.

Area = x2 + 4xz = 120 z = 30/x x/4

V(x) = 30x x3/4

V

max.

x

20

93.3

x = 93.3333 .

A(x) = 450 + 8.5x

A(x) = 0 x = 450/8.5 = 52.9411

Because A(52.9) is a minimum, the

maximum occurs at an endpoint.

A(20) = 15200, A(93.3333) =

17522.2222

Greatest area 17,522 ft2

4. a. Let r = radius of circle, s = width of square

Diameter 50 r 25

Circumference 1000 2r 1000

r 500/

Domain of r: 25 r 500/ = 159.154

Minimize A(r) = r2 + s2.

Perimeter 2r + 4s = 1000 s = 250 r/2

A(r) = r2 + (250 r/2)2

A

max.

min.

r

25

70

160

A(r) = 2r + 2(250 r/2)(/2)

A(r) = 0 2r (250 r/2) = 0

r = 500/(4 + ) = 70.012

A(25) = 46370.667

A(70.012) = 35006.197

176

x

0

6.32...

10.95...

V(x) = 30 3x 2/4 = 0 at x = 40

x = 40 is out of the domain.

Critical points at x = 0, x = 40 , x = 120

V (0) = 0, V ( 120 ) = 0

V( 40 ) = 20 40 = 126.49

Maximum at x = 40 = 6.324 ,

z = 40 /2 = 3.162

Make the box 6.32 cm square by 3.16 cm

deep.

b. Conjecture: An open box with square base of

side length x and fixed surface area A will

have maximal volume when the base length

is twice the height, which occurs when

x = A/3 (see the solution to Problem 8b).

6. a. Domain of x is 0 x 6.

b. V(0) = 0 cm2

V(1) = 180 cm2

V(2) = 256 cm2 (largest volume for an integer

value of x)

V(3) = 252 cm2

V(4) = 192 cm2

V(5) = 100 cm2

V(6) = 0 cm2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= 240x 64x 2 + 4x 3

V (x )

A 2 z(2 z + 4 z 2 + A )

y=

2 z + 4 z 2 + A + 2 z

= 2 z + 4 z 2 + A

200

x

6

V(x) = 240 128x + 12x2 = 0 at

x = (128 4864 )/24 = 2.427 or 8.239

x = 8.239 is out of the domain.

V(2.427) = 262.68 is a maximum

because it is positive and V(0) = V(6) = 0.

Maximum volume 262.7 cm2 at

x 2.43 cm

7. Let x = length, y = depth, C(x) = total cost.

Domains: x > 0, y > 0

Area of bottom = 5x

Total area of sides is (10 + 2x)y.

Minimize C(x) = 10(5x) + 5(10 + 2x)y.

Volume = 72 5xy = 72

y = 72/(5 x ) = 14.4 x 1

C( x ) = 50 x + 5(10 + 2 x )(14.4 x 1 )

C( x ) = 50 x + 720 x 1 + 144

Q .E .D .

b. Let x = y. Maximize V = xyz = x 2z.

Fixed area A = xy + 2xz + 2yz = x2 + 4xz

z = A/(4x) x/4

V = (A/4)x x3/4

dV

= ( A/4) 3 x 2 /4 = 0 at x = A/3

dx

dV/dx goes from positive to negative at

x = A/3 maximum at x = A/3.

1

1

A/3 = x

2

2

c. For the maximal box in part b, the depth is

half the length of the base. Thus, the box is

short and fat. This makes sense because the

problem is equivalent to maximizing the

volume of two open boxes with the second

box placed upside-down on the first. The

resulting single closed box will have

maximum volume when it is a cube, which

will happen if each open box is half a cube.

z = A/( 4 A/3 ) A/3 /4 =

x 2 + e2 x .

D (x)

x

3.794...

C(x) = 50 720x 2 = 0 x = 72/5 =

3.7947

x = 3.7947 is out of the domain.

Minimum is at x = 3.7947 because C(x)

changes from negative to positive there.

C(3.7947) = 120 10 + 144 523.47

Minimum cost is $523.47.

8. a. Maximize V = xyz.

Fixed area A = xy + 2xz + 2yz

y = (A 2xz)/(x + 2z)

V =

Axz 2 x 2 z 2

x + 2z

dV 2 z 2 x 2 8z 3 x + 2 Az 2

=

dx

( x + 2 z )2

dV

= 0 at x = 2 z + 4 z 2 + A

dx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

0.4263...

1 2

( x + e 2 x ) 1/2 (2 x + 2e 2 x )

2

D(x) = 0 2x + 2e2x = 0 x = e2x

Because x appears both algebraically and

exponentially, there is no analytic solution.

Solving numerically gives x 0.4263. By

graphing D(x), D(0.4263) is a minimum.

Closest point to the origin is

(x, y) = (0.4263 , 0.6529).

10. Minimize A(r) = r2 + 2rx, r 20.

2 r + 2x = 400 x = 200 r

x 100 r 100/

domain is 20 r 100/.

A(r) = r2 + 2r(200 r) = 400r r2

D( x ) =

177

A (r )

10,000

r

20 31.83...

A = 400 2 r

A = 0 r = 200/ = 63.6 (out of domain)

A > 0 for all r in the domain.

minimum occurs at left end of domain, r = 20.

x = 200 20 = 137.168

Make radius of semicircles 20 m and straight

sections 137.17 m.

11.

y

8

x1

L( x ) = x 2 + y 2 .

Domains: x 1, y 8

Minimize L 2(x) = x2 + y2.

8x

y

8

Using similar triangles, =

.

y=

x 1

x x 1

64 x 2

L2(x) = x2 +

( x 1)2

L( x ) = ( x + 7)2 + ( y + 5)2

Maximize L2(x) = (x + 7)2 + (y + 5)2.

Using similar triangles, y/7 = 5/x y =

35/x.

L2(x) = (x + 7)2 + (35/x + 5)2

L 2(x) = x 2 + 14x + 49 + 1225/x 2 + 350/x + 25

L

20

x

5.59...

( L2 ( x )) = 2 x + 14 350 x 2 2450 x 3

By numerical solution, (L2) = 0 at x 5.5934 .

(Exact answer is x = 3 175 .)

But a minimum distance L in the hall implies

that the maximal ladder that will go through the

hall is at x = 5.5934 .

L2(5.5934) = 285.3222

L(5.5934) = 16.8914

No ladder longer than 16.8 ft (rounded down) can

pass through the hall.

13. Let r = radius, h = height.

V = r2h

2r + 2h = 1200 h = 600 r

V = r2(600 r) = (600r2 r3)

V

10

r

400

x

1

128 x

(L2)(x) = 2x

( x 1)3

128 x

(L2)(x) = 0 2 x =

( x 1)3

x = 0 (out of domain) or (x 1)3 = 64 x = 5

By graph, L(x) is a minimum at x = 5.

Shortest ladder has length L(5) = 5 5 11.18 ft.

12. Let x and y be the segments shown.

L

y

5

7

178

V = (1200r 3r2)

V = 0 r = 0 or r = 400

From graph, maximum is at r = 400.

h = 600 400 = 200

Maximum volume occurs with rectangle

400 mm wide (radius), 200 mm high.

14. Rotating a square does not give the maximum

volume. The solution to Problem 13 gives a

counterexample. Repeating the calculations with

perimeter P instead of 1200 gives r = (1/3)P and

h = (1/6)P, showing that the proportions for

maximum volume are with radius twice the

height.

15. a. Let r = radius, h = height.

V = r2h = (3.652)(10.6) = 141.2185

= 443.6510 cm3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. A = 2rh + 2r2

V = r2h = 141.2185 h = 141.2185/r2

A = 2r(141.2185/r2) + 2r2

A = 2 (141.2185r 1 + r 2 )

c.

500

r

4.13...

A = 2 ( 141.2185r 2 + 2 r )

A = 2/r2(141.2185 + 2r3)

A = 0 r3 = 70.60925

r = 3 70.60925 = 4.1332

Minimum at r = 4.1 because A goes from

negative to positive.

h = 141.2815/(3 70.60925 )2 = 23 70.60925

= 8.2664

Radius 4.1 cm, height 8.3 cm

Because height = 2 radius, height = diameter.

So minimal can is neither tall and narrow nor

short and wide.

d. Normally proportioned can is taller and

narrower than minimal can. For normal can,

A = 2(3.65)(10.6) + 2(3.65)2 =

326.8041 .

For minimal can, A = 2(4.13)(8.26) +

2(4.13)2 = 322.014 .

Difference is 4.78 cm2.

Percent: (4.789)(100)/326.80 = 1.465

1.5% of metal in normal can

e. Savings = (0.06)(20 106)(0.01465)(365) =

6.419 106, or about $6.4 million!

16. a. C(r ) = 2r 2 k + 2rh = 2r 2 k + 282.437r 1

C (r ) = 4rk 282.437r 2

= 4r 2 ( kr 3 70.60925)

C(r) = 0 at r = 3 70.60925/k

C (r ) = 4k + 564.874r 3 > 0 for all r > 0,

so this is a local minimum.

If the normal can is the cheapest to make,

then 3.65 = 3 70.60925/k

k = 70.60925(3.65) 3 = 1.4520 .

This is reasonable because metal for the ends

is cut into circles, so some must be wasted.

b. Now it takes (2r)2 cm2 of metal to make each

end of the can, so the function to minimize is

C(r ) = 8r 2 k + 2rh = 8r 2 k + 282.437r 1 .

C (r ) = 16rk 282.437r 2

C (r ) = 0 at r = 3

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

282.437

16k

so this is a local minimum.

If the normal can is the cheapest to make,

282.437

282.437

then 3.65 = 3

k=

16k

16(3.65)3

= 1.1404 .

To minimize the area (not the cost) of the

can, minimize 8r 2 + 2rh = 8r 2 + 282.437r 1.

C (r ) = 16r 282.437r 2 = 0

282.437

r=3

= 3.8126 cm

16

141.2185

h=

2 = 9.7099 K cm.

3 282.437 /16

of the normal can.

c. If the metal for the ends can be cut without

waste, then it takes (r + 0.6)2 to make each

end and (2r + 0.5)h to make the sides, so

minimize

C(r) = 2(r + 0.6)2 + (2r + 0.5)h

= 2 (r + 0.6)2 + 141.2185(2r + 0.5)r 2

C (r ) = 4 (r + 0.6) 282.437r 2

141.2185r 3

C(r) = 0 at r 3.9966 by graphing calculator.

C (r ) = 4 + 564.874r 3 + 423.6555r 4 > 0

for all r > 0, so this is a minimum point.

Minimal can has r 3.9966 ,

h 8.8411 cm.

But if the metal for the ends is cut from

squares, then it takes 4(r + 0.6)2 to make each

end and (2r + 0.5)h to make the sides, so

minimize:

C(r) = 8(r + 0.6)2 + (2r + 0.5)h

= 8(r + 0.6)2 + 141.2185(2r + 0.5)r 2

C (r ) = 16(r + 0.6) 282.437r 2

141.2185r 3

C(r) = 0 at r 3.6776 by graphing

calculator.

C (r ) = 16 + 564.874r 3 + 423.6555r 4 > 0

for all r > 0, so this is a minimum point.

Minimal can has r 3.6776 ,

h 10.4411 .

This is close to the normal can!

17. a. Volume of cup = (2.5)2 7 = 43.75

Let r = radius of cup, h = height of cup.

Minimize A(r) = r2 + 2rh.

r 2 h = 43.75 h = 43.75r 2

A(r ) = r 2 + 87.5r 1

A

100

r

3.52...

179

A(r ) = 2r 87.5r 2 = 2r 2 (r 3 43.75)

A(r) = 0 at r = 3 43.75 = 3.5236 .

There is a minimum at x = 3.5236 because

A(r) goes from decreasing to increasing.

(See graph.)

h = 43.75( 43.75) 2/3 = 3 43.75 = r

Minimal cup has r 3.52 cm, h 3.52 cm.

b. Ratio is d : h = 2r : h = 2 : 1.

c. Current cup design uses (2.5)2 + 5 7 =

41.25 = 129.59 cm2 = 0.012959 m2 per

cup, which costs

(300,000,000)(0.012959)(2.00)

$7,775,441.82 per year.

Minimal cup design uses 3(43.75)2/3 =

117.01 cm2 = 0.011701 m2 per cup,

which costs (300,000,000)(0.011701)(2.00)

$7,021,141.88 per year.

Switching to minimal cup design would

save 754,299.93 $754,000 per year in

paper costs (about 10% of the current annual

paper bill), but would likely result in loss of

sales because a cup of that shape is hard to

drink from.

d. Let r = radius of cup, h = height of cup.

r 2 h = V h = (V / )r 2

Minimize A(r ) = r 2 + 2rh = r 2 + 2Vr 1 .

A(r ) = 2r 2Vr 2 = 0 at r = 3 V /

A(r ) = 2 + 4Vr 3 > 0 for all r > 0, so this is

a minimum.

Minimal cup has r = 3 V/ ,

h = (V / )(V / ) 2/3 = 3 V / = r.

18. a. A = yz = (30 + 0.2x)(40 0.2x)

A(x) = 1200 + 2x 0.04x2

Left rectangle: A(0) = 1200 in.2

Right rectangle: A(100) = 1000 in.2

b. A(80) = 1104 in.2

A (x )

c.

1000

x

25

100

A(x) = 2 0.08x = 0 at x = 25.

Critical points at x = 0, 25, 100

A(25) = 1225 in.2; A(0) = 1200 in.2;

A(100) = 1000 in.2 (from part a)

Maximum area at x = 25 in., minimum area for

x = 100 in.

19. Maximize A(x) = 2xy = 2x cos x.

Use 0 x /2 for the domain of x.

180

A (x )

1

x

1

A(x) = 2 cos x 2x sin x

A(x) = 0 when x = cot x.

Solving numerically gives x 0.8603 .

A(0) = A(/2) = 0; A(0.8603) = 1.1221

Maximum area = 1.1221

20.

200

50

Street

Minimize C(x) = 100x + 80(x + 2y).

xy = 4000 y = 4000 x 1

C( x ) = 180 x + 640000 x 1

y 200 x 20, so domain of x is

20 x 50.

Graph shows minimum at x endpoint x = 50.

C (x )

50,000

x

20

50

C ( x ) = 180 640000 x 2 = 0

80 5

at x =

= 59.628 , outside the domain.

3

C(20) = $35,600.00; C(50) = $21,800.00

Minimum cost is at x = 50, y = 4000/50 = 80.

Bill should build the store 50 ft 80 ft.

21. a. A = 0.5xy = 0.5x cot x

x

0

lim A = lim

x0

x 0 2 tan x

0

1

1

= lim

=

2

x 0 2 sec x

2

b. Domain of x is 0 < x /2.

A (x )

0.5

x

/2

maximum as x approaches the endpoint x = 0

from the positive side.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

(cot x x csc 2 x )

2

A(x) = 0 when x = cos x sin x or

2x = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x,

which happens at x = 0.

A(/2) = 0, so the maximum occurs at x = 0.

But x = 0 is not in the domain; A(x) can get

arbitrarily close to 1/2, but never achieve it.

A ( x ) =

22.

y

(x, y)

P(x) = 4 4x = 0 at x = 1

P(0) = 18; P(1) = 20; P(3) = 12

Maximal rectangle has width = 2,

length = 9 1 = 8.

c. No. The maximum-area rectangle is 2 3 by 6.

The maximum-perimeter rectangle is 2 by 8.

24. a. Maximize V(x) = x2y = x2(9 x2) =

9 x 2 x 4.

Domain: 0 x 3

V(x )

50

x

x

Domain of x is 0 x 3.

Maximize A = 0.5(3 x) ( y) = 0.5(3 x)ex =

1.5ex 0.5xex.

A (x )

4

x

0

A(x) = 1.5ex 0.5ex 0.5xex = 0.5ex(2 x)

A(x) = 0 at x = 2, confirming the graph.

A(x) > 0 for x < 2, and A(x) < 0 for x > 2,

confirming maximum point at x = 2.

Maximum area A(2) = e2/2 = 3.69452 .

23. a. Maximize A(x) = 2xy = 2x(9 x2) =

18x 2x 3.

Domain: 0 x 3

x

0

2.121...

V ( x ) = 18x 4x 3 = 0 at x = 0, 4.5 .

4.5 is out of the domain.

V (0) = V (3) = 0, V ( 4.5 ) = 20.25 =

63.6172

Maximum is at x = 4.5 , y = 9 4.5 = 4.5.

Maximal cylinder has radius = 4.5 =

2.12132 and height = 4.5.

b. Maximize L(x) = 2 xy = 2 x(9 x2) =

18 x 2 x 3 .

L (x )

50

x

0

A(x )

20

x

0

1.732

A( x ) = 18 6 x 2 = 0 at x = 3 = 1.732

1.732 is out of the domain.

A(0) = A(3) = 0; A( 3) = 12 3 = 20.7846 K

Maximal rectangle has width = 2 3,

length = 9 3 = 6.

b. Maximize P(x) = 4x + 2y = 4x + 18 2x2.

1.732...

L ( x ) = 18 6x 2 = 0 at x = 3 .

3 is out of the domain.

L(0) = L(3) = 0; L( 3 ) = 12 3 = 65.2967K

Maximum is at x = 3 , y = 9 3 = 6.

Maximal cylinder has radius = 3 =

1.7320 and height = 6.

c. Maximize A(x) = 2x2 + 2 xy = 2 x 2 +

2 x(9 x 2) = 2 x 2 + 18 x 2 x 3 .

A ( x)

50

P(x )

20

x

0

x

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2.097...

A(x) = 18 + 4 x 6 x 2

Problem Set 8-3

181

A(x) = 0 at x =

1.430

1.430 is out of the domain.

A(0) = 0; A(2.0971) = 88.2727 ;

A(3) = 18 = 56.5486

1+ 2 7

Maximal cylinder has radius =

=

3

52 4 7

2.0971 and height =

=

9

4.6018 .

d. No. The maximum-volume cylinder has

dimensions different from both of the

maximum-area cylinders in parts b and c.

e. No. Rotating the maximum-area rectangle

does not produce the maximum-volume

cylinder. But it produces the cylinder with

maximum lateral area.

f. If y = a2 x2, the paraboloid has radius = a.

V = x2(a2 x2) = (a2x2 x4)

V = (2a 2x 4x3)

V = 0 x = 0 or x = a/ 2 .

V is maximum at x = a/ 2.

For the cylinder of maximum volume,

(cylinder radius):(paraboloid radius) = 1/ 2,

a constant.

Note: This ratio is also constant (1/ 3 ) for the

cylinder of maximum lateral area, but is not

constant for the cylinder of maximum total

area.

25. a. x 2 + y 2 = 100, 0 x 10

Maximize V ( x ) = x 2 y = 2x 2 100 x 2 .

b.

V ( x)

2000

x

0

8.16... 10

x 8.2.

V ( x ) =

=

2x 3

+ 4 x 100 x 2

100 x 2

6 x 3 + 400 x

c. Height = radius 2

4

4000

1000 =

3

3

4000 3

Volume of maximal cylinder Vc =

9

Vc = Vs / 3

Volume of sphere Vs =

Lateral area A(r) = r (slant height) = r r 2 + h 2

1

V = r 2 h = 5 h = 15r 2

3

A(r ) = r r 2 + 225r 4

h 2r 2r 15r 2

Domain of r is 0 < r 3 7.5 = 1.9574 K .

A(r )

20

r

1

1.957...

r = 1.957 .

Minimize A 2 (r ) = 2 (r 4 + 225r 2 ).

( A 2 (r )) = 2 ( 4r 3 450 r 3 ) = 0 at r = 6 112.5 =

2.1971 , which is out of the domain.

A(1.9574) = 26.915 , lim+ A(r ) = .

r0

and height = 2 r = 23 7.5 = 3.9148K .

Make r 1.96 ft and h 3.91 ft.

27. a. Lateral area L(x) = 2 x y

Domains: 0 x 5 and 0 y 7

Equation of element of cone is

7

y = x + 7 y = 1.4 x + 7.

5

L(x) = 2x(1.4x + 7) = 2(1.4x2 + 7x)

L (x )

50

100 x 2

V ( x ) = 0 at x = 0,

200 10 6

=

= 8.1649K

3

3

V(0) = V(10) = 0

10 6 4000 3

V

= 2418.399K

=

9

3

182

20 3

height =

= 11.5470 K , and volume =

3

2418.39 .

1 2 7

= 2.0971K or

3

x

0

2.5

x 2.5.

L(x) = 2 (2.8x + 7)

L(x) = 0 at x = 2.5.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x = 2.5.

maximum lateral area at radius x = 2.5 cm.

b. Total area A(x) = 2xy + 2x2

= 2x(1.4x + 7) + 2x2

A(x) = 2(7x 0.4x2)

A (x )

150

x

0

Maximum area at x =

rh

if h 2r;

2(h r )

x = r otherwise.

c. From part b, the maximal cylinder degenerates

to two circular bases if the radius of the cone

is at least half the height.

29. Maximize V = y2x.

Ellipse equation is (x/9)2 + (y/4)2 = 1, from

which y2 = (16/81)(81 x2).

V = (16/81)(81x x3)

Domain: 0 x 9

x = 5.

A(x) = 2(7 0.8x) = 0 at x = 8.75, out of

domain.

maximum is at an endpoint, x = 5.

A(0) = 0; A(5) = 2(52) = 50 = 157.07

Maximum area is with the degenerate cylinder

consisting only of the top and bottom, radius

5 and height 0.

28. a. Let r = radius of cone, h = height of cone

(constants).

Let (x, y) be a sample point on cone element.

Domain of x is 0 x r.

L(x) = 2xy.

Equation of element of cone is

y = (h/r)x + h.

L(x) = 2x[(h/r)x + h] = 2h(x2/r + x)

L(x) = 2h(2x/r + 1)

L(x) = 0 at x = r/2.

L(x) goes from positive to negative at

x = r/2.

maximum lateral area at radius x = r/2.

b. A(x) = 2xy + 2x2

= 2x[h (h/r)x] + 2x2

A(x) = 2[(1 h/r)x2 + hx]

A(x) = 2[2(1 h/r)x + h] = 0 at

h

x=

2(1 h/r )

h

rh

A(x) = 0 at x =

=

2 2 h/r 2(h r )

If h 2r, then A(x) 0 for all x r, so in

this case the critical points are the endpoints,

x = 0, r.

A(0) = 0; A(r) = 2r2

rh

If h 2r, then 0

r, so this is a

2( h r )

rh

rh 2

.

critical point; A

=

2( h r ) 2( h r )

A(x) goes from positive to negative at

rh

x=

.

2(h r )

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

150

x

0

5.196...

10

V = (16/81)(81 3x2) = (16/27)(27 x2)

V = 0 at x = 27 = 5.196

5.196 is out of the domain.

V (0) = V (9) = 0; V ( 27 ) = 32 3 = 174.1

At x = 5.196 , y2 = (16/81)(81 27) =

32/3 y = 32/3 = 3.2659

maximum volume 174.1 cm3 at radius

3.27 m and height 5.20 m.

30. Maximize C(y) = y2x, the volume of the cylinder.

The parabola has an equation of the form

x = ay 2 + 16.

0 = a 16 + 16 a = 1 x = 16 y2

V(y) = y2(16 y2) = (16y2 y4)

Domain: 0 y 4

F (y )

300

y

0

2.828...

C(y) = (32y 4y 3) = 4 y(8 y 2) = 0 at

y = 0, 8 .

y = 8 is out of the domain.

C(0) = C( 4) = 0, C( 8 ) = 64 = 201.0619

Maximum C(y) at y = 8.

At y = 8 , x = 8.

Maximal cylinder has radius = 8 2.83 m,

height = 8 m, and volume = 64 201.1 m3.

Maximize F(y), the volume of the frustum.

Note that Vf = (1/3)h(R2 + r2 + Rr), where

Problem Set 8-3

183

R = larger radius, and r = smaller radius.

1

F( y) = x (16 + y 2 + 4 y)

3

1

= (16 y 2 )( y 2 + 4 y + 16)

3

1

F( y) = (256 + 64 y 4 y 3 y 4 )

3

F (y )

or a plateau point.

32. a. Let x = length of corral (parallel to wall), y =

width of corral (perpendicular to wall).

A = xy

If x 600, then 1000 = x + 2y

y = 500 0.5x.

If x 600, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 600)

y = 800 x.

500 x 0.5 x 2, x 600

A=

2

x > 600

800 x x ,

300

A

150,000

y

0

1.821...

1

F ( y) = (64 12 y 2 4 y 3 )

3

F (y) = 0 64 12y 2 4y 3 = 0

Solving numerically for y close to 1.8 gives

y 1.8216 .

Substituting y = 1.8216 gives

x = 16 y 2 12.6816 .

1

F(1.8216 K) = x (16 + y 2 + 4 y)

3

353.318 .

Maximal frustum has radii = 4 m and 1.82 m,

height 12.68 m, and volume 353.3 m3.

The maximal frustum contains 152.3 m3 more

than the maximal cylinder, about 75.7% more.

31. a. If f (c) is a local maximum, then

f (x) f (c) 0 for x in a neighborhood of c.

For x to the left of c, x c < 0.

f ( x ) f (c )

Thus,

0 (neg./neg.) and

xc

f ( x ) f (c )

0.

f (c) = lim

x0

xc

For x to the right of c, x c > 0.

f ( x ) f (c )

Thus,

0 (neg./pos.) and

xc

f ( x ) f (c )

f (c) = lim+

0.

x0

xc

Therefore, 0 f (c) 0.

Because f (c) exists, f (c) = 0 by the squeeze

theorem, Q.E.D.

b. If f is not differentiable at x = c, then f (c)

does not exist and thus cannot equal zero.

Without this hypothesis, the reasoning in

part a shows only that f (x) changes sign at

x = c. There could be a cusp, a removable

discontinuity, or a step discontinuity at x = c.

c. The converse would say that if f (c) = 0, then

f (c) is a local maximum. This statement is

184

x

500

500 x, x < 600

A =

800 2 x, x > 600

For x < 600, A = 0 x = 500.

For x > 600, A = 0 x = 400 (out of the

domain).

A is undefined at the cusp, x = 600.

Maximum at x = 500 because graph is

parabola opening downward.

Or: Check the critical points.

A(500) = 500(500) 0.5(500)2 = 125,000

A(600) = 500(600) 0.5(600)2 = 120,000 ft2

Maximum area is 125,000 f t 2 at x = 500 ft.

b. If x 400, then 1000 = x + 2y

y = 500 0.5x.

If x 400, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 400)

y = 700 x.

500 x 0.5 x 2, x 400

A=

2

x > 400

700 x x ,

A

150,000

x

400

x = 400.

x < 400

500 x,

A =

700 2 x, x > 400

For x < 400, A = 0 x = 500 (out of the

domain).

For x > 400, A = 0 x = 350 (out of the

domain).

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

A = 700(400) 4002 = 120,000

Maximum area is 120,000 f t 2.

c. If x 200, then 1000 = x + 2y

y = 500 0.5x.

If x 200, then 1000 = x + 2y + (x 200)

y = 600 x.

500 x 0.5 x 2, x 200

A=

2

x > 200

600 x x ,

Q7.

y

y

x

1

x

2

Q9. tan x + C

Q10. B

1. a. y = 4 x

dV = 2xy dx = 2 (4x x3) dx

b. 0 = 4 x 2 = (2 x)(2 + x) at x = 2

2

1

V = 2 ( 4 x x 3 ) dx = 2 2 x 2 x 4

0

4

= 8 = 25.1327

2

A

150,000

x

300

500 x, x < 200

A =

600 2 x, x > 200

For x < 200, A = 0 x = 500 (out of the

domain).

For x > 200, A = 0 x = 300.

A is undefined at the cusp, x = 200.

Maximum area is at x = 300 because graph is

a parabola opening downward.

Or: Check critical points.

A(300) = 600(300) 3002 = 90,000

A(200) = 500(200) 0.5(200)2 = 80,000 ft2

Maximum area is 90,000 ft2 at x = 300 ft.

33. Answers will vary.

Q1.

y

x

Q3.

c. y = 4 x 2 x 2 = 4 y

Upper bound of solid is at y = 4.

dV = x2 dy = (4 y) dy

V=

(4 y) dy = (4 y 0.5y )

as by cylindrical shells in part b.

2. a. Height of cylinder = 8 x

b. y = x 2/3 x = y 3/2

dV = 2 (8 x)y dy = 2 (8 y3/2)y dy

= 2 (8y y 5/2) dy

c. At x = 8, y = 82/3 = 4.

4

2

V = 2 (8 y y 5/2 ) dy = 2 4 y 2 y 7/2

0

7

384

=

= 172.3387

7

d. dV = y 2 dx = x 4/3 dx

8

8

3

384

V = x 4/3 dx = x 7/3 =

=

0

7

7

0

4

0

volume by cylindrical shells in part c.

3. The graph shows y = x2 + 4x + 3, from x = 1 to

x = 4, sliced parallel to the y-axis, with sample

point (x, y), rotated about the y-axis, showing

back half of solid only.

Q4.

y

Q2.

y

(x, y)

y

x

x

1

Q5.

Q6.

y

dV = 2xy dx = 2 (x 3 + 4x 2 + 3x) dx

y

x

V=

2 ( x

1

+ 4 x 2 + 3 x ) dx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

185

4 and height 7 has volume (42 12) 7 =

329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

y

(0, y )

(x, y )

x = 5, sliced parallel to the y-axis, with sample

point (x, y), rotated about the y-axis, showing

back half of solid only.

y

5

(x, y)

x

2

V=

V=

2 ( x

2

8 x 2 + 17 x ) dx

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5

and height 5 has volume (52 22) 5 =

329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound

for the calculated volume. Assuming that the

part of the solid above y = 2 could be fit into

the trough, the volume is approximately

(52 22) 2 = 131.9 , which is close to the

calculated volume.

5. The graph shows x = y2 + 6y 5, intersecting

y-axis at y = 1 and y = 5, rotated about the

x-axis, showing back half of solid only.

y

5

(x, y)

(0, y )

2 ( y

4

+ 10 y 2 24 y) dy

40

41.8879 exactly

3

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 4 and 6

and height 1 has volume (62 42) 1 =

62.83 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

7. Figure 8-4h shows y = x3, intersecting the line

y = 8 at x = 2 and the line x = 1. Rotate about

the y-axis. Slice parallel to the y-axis. Pick

sample points (x, y) on the graph and (x, 8) on

the line y = 8.

dV = 2 x(8 y) dx = 2 (8x x4) dx

V=

2 (8x x

) dx

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 1

and height 7 has volume (22 12) 7 = 65.9 ,

which is a reasonable upper bound for the

calculated volume.

8. The graph shows y = 1/x, intersecting line y = 4

at x = 0.25 and the line x = 3, rotated about the

y-axis, showing back half of solid only.

y

(x, 4)

y=4

(x, y )

dV = 2 y(x 0) dy = 2 (y + 6y 5y) dy

3

V=

2 ( y

1

+ 6 y 2 5 y) dy

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 5

and height 4 has volume (52 12) 4 =

301.5 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

6. The graph shows x = y2 10y + 24, intersecting

y-axis at y = 4 and 6, rotated about the x-axis,

showing back half of solid only.

186

0.25

dV = 2x (4 y) dx = 2 (4x 1) dx

V=

0.25

2 ( 4 x 1) dx

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 0.25 and 4

and height 3.7 has volume (32 0.252)(3.7) =

103.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

9. Figure 8-4i shows y = 1/x2, intersecting the line

x = 5 at y = 0.04 and the line y = 4. Rotate

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sample points (x, y) on the graph and (5, y) on

the line x = 5.

dV = 2 y(5 x) dy = 2 (5y y1/2 ) dy

V=

0.04

y

2

x

4

y

4

(x, y )

(8, y )

x

1

V=

4

2 (8y y

5/2

) dy

3

149.0012 exactly 47

7

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 4

and height 7 has volume (42 12) 7 =

329.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

11. Figure 8-4j shows y1 = x2 6x + 7 and y2 =

x + 1, intersecting at (1, 2) and (6, 7). Rotate

about the y-axis. Slice parallel to y-axis. Pick

sample points (x, y1) and (x, y2).

dV = 2x (y2 y1) dx = 2(x3 + 7x2 6x) dx

6

2 ( x

1

+ 7 x 2 6 x ) dx

5

458.1489 exactly 145

6

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 6

and height 7 has volume (62 12) 7 =

769.6 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

12. The graph shows y = x11/3 x1 = y 3 and y =

0.5x2 2 x2 = 2y + 4, intersecting at (8, 2)

in Quadrant I and bounded by the x-axis, rotated

about the x-axis, showing back half of solid

only.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2 (2 y

+ 4 y y 4 ) dy

13

43.5634 K exactly 13

15

Circumscribed cylinder of radius 2 and height 8

has volume 22 8 = 100.5 , which is a

reasonable upper bound for the calculated

volume.

13. Figure 8-4k shows y = x3/2 , from x = 1 to x = 4.

Rotate about the line x = 5. Slice parallel to the

y-axis. Pick sample point (x, y).

dV = 2(5 x)y dx = 2(5x3/2 x5/2 ) dx

V=

V=

2 (5 y y1/2 ) dy

Circumscribed cylinder of radius 4 and height 4.5

has volume 42 4.5 = 226.1 , which is a

reasonable upper bound for the calculated

volume.

10. The graph shows y = x2/3 , intersecting the line

y = 1 and intersecting the line x = 8 at y = 4,

rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of

solid only.

V=

(x 2 , y )

(x1, y)

2 (5x

3/2

x 5/2 ) dx

3

161.5676 exactly 51

7

Circumscribed cylinder of radius 4 and height 8

has volume (42) 8 = 402.1 , which is a

reasonable upper bound for the calculated

volume.

14. The graph shows y = x 2, from x = 1 to x = 2,

rotated about the line x = 3, showing back half of

solid only.

y

(x, y )

x

1

dV = 2 (3 x ) y dx = 2 (3 x 2 x 1 ) dx

V=

2 (3x

1

x 1 ) dx

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 1 and 2

and height 1 has volume (22 12) 1 = 9.4 ,

which is a reasonable upper bound for the

calculated volume.

15. The graph shows y1 = x4 and y2 = 5x + 6,

intersecting at x = 1 and x = 2, rotated about

the line x = 4, showing back half of solid

only.

187

Problem 17, but rotated about the line y = 1,

showing back half of solid only. Slicing

perpendicular to the x-axis is appropriate

because slicing parallel to it would give strips

of length (curve) minus (curve) at some values

of y and (curve) minus (other curve) at other

values of y.

y

16

(x, y2)

(x, y1 )

x

1

y

(x, y1)

= 2 (4 x)(5x + 6 x4) dx

V=

2 ( 4 x )(5 x + 6 x ) dx

4

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5

and height 16 has volume (52 22) 16 =

1055.5 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

16. The graph shows y1 = x = x 1/2 and y 2 = 6 x,

intersecting at x = 4 in Quadrant I and bounded

by the line x = 1, rotated about the line x = 1,

showing back half of solid only.

y

5

(x, y2 )

1

1

= 2 (x + 1)(6 x x 1/2) dx

V=

2 ( x + 1)(6 x x

1/2

) dx

13

109.5368K exactly 34

15

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 5

and height 4 has volume (52 22) 4 =

263.8 , which is a reasonable upper bound for

the calculated volume.

17. Figure 8-4l shows y1 = x2 + 4x + 1 and y2 =

1.4x, intersecting at x = 0 and x = 3.3740

(store as b). Rotate about the line x = 2. Slice

parallel to the y-axis. Pick sample points (x, y1)

and (x, y2).

dV = 2 (x + 2) (y1 y2) dx

= 2 (x + 2)(x2 + 4x + 1 1.4x) dx

V=

2 ( x + 2)( x 2 + 4 x + 1 1.4 x ) dx

163.8592

Circumscribed hollow cylinder with radii 2 and

5.4 and height 4 has volume (5.42 22)4 =

316.1 , a reasonable upper bound for calculated

volume.

188

y = 1

= [(x2 + 4x + 2)2 (1.4x + 1)2] dx

Limits of integration are 0 to b, where

b = 3.3740 , as in Problem 17.

V=

(x, y1 )

1

(x, y2 )

[( x

181.0655

Circumscribed hollow cylinder of radii 2 and 6

and height 3.4 has volume (62 22) 3.4 =

341.8 , a reasonable upper bound for the

calculated volume.

19. Slice perpendicular to the y-axis. Pick sample

points (x, y) on the graph of y = x3 and (1, y)

on the line x = 1.

y = x 3 x = y 1/3; y 1/3 = 1 at y = 1

dV = ( x2 12) dy = (y2/3 1) dy

V=

(y

1

2/3

1) dy 36.4424

Problem 7.

20. See the graph for Problem 8. Slice

perpendicular to the y-axis. Pick sample points

(x, y) on the graph of y = 1/x and (3, y) on the

line x = 3.

dV = (32 x 2 ) dy = (9 y 2 ) dy

V=

1/ 3

(9 y 2 ) dy 95.0331 (exactly

Problem 8.

21. The graph shows y = x1/3, from x = 0 to x = 8,

rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of

solid only.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y

2

(x, y )

using the Pythagorean properties from

trigonometry.

sin3 t = (1 cos2 t) sin t = sin t cos2 t sin t

(8, y )

x

8

V=

y = x 1/3 x = y 3

dV = 2 y ( 8 x) dy = 2 ( 8y y4) dy

2

1

V = 2 (8 y y 4 ) dy = 2 4 y 2 y 5

0

5

2

0

2x sin x dx 10.9427

0

integrating by parts).

b. The integrand, x sin x, is a product of two

functions, for which the antiderivative cannot

be found using techniques known so far.

23. a. x = 5 cos t, dx = 5 sin t dt

y = 3 sin t, dy = 3 cos t dt

Slice parallel to the x-axis, then rotate about

the x-axis. Pick sample points (x, y) at the

left end of the strip and (x, y) at the right end.

dV = 2 y [ x (x)] dy = 4 xy dy

= 4 ( 5 cos t)(3 sin t)(3 cos t dt)

= 180 cos2 t sin t dt

Limits of integration are y = 0 to y = 3.

At y = 0, t = 0. At y = 3, t = /2.

V=

/2

45 cos 2 t ( sin t dt )

0

Q1.

Q2.

y

y

16

16

x

0

Q3. A =

Q4. A =

x 2 dx

1 34

x

3 1

Q5. A = 21

Q6.

y

16

/2

0

= 60 ( 0 1) = 60 = 188.4955

b. Slice the region in Quadrant I perpendicular to

the x-axis, then rotate about the x-axis. Pick

sample point (x, y) on the graph.

dV = y 2 dx = ( 3 sin t)2(5 sin t dt)

= 45 sin3 t dt

Limits of integration are from x = 5 to

x = 5.

At x = 5, t = . At x = 5, t = 0.

V=

= 45 15 (45 ) + (15 ) = 60

c. Slice the region parallel to the line x = 7 and

rotate about that line. Pick sample points

(x, y) and (x, y) on the upper and lower

branches.

dV = 2 ( 7 x)[y (y)] dx

= 4 ( 7 5 cos t)(3 sin t)(5 sin t dt)

= 60 ( 7 5 cos t)(sin2 t) dt

Limits of integration are t = to t = 0, as in

part b.

V 2072.6169 (exactly 210 2, using the

half-argument properties for sin2 t, as in

Problem 16 of Problem Set 5-9, or by using

integration by parts as in Chapter 9).

24. Answers will vary.

= 60 cos3 t

45 sin t dt

= 45 cos t 15 cos t

R8 = 19.3662109 = 60.8407460

R100 = 19.2010666 = 60.3219299

R1000 = 19.2000106 = 60.3186124

Rn is approaching 19.2 as n increases.

22. a. y = sin x from x = 0 to x = 2, rotated about

the y-axis, as in Figure 8-4m. Slice parallel

to the y-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on

the graph.

dV = 2 xy dx = 2 x sin x dx

V=

x

4

Q7. V =

2x 3 dx

Q8. V =

Q9. V = 127.5

1. a.

44

x

2 1

Q10. E

45 sin 3 t dt 188.4955

found in part a.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

0

x

2

189

b. L

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + e 2 x dx

L=

n =1

n =1

= 6.7848

c. dy = e x dx

2

b. L

= 13.7141

c. dy = sec x tan x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + tan 2 x sec 2 x dx

L=

1 + e dx 6.7886 numerically

2x

1/5

numerically

2. a.

5. a.

y

9

n =1

= 7.7853

c. dy = (2x ln 2) dx

b. dy = (2x 5) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x 5)2 dx

L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x ln 2)2 dx

L=

b. L

1 + (2 x ln 2)2 dx 7.7920 K

numerically

3. a.

1 + (2 x 5)2 dx 15.8617K

(1, 1) to (2.5, 3.25) and from (2.5, 3.25)

to (6, 9) have combined length 7.3125 +

162.3125 = 15.4 , which is a reasonable

lower bound for L.

6. a.

y

4

10

x

0

b. L

n =1

= 14.4394

c. dy = sec2 x dx

1.5

1 + sec 4 x dx 14.4488K

numerically

4. a.

b. dy = (4 2x) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + ( 4 2 x )2 dx

L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx

L=

1.5

1 + ( 4 2 x )2 dx 9.2935K

(2, 4) to (4, 0) have combined length

2 20 = 8.9442 , which is a reasonable

lower bound for L.

7. a.

16 y

10

1

0

190

x

1.5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. dy = 4x3 dx

b. dy = (sin x + x cos x) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 16 x 6 dx

L=

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= 1 + (sin x + x cos x )2 dx

1 + 16 x 6 dx 18.2470 K

(2, 0) have combined length 2 + 260 =

17.5 , which is a reasonable lower bound

for L.

8. a.

L=

to high to middle to low points on the graph.

Lengths sum to 52.6109 , a reasonable

lower bound for L.

11. a.

y

50

10

x

1

x

0

1.5

b. dy = (3x2 18x + 5) dx

b. dy = sec2 x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx

= 1 + (3 x 2 18 x + 5) 2 dx

L=

L=

1 + (3 x 18 x + 5) dx 219.4873K

2

204.4605 , which is a reasonable lower

bound for L.

9. a.

1.5

1 + sec 4 x dx 14.4488K

14.1809 , which is a reasonable lower

bound for L.

12. a.

y

y

10

b. dy = 2 ln x x 1 dx = 2 x 1 ln x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x 1 ln x )2 dx

L=

0.1

x

1

1 + (2 x 1 ln x )2 dx 7.6043

to x = e have combined length 7.3658 ,

which is a reasonable lower bound for L.

10. a.

y

1.5

b. dy = sec x tan x dx

dL = 1 + (sec x tan x )2 dx

L=

1.5

13.2221 , which is a reasonable lower

bound for L.

13. a.

5

x

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x

5

191

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (15 cos 2 t sin t )2 + (15 sin 2 t cos t )2 dt

L=

30

To see why the answer is so simple,

transform the radicand and use the

fundamental theorem.

L=

= 7.5

= 7.5

= 7.5

(2 sin t cos t )2 dt

= 10 2

= 10 2

= 20 2

= 40 2 (1 1) + 40 2 (1 + 1)1/2 = 80

c. Maximum/minimum values of y are

7.5 3 . Circle of radius 7.5 3 has

circumference 15 3 = 81.6209K .

15. a.

1/2

/2

sin 2t dt

= 30 (exactly!)

dy = (5 cos t 5 cos 5t) dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 =

(5 sin t + 5 sin 5t ) 2 + (5 cos t 5 cos 5t ) 2 dt

L=

10

x

5

dy = 5(2 cos t 2 cos 2t) dt

dL = dx + dy =

2

40

To see why the answer is so simple,

transform the radicand and use the

fundamental theorem.

L=5

80

To see why the answer is so simple,

transform the radicand algebraically and

use the fundamental theorem.

L = 10

= 10 2

=5 2

=5 2

L=

192

= 40 2 (1 + cos t )1/2

14. a.

5 cos t) has circumference 10 = 31.4152 ,

which is close to the calculated value of L.

|sin 2t | dt = 7.5 4

/2

|sin t |

dt

1 + cos t

1

= 30 ( cos 2t )

2

sin 2 2t dt

1 cos 2 t

dt

1 + cos t

=5 2

= 40 2

/4

1 cos 2 4t

dt

1 + cos 4t

|sin 4t |

dt

1 + cos 4t

(1 + cos 4t ) 1/2 (sin 4t dt )

= 20 2 (1 + cos 4t )1/2

/4

0

= 0 + 20 2 2 = 40

c. Maximum/minimum values of x, y are

3 3. Circle of radius 3 3 has circumference

32.6483 , which is close.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

16. a.

1.006944 K = 1.00346 K , which is a

reasonable lower bound for L.

19. a.

y

5

x

5

y

t = 4

dy = (cos t cos t + t sin t) dt = t sin t dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = (t cos t )2 + (t sin t )2 dt

= |t | dt = t dt (because t 0)

L=

t dt = 0.5t 2

4

0

= 8 2 = 78.9568K

circumference = 8 2.

17. a.

x

1

b. dy = 2 x 1/ 3 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 4 x 2/3 dx

1 + 4x

= ( x + 4)

b. dy = 6x1/2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 36 x dx

0

1 + 36 x dx =

1

36

1/2

( x 1/3 dx )

= 8 8 5 5 = 11.4470 K

2/3

dx

3 8 2/3

2

( x + 4)1/2 x 1/3 dx

2 1

3

8

3 2

= ( x 2/3 + 4)3/2

2 3

1

=

2/3

1

8

1

L=

L=

30

(1 + 36 x )

1/2

(36 dx )

11.4017 , which is a reasonable lower

bound for L.

20. a.

4

1

1

=

(1 + 36 x )3/2 0 =

(1453/ 2 1)

54

54

= 32.3153

c. The chord connecting the endpoints has length

32.2490 , which is a reasonable lower

bound for L.

18. a.

x

0

b. dy =

1 2

( x + 2)1/ 2 2 x dx = x ( x 2 + 2)1/ 2 dx

2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 ( x 2 + 2) dx

= 1 + x 4 + 2 x 2 dx = (1 + x 2 ) dx

x

1

L=

b. dy = ( x /4 x ) dx

2

dL = dx + dy = 1 + ( x /4 x ) dx

2

2 2

= 1 + x 4 /16 1/2 + x 4 dx

1 3

(1 + x 2 ) dx = x + x 3 = 12

0

3 0

which is a reasonable lower bound for L.

21. Construct an x-axis at water level and a y-axis

through the vertex of the parabola.

= ( x 2 /4 + x 2 )2 dx = | x 2 /4 + x 2 | dx

L=

( x /4 + x

2

750

= x 3 /12 x 1 1 = 1

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

= 1.0833K

12

2100

220

0

x

2100

193

Substitute (2100, 750) for (x, y).

53

750 220 = a 2100 2 a =

441000

53

Equation of parabola is y =

x 2 + 220 .

441000

106

dy =

x dx

441000

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (106/441000)2 x 2 dx

L=

2100

The answer is reasonable because the 4200 feet

between supports is a lower bound for L.

22. y = 0.2(e x + e x ), dy = 0.2(e x e x ) dx

dL = dx + dy

2

= 1 + 0.04(e x e x )2 dx

L=

24.1722 24.2 ft

The parabola with vertex (0, 0.4) and endpoints

(4, 0.2(e4 + e 4)) = (4, 10.9232) has equation

y = ax2 + 0.4. Substituting (4, 10.9232) gives

10.9232 = 16a + 0.4 a = 0.6577 .

y = 0.6577 x2 + 0.4 dy = 1.3154 x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 1.7303... x 2 dx

L=

24.

5

x

8

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (16 sin 2t )2 + (5 cos t )2 dt

Curve appears to have length

= 68.7694

Length should be less than the lengths of three

circumscribing segments, 16 + 16 + 10 = 42.

The discrepancy is explained by the fact that the

parabola is traced twice as t goes from 0 to 2.

Actual length (0.5)(68.7694) = 34.384 ,

for which 42 is a reasonable upper bound.

2

25. 9 x 2 = 4 y 3 x = y 3/2 .

3

484.4224 484.4 m

L=

1 + 0.04(e x e x )2 dx

1 + (106/441000)2 x 2 dx

2100

L=

as shown by graph:

y

10

x

0

dx = y 1/2 dy

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = ( y + 1)1/2 dy

x

L=

x = 120 cos t, dx = 120 sin t dt

y = 100 sin t, dy = 100 cos t dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (120 sin t )2 + (100 cos t )2 dt

L=

dy =

2

( y + 1)3/2

3

2

y

4

2

= 4.6666

3

26. x 2 = y 3 x = y 1.5

2x dx = 3y2 dy 4x2 dx2 = 9y4 dy2

9

4 y 3 dx 2 = 9 y 4 dy 2 dx 2 = y dy 2

4

Note that dy < 0 between (1, 1) and (0, 0):

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

1/2

=4

692.5791 692.6 m

Inner ellipse:

x = 100 cos t, dx = 100 sin t dt

y = 50 sin t, dy = 50 cos t dt

194

( y + 1)

x

8

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dL = dx + dy = 2.25 y + 1 dy.

For x in [0, 8], x = y1.5 , dx = 1.5y0.5 dy,

2

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 2.25 y + 1 dy.

L=

2.25 y + 1 dy +

2.25 y + 1 dy

0

4

8

8

(2.25 y + 1)3/2 + (2.25 y + 1)3/2

27

1 27

0

8

3/2

3/2

=

(1 + 3.25 + 10 1) = 10.5131

27

t

1

27. x = cos t, dx = (cos t t sin t ) dt

t

1

y = sin t, dy = (sin t + t cos t ) dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

1

=

(cos t t sin t )2 + (sin t + t cos t )2 dt

1

=

1 + t 2 dt

= 0, when t is a multiple of . There are seven

crossings after the beginning, so t should run

between 0 and 7. To check this, note that the

curve ends at (7, 0), so solve (t/) cos t = 7

with t = n (n / ) cos n = 7

n cos n = 7 n = 7 0 t 7 .

1 7

L=

1 + t 2 dt 77.6508

0

The integral can be evaluated algebraically by

trigonometric substitution as in Section 9-6,

giving

1

1 + t 2 dt = t t 2 + 1 + ln t + 1 + t 2 + C.

y = r sin t, dy = r cos t dt

sinusoid. However, it less than doubles the

length of the sinusoid for much the same reason

that doubling one leg of a right triangle does not

double the hypotenuse. In the limit as A

approaches infinity, doubling A approaches

doubling the length.

30. x = cos t, dx = sin t dt

y = A sin t, dy = A cos t dt

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = sin 2 t + A 2 cos 2 t dt

The entire ellipse is generated as t increases from

0 to 2 .

L=

Circumference =

0

1

2

3

6.283185 (= 2)

9.688448

13.364893

without changing the other axis. That is why the

length does not double when A doubles. The

reasoning is similar to that in the solution to

Problem 29.

31. The function y = ( x 2) 1 has a vertical

asymptote at x = 2, which is in the interval

[1, 3]. So the length is infinite. Maes partition

of the interval skips over the discontinuity, as

shown in the graph.

y

25

Mae's

error

r dt = rt

= 2r, Q .E.D .

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + A 2 cos 2 x dx

Pick a convenient interval for x such as [0, 2].

L=

x

1

0

1

2

3

6.283185 (= 2)

7.640395

10.540734

13.974417

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y

Amos's sample points

1

x

0

sin n), which all lie on the x-axis and therefore

fail to measure the wiggly bits.

1 + A 2 cos 2 x dx

sin 2 t + A 2 cos 2 t dt

dL = dx + dy = r sin t + r cos t dt

= r dt (for r 0)

The range 0 t 2 generates the entire circle.

2

10

the part from x = 0 to x = 0.25 (by symmetry),

so Amos could use five subintervals of [0, 0.25]

to estimate the length of half of one arch, then

Problem Set 8-5

195

length.

33. See the Programs for Graphing Calculators

section of the Instructors Resource Book.

Q3.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

1.

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + cos 2 x dx

dS = 2y dL = 2 sin x 1 + cos 2 x dx

S=

Q1.

b. dy = cos x dx

1 + 9 x 4 dx

Q2.

1 + sec 4 x dx

1 6

sin x + C

Q4. 156

6

xex + ex

Maximum y = 7 (at x = 1)

f ( x + x ) f ( x )

f ( x ) = lim

x 0

x

f ( x ) f (c )

or f (c) = lim

x c

xc

Instantaneous rate of change

1

ln | sec 2 x + tan 2 x | + C

2

D

a. The graph shows y = 0.5x2, from x = 0 to

x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y )

1

and radius 1 has lateral area = 2 2 =

19.7392 , which is a reasonable upper

bound for S.

3. The graph shows y = ln x, from x = 1 to x = 3,

rotated about the x-axis.

y

(x, y )

x

1

dy = x 1 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 dx

dS = 2 y dL = 2 ln x 1 + x 2 dx

S=

2 ln x

1

1 + x 2 dx 9.0242

rotated about the y-axis, showing back half of

surface only.

dy = x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 dx

1

(x, y )

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 2 dx

S=

2x

0

x

3

1 + x 2 dx 64.1361

3 has lateral surface area = rL =

3 32 + 4.52 = 50.9722 , which is

a reasonable lower bound for S.

c. S =

(1 + x

2 1/2

) (2 x dx )

3

2

2

(1 + x 2 )3/2 = (10 10 1)

3

3

0

= 64.1361 , agreeing with the answer

found numerically.

2. a. The graph shows y = sin x, from x = 0 to

x = , rotated about the x-axis.

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + x 2 dx

S=

2 x

1

1 + x 2 dx 28.3047K

x = 2, rotated about the y-axis.

2

y

(x, y )

x

2

y

1

(x, y )

x

0

196

dy = x 2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 4 dx

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 4 dx

S=

0.5

2x 1 + x 4 dx 15.5181K

x = 2, rotated about the x-axis.

1

2x

S=

1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx

58.7946

9. The graph shows y = x = x 1/2, from x = 0 to

x = 1, rotated about the x-axis.

y

1 (x, y )

2

(x, y )

dS = 2y dL = 2x

S=

0.5

2x

1+ x

1

4

1+ x

dx

dx 15.5181K

7. The graph shows y = x3, from x = 0 to x = 2,

rotated about the y-axis.

y

dy = 0.5 x 1/ 2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.25 x 1 dx

dS = 2y dL = 2x 1/ 2 1 + 0.25 x 1 dx

= 2 x + 0.25 dx = 2 ( x + 0.25)1/ 2 dx

S=

2 ( x + 0.25)1/2 dx =

1

0

4

=

(1.253/ 2 0.125) = 5.3304 K

3

10. The graph shows y = x3, from x = 1 to x = 2,

rotated about the x-axis, showing back half of

surface only.

(x, y )

x

0

dy = 3x2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 9 x 4 dx

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + 9 x 4 dx

S=

4

( x + 0.25)3/2

3

2 x

0

(x, y )

x

1

1 + 9 x 4 dx 77.3245K

x = 0 to x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.

y

6

dy = 3x2 dx

(x, y )

x

3

dy = (3x2 + 10x 8) dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= 1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx

dS = 2 x dL

= 2 x 1 + (3 x 2 + 10 x 8)2 dx

Graph intersects x-axis where y = 0.

x 3 + 5x 2 8x + 6 = (x 3)(x 2 2x + 2) = 0

at x = 3.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 9 x 4 dx

dS = 2 y dL = 2 x3 (1 + 9x4)1/2 dx

S=

2x 3 (1 + 9 x 4 )1/2 dx

2

(1 + 9 x 4 )1/ 2 (36 x dx )

18 1

2

2

= (1 + 9 x 4 )3/ 2

18 3

1

=

(1453/ 2 10 3/ 2 ) = 199.4804 K

27

11. The graph shows y = x 4 / 8 + x 2 / 4, from x = 1

to x = 2, rotated about the x-axis, showing back

side of surface only.

=

197

dS = 2 x dL = 2 ( x + x3) dx

x

1

S=

1

2 ( x + x 3 ) dx = x 2 + x 4

0

2

= 0.25( x + x ) dx = 0.5( x + x ) dx

dS = 2 y dL

= 2 ( x 4/8 + x 2/4)[0.5(x3 + x 3)] dx

= ( x 7 + 3 x + 2 x 5 ) dx

8

2 7

S=

( x + 3 x + 2 x 5 ) dx

8 1

2

1

3

1

= x 8 + x 2 x 4

1

8 8

2

2

3 2

x

1

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 +

S = 2

= 2

(x, y )

dy = 2 x dx

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + 4 x dx

2

x 1 + 4x

= (1 + 4 x )

4

S = 2

0

2

2 1/ 2

(1 + 4 x 2 )3/2

6

x

1

4 4 / 3

x

dx

9

4

x 1/ 3 x 4 / 3 +

1+

4 4 / 3

x

dx

9

x 4/3 + 4

1/2

1/ 2

dx

4 1/3

x dx

3

3/2 8

27

1

1

15. The graph shows y = x 3 + x 1 , from x = 1 to

3

4

x = 3, rotated about the line y = 1, showing

back half of surface only.

=

dx

(8 x dx ) =

4

= x 4/3 +

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 4 x 2 dx

4 4 / 3

x

dx

9

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 +

2 2/3

x dx

3

dy =

1 1 3 1

155

= 32 + 6

=4

+

8

32 8 2 2

256

= 14.4685

12. The graph shows y = x2, from x = 0 to x = 2,

rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y )

= 49.5 = 155.5088

14. The graph shows y = 2x1/3, from x = 1 to

x = 8, rotated about the y-axis, showing back

half of surface only.

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.25( x 3 x 3 )2 dx

3

2

0

= (173/ 2 1) = 36.1769K

6

1

13. The graph shows y = ( x 2 + 2)3/ 2 , from x = 0 to

3

x = 3, rotated about the y-axis.

(x, y)

y

12

x

1

(x, 1)

(x, y )

1

0

198

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

dx = x 2 x 2 dx

b. i. S0,1 =

2

1

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 x 2 dx

4

1 1

= 1 + x 4 + x 4 dx

2 16

ii. S1,2 =

iii. S2,3 =

1

1

= x 2 + x 2 dx = x 2 + x 2 dx

4

4

dS = 2 ( y + 1) dL

1

1

1

= 2 x 3 + x 1 + 1 x 2 + x 2 dx

3

4

4

1

1

1

1

= 2 x 5 + x 2 + x + x 2 + x 3 dx

3

3

4

16

S = 2

3x

+ x2 +

iv. S3,4 =

v. S4,5 =

1

1

1

x + x 2 + x 3 dx

3

4

16

1

1

1

1

1 2

x

= 2 x 6 + x 3 + x 2 x 1

18

3

6

4

32

3

1

5

= 101 = 318.1735K

18

1

1

16. The graph shows y = x 3 + x 1 , from x = 1 to

3

4

x = 3, rotated about line x = 4.

9

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

10 dx = 10x

= 10

The area of a zone of a sphere is a function

of the height of the zone only, and is

independent of where the zone is located

on the sphere.

18. Suppose that the sphere is centered at the origin,

as in Problem 17. The equation of a great

circle in the xy-plane is x2 + y2 = r2, from

which y = r 2 x 2 = (r 2 x 2 )1/2 .

dy = x(r2 x2) 1/2dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2 (r 2 x 2 ) 1 dx

dS = 2y dL

= 2 r 2 x 2 + x 2 dx = 2r dx (if r > 0)

(4, y )

S=

2r dx = 2rx

3 4

1

dL = x 2 + x 2 dx, from Problem 15

4

1

dS = 2 ( 4 x ) dL = 2 ( 4 x ) x 2 + x 2 dx

4

1 1

2

3

2

= 2 4 x x + x x dx

4

3

1

S = 2 4 x 2 x 3 + x 2 x 1 dx

1

4

4

1

1

= 2 x 3 x 4 x 1 ln | x|

3

4

4

3

1

1 1

= 2 15 ln 3 = 94.6164 K

3 4

17. a. x 2 + y 2 = 25 y = 25 x 2

2 1/ 2

dy = x (25 x )

dx

= 2 25 x + x dx = 10 dx

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

r

r

= 4r 2 , Q .E.D .

radius r from the center. Surface area at the

sample point is 4 r2. Volume of shell is

approximately (surface area)(thickness).

dV = 4r 2 dr

V=

4

4 r 2 dr = r 3

3

4

R 3 , Q .E .D .

3

4

dV

20. V = r 3

= 4r 2 = S, Q.E.D.

3

dr

dV

or: V = S dr

= S by the definition of

dr

indefinite integral.

21. y = ax2, dy = 2ax dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = (1 + 4 a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 dx

dS = 2x dL = 2x (1 + 4 a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 dx

2 1

dL = dx + dy = 1 + x (25 x ) dx

dS = 2 y dL

= 2 25 x 2 1 + x 2 (25 x 2 ) 1 dx

2

2

1

= 10

= 2 (r 2 x 2 )1/ 2 1 + x 2 (r 2 x 2 ) 1 dx

(x, y)

10 dx = 10x

x(1 + 4a x )

=

(1 + 4 a x )

4a

S = 2

2 2 1/ 2

dx

2 2 1/ 2

(8a 2 x dx )

2 2 3/2

(

+

)

= 2 [(1 + 4 a 2 r 2 )3/ 2 1]

1

4

a

x

2

6a

6a

0

199

vertex to the center of the base. Because h is the

value of y when x = r, h = ar2. Substituting into

the formula for S from Problem 21 gives

S = 2 [(1 + 4 ah)3/ 2 1]

6a

Let a = 1 and evaluate S for various h. Find the

zone areas by subtracting. Use the TABLE feature.

h

Zone

(0)

6

(10.1803K)

6

(26)

6

( 45.8721K)

6

(69.0927K)

6

(95.2340 K)

6

(124)

6

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

N.A.

(10.1803K)

6

(15.8196 K)

6

(19.8721K)

6

(23.2206 K)

6

(26.1412 K)

6

(28.7659K)

6

areas of zones of equal height are greater if the

zone is farther away from the vertex.

23. x = 5 cos t, dx = 5 sin t dt

y = 3 sin t, dy = 3 cos t dt

3 y

(x, y )

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = ( 5 sin t )2 + (3 cos t )2 dt

dS = 2y dL

= 2 (3 sin t ) ( 5 sin t )2 + (3 cos t )2 dt

165.7930

From ( x/5)2 + ( y/3)2 = 1, y = 0.6 25 x 2 .

Using the upper branch of the graph,

dy = 0.6 x (25 x 2 ) 1/ 2 dx.

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + 0.36 x 2 (25 x 2 ) 1 dx

At x = 5, dL involves division by zero, which

is awkward, and makes the Cartesian equation

200

at x = 5.

24. a. x = 35 sec t, dx = 35 sec t tan t dt

y = 100 + 80 tan t, dy = 80 sec2 t dt

y = 0 100 + 80 tan t = 0 tan t = 5/4

t = tan 1 ( 5 / 4)

Radius at base is x = 35 sec [tan 1 ( 5/4)] =

56.0273 56.0 ft.

b. At top, t = 0.5.

Radius: x = 35 sec 0.5 = 39.8822 39.9 ft

Height: y = 100 + 80 tan 0.5 = 143.7041

143.7 ft

c. From the information given in parts a and b,

it can be assumed that /2 < t < /2.

dx

Minimize x:

= 35 sec t tan t = 0 at t = 0

dt

(or, because cos t has a max at t = 0,

sec t = 1/cos t has a minimum there).

Minimum radius = 35 ft

Height = y = 100 + tan 0 = 100 ft

d. dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= 352 sec 2 t tan 2 t + 80 2 sec 4 t dt

dS = 2 x dL

= 2 (35 sec t ) 352 sec 2 t tan 2 t + 80 2 sec 4 t dt

S=

0.5

tan 1 ( 5/4 )

4

= 12, 585.5311 ft 3

12

466.1307 yd3

25. From Figure 8-6m, a circle of radius L has area

L2 and circumference 2L. The circumference of

the cones base is 2R. The arc length of the

sector of the circle of radius L must be equal to

this, so the sector is (2R)/(2L) = R/L of the

circle and has surface area S = L2(R/L) = RL,

Q .E .D .

26. S = RL rl

The objective is to get the lateral area in terms of

the slant height of the frustum, L l.

r

S = R L l

R

l

r

l

= R L l , because

= .

L

R L

R 2 2

=

(L l )

L

e. Volume S

S=

ellipse.

For the surface area, however, the offending

denominator cancels out, giving

2005 Key Curriculum Press

R

( L + l )( L l )

L

l

= R + R ( L l)

c. dr = 3 cos d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (3 cos )2 + ( 4 + 3 sin )2 d

R + r

= 2

( L l ), Q .E.D .

2

Q5. e

Q4. 3 sec 3x tan 3x

Q6. 1/x

1 2

Q7. ln |x| + C

Q8.

x +C

2

Q9. 3x + C

Q10. x + C

1. a. r = 10 sin dA = 50 sin2 d

50 sin 2 d 157.0796

(exactly 50 )

b. The area of the circle is 5 = 25.

The calculated area is twice this because the

circle is traced out twice as increases from 0

to 2. Although r is negative for < < 2,

dA is positive because r is squared.

2. a. r = 10 sin dr = 10 cos d

2

dL = dr + (r d )

2

L=

10 d = 10

= 20

calculated length is twice this value because

the circle is traced out twice as increases

from 0 to 2. The calculus of this section

always gives the dynamic answer as the

distance traveled by a point on the curve as

increases from one value to another. This

path length does not necessarily equal the

length of the curve.

3. a. r = 4 + 3 sin . The calculator graph confirms

that the text figure is traced out once as

increases from 0 to 2.

1

b. dA = ( 4 + 3 sin )2 d

2

A=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dL 28.8141K

c. dr = 3 sin d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (3 sin )2 + (5 3 cos )2 d

A=

A=

that the text figure is traced out once as

increases from 0 to 2.

1

b. dA = (5 3 cos )2 d

2

= ( R + r)(L l)

Q3. 3 sin2 x cos x

L=

r

= R + R ( L l)

L=

dL 34.3136

confirms that the text figure is traced out once

as increases from 0 to 2.

1

b. dA = (7 + 3 cos 2 )2 d

2

A=

c. dr = 6 sin 2 d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (6 sin 2 )2 + (7 + 3 cos 2 )2 d

L=

dL 51.4511

that the text figure is traced out once as

increases from 0 to 2.

1

b. dA = (8 cos 2 )2 d

2

A=

dA 100.5309K (exactly 32 )

c. dr = 16 sin d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (16 sin 2 )2 + (8 cos 2 )2 d

L=

dL 77.5075K

confirms that the text figure is traced out once

as increases from 0 to 2.

1

b. dA = (5 + 5 cos )2 d

2

A=

201

c. dr = 5 sin d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

A=

= (5 sin ) + (5 + 5 cos ) d

2

L=

10

. The calculator graph

3 2 cos

confirms that the text figure is traced out once

as increases from 0 to 2.

8. a. r =

A=

dA 84.2977K (exactly 12 5 )

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

2

L=

20 sin

10

(3 2 cos )2 + 3 2 cos d

=

2

dA 4.5557K

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= 4 (sec tan + sin )2 + (sec cos )2 d

L=

20 sin

d

(3 2 cos )2

c. dr =

c. dr = 4(sec tan + sin ) d

dL = 40 (exactly)

1

10

b. dA =

2 3 2 cos

1

( 4 sec 4 cos )2 d

2

b. dA =

dL 33.0744 K

dL 10.9534 K

11. r = 49 cos 2

r = 0 2 = cos 1 0 = /2 + 2 n (n an integer)

= /4 + n

The right-hand loop corresponds to

nonnegative values of the integrand,

/4 /4.

1

dA = ( 49 cos 2 ) d

2

A=

/4

1

( 49 cos 2 ) d = 12.25 sin 2

/4 2

/4

/4

= 24.5

Area of both loops is 49.

12. The graph of r = csc + 4 shows a closed loop

from 3.4 to 6.

9. a.

1

1

5

increases from 0 to .

1

b. dA = (sin 3 )2 d

2

A=

c. dr = 3 cos 3 d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (3 cos 3 )2 + (sin 3 )2 d

L=

dL 6.6824 K

10. a.

4

202

csc + 4 = 0 = csc 1 ( 4) =

sin 1 ( 0.25) = 0.2526 + 2 n or

[ (0.2526)] + 2 n

Desired range is 3.3942 6.0305 .

1

dA = (csc + 4)2 d

2

A=

6.0305K

3.3942K

dA 8.4553

4 + 4 cos = 10 cos

= cos 1 (2/3) = 0.8410 + 2 n.

(The graphs also touch at the pole, but not for

the same value of . For the cardioid,

= + 2n. For the circle, = /2 + 2 n.)

Region outside the cardioid and inside

2005 Key Curriculum Press

0.841 to 0.841 .

1

dA = (r22 r12) d

2

1

= [(10 cos )2 ( 4 + 4 cos )2 ] d

2

A=

0.841K

0.841K

dA 18.8863K

1

14. r1 = 5 and r2 = 5 5 cos intersect at = /2

and /2.

5

10

= cos 1 ( 2/3) = 2.3005 + 2n

1

dA = ( 4 + 6 cos )2 d

2

The outer loop is swept out as increases from

2.3005 to 2.3005.

A1 =

A2 =

1

dA = (r12 r22 ) d

2

1

= [52 (5 5 cos )2 ] d

2

Integrate from /2 to /2, because in Quadrants

II and III the cardioid lies outside the circle.

A=

2.3005K

dA 105.0506 K

3.926K

2.3005K

dA 1.7635K

A 1 A 2 103.2871 .

17. a.

4

/2

three revolutions, so increases from 0 to 6.

dr = 0.5 d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2 = 0.52 + (0.5 )2 d

L=

2.3005K

2.3005 to 3.9826 .

/2

dL 89.8589

1

1

(0.5 )2 d = 2 d

2

8

Area swept out for third revolution in

Quadrant I is

dr = 2.5 1.5 d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2 = 6.25 3 + 25 1 d

/2

dL 31.0872

2, and 3 radians.

b. dA =

4.5

1 2

1

217 3

d = 3

=

4 8

24

192

4

Area swept out for second revolution in

Quadrant I is

A3 =

A2 =

4.5

2.5

1 2

1

d = 3

8

24

2.5

2

61 3

=

192

revolution in Quadrant I is A3 = A2 =

13 3

= 25.1925 .

16

16. The graph of r = 4 + 6 cos shows a closed loop

from 2.3 to 4.0.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Area of sector is A( ) =

1 2

r .

2

1 2

(5) (1) = 12.5

2

1

A(2) = (3.5355...)2 (2) = 12.5

2

1

A(3) = (2.8867K)2 (3) = 12.5

2

1

In general, A( ) = (5 1/ 2 )2 ( ) = 12.5, which

2

is independent of the value of .

A(1) =

203

= 0 to 1.5.

10

The point with polar coordinates (r, ) has xycoordinates x = r cos , y = r sin . The graph

given by r = sec can be written

x = r cos = sec cos = 1

y = r sin = sec sin = tan

(i.e., < y < ). Thus, this graph is the

line x = 1.

By calculus, the segment from = 0 to = 1.5

has length as follows:

dr = sec tan d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (sec tan )2 + sec 2 d

= sec tan 2 + 1 d = sec 2 d

L=

1.5

sec 2 d = tan

1.5

0

As shown above, y = tan .

At = 1.5, y = tan 1.5, confirming the calculus.

19. A typical record has grooves of inner radius

6.6 cm and outer radius 14.6 cm, and takes

about 24 minutes to play. There are thus

(33.333)(24) or about 800 grooves in a space

of (14.6 6.6) or 8.0 cm. Thus, the grooves

decrease in radius by about 8.0/800 = 0.01 cm

per revolution. A simple equation of the spiral is

0.01

0.005

r=

=

and have a pitch of 0.01 cm. The innermost

actual groove is at = 6.6/0.005 = 1320,

and the outermost groove is at = 14.6/0.005

= 2920 .

dr = (0.005/) d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= (0.005/ ) 2 + [(0.005/ ) ]2 d

0.005

=

1 + 2 d

L=

2920

1320

dL 53, 281.4120 cm

= 16,960.0002 cm

Rough check: Average radius = 10.6 cm

L should equal approximately the sum of 800

204

16,960 cm, which is very close to the calculated

16,960.0002 cm.

(The integral can be evaluated algebraically by

the tangent trigonometry substitution from

Chapter 9. The result, 16,960.00021, is

remarkably close both to the numerical answer

and to the sum of the lengths of the 800 circles

of average radius 10.6 cm.)

100

= 100(3 2 cos ) 1

3 2 cos

1

dA = [100(3 2 cos ) 1 ]2 d

2

= 5000(3 2 cos ) 2 d

20. a. r =

A=

0.2

b. Solving

0.8

5000(3 2 cos t ) 2 dt =

c. P = ka1.5

(27.3)(24) = k(240)1.5

k = 0.17622

d. The major axis of the spaceships orbit is

120 thousand miles, so a = 60.

P = k 601.5 = 81.9 hours (precise answer)

e. The total area of the ellipse is

A=

5000(3 2 cos ) 2 d

= 8429.7776 (kilo-mi)2

Fraction of area from = 0 to = 0.2 is

(974.3071)/(8429.7776) = 0.1155 .

This fraction is the same as the fraction of the

period. Thus, the time is 0.1155(81.9) =

9.4659 hours to go from = 0 to = 0.2,

and the same for to go from 0.8 to

1.88976 .

f. dr = 100(3 2 cos ) 2 (2 sin ) d

= 200 sin (3 2 cos ) 2 d

dL = dr 2 + (r d )2

= [( 200 sin (3 2 cos ) 2 ) 2

+ (100(3 2 cos ) 1 )2 ]1/2 d

From = 0 to = 0.2,

L=

0.2

L=

1.88K

0.8

20.2228K

= 2.1363K , or about 2136 mi/h.

9.4659K

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

56.7896 K

= 1.88976 is

= 5.9993K ,

9.4659K

or about 5999 mi/h.

h. When the spaceship is farthest from Earth, its

radial velocity (toward the Earth) is zero. As

it proceeds in its orbit, it can be thought of as

falling toward the Earth, thus picking up

speed. The reverse is true on the other side of

the Earth, where it is moving away and is

thus being slowed by gravity.

21. a. Count 5 spaces to the right and about 7.5

spaces down from the given point.

Slope 1.5.

b. r =

x = cos dx = d cos sin d

y = sin dy = d sin + cos d

dy dy/d sin + cos

=

=

dx dx/d cos sin

At = 7, dy/dx = 1.54338 , thus

confirming the answer found graphically.

22. a. x = r cos , y = r sin

y/x = sin /cos = tan

slope =

r sin

r cos

= tan

dr

dx

dy

= 2x

+ 2y

d

d

d

dr

dx

dy

r

=x

+y

d

d

d

Substitute these expressions in parts d and e

into the top and bottom of the expression in

part c to show the property.

e. r 2 = x 2 + y 2 2 r

r

a a cos 1 cos

=

=

=

dr/d

a sin

sin

tan /2, using the half-angle formula. Then

= /2 + n. But 0 2, and 0 ,

which implies n = 0, so = /2.

r

dr

g. tan =

= const r r = Cek

dr/d

d

dr

dr/d

Note that

= kCe k = kr k =

=

d

r

1

= cot .

tan

f. tan =

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

R1. a.

r sin

50 y

r cos

angle between the x-axis and the line.

And, because the tangent line has slope

dy dy/d

=

( by the chain rule),

dx dx/d

dy/d

tan =

.

dx/d

tan tan

c. tan = tan ( ) =

1 + tan tan

dy/d y

dx/d x x dx/d

=

dy/d y x dx/d

1+

dx/d x

dy

dx

x

y

d

d

=

dx

dy

x

+y

d

d

d. dx/d = r sin ;

dy

dx

dy/d = r cos x

y

d

d

= r cos (r cos ) r sin ( r sin )

= r2 cos2 + r2 sin2 = r2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

g

h

x

10

g (x) = 3x2 18x + 27; g(x) = 6x 18

h (x) = 3x2 18x + 24; h(x) = 6x 18

c. h (x) = 3(x 2)(x 4) = 0 at x = 2 and 4

h(2) = 6 < 0, so h has a local maximum

at x = 2.

h(4) = 6 > 0, so h has a local minimum

at x = 4.

d. g (x) = 3(x 3)2 = 0 only at x = 3.

g (x) > 0 on both sides of x = 3, so this is

neither a maximum nor a minimum point.

e. From the graphs, each point of inflection

appears at x = 3. Because each second

derivative equals 6x 18, each one equals

zero when x = 3.

205

R2. a.

no max.

or min.

f (x )

+

f(x)

undef.

2

p.i.

f (x )

+

f(x)

undef.

b.

f (x )

f (x) = 0 at x = 2 + 2 = 3.4142 and at

x = 2 2 = 0.5857

f (x) changes sign at each of these x-values,

which implies points of inflection at

(0.5857 , 0.1910), (3.4142 ,

0.3835).

R3. a. Let x = width of a cell, y = length of the cell.

xy = 10 y = 10 x 1 ; 0 < x

Minimize L( x ) = 12 x + 7 y = 12 x + 70 x 1 .

The graph shows minimum L (x) at x 2.4.

L (x )

x

2

5

100

2

2 4/3

c. i. f ( x ) = x 1/3 1, f ( x ) =

x

3

9

ii. Zooming in shows that there is a local

minimum cusp at (0, 0) and a local

maximum with zero derivative at x 0.3.

0.5

f (x )

x

0

8/27, and f (x) is undefined at x = 0, thus

locating precisely the minimum and

maximum found by graphing.

Because there are no other critical values

of x, there are no other maximum or

minimum points.

iii. f (x) is undefined at x = 0, and f (x) < 0

everywhere else; f never changes sign, so

there are no inflection points.

iv. f (0) = 0, f (8/27) = 4/27, f (5) = 2.0759

Global maximum at (8/27, 4/27).

Global minimum at (5, 2.0759).

d.

x

2

L ( x ) = 12 70 x 2

L ( x ) = 0 at x = 70/12 = 2.4152

At x = 70/12 , y = 10 12/70 = 4.1403 .

Overall length of battery is 6(2.4152) =

14.4913 .

Optimal battery is about 14.5 by 4.1,

which is longer and narrower than the typical

battery, 9 by 6.7. Thus, minimal wall

length does not seem to be a major

consideration in battery design.

b. The graph shows y = 8 x3, from x = 0 to

x = 2, with rectangle touching sample point

(x, y) on the graph, rotated about the y-axis,

generating cubic paraboloid and inscribed

cylinder.

8

(x, y )

f (x )

1

x

2

x

2

minimum at x = 0, local maximum at x 2,

and points of inflection at x 3.4 and at

x 0.6.

f ( x ) = 2 xe x x 2 e x = x (2 x )e x

f ( x ) = 2e x 4 xe x + x 2 e x = (2 4 x + x 2 )e x

f (x) = 0 at x = 0, 2

206

Domain of x is 0 x 2.

Maximize V (x) = r2h = x 2y = 8 x2 x 5 .

The graph shows that V (x) has a maximum at

x 1.5.

V(x )

30

x

0

2005 Key Curriculum Press

V ( x ) = 0 at x = 0 and x = 3 16/5 = 1.4736

Maximal rectangle has x = 3 16/5 = 1.4736 ,

y = 8 16/5 = 4.8.

R4. a. The graph shows y = x11/3 and y = x 22 ,

intersecting at (0, 0) and (1, 1), rotated about

the x-axis, sliced parallel to the x-axis,

showing back half of solid only.

y

part i, rotated about the x-axis, showing

back half of solid only.

y

(x, 4)

4

(x, y )

x

2

(x 1 , y )

1

(x 2 , y )

x

0

V=

x 1 = y 3 , x 2 = y 1/2

dV = 2 y (x 2 x 1) dy = 2 y (y 1/2 y 3) dy

V=

iii. The graph shows the region described in

part i, rotated about the line y = 5,

showing back half of solid only.

y

0

sliced perpendicular to the x-axis, generating

plane washer slices.

(x, 4)

5

4

(x, y )

y

(x, y1 )

x

2

2

(x, y2 )

0

= [(5 x2)2 1] dx

2

7

V = dV 174.2536 exactly 55

2

15

(Cylindrical shells can also be used.)

iv. The graph shows the region described in

part i, rotated about the line x = 3,

showing back half of solid only.

V=

(x, 4)

c. i. The graph shows y = x2 and y = 4,

intersecting at (2, 4) and (2, 4), rotated

about the y-axis, showing back half of

solid only.

y

(x, 4)

(x, y )

x

2

dV = 2 x (4 y) dx = 2 x (4 x2) dx

V 25.1327 (exactly 8)

(Disks can also be used.)

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(x, y ) (3, y)

x

2

dV = 2 (3 x) (4 y) dx

= 2 (3 x)(4 x2) dx

V=

R5. a. y = x 2 from x = 1 to x = 2.

dy = 2x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (2 x )2 dx

L=

dL 6.1257

Problem Set 8-8

207

b. y = x3/2 from x = 0 to x = 9.

dy = 1.5x1/2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (1.5 x 1/2 )2 dx

9

(1 + 2.25x ) dx

1

(1 + 2.25 x )

=

2.25

L=

1/2

1/2

(2.25 dx )

9

2

(1 + 2.25 x )3/2

6.75

0

2

3/ 2

(21.25 1) = 28.7281

=

6.75

Distance between the endpoints is

10 2 + 26 2 = 27.8567 , so the answer

is reasonable.

c. x = t cos t dx = (cos t t sin t ) dt

y = t sin t dy = (sin t + t cos t ) dt

The graph shows t increases from 0 to 4.

1/2

x 4 / 3 + 1 4 x 1/3 dx

0

9 3

1

= x 4/3 +

3/2 8

=

(1453/ 2 1) = 203.0436 K

27

The disk of radius 8 has area 64 =

201.0619 , so the answer is reasonable.

b. The graph shows y = tan x, from x = 0 to

x = 1, rotated about the line y = 1, showing

the back half of the solid only.

y

1

(x, y)

x

0

1

(x,1)

4 y

x

4

dy = sec2 x dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (cos t t sin t )2 + (sin t + t cos t )2 dt

= 1 + ( t )2 dt

L=

1 + 2 t 2 dt 25.7255K

S=

(x, y )

1 2/3

x

dx

3

2

1

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + x 2/3 dx

3

1

dS = 2x dL = 2x 1 + x 2/3 dx

3

= 2

208

R7. a. r = dr = d

L=

(0, y) 2

dS 20.4199K

dL = dr 2 + (rd )2 = 1 + 2 d

S = 2

dS = 2 (y + 1) dL

= 2 ( tan x + 1) 1 + sec 4 x dx

x = 8, rotated about the y-axis, showing the

back half of the solid only.

dy =

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + sec 4 x dx

1

1 + x 2/3 dx

3

5 / 2

dL 32.4706 K

1 2

1

r d = 2 d . Area of the region

2

2

between the curves equals the area traced out

from t = 2 to t = 5 /2 minus the area traced

out from t = 0 to t = /2.

/2 1

5 / 2 1

A=

2 d

2 d

2

0

2

2

b. dA =

1

= 3

6

5 /2

2

1

3

6

/2

0

1 3

7.5 3

(2.53 2 3 0.53 + 0 3 ) =

6

6

= 38.7578

=

1/2

1

x 1/3 x 4/3 + dx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Concept Problems

C1. a. The graph of (t) = 130 12T + 15T 2 4T 3

from T = 0 to T = 3 shows maxima at T = 0

and T 2.0 and minima at T 0.5 and

T = 3.

(T )

f

g

1

0

130

T

0

To maximize (T):

(T ) = 12 + 30T 12T 2

= 6(2T 1)(T 2)

1

(T ) = 0 at T = , 2

2

1

(0) = 130; = 127.25;

2

(2) = 134; (3) = 121

Maximum viscosity occurs at T = 2, or 200.

b. Minimum viscosity occurs at endpoint,

T = 3, or 300.

c.

C2. The graph of f (x) = (x 1)4 + x shows that the

graph straightens out at x = 1 but does not

change concavity.

y

x

1

so f (1) = 1 and f (1) = 0.

f (x) > 0 for all x 1. In particular, f (x) does not

change sign at x = 1. Thus, the graph is straight

at x = 1, but not horizontal. Zooming in on (1,

1) shows that the graph resembles y = x when x

is close to 1, although it is actually concave up

slightly.

C3. The graphs of f (x) = x2/3 and g( x ) = x 1/3 show a

cusp at x = 0 for function f and a vertical

asymptote at x = 0 for function g.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3

y =

3

3

3

2.5

3

1 + cos 3 ( x 5) sin 3 ( x 5)

2.5

(1 + cos )sin dx

dL = 1 +

3

3

L=

7.5

dL 5.7726

b. y =

2.5

d

[(1 + cos ) cos + ( sin ) sin ]

3

dx

2.5

=

(2 cos 2 1 + cos )

3

3

2

2.5

=

(cos + 1)(2 cos 1)

9

y = 0 cos = 1 or cos = 0.5

= + 2 n or = /3 + 2 n

x = 8 + 6n, 4 + 6n, or 6 + 6n

The only zero of y within the domain is

x = 6, so the point of inflection must be

at x = 6.

c. dS = 2 (x 4) dL, where dL is as in part a.

S=

7.5

dS 78.2373

5

d. x = 7.5 y = 3 + 1.25 1 + cos

= 3 + 1.25(1 3 /2)2

= 3 + 1.25(1.75 3 ) = 3.0224

dV = 2 (x 4) (y 3.0224) dx

V=

7.5

= 58.8652

C5. The 2000 World Almanac and Book of Facts

lists the area of Brazil as 3,286,478 square miles.

Individual answers will vary.

Problem Set 8-8

209

C6. Let the cylinder lie on the x-axis and the hole lie

on the y-axis so that the z-axis is perpendicular

to both the cylinder and the hole. The cylinder is

thus described by y2 + z2 25, and the hole by

x 2 + z2 9.

Slice the hole with planes perpendicular to the

z-axis. Then for 3 z 3, the cross section at

z of the hole is a rectangle with height

2 y = 2 25 z 2 and width 2 x = 2 9 z 2 .

Area of cross-section rectangle is

Vs =

= 8 + 8 2 6 = 0.46415 cm 3

4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 dz

= 269.3703 cm3

According to the CRC Handbook, the density

of uranium is 19.1 g/cm3. So the mass of the

uranium drilled out is

m = (269.3703)(19.1) = 5144.97 g.

Value is 200(5144.97) $1,029,000.

dVs 0.0109642 .

11 2 1

= 8(1 2 /2)3 + 24

4 2

12

so dV = 4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 dz.

Thus, the volume of the hole (and thus of the

uranium that once filled the hole) is

3

2 /2,

trigonometry substitution, as in Chapter 9. The

11 2 1

exact value is Vs =

.)

12

4 2

The 24 spikes (3 for each of the eight corners) are

identical.

Thus, the total volume remaining is

V = 8Vc + 24Vs

4 225 34 z 2 + z 4 ,

V=

2 /2

Chapter Test

T1.

y

3

the circle on one face of the cube.

x

0

T2.

y

6

(x, y )

Function

5

4

x

1

3

2

corner pieces. Each corner piece consists of a cube

and three identical spikes. The spikes have square

cross sections when sliced perpendicular to the

appropriate axes. The hole perpendicular to the

xy-plane cuts a circle in that plane with equation

x2 + y2 = 1. The cube shown in the diagram

begins at x = y so that 2x2 = 1,

from which x = 2 /2. Each cube is thus

(1 2 /2) cm on a side, and thus has volume

Vc = (1 2 /2)3 = 0.0251262 cm 3 .

Consider the leftmost spike in the preceding

diagram. Pick a sample point (x, y) on the part

of the circle in that spike. The cross section

perpendicular to the x-axis for this spike is a

square of side (1 y) = 1 1 x 2 . Thus,

x

1

Derivative

A = 500 x

A = 0 x = 500

A goes from positive to negative at x = 500

local maximum at x = 500.

A(0) = A(1000) = 0 global maximum

at x = 500.

Maximum at x = 500, y = 250.

dVs = (1 1 x 2 )2 dx.

210

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T4. V = 2

T11. Vcyl = 22 8 = 32

x ( y1 y2 ) dx

Vsolid 19.2

=

= 0.6

32

Vcyl

1

T5. a. dA = r 2 dr

2

b. dL = ( dr ) + (r d )

2

T12. a.

c. dL = dx 2 + dy 2

d. dS = 2 ( x 1) dL

T6. f (x) = x 3 7.8x 2 + 20.25x 13

f (x) = 3x2 15.6x + 20.25

= 3(x 2.5)(x 2.7)

f (x) changes from positive to negative at

x = 2.5 and from negative back to positive at

x = 2.7. So there is a local maximum at x = 2.5

and a local minimum at x = 2.7.

f (x) = 6x 15.6 = 6(x 2.6)

f (x) = 0 at x = 2.6

f (2.6) = 0.03, so the graph is not horizontal at

the inflection point.

T7. y = x3 dy = 3x2 dx

dL = dx 2 + dy 2 = 1 + (3 x 2 )2 dx

L=

1 + 9 x 4 dx = 8.6303

T8. dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + 9 x 4 dx

S=

2 x

0

1 + 9 x 4 dx = 77.3245

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (5 cos t )2 + (2 sin t )2 dt

L=

V(x) = 16 x 5 x 4 = 0 at x = 0 or 3.21/3

V(0) = V(2) = 0

V(3.2 1/3) = 4.8 3.22/3 > 0, so this is a

maximum.

Maximal cylinder has V = 4.8 3.22/3 cm3 =

32.7459 cm3.

T10. Slicing parallel to the y-axis generates cylindrical

shells of radius x extending from the sample

point (x, y) to the line y = 8.

dV = 2 x (8 y) dx = 2 x (8 x3) dx

V=

2 (8 x x 4 ) dx = 2 ( 4 x 2 0.2 x 5 )

= 19.2 = 60.3185

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2

0

dL 23.0131

20 sin 3 t dt = 83.7758

= 26.6666 (numerically)

V can be evaluated algebraically by

transforming two of the three sin t factors

into cosines.

V=

circular slices of radius y, where sample point

(x, y) is on the upper branch of the ellipse.

dV = y2 dx = 4 sin2 t (5 sin t dt)

= 20 sin3 t dt

Leftmost slice is at t = , and rightmost slice

is at t = 0.

V=

The graph shows a maximum V (x) at x 1.5.

40

x

5

20 (1 cos 2 t ) sin t dt

20 sin t dt +

20 cos

t sin t dt

0

20

2

= 20 cos t cos3 t = 26

3

3

The x-radius is 5, and the y-radius is 2.

4

4

(x-radius)(y-radius)2 = (5)(2)2 =

3

3

2

26 , Q .E.D .

3

(In general, if a = x-radius and b = y-radius,

the parametric functions are x = a cos t, y =

b sin t. Repeating the preceding algebraic

4

solution gives V = ab 2 .)

3

T13. r = 5e0.1

dr = 0.5e0.1 d

211

dL = dr 2 + (rd )2

= (0.5e 0.1 )2 + (5e 0.1 )2 d

= e 0.1 25.25 d

The spiral starts at r = 5 = 5e0.10 and makes three

complete revolutions, so 0 6.

L=

6

0

1

T14. dA = r 2 d = 12.5e 0.2 d

2

The area between the second and third revolutions

equals the area swept out for the third revolution

212

revolution. In Quadrant I, the third revolution

extends from = 4 to = 4.5 and the second

revolution extends from = 2 to = 2.5 .

A=

4.5

12.5e 0.2 d

4.5

2.5

12.5e 0.2 d

2.5

= 62.5(e0.9 e0.8 e0.5 + e0.4 )

= 203.7405

T15. Answers will vary.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

for the Elementary Functions

Problem Set 9-1

1. V = 2

/2

2.

x cos x dx 3.5864

3.

4.

x cos x dx = f ( x ) dx sin x dx

integral)

= x sin x + cos x + C

3.

= 2 x sin x + 2 cos x 0 /2

= 2 2

6. V = 2 2 = 3.5864 , which is the same as

the approximation, to the accuracy shown.

7. The method involves working separately with the

different parts of the integrand. The function

f (x) = x sin x was chosen because one of the

terms in its derivative is x cos x, which is the

original integrand. See Section 9-2.

4.

xe

4x

dx

6 xe

3 x

u = 6x

dx

( x + 4)e

5 x

dx

( x + 7)e

2x

dx

7.

u=x

dv = sin x dx

du = dx

v = cos x

= x cos x ( cos x ) dx

= x cos x + sin x + C

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

u=x+4

dv = e 5x dx

du = dx

1

v = e 5 x

5

u=x+7

dv = e2x dx

du = dx

v=

1 2x

e

2

f ( x + h) f ( x )

h

Q10. C

x sin x dx

dv = e 3x dx

1

1 2x

= ( x + 7) e 2 x

e dx

2

2

7

1

1

= e 2 x + xe 2 x e 2 x + C

2

2

4

13 2 x 1 2 x

= e + xe + C

4

2

1.

1 4x

e

4

Q6.

h0

v=

6.

Q9. 110/6

du = dx

1

1

= ( x + 4) e 5 x +

e 5 x dx

5

5

4

1

1

= e 5 x xe 5 x e 5 x + C

5

5

25

21 5 x 1 5 x

= e xe + C

25

5

Q8. lim

dv = e4x dx

u=x

1

v = e 3 x

3

1

1

= (6 x ) e 3 x (6) e 3 x dx

3

2

= 2 xe 3 x e 3 x + C

3

1 11

Q2.

x +C

11

1

Q4.

sin 3 x + C

3

1

v = sin 3 x

3

du = 6 dx

5.

Q3.

du = dx

x cos x dx

dv = cos 3x dx

1 4x 1 4x

xe

e dx

4

4

1

1

= xe 4 x e 4 x + C

4

16

/2

u=x

1

1

x sin 3 x

sin 3 x dx

3

3

1

1

= x sin 3 x + cos 3 x + C

3

9

=

f ( x ) dx = x cos x dx + sin x dx

5. V = 2

x cos 3x dx

ln x dx

u = ln x

dv = x 3 dx

du = x 1 dx

v=

1 4

x

4

1 4

1 3

x ln x

x dx

4

4

1

1

= x 4 ln x x 4 + C

4

16

=

213

8.

u = ln 3x

dv = x 5 dx

du = x 1 dx

v=

ln 3 x dx

1.

1 6

x

6

x e

3 2x

dx

9.

x e

2 x

u = 2x

du = 2 dx

dv = ex dx

v = ex

u = x2

sin x dx

u = 2x

du = 2 dx

dv = cos x dx

v = sin x

ln x dx

u = ln x

du = x

5 x

dx

v = cos x

2

= x cos x + 2x sin x + 2 cos x + C

11.

2.

1 3 2x 3 2 2x 3 2x 3 2x

x e x e + xe e + C

2

4

4

8

dv = sin x dx

du = 2x dx

2

= x cos x ( 2 x cos x ) dx

v = ex

= x 2 e x 2 xe x 2e x dx

= x2ex 2xex + 2ex + C

10.

3.

sin x dx

dv = dx

dx

v=x

= x ln x x + C

4.

Q4.

1 4

Q5.

x + 11x + C

4

Q7. 1/2

Q8. V =

[ f ( x)

a

dv

sin x

cos x

sin x

cos x

sin x

cos x

u

x2

2x

2

0

cos x dx

1 3

( x + 11)6 + C

18

dv

cos x

sin x

cos x

sin x

Q6. 1

5.

g( x )2 ] dx

Q9.

Q10. B

y

4

x

2

214

u

x4

4x 3

12x 2

24x

24

0

Q3. tan x + C

dv

e x

e x

e x

e x

e x

e x

e x

24x sin x 24 cos x + C

1 6

r +C

6

u

x5

5x 4

20x 3

60x 2

120x

120

0

120e x + C

= x ln x x x 1 dx

Q1.

du = 2x dx

2 x

x

= x e 2 xe dx

6

dv = ex dx

1 2x

2e

1 2x

4e

1 2x

8e

1 2x

16 e

6x

u = x2

dx

dv

e 2x

3x2

1 6

1

x ln 3 x

x 5 dx

6

6

1

1 6

= x 6 ln 3 x

x +C

6

36

=

u

x3

cos 2 x dx

u

x5

5x 4

20x 3

60x 2

120x

120

0

dv

cos 2x

1

2 sin 2x

1

4 cos 2x

1

8 sin 2x

1

16 cos 2x

1

32 sin 2x

1

64 cos 2x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6.

1 5

5

5

x sin 2 x + x 4 cos 2 x x 3 sin 2 x

2

4

2

15

15

15

x 2 cos 2 x + x sin 2 x + cos 2 x + C

4

4

8

x 3 sin 5 x dx

u

x3

3x 2

6x

6

0

dv

sin 5x

1

5 cos 5x

1

25 sin 5x

1

125 cos 5x

1

625 sin 5x

10.

1

3 2

6

= x 3 cos 5 x +

x sin 5 x +

x cos 5 x

5

25

125

6

sin 5 x + C

625

7.

e sin x dx

x

u

ex

ex

ex

34 3x

e cos 5 x dx

25

1

3

= e 3x sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x + C1

5

25

e 3x cos 5 x dx

5 3x

3

e sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x + C

34

34

4x

sin 2 x dx

1

= e 4x cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x + C1

2

e 4x sin 2 x dx

11.

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C1

1 4x

1

e cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x + C

10

5

u

dv

ln 3x + x 7

1 8

1/x

8x

----------------1

1 8 x7

1

0 + 64 x 8

ln 3 x dx

e x sin x dx

1

1

= e x cos x + e x sin x + C

2

2

8.

u

ex

ex

ex

cos x dx

dv

cos x

sin x

cos x

=

12.

1 8

1 8

x ln 3 x

x +C

8

64

u

dv

ln 6x + x 5

1 6

1/x

6x

------------------------1

1 6x5

1

0 + 36 x 6

ln 6 x dx

2 e cos x dx

x

= ex sin x + ex cos x + C 1

e x cos x dx

9.

1 x

1

e sin x + e x cos x + C

2

2

3x

cos 5 x dx

u

e 3x

3e 3x

9e 3x

=

13.

dv

cos 5x

1

5 sin 5x

1

25

cos 5x

14.

15.

16.

1

3

= e 3x sin 5 x + e 3x cos 5 x

5

25

9

e 3x cos 5 x dx

25

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv

sin 2x

1

2 cos 2x

1

4 sin 2x

2 e sin x dx

1

= e 4x cos 2 x + e 4x sin 2 x 4 e 4x sin 2 x dx

2

5 e 4x sin 2 x dx

dv

sin x

cos x

sin x

u

e 4x

4e 4x

16e 4x

1 6

1 6

x ln 6 x

x +C

6

36

ln 7 5

x 4 ln 7 dx =

x + C (ln 7 is a constant!)

5

cos 5 7x

e 7x cos 5 dx =

e +C

7

1

sin 5 x cos x dx = sin 6 x + C

6

1

2 2/3

x (3 x ) dx =

(3 x 2 )2/3 ( 2 x dx )

2

3

= (3 x 2 )5/3 + C

10

215

17.

x ( x + 5)

3

18.

1/2

u

x3

3x 2

6x

6

0

dx

dv

(x + 5) 1/2

2

3/2

3(x + 5)

4

5/2

15(x + 5)

8

7/2

105(x + 5)

16

9/2

945(x + 5)

23.

x (ln x )

u

dv

(ln x) 3 + x

1 2

3 (ln x)2/x

2x

-------------------------1

3 (ln x) 2 2 x

1 2

6 (ln x)/x

4x

-------------------------1

6 ln x + 4 x

1 2

6/x

8x

dx

2 3

4

x ( x + 5)3/2 x 2 ( x + 5)5/2

3

5

16

32

7/2

+ x ( x + 5)

( x + 5)9/2 + C

35

315

--------------------------

2 x dx = x 2 (2 x )1/2 dx

u

x2

2x

2

0

dv

(2 x)1/2

2

3(2 x)3/2

4

5/2

15(2 x)

8

105(2 x)7/2

24.

1

8x

1 2

16 x

1 2

3

x (ln x )3 x 2 (ln x )2

2

4

3

3

+ x 2 ln x x 2 + C

4

8

x (ln x ) dx

3

u

(ln x) 2

2(ln x)/x

dv

x3

1 4

4x

--------------------------

1 3

4x

1 4

16 x

-------------------------1

2 + 16 x 3

1

0 64 x 4

2 ln x

2/x

2

8

= x 2 (2 x )3/2 x (2 x )5/2

3

15

16

7/2

(2 x ) + C

105

19.

20.

21.

ln x

e

ln 7 x

x e

5 x2

dx = 5 ln x dx = 5 x ln x 5 x + C

dx = 7 x dx =

7 2

x +C

2

dx

25.

u

x4

4x 3

1 4

1

1 4

x (ln x )2 x 4 ln x +

x +C

4

8

32

x (x

3

+ 1) 4 dx

u

x2

dv

x(x 2 + 1)4

1

2

5

2x

10 (x + 1)

---------------------------------1

2

5

5 x(x + 1)

1

2

6

+

0

12 (x + 1)

dv

xe x 2

1 x2

2e

--------------------------

2x 2 xe x 2

1 x2

4x

2e

-------------------------2 + xe x 2

1

0 2 e x2

=

26.

=

22.

2

2

1 4 x2

x e x 2e x + e x + C

2

x e

5 x

dx

u

x3

3x 2

3

1

1 3

= x 3e x e x + C

3

3

216

1 2 2

1

x ( x + 1)5 ( x 2 + 1)6 + C

10

60

x 2 3 dx = x 3 ( x 2 3)1/2

dv

x(x 2 3) 1/2

1 2

3/2

3(x 3)

----------------------------------2

dv

x 2 ex 3

1 x3

3e

x 2 ex 3

1

3

u

x2

2x

---------------------------

1

0

ex3

27.

x(x 2 3) 3/2

1 2

5/2

5(x 3)

1 2 2

2

x ( x 3)3/2 ( x 2 3)5/2 + C

3

15

cos

x dx

u

cos x

sin x

dv

cos x

sin x

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= cos x sin x + (1 cos x ) dx

= cos x sin x + x cos x dx

2 cos x dx = cos x sin x + x + C

1

1

cos x dx = cos x sin x + x + C

2

2

= cos x sin x ( sin 2 x ) dx

32.

33.

34.

u

sin 0.4x

0.4 cos 0.4x

dv

sin 0.4x

2.5 cos 0.4x

= 2.5 sin 0.4 x cos 0.4 x + dx sin 0.4 x dx

2 sin 0.4 x dx

= 2.5 sin 0.4 x cos 0.4 x + cos 2 0.4 x dx

2

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

dv

sec2 x

tan x

= sec x tan x sec x dx + ln | sec x + tan x |

2 sec x dx

= sec x tan x sec x tan 2 x dx

2

40.

cos x dx

e sin x dx = e

x

with the opposite sign (which is useful), and two

more integrations reversed the sign again to give

the original integral with the same sign (which

is not useful).

2005 Key Curriculum Press

e x sin x + e x sin x dx

sec 2 x tan x dx

1

= (sec x )1 (sec x tan x dx ) = sec 2 x + C

2

1

31. log 3 x dx =

ln x dx

ln 3

1

=

( x ln x x ) + C

ln 3

1

= x log 3 x

x+C

ln 3

1

1

x 2 cos x dx into x 3 cos x +

x 3 sin x dx,

3

3

which is more complicated than the original

expression.

41. After two integrations by parts,

e x sin x dx

1

1

= sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x | + C

2

2

sec x dx

30.

sin x dx = cos x + C

cos x dx = sin x + C

csc x dx = ln | csc x + cot x | + C

sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x | + C

tan x dx = ln | cos x | + C

cot x dx = ln | sin x | + C

x cos x dx

effectively canceling out what she did in the first

part. She will get

u

sec x

sec x tan x

ln x dx

sin 2 0.4 x dx

sec 3 x dx

1

ln 10

differentiated x2, but in the second integral she

plans to differentiate cos x dx and integrate 2x,

29.

x dx =

1

( x ln x x ) + C

ln 10

1

= x log10 x

x+C

ln 10

sin 2 0.4x dx

10

28.

log

42.

cos

1

(1 + cos 2 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x + sin 2 x + C

2

2

x dx =

217

trigonometry,

1

1

1

x + sin 2 x + C = ( x + sin x cos x ) + C

2

2

2

which is equivalent to the answer in Problem 27

found using integrating by parts.

u dv = uv

(1,1/e)

x

3

y = xe x + e x = e x(1 x)

Critical points at x = 0, 1, 3; maximum at

x = 1.

x

12 x e

2 x

dx

= 12 x 2 e x 24 xe x 24e x

b

0

The first two terms approach zero as b

by LHospitals rule. The third term also

approaches 0.

lim Ab = 24

b

45. y = ln x

dV = y2 dx = (ln x)2 dx

5

(ln x ) dx

u

dv

(ln x)2 + 1

2 (ln x)/x

x

----------------------2 ln x 1

2/x

x

----------------------2 + 1

0 x

= x (ln x )2 2 x ln x + 2 x

5

1

= 5 ( ln 5)2 10 ln 5 + 10 0 + 0 2

= 15.2589

46. Consider u dv, and write dv = v + C. Then

u dv = u(v + C) (v + C) du

= uv + Cu v du C du

= uv + Cu v du Cu = uv v du

Thus, the constant cancels out later, Q.E.D.

218

v du

a

ln ax dx = (ln a + ln x ) dx

= x ln a + x ln x x + C

= x ln ax x + C

49.

= 3e 3 e 3 + 1 = 4e 3 + 1 = 0.8008

44. y = 12x2e x

Area from x = 0 to x = b is

A(b) =

dx

= ( xe x e x )

V=

48.

v du

L-shaped region, which is the area of the larger

rectangle minus the area of the smaller one.

Thus, the integral of u dv equals the area of the

L-shaped region minus the area represented by the

integral of v du.

xe

= (bd ac)

A=

u=b

u =a

43.

u dv = uv v du.

sin

u

sin 6 x

6 sin 5 x cos x

x dx

dv

sin x

cos x

= sin x cos x + 6 sin x dx 6 sin x dx

7 sin x dx = sin x cos x + 6 sin x dx

1

6

sin x dx = 7 sin x cos x + 7 sin x dx

= sin 6 x cos x + 6 sin 5 x cos 2 x dx

6

(old exponent 1)/(old exponent). The new

exponent is 2 less than the old exponent. So

1

sin 7 x dx = sin 6 x cos x

7

6 1 4

4

+ sin x cos x +

sin 3 x dx

7 5

5

1

6

6

4

= sin x cos x

sin x cos x

7

35

24 1

2

+ sin 2 x cos x +

sin x dx

35 3

3

1

6

6

4

= sin x cos x

sin x cos x

7

35

8

16

sin 2 x cos x

cos x + C

35

35

50. Answers will vary.

Q1. uv v du

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q2.

Q3.

y

4.

= tan x (sec x 1) dx

= tan x sec x dx tan

1

= tan x tan x dx

19

20

18

18

x

2

19

Q4. y = 1 + ln 5x

Q6. ln |x| + C

5.

sec

13

x dx

18

1

sin 6 x + C

Q5.

6

18

x dx

18

x dx

Q7.

u

sec 11 x

11 sec 10 x sec x tan x

dv

sec 2 x

tan x

y

1

3

= sec

11

1

Q8.

1+ x2

Q10. D

1.

x tan x 11 sec

x tan x 11 sec

= sec11

sin 9 x dx

u

8

x cos x + 8 sin

x cos x + 8 sin

sin7

sin 8 x

x cos x

dv

sin x

cos x

= sin

6.

csc

100

dv

cos x

10

10

= cot x (csc x 1) dx

= cot x csc x dx cot x dx

1

= cot x cot x dx

11

12

10

10

10

11

2005 Key Curriculum Press

10

x cot x 98 csc

x cot x 98 csc

100

dv

csc 2 x

cot x

7.

98

100

x (csc 2 x 1) dx

x dx + 98 csc 98 x dx

98

1

98

csc100 x dx = csc 98 x cot x +

csc 98 x dx

99

99

cos

x dx

10

sin x

= cos x sin x + 9 cos x dx 9 cos x dx

10 cos x dx = cos x sin x + 9 cos x dx

1

9

cos x dx = 10 cos x sin x + 10 cos x dx

= cos 9 x sin x + 9 cos8 x sin 2 x dx

3.

98

99 csc

+

x dx

= csc 98

u

cos 9 x

9 cos 8 x sin x

1

11

sec x dx =

sec11 x tan x +

sec11 x dx

12

12

13

= csc

cos10 x dx

x dx 8 sin 9 x dx

x dx + 11 sec11 x dx

11

x (1 sin 2 x ) dx

2.

13

u

csc 98 x

98 csc 97 x csc x cot x

1

8

sin x dx = 9 sin x cos x + 9 sin x dx

= sin 8

x (sec 2 x 1) dx

13

8

11

u

cos n 1 x

(n 1) cosn 2 x sin x

dv

cos x

sin x

= cos x sin x + (n 1) cos x dx

(n 1) cos x dx

n cos x dx = cos x sin x + (n 1) cos x dx

n 1

1

cos x dx = n cos x sin x + n cos x dx

= cos n1 x sin x + (n 1) cos n2 x sin 2 x dx

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

10

219

8.

sin

u

sin n 1 x

(n 1) sinn 2 x cos x

x dx

= sin x cos x + (n 1) sin x dx

(n 1) sin x dx

n sin x dx = sin x cos x + (n 1) sin

n 1

1

sin x dx = n sin x cos x + n sin

tan x dx = tan x tan x dx

= tan x (sec x 1) dx

= tan x sec x dx tan x dx

1

=

tan x tan x dx

n 1

cot x dx = cot x cot x dx

= cot x (csc x 1) dx

= cot x csc x dx cot x dx

1

=

cot x cot x dx

n 1

csc x dx

n 1

n2

n 1

n2

x ) dx

n 1

9.

n2

n2

14.

n 1

u

(n 2) csc n 3x csc x cot x

15.

= csc x cot x (n 2) csc x dx

+ (n 2) csc x dx

(n 1) csc x dx

= csc x cot x + (n 2) csc x dx

csc x dx

1

n2

=

csc x cot x +

csc x dx

n 1

n 1

sec x dx

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

12.

n2

u

sec n 2x

(n 2) sec n 3 x sec x tan x

220

x dx

dv

sec 2 x

tan x

cot

x dx

1

1

= cot 5 x cot 3 x ( cot x x ) + C

5

3

1

1 3

5

= cot x + cot x cot x x + C

5

3

dv

csc 2 x

cot x

n2

cos

1

4 1

2

cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C

5

53

3

1

4

8

= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C

5

15

15

n2

csc n 2x

n2

n2

1

4 1

2

= sin 4 x cos x + sin 2 x cos x cos x + C

5

5 3

3

1

4

8

= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x cos x + C

5

15

15

n2

11.

13.

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

x dx

n 1

10.

x dx

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n2

n 1

n2

n2

= sec x tan x (n 2) sec x dx

+ (n 2) sec x dx

(n 1) sec x dx

= sec x tan x + (n 2) sec x dx

sec x dx

1

n2

=

sec x dx

sec x tan x +

n 1

n 1

sin x dx

= sec n2 x tan x (n 2) sec n2 x tan 2 x dx

dv

sin x

cos x

16.

tan

x dx

1

1

1

6

4

2

1

1

1

6

4

2

= tan x tan x + tan x + ln | cos x | + C

6

4

2

1

2

17. sec 4 x dx = sec 2 x tan x + tan x + C

3

3

1

2

4

2

18. csc x dx = csc x cot x cot x + C

3

3

19. a. y = cos x is on top; y = cos3 x is in the

middle; y = cos5 x is on the bottom.

b. For y = cos x, area 2.0000 .

For y = cos3 x, area 1.3333 .

For y = cos5 x, area 1.06666 .

c. A1 =

/2

/2

cos x dx = sin x

/2

/2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

A3 =

/2

/2

4

2

4

cos N x <

.

2

Now, for any n > N,

cos3 x dx

Note that if

/2

1

2

= cos 2 x sin x + sin x

3

3

/2

1

2

= cos 2 ( /2) sin ( /2) + sin ( /2)

3

3

1

2

2

cos ( /2) sin ( /2) sin ( /2)

3

3

2

2 4

= 0 + 0 + = = 1.3333

3

3 3

2

Observe that A3 = A1 .

3

A5 =

/2

/2

/2

/2

=2

/4

And 2

4

5

/2

/2

cos3 x dx

<2

So

/4

/2

/4

/2

cos n x dx < 2

/2

n /2

20.

dx =

/2

/4

(cos n x < 1) .

2

cos N x dx (n > N )

dx =

N

cos x <

.

2

2

/2

/4

cos n x dx < .

cos n x dx = 0, Q .E.D .

= (1 sin x ) cos x dx

= (1 2 sin x + sin x ) cos x dx

= cos x dx 2 sin x cos x dx

+ sin x cos x dx

5

y = cos100 x

/2

cos n x dx + 2

lim

/4

cos n x dx

/2

=2

0.5

n /2

cos n x dx.

/4

cos n x dx < 2

dx <

2

/2

/2

0.5

/2

cos n x dx + 2

/4

4

4 4 4 2

16

A3 = = 2 =

5

5 3 5 3

15

= 1.066666

4

Observe that A5 = A3 .

5

d. Based on the graphs, the area under cos x

should be greater than that under cos3 x,

which in turn is greater than the area under

cos5 x. This is exactly what happens with the

calculated answers: A1 > A3 > A5.

e.

f. Yes, lim

/4

But 2

=0+

cos n x dx

/2

cos 5 x dx

1

= cos 4 x sin x

5

/2

2

1

= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C

3

5

cos n x dx = 0.

A5 =

(n 1)(n 3)(n 5)K( 4)(2)(1)

An =

2,

(n)(n 2)(n 4)K(5)(3)

the denominator gets large faster than the

numerator. However, because both go to

infinity, this observation is not decisive.

The following epsilon proof by Cavan Fang

establishes the fact rigorously, using the

definition of limit in the form For any

> 0, there is an N > 0 such that whenever

n > N, A n < .

Proof:

Pick 0 < < 2 .

4

N

such that cos

<

.

4 2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

/2

/2

sin 5 x dx

2

1

= 2 sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x

3

5

/2

0

4 2 16

+ =

= 1.0666 , which agrees with

3 5 15

the answer from Problem 19.

=2

21.

sec

u

sec x

sec x tan x

x dx

dv

sec 2 x

tan x

= sec x tan x sec x dx + sec x dx

= sec x tan x sec x tan 2 x dx

2

221

1

= (sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax 2 sin ax cos 2 ax )

3

1

= [sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax (1 cos 2 ax )]

3

1

= [sin 3 ax + 2 sin ax (sin 2 ax )]

3

= sin3 ax

2 sec 3 x dx

= sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x| + C 1

sec

x dx

1

1

sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x| + C

2

2

Note that the answer is half the derivative of

secant plus half the integral of secant.

=

22.

sin

ax dx

sin

ax dx

1

(cos ax )(sin 2 ax + 2) + C, Q .E.D .

3a

24. Use integration by parts, or use the technique of

Problem 20, as shown here.

=

u

sin n 1 ax

a(n 1) sin n 2ax cos ax

dv

sin ax

1

a cos ax

= (1 sin ax ) cos ax dx

= cos ax dx sin ax cos ax dx

3

1

= sin n1 ax cos ax

a

+ (n 1) sin

n2

ax cos ax dx

1

= sin n1 ax cos ax

a

1

1

sin ax sin 3 ax + C

3a

a

1

=

(sin ax )(3 sin 2 ax ) + C

3a

1

=

(sin ax )(2 + cos 2 ax ) + C, Q .E .D .

3a

Or: Differentiate, as in the alternate solution for

Problem 23.

=

+ (n 1) sin n2 ax (1 sin 2 ax ) dx

=

1

sin n1 ax cos ax + (n 1) sin n2 ax dx

a

(n 1) sin n ax dx

n sin n ax dx

=

1

sin n1 ax cos ax + (n 1) sin n2 ax dx

a

sin

ax dx

1

n 1

sin n1 ax cos ax +

sin n2 ax dx

an

n

1

sin 5 3 x dx = sin 4 3 x cos 3 x

15

4

8

sin 2 3 x cos 3 x

cos 3 x + C

45

45

1

sin 2 ax cos ax

23. sin 3 ax dx =

3a

2

+

sin ax dx (From Problem 22)

3

1

2

= sin 2 ax cos ax cos ax + C

3a

3a

1

2

= cos ax (sin ax + 2) + C, Q .E.D .

3a

d 1

Or:

(cos ax )(sin 2 ax + 2)

dx 3a

1

2

= ( a sin ax )(sin ax + 2)

3a

1

3a

=

Q1. f (1) = 4

Q3. h(3) = 12

Q5. p(5) = 6e5

Q7.

5

g(2) = 1/2

t(4) = /24

x = 83 = 512

integration by parts

Q2.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

x

3

Q9.

Q10. E

f'(x) and f (x )

222

f

f'

1

1

1.

x

1

= (1 2 cos x + cos x ) sin x dx

5

= cos x +

2

1

cos3 x cos 5 x + C

3

5

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

2.

= (1 3 sin x + 3 sin x sin x ) cos x dx

7

12.

cos 9 x dx = (1 sin 9 x )

= (1 3 sin 9 x + 3 sin 9 x

7

cos 9 x dx

1

1

= sin 9 x sin 3 9 x

9

9

1

1

5

+ sin 9 x sin 7 9 x + C

15

63

4.

15.

6.

7.

1

1

cos 10 x + cos3 10 x + C

10

30

1

4

sin 3 x cos 3 x dx = sin 5 3 x + C

15

1

cos8 7 x sin 7 x dx = cos 9 7 x + C

63

17.

sec

18.

= (cot x + 2 cot x + 1) csc x dx

6

19.

1

1

= sin 5 2 x sin 7 2 x + C

10

14

= (cos x 2 cos x + cos x ) sin x dx

2

20.

2

x dx

= (sin x sin x ) cos x dx

2

21.

1

2

1

= cos3 x + cos 5 x cos 7 x + C

3

5

7

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

6 x dx

4

22.

2

x ) sin x dx

1

1

tan 3 100 x +

tan 100 x + C

300

100

1

tan10 x sec 2 x dx = tan11 x + C

11

1

cot 8 x csc 2 x dx = cot 9 x + C

9

sec

10

1

sec10 x + C

10

csc

1

= csc8 x + C

8

1

1

= sin 3 x sin 5 x + C

3

5

1

2

11. cos x dx =

(1 + cos 2 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x + sin 2 x + C

2

4

= (cot 6 x + 3 cot 6 x + 3 cot 6 x + 1) csc

x dx = ( tan 2 x + 1) sec 2 x dx

1

1

1

cot 7 6 x cot 5 6 x cot 3 6 x

42

10

6

1

cot 6 x + C

6

sin 2 x cos 2 x dx

= sin 2 x (1 sin 2 x ) cos 2 x dx

= (sin 2 x sin 2 x ) cos 2 x dx

1

1

cos 7 8 x +

cos 9 8 x + C

56

72

10.

9.

1

2

= cot 5 x cot 3 x cot x + C

5

3

8.

16.

cos 8x sin 8x dx

= cos 8 x (1 cos 8 x ) sin 8 x dx

= (cos 8 x cos 8 x ) sin 8 x dx

6

1

(1 cos 2 x ) dx

2

1

= tan 3 x + tan x + C

3

=

5.

x dx =

1

1

= x sin 2 x + C

2

4

1

13. sin 2 5 x dx =

(1 cos 10 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x sin 10 x + C

2

20

1

14. cos 2 6 x dx =

(1 + cos 12 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x + sin 12 x + C

2

24

3

1

= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x sin 7 x + C

5

7

3.

sin

23.

24.

25.

csc 12 dx = csc 12 dx = (csc 12) x + C

1

(cos x sin x ) dx = cos 2 x dx = 2 sin 2 x + C

10

10

10

223

26.

27.

28.

29.

(cos x + sin x ) dx = dx = x + C

(sin x ) dx = csc x dx = cot x + C

1

(cos 3x ) dx = sec 3x dx = 3 tan 3x + C

sec x dx

2

1

1

= sec x tan x + ln | sec x + tan x | + C

2

2

30.

csc

x dx

(sec x + 6 sec x ) dx

= [(1 + tan x ) sec x + 6 sec x ] dx

= (tan x sec x + 7 sec x ) dx

4

dv

cos 5x

1

5 sin 5x

1

25 cos 5x

1

3

= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x

5

25

9

+

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx

25

16

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx

25

1

3

= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x + C1

5

25

tan 3 x + 7 tan x

3

0

3

b. dV = 2 (x + 3) y dx = 2 (x + 3)(sec2 x) dx

V = 2

x sec

0

= 2 x tan x

x dx + 6

1

0

sec

x dx

tan x dx + 6 tan x

= 8 tan 1 + 2 ln |cos x |

5

3

= sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 5 x cos 3 x + C

16

16

35. dA =

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx

2

5

3

=

sin 5 x sin 3 x + cos 3 x cos 5 x = 0

16

16

0

Because the integral finds the area above

minus the area below, this calculation shows

the two areas are equal.

32. a.

y

1

b. A =

1

sin 3 x dx = cos3 x cos x

3

1

0

1 2

1

r d = (5 + 4 cos )2 d

2

2

1

2

/4

= 4 + 2 sin 2 + 20 sin +

25

/4

0

25

= + 2 + 10 2 + = 29.1012 ,

8

which agrees with the numerical answer.

1

1

36. dA = r 2 d = a 2 (1 + cos )2 d

2

2

2

1

A = a2

(1 + 2 cos + cos 2 ) d

0

2

4

3

d. A = 0 because sin3 x is an odd function

[sin3 (x) = sin3 x] and the integral of an

Problem Set 9-5

A=

1

0

cos 5x sin 3x dx

0

224

34. a. y = sec2 x

dV = [(y + 3)2 32] dx

= (sec4 x + 6 sec2 x) dx

cos 5 x sin 3 x dx

u

sin 3x

3 cos 3x

9 sin 3x

b.

V =

1

1

= csc x cot x ln | csc x + cot x | + C

2

2

31. a.

equal to zero.

33. dV = y2 dx = sin2 x dx

V = sin 2 x dx =

(1 cos 2 x ) dx

0

2 0

= x sin 2 x = 2 /2

2

4

0

1 2

1

1

a + 2 sin + + sin 2

2

2

4

2

0

3 2

a , which is 1.5 times A circle.

2

37. Answers will vary.

=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q6.

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

1

1

sin 3 x + C

Q2. cos 4 x + C

3

4

1

1

ln | cos 5 x | + C Q4. ln | sin 6 x | + C

6

5

1

ln | sec 7 x + tan 7 x | + C

7

5 sec2 5x

y = 4 cos 4x

d

See the text for the statement of fundamental

theorem of calculus.

See the text for the definition of indefinite

integral, Section 5-3.

because algebraic techniques are of less importance now

that technology is used for evaluating integrals, the

student is not expected to carry along the absolute value

just to eliminate it later.

1.

49

x

= sin . x = 7 sin , dx = 7 cos d ,

7

x

49 x 2 = 7 cos , = sin 1

7

49 x 2 dx = 7 cos (7 cos d )

=

=

=

2.

10

ln x + x 2 + a 2 for x > 0

taking advantage of the property ln n = ln (1/n). Thus,

1

x a2 x 2

= ln x + a 2 x 2

which can be shown by rationalizing the denominator

of the fraction and incorporating the constant ln a2

(or 2 ln a) into the constant of integration. Because

the major focus of this section is on the correct

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x2

x

= sin . x = 10 sin , dx = 10 cos d ,

10

x

100 x 2 = 10 cos , = sin 1

10

2

100 x dx = 10 cos (10 cos d )

Let

ln x x 2 + a 2 for x < 0

= ln

100

ln x a x

49

(1 + cos 2 ) d

2

100 x 2 dx

x a = a tan

49

49

+ sin 2 + C

2

4

49

49

+ sin cos + C

2

2

49 1 x 49 1 1

sin

+

x

49 x 2 + C

2

7 2 7 7

49 1 x 1

sin

+ x 49 x 2 + C

2

7 2

= 49 cos 2 d =

u

x2

Let

because cos 0 and sec 0 in the respective

quadrants. For the secant substitution, if x is negative,

then is in Quadrant II, where tan < 0. Thus, the

radical equals the opposite of a tan , and one should

write

49 x 2 dx

v

positive root. Because trigonometric functions can be

positive or negative, the radical should technically be

replaced by the absolute value of the appropriate

trigonometric function. Fortunately, this turns out to be

unnecessary. If x has been replaced by a sin , a tan ,

or a sec , it is assumed that is the corresponding

inverse trigonometric function. So is restricted to the

range of that inverse trigonometric function. Thus,

respectively,

2

100

= 100 cos d =

(1 + cos 2 ) d

2

= 50 + 25 sin 2 + C

= 50 + 50 sin cos + C

x

1

1

= 50 sin 1 + 50 x

100 x 2 + C

10

10 10

x 1

= 50 sin 1 + x 100 x 2 + C

10 2

2

225

3.

x 2 + 16 dx

5.

9 x 2 1 dx

x 2 + 16

3x

9x 2 1

u

4

x

= tan . x = 4 tan , dx = 4 sec 2 d ,

4

x

x 2 + 16 = 4 sec , = tan 1

4

x 2 + 16 dx = 4 sec ( 4 sec 2 d )

3x

1

= sec . x = sec ,

1

3

1

dx = sec tan d ,

3

Let

Let

9 x 2 1 = tan , = sec 1 3 x

3

16

16

= sec tan + ln | sec + tan | + C1

2

2

1

= x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln

2

x 2 + 16 x

+ + C1

4

4

1

x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln

2

1

= x x 2 + 16 + 8 ln

2

x 2 + 16 + x 8 ln 4 + C1

4.

x 2 + 16 + x + C

81 + x 2

6.

1

9 x 2 1 dx = tan sec tan d

3

16 x 2 1 dx

1

sec tan 2 d

3

1

=

(sec 3 sec ) d

3

1

1

= sec tan + ln | sec + tan |

6

6

1

ln | sec + tan | + C

3

1

1

= sec tan ln | sec + tan | + C

6

6

1

1

2

= x 9 x 1 ln 3 x + 9 x 2 1 + C

2

6

81 + x 2 dx

x

= tan . x = 9 tan , dx = 9 sec 2 d ,

9

x

81 + x 2 = 9 sec , = tan 1

9

81 + x 2 dx = 9 sec (9 sec 2 d )

4x

Let

Problem Set 9-4.)

=

81

81

sec tan + ln | sec + tan | + C1

2

2

1

81

= x 81 + x 2 + ln

2

2

81 + x 2 x

+ + C1

9

9

1

81

81

x 81 + x 2 + ln 81 + x 2 + x ln 9 + C1

2

2

2

1

81

= x 81 + x 2 + ln 81 + x 2 + x + C

2

2

=

226

u

1

16x 2 1

u

1

4x

1

= sec . x = sec ,

1

4

1

dx = sec tan d ,

4

16 x 2 1 = tan , = sec 1 4 x

1

4

1

2

=

sec tan d

4

1

=

(sec 3 sec ) d

4

1

1

= sec tan + ln | sec + tan |

8

8

1

ln | sec + tan | + C

4

Let

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7.

1

1

= sec tan ln |sec + tan | + C

8

8

1

1

2

= x 16 x 1 ln 4 x + 16 x 2 1 + C

2

8

dx

x2 +1

x 121

x

u

17 x 2 = 17 cos , = sin 1

x

= sec . x = 11 sec ,

11

dx = 11 sec tan d ,

Let

x

17

= ln

= ln x + x 2 121 + C

11.

13 x 2

13 x = 13 cos , = sin

2

13 cos d

13 cos

13 x

x

= d = + C = sin 1

+C

13

dx

dx

x2 +1

x 2 9 dx

dx = 13 cos d ,

x 2 121

+ C1

11

x

+

11

= ln x + x 2 121 ln 11 + C1

13

9.

x

11

dx

11 sec tan d

=

11 tan

x 2 121

17 cos d

17 cos

17 x

x

= d = + C = sin 1

+C

17

dx

dx

13 x

u

11

Let x/ 17 = sin .

x = 17 sin , dx = 17 cos d ,

x 2 121

17 x 2

x2 +1 + x + C

dx

17

8.

sec 2 d

= sec d

sec

= ln | sec + tan | + C = ln

10.

17 x 2

dx

x

13

x 2 9

u

3

x

= sec . x = 3 sec ,

3

dx = 3 sec tan d,

Let

x 2 9 = 3 tan , = sec 1

x

3

= 81 sec tan d

= 81 sec d sec d

1

3

= 81 sec tan + sec d sec d

4

4

81

81

= sec tan sec d

4

4

x 2 x 2 9 dx

x2 + 1

u

1

x

= tan . dx = sec 2 d ,

1

x 2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1 x

Let

2005 Key Curriculum Press

227

81 3

81

sec tan sec tan

4

8

81

ln | sec + tan | + C1

8

81 x 3

x 2 9 81 x

x2 9

=

4 27

3

8 3

3

2

81

x

x 9

ln +

+ C1

8

3

3

=

1 3 2

9

x x 9 x

4

8

81

2

ln x + x 9

8

1 3 2

9

= x x 9 x

4

8

81

2

ln x + x 9

8

=

12.

13.

1 x 2 = cos , = sin 1 x

81

ln 3 + C1

8

= cos d

x2 9

+C

=

x

u

x2

x

Let = sin . x = 3 sin , dx = 3 cos d ,

3

x

9 x 2 = 3 cos , = sin 1

3

x 2 9 x 2 dx

= 81 sin cos d

= 81 (cos cos ) d

81

= 81 cos d

cos sin

4

3 81

cos d

4

81

81

= (1 + cos 2 ) d cos sin

8

4

14.

1

3

cos3 sin +

cos 2 d

4

4

1

3

cos3 sin +

(1 + cos 2 ) d

4

8

1

3

3

cos3 sin + + sin 2 + C

4

8

16

1

3

3

cos3 sin + + sin cos + C

4

8

8

1

3

3

x (1 x 2 )3/2 + sin 1 x + x 1 x 2 + C

4

8

8

(x

81) 3/2 dx

u

9

x

= sec . x = 9 sec , dx = 9 sec tan d ,

9

1

x 2 81 = 9 tan , = sec 1 x

9

Let

81

81

81

+ sin 2 cos3 sin + C

8

16

4

81

81

81

= + sin cos cos3 sin + C

8

8

4

81

81

= + sin cos (1 2 cos 2 ) + C

8

8

81 1 x

= sin

8

3

81 x

9 x 2 2( 9 x 2 )

1

+C

8 3

3

9

81 1 x 1

= sin

x ( 2 x 2 9) 9 x 2 + C

8

3 8

=

228

x 2 81

1 x2

9 x dx

) dx

2 3/2

x2 9

+

(1 x

1 sec d

=

81 tan

( x 2 81) 3/ 2 dx

3

1

cot csc d

81

1

= csc + C

81

x

=

+C

81 x 2 81

=

2005 Key Curriculum Press

15.

81 + x

dx

b.

81 +

x

u

9

18. a.

x

Let = tan . x = 9 tan , dx = 9 sec 2 d ,

9

x

81 + x 2 = 9 sec , = tan 1

9

16.

81 + x =

x

1

tan 1 + C

9

9

dx

25 x 2 + 1

dx

x

= sec . x = 7 sec ,

7

dx = 7 sec tan d,

x

7

7 sec (7 sec tan d )

7 tan

x 2 49 = 7 tan , = sec 1

x dx

x 2 49

b.

5x

1

1

= tan . x = tan , dx = sec 2 d ,

1

5

5

19.

25 x 2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1 5 x

sec d

2

5 sec

+1

1

1

= tan 5 x + C

5

x dx

17. a.

x 2 + 25

= 7 sec 2 d = 7 tan + C = x 2 49 + C

u

7

Let

x 2 49

dx

x 2 49

9 sec 2 d 1

1

=

d = + C

81 sec 2

9

9

5x

25x

1

( x 2 + 25) 1/2 (2 x dx )

2

25x 2 + 1

Let

x + 25

2

Moral: Always check for an easy way to

integrate before trying a more sophisticated

technique!

x dx

x2

x dx

x 49

1

( x 2 49) 1/2 (2 x dx )

2

dx

1

1

d = + C

5

5

x dx

9 ( x 5)2

v

x5

9 (x

u

5)2

x5

= sin . x = 5 + 3 sin , dx = 3 cos d ,

3

x5

9 ( x 5)2 = 3 cos , = sin 1

3

dx

3 cos d

=

3 cos

9 ( x 5)2

x5

= d = + C = sin 1

+C

3

dx

Let

x 2 + 25

x

u

5

x

= tan . x = 5 tan , dx = 5 sec 2 d ,

5

1

x 2 + 25 = 5 sec , = tan 1 x

5

x dx

5 tan (5 sec 2 d )

=

5 sec

x 2 + 25

Let

= x + 25 + C

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

20.

36 ( x + 2)2

v

x+2

36 (x +

u

2)2

229

x+2

= sin . x = 6 sin 2, dx = 6 cos d ,

6

x+2

36 ( x + 2)2 = 6 cos , = sin 1

6

dx

6 cos d

=

6 cos

36 ( x + 2)2

Let

dx

x + 8 x 20

2

10

( x + 4)2 36

x

= sin . x = 10 sin , dx = 10 cos d ,

10

x

100 x 2 = 10 cos , = sin 1

10

Let

u

6

x+4

= sec . x = 6 sec 4,

6

dx = 6 sec tan d,

Let

sin 1 0.8

100 x 2 dx

sin 1 (0.3)

= 50

x 2 + 8 x 20

+ C1

6

10 cos 10 cos d

sin 1 0.8

sin 1 (0.3)

sin 1 0.8

sin 1 (0.3)

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 d )

= 50 + 25 sin 2

sin 1 0.8

sin 1 (0.3)

50 sin 1 (0.3) 25 sin [2 sin 1 (0.3)]

= 99.9084

Numerical integration: 99.9084 (Checks.)

= ln | sec + tan | + C 1

x+4

+

6

= 100

x 2 + 8 x 20 = ( x + 4)2 36 = 6 tan ,

x+4

= sec 1

6

dx

6 sec tan d

=

2

6 tan

x + 8 x 20

= sec d

100 x 2

(x + 4) 2 36

x+4

= ln

100 x 2 dx

x+2

+C

6

dx

= d = + C = sin 1

21.

23.

24.

x 2 + 25 dx

= ln x + 4 + x 2 + 8 x 20 ln 6 + C1

= ln x + 4 + x + 8 x 20 + C

2

x 2 + 25

x

22.

dx

x 2 14 x + 50

dx

( x 7)2 + 1

u

5

(x 7) 2 + 1

x

= tan . x = 5 tan , dx = 5 sec 2 d ,

5

Let

x7

x7

Let

= tan . x = 7 + tan , dx = sec 2 d ,

1

x 2 14 x + 50 = ( x 7) 2 + 1 = sec ,

= tan 1 (x 7)

dx

sec 2 d

=

= sec d

sec

x 2 14 x + 50

= ln | sec + tan | + C

= ln

230

tan 1 0.8

tan 1 (0.2 )

= 25

=

x 2 + 25 dx

5 sec 5 sec 2 d

tan 1 0.8

tan 1 (0.2 )

sec 3 d

25

25

sec tan + ln |sec + tan |

2

2

tan 1 0.8

tan 1 ( 0.2 )

x 14 x + 50 + x 7 + C

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25

sec ( tan 1 0.8) 0.8

2

25

+ ln |sec ( tan 1 0.8) + 0.8 |

2

25

sec [tan 1 ( 0.2)] ( 0.2)

2

25

ln | sec [tan 1 ( 0.2)] 0.2 |

2

= 26.9977

Numerical integration: 26.9977 (Checks.)

25. y = 3x 2

dL = 1 + ( y )2 dx = 1 + 36 x 2 dx

L=

1 + 36 x 2 dx

1 + 36x2

6x

u

1

6x

1

1

= tan . x = tan , dx = sec 2 d ,

1

6

6

2

1

1 + 36 x = sec , = tan 6 x

x =5

1

L =

sec sec 2 d

x =0

6

1 x =5 3

=

sec d

6 x =0

x =5

1

1

= sec tan + ln |sec + tan |

12

12

x =0

5

1

1

= x 1 + 36 x 2 + ln 1 + 36 x 2 + 6 x

2

12

0

5

1

=

901 + ln 901 + 30 = 75.3828K

2

12

Numerical integration: L = 75.3828 (Checks.)

3

26. a. 9 x 2 + 25 y 2 = 225 y =

25 x 2

5

Slice the region vertically. Pick a sample

point (x, y) on the positive branch of the

graph, within the strip.

6

dA = 2 y dx =

25 x 2 dx

5

6 4

A=

25 x 2 dx

5 3

Let

A=

= 15 +

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 ) d

15

sin 2

2

x =4

x =3

A = 30

/2

/2

cos 2 d

/2

15

sin 2

2

/2

15 15

15 15

=

+ sin +

sin ( )

2

2

2

2

= 15 = 47.1238

The area is (x-radius)(y-radius).

= 15 +

27. x 2 + y 2 = r 2 y = r 2 x 2 , x = 0 at y = r

Slice the region inside the circle perpendicular to

the x-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on the

positive branch of the circle, within the strip.

dA = 2 y dx = 2 r 2 x 2 dx

A=2

r 2 x 2 dx

r 2 x 2

x

= sin . x = r sin , dx = r cos d,

r

x

r 2 x 2 = r cos , = sin 1

r

x = r = /2, x = r = /2

Let

x

u

25 x2

x

= sin . x = 5 sin , dx = 5 cos d ,

5

x

25 x 2 = 5 cos , = sin 1

5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

5 cos 5 cos d

= 15 + 15 sin cos xx == 43

x =4

x 3

= 15 sin 1 + x 25 x 2

x =3

5 5

3

1

= 15 sin 0.8 + ( 4) 9

5

3

1

15 sin ( 0.6) (3) 16

5

= 15[sin 1 0.8 sin 1 ( 0.6)] + 14.4

15

=

+ 14.4 = 37.9619

2

Numerical integration: A = 37.9619

(Checks.)

6 5

b. A =

25 x 2 dx

5 5

x = 5 = /2, x = 5 = /2

Let

x = 3

x =4

x = 3

6

5

x = 3

x =4

x =4

= 30

= 15

A = 2

= 2r

/2

r cos r cos d

/2

/2

2

/2

cos 2 d

231

= r2

/2

/2

(1 + cos 2 ) d

/2

1 2

r sin 2

2

/2

= r 2 + r 2 sin + r 2

2 2

2

1 2

2

r sin ( ) = r

2

A = r 2, Q .E .D .

= r 2 +

30. x 2 y 2 = 9 y = x 2 9

Slice the region perpendicular to the x-axis. Pick

a sample point (x, y) on the positive branch of

the hyperbola, within the strip.

dA = 2 y dx = 2 x 2 9 dx

A=2

x

y

b 2

28. + = 1 y =

a x2

a

b

a

Slice the region inside the ellipse perpendicular

to the x-axis. Pick sample point (x, y) on the

positive branch of the ellipse, within the strip.

2b 2

dA = 2 y dx =

a x 2 dx

a

2b a

A=

a 2 x 2 dx

a a

a 2 x 2

= ab

/2

/2

/2

/2

cos 2 d

(1 + cos 2 ) d

/2

ab

sin 2

2

/2

ab ab

ab ab

=

+

sin ( ) = ab

sin +

2

2

2

2

A = ab

= ab +

a circle.

29. dV = x 2 dy =

V =

a2

b2

x 2 9 dx

x 2 9

u

3

x

= sec . x = 3 sec , dx = 3 sec tan d,

3

x

x 2 9 = 3 tan , = sec 1

3

Let

x =5

= 18

= 18

x =3

x =5

x =3

x

Let = sin . x = a sin , dx = a cos d,

a

x

2

a x 2 = a cos , = sin 1

a

x = a = /2, x = a = /2

2 b /2

A =

a cos a cos d

a /2

= 2 ab

A=2

a2 2

(b y 2 ) dy, b y b

b2

(b 2 y 2 ) dy

a2

y3

= 2 b2 y

3

b

4 2

V = a b

3

232

interchanging the a and b, giving V = 43 ab 2 .

=

b

4 2

a b

3

x =5

x =3

tan 2 sec d

(sec 3 sec ) d

x =5

18 ln | sec + tan | x =3

= 9 sec tan 9 ln | sec + tan |

=x

x 2 9 9 ln

1

1 2

x+

x 9

3

3

x =5

x =3

5

3

= 20 9 ln 3 = 10.1124

Numerical integration: A = 10.1124 (Checks.)

31. dV = 2x (2 y) dx = 4x x 2 9 dx

= 2

V = 4

x 2 9 x dx

x 2 9 (2 x dx )

5

2

= 2 ( x 2 9)3/2

3

3

4

256

= 64 =

= 268.0825

3

3

32. From Problems 30 and 31, A = 20 9 ln 3,

256

V=

.

3

128

V = 2 x A x =

= 4.2192 K

3(20 9 ln 3)

x is a little more than halfway through the

region.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y = b sin t

dA = 2y dx = 2(b sin t)(a sin t dt)

= 2ab sin2 t dt

x = a t = , x = a t = 0

A = 2 ab

sin 2 t dt = ab

Q7.

Q8.

Q9.

Q10.

(1 cos 2t ) dt

1.

ab

= abt +

sin 2t = 0 + 0 + ab( ) 0 = ab

2

With this method, you get sin 2 t dt, directly.

2.

you get cos 2 t dt, indirectly.

dL = r 2 + ( dr/d )2 d = 0.25 2 + 0.25 d

3.

4.

= 0.5 2 + 1 d

L = 0.5

2 + 1 d

5.

2 + 1

6.

u

1

2 + 1 = sec , = tan 1

= 0.5

L = 0.5

=6

=0

=6

=0

7.

sec 3 d

8.

=6

=0

= 0.25 2 + 1 + 0.25 ln

2 +1 +

= 1.5 36 + 1 + 0.25 ln

36 + 1 + 6

2

integration.

35. See the note preceding the solutions for this

section. For the sine and tangent substitution,

the range of the inverse sine and inverse tangent

make the corresponding radical positive. For the

secant substitution, the situation is more

complicated but still gives an answer of the same

algebraic form as if x had been only positive.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

9.

9 x 2 25 x 50

dx

( x + 1)( x 7)( x + 2)

2

3

4

=

+

+

dx

x +1 x 7 x + 2

= 2 ln |x + 1| + 3 ln |x 7| + 4 ln |x + 2| + C

Q2. x 2 + 2x 15

Q4. x 2 + 14x + 49

Q6. x 2 64

7 x 2 + 22 x 54

dx

( x 2)( x + 4)( x 1)

3

1

5

=

+

+

dx

x 2 x + 4 x 1

= 3 ln |x 2| ln |x + 4| + 5 ln |x 1| + C

4 x 2 + 15 x 1

dx

x 3 + 2 x 2 5x 6

1

2

3

=

+

+

dx

x + 3 x +1 x 2

= ln |x + 3| + 2 ln |x + 1| + 3 ln |x 2| + C

10.

3 x 2 + 22 x 31

x 8x + 19 x 12 dx

2

4

3

=

+

+

dx

x 1 x 3 x 4

3

= 2 ln |x 1| 4 ln |x 3| + 3 ln |x 4| + C

11.

Q1. (x + 5)(x 5)

Q3. (x + 2)(x 6)

Q5. (x + 4)2

6

0

sec sec 2 d

+ tan |

ex

b2 4ac = 1500, so x2 + 50x + 1000 is prime.

b2 4ac = 144, so x2 + 36 is prime.

B

11x 15

4

7

+

dx =

dx

x 1 x 2

x 2 3x + 2

= 4 ln |x 1| + 7 ln |x 2| + C

7 x + 25

2

9

dx =

+

dx

x + 1 x 8

x 2 7x 8

= 2 ln |x + 1| + 9 ln |x 8| + C

(5 x 11) dx

7/2

3/2

=

+

dx

x + 2 x 4

x2 2x 8

7

3

= ln | x + 2 | + ln | x 4 | + C

2

2

(3 x 12) dx

9/5

6/5

=

+

dx

2

x 5 x 50

x+5

x 10

9

6

= ln | x + 5 | + ln | x 10 | + C

5

5

21 dx

7

7

=

+

dx

x + 5 x + 2

x 2 + 7 x + 10

= 7 ln |x + 5| + 7 ln |x + 2| + C

10 x dx

2

8

=

+

dx

x + 3 x 12

x 2 9 x 36

= 2 ln |x + 3| + 8 ln |x 12| + C

3 x 3 + 2 x 2 12 x + 9

dx

x 1

2

= 3x 2 + 5x 7 +

dx

x 1

5

= x 3 + x 2 7 x + 2 ln | x 1 | + C

2

233

12.

13.

x 3 7 x 2 + 5 x + 40

dx

x2 2x 8

3x

dx

= x 5+ 2

x 2x 8

1

2

= x 5+

+

dx

x + 2 x 4

1

= x 2 5 x + ln | x + 2 | + 2 ln | x 4 | + C

2

y + 1000 y dy = 2 dt

4 x + 6 x + 11

dx

2

+ 1)( x + 4)

x+2

3

= 2

+

dx

x +1 x + 4

1 2 x dx

dx

3 dx

=

+2 2

+

2 x2 +1

x +1

x+4

1

= ln | x 2 + 1| + 2 tan 1 x + 3 ln | x + 4 | + C

2

2

(x

4 x 2 15 x 1

dx

x 3 5x 2 + 3x + 1

3

x2

=

+

dx

x 1 x 2 4 x 1

1

= 3 ln | x 1| + ln | x 2 4 x 1| + C

2

Note that

x2

1/2

1/2

=

+

,

x2 4x 1 x 2 + 5 x 2 5

1

1

but ln x 2 + 5 + ln x 2 5

2

2

1

2

= ln | x 4 x 1|, so the answer comes out

2

the same.

15.

4 x 2 + 18 x + 6

( x + 5)( x + 1)

dx

1

3

2

=

+

+

2 dx

x + 5 x + 1 ( x + 1)

= ln |x + 5| + 3 ln |x + 1| + 2(x + 1) 1 + C

16.

3 x 2 53 x + 245

dx

x 3 14 x 2 + 49 x

5

2

3

= +

+

2 dx

x x 7 ( x 7)

= 5 ln |x| 2 ln |x 7| 3(x 7) 1 + C

dx

dx

=

6 x + 12 x 8

( x 2)3

1

= ( x 2) 2 + C

2

1

dx

18.

dx =

( x + 1) 4

x 4 + 4x3 + 6x2 + 4x + 1

1

= ( x + 1) 3 + C

3

17.

234

dy

1000 y

1000 dy

= 2y

= 2 dt

dt

1000

y(1000 y)

1000 dy

= 2 dt

y(1000 y)

14.

19. a.

ln |y| ln |1000 y| = 2t + C

ln

y

= 2t + C

1000 y

y

= e 2 t + C (Note that 0 y < 1000.)

1000 y

1000 y

1000

= e 2 t C

1 = e 2 t C

y

y

1000

= 1 + e 2 t C = 1 + ke 2 t ( k = e C )

y

1000

y=

1 + ke 2 t

Initial condition y = 10 when t = 0 k = 99.

1000

y=

1 + 99e 2 t

1000

b. y(1) =

= 69.4531 69 students

1 + 99e 2

have heard the rumor after one hour.

1000

y( 4 ) =

= 967.8567 968

1 + 99e 8

students have heard by lunchtime.

1000

y(8) =

= 999.9888 1000

1 + 99e 16

studentseveryone knows by the end of

the day!

c. It is quicker to analyze the original differential

equation, which already refers to the derivative,

than to analyze the equation found in part a.

1000 y

Maximize y = 2 y

1000

1

2

=

(1000 y y ).

500

1

y =

(1000 y 2 yy) = 0 when y = 500.

500

This is the maximum point because y > 0

for y < 500 and y < 0 for y > 500 (and

y > 0 for all t).

So the rate of spreading (y) is greatest when

500 students have heard the news. This occurs

when

1000

500 =

1 + 99e 2 t

99e 2 t + 1 = 2

1

e 2 t =

99

1

t = ln 99 = 2.2975 hr

2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

y

1000

uninfected person have about the same chance

of meeting any other infected person (i.e.,

infected people are not quarantined). An

infected person can meet N P uninfected

people out of the total population, so the

chance of meeting an uninfected person will be

(N 1)/N, so of an average infected persons

three contacts per day, 3(N 1)/N of them

will be with uninfected persons. (Actually

(N P)/(N 1) because the total population

that someone can meet is N 1people dont

meet themselves outside the Twilight Zone

but (N P)/N is reasonably close enough for

now.) So there are P infected people, each

meeting an average of 3(N P)/N uninfected

people per day, for a grand total of 3P(N P)/N

contacts between infected and uninfected

people per day.

b. If 10% of the contacts with infected people

per day result in infection, then the number

of new infections per day should be 0.1 times

the number of contacts between infected and

uninfected people, that is,

dP

3 P( N P )

NP

= 0.1

= 0.3P

.

dt

N

N

dP

NP

N dP

c.

= 0.3P

= 0.3 dt

dt

N

P( N P )

N dP

= 0.3 dt

P( N P )

1 + 1 dP = 0.3 dt

P N P

ln |P| ln |N P| = 0.3t + C

P

ln

= 0.3t + C

NP

P

(Note that 0 P < N.)

= e 0.3t +C

NP

N

= 1 + e 0.3t C = 1 + ke 0.3t ( k = e C )

P

N

P( t ) =

1 + ke 0.3t

Initial condition P(0) = P0

N

N

P0 =

k=

1.

P0

1+ k

N

P( t ) =

1 + ( N / P0 1)e 0.3t

2005 Key Curriculum Press

d. N = 1000 and P0 = 10

1000

P( t ) =

1 + 99e 0.3t

1000

P(7) =

= 76.2010 76 people

1 + 99e 2.1

infected after 1 week

e. Solve P(t) = 990.

1000

990 =

1 + 99e 0.3t

100

1 + 99e 0.3t =

99

e0.3 t = 992

2

t=

ln 99 = 30.6341K 31 days

0.3

b

b

25

5

5

21. A =

dx =

+

dx

2

2 x + 3x 4

2 x 1

x + 4

= 5 ln | x 1| 5 ln | x + 4|

b

2

= 5 ln

x 1

x+4

b

2

b 1

1

b 1

= 5 ln

5 ln = 5 ln

+ 5 ln 6

b+4

6

b+4

6

A(7) = 5 ln + 5 ln 6 = 5.9281

11

1

lim A(b) = lim 5 ln + 5 ln 6

b

b

1

(lHospitals rule)

= 5 ln 6 = 8.9587

So the area does approach a finite limit.

50 x

22. dV = 2 x y dx = 2

dx

x + 3x 4

b

b 10

50 x

40

V=

dx =

+

dx

2

2 x + 3x 4

2 x 1

x + 4

= 10 ln | x 1| + 40 ln | x + 4| 2b

= 10 ln |b 1| + 40 ln |b + 4| 40 ln 6

V(7) = 40 ln 11 30 ln 6 = 132.4590

lim V (b) = because both ln terms become

(Note that if the region were rotated about the

x-axis, the limit of the volume would be

35

finite. The answer would be 5 2 ln 6

6

= 35.3400 .

x3

1/2

1/2

23. a.

+

dx =

dx

2

x 6x + 8

x 2 x 4

1

1

= ln | x 2| + ln | x 4| + C

2

2

b. x 2 6x + 8 = (x 3)2 1

x3

(x 3) 2 1

u

1

235

( x 3) 1 = tan , = sec ( x 3)

2

x3

x3

dx

dx =

6x + 8

( x 3)2 1

sec

(sec tan d ) =

tan 2

sec 2

d

tan

= ln | tan | + C

= ln ( x 3)2 1 + C

= ln x 2 6 x + 8 + C

c.

x3

1

dx =

6x + 8

2

2x 6

dx

6x + 8

1

ln | x 2 6 x + 8| + C

2

d. From part a,

1

1

ln | x 2| + ln | x 4| + C

2

2

1

= ln |( x 2)( x 4)| + C

2

1

= ln | x 2 6 x + 8| + C

2

which is the answer in part c. This equals

=

ln | x 2 6 x + 8|1/2 + C = ln x 2 6 x + 8 + C,

which is the answer from part b. So all three

answers are equivalent, Q.E.D.

24. a. When the population is very much smaller

than the maximum, (m p) behaves like a

constant, and dp/dt = k(m p) p is

approximately proportional to p. But when p

is approaching m, then (m p) goes to zero,

so dp/dt = kp(m p) goes to zero.

b. dp/dt = kp(m p) = k(mp p2). So dp/dt is a

quadratic function of p. Thus, the turning

point is at

m

p=

= m/2.

2(1)

If k > 0, the graph of dp/dt versus p opens

downward and the turning point is a

maximum.

So the population grows fastest when

p = m/2.

dp

dp

c.

= kp( m p)

= k dt

dt

p( m p)

p(m p) = k dt

dp

1/m 1/m

+

dp = k dt

p

m p

1

1

ln | p| ln |m p| = kt + C1

m

m

236

p

= kmt + C2

(C 2 = mC 1)

m p

p

(C3 = e C2 )

= e kmt +C2 = C3e kmt

m p

p

> 0.

Note that m > p > 0

m p

m p

m

kmt

kmt

(b = 1/C3 )

= be

1 = be

p

p

m

m

= 1 + be kmt p =

1 + be kmt

p

At time t = 0, p = p 0.

m

p0 =

m = p0 (1 + b)

1+ b

p (1 + b)

p = 0 kmt

1 + be

1+ b

Letting K = km, p = p0

, Q .E .D .

1 + be Kt

e. Let p denote millions of people. Then

p0 = 179.3.

Substitute p(10) = 203.2.

1+ b

203.2 = 179.3

1 + be 10 K

203.2 + 203.2be10K = 179.3 + 179.3b

b(203.2e10K 179.3) = 23.9

23.9

b=

203.2e 10 K 179.3

By substituting p(20) = 226.5 and

transforming,

47.2

b=

.

226.5e 20 K 179.3

Equating the two values of b and solving

numerically for K gives K = 0.0259109 .

23.9

b=

= 1.0630436

203.2e 0.259109... 179.3

2.063036...

p = 179.3

1 + 1.063036...e 0.0259109...

Check that this equation gives a good

approximation for 1990.

2.0630...

p(30) = 179.3

1 + 1.0630... e 300.0259...

= 248.4892 248.5 million people,

which is close to the actual population,

248.7 million.

2.0630...

f. p( 40) = 179.3

1 + 1.0630... e 400.0259...

= 268.6144 268.6 million people, which

is lower than the actual population by about

13 million people.

1+ b

g. k > 0 lim p = lim p0

= p0 (1 + b)

t

t

1 + be kt

= 179.3 (1 + 1.0630)

= 369.9024 369.9 million people

d. ln

2005 Key Curriculum Press

been given by

24.9

47.2

=

204.2e 10 K 179.3 226.5e 20 K 179.3

K = 0.0343965

24.9

b=

0.0343965...

179.3

204.2e

= 0.721075

So the ultimate population would have been

lim p = p0 (1 + b) = 179.3(1 + 0.7210 )

3.

4.

= x tan 1

cot

x dx

1 x2

u

sin 1x

dx

1

x2

x dx

dv

1

x dx

1 x2

1

(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )

2

1

= x sin 1 x + 2(1 x 2 )1/2 + C

2

1

= x sin x + 1 x 2 + C

= x sin 1 x +

5.

dv

1

x

sec

u

sec 1 x

dx

|x| x 2 1

x dx

= x sec 1 x

| x|

dv

1

x

x dx

x2 1

dx

= x sec 1 x sgn x

( x/| x | = sgn x )

x2 1

x +1

1 2 x dx

x

2 x +1

x dx

2

= x tan 1 x

2.

u

tan 1 x

dx

1 + x2

x dx

= x tan 1 x

sin

= x sin 1 x

x = tan or = tan1 x

x = sec or = sec1 x

x = sin or = sin1 x

1 2

Q6.

( x + 1)8 + C

16

Q7. 7 (at f (1)).

Q8. 3 (at f (5)).

Q9. undefined

Q10. B

1

dv

1

1

(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )

2

1

= x cos 1 x 2(1 x 2 )1/2 + C

2

= x cos 1 x 1 x 2 + C (Checks.)

Q1.

Q3.

Q4.

Q5.

tan

u

cos 1 x

dx

1 x 2

x dx

= x cos 1 x

1.

= x cos 1 x +

An increase of 1 million in one of the initial

conditions causes a decrease of over

61 million in the predicted maximum

population! So this model does have a fairly

sensitive dependence on the initial conditions.

cos

1

ln | x 2 + 1| + C (Checks.)

2

x 2 1

u

1

u

cot 1 x

dx

1 + x2

x dx

x +1

1 2 x dx

x+

2 x +1

= x cot 1 x +

= x cot 1

= x cot 1 x +

x dx

2

1

ln | x 2 + 1| + C (Checks.)

2

dv

1

x

x

= sec .

1

dx = sec tan d

x 2 1 = tan

= sec1 x

sec 1 x dx

Let

= x sec 1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sec tan d

tan

x sgn x sec d

= x sec 1 x sgn x

237

x = 0.2

0.2

A

( y1 + 4 y1.2 + 2 y1.4 + 4 y1.6 + L + 4 y2.8 + y3 )

3

= 1.919692K

= x sec1 x sgn x ln x + x 2 1 + C

(Checks.)

Note: This answer can be transformed to

x sec 1 x ln (| x | + x 2 1 ) + C.

6.

csc

x dx

u

x

csc 1

dx

|x| x 2 1

= x csc 1 x +

| x|

x dx

x2 1

dx

= x csc 1 x + sgn x

x2 1

x2 1

csc cot d

cot

= 3 sec 1 3 1 ln (3 + 8 ) sec 11 + 1 ln 1

/2

0

1

ln | x 2 + 1|

1

2

1

1

= 4 tan 1 4 ln 17 tan 11 + ln 2

2

2

1 17

1

= 4 tan 4 ln

= 3.4478K

4 2

2

tan 1 x dx = x tan 1 x

Numerically,

/2

x

1

238

4

1

tan 1 x dx = 3.4478K .

8.

/2

sin y dy

= cos

V = 2

x tan

x tan

x dx

x dx

u

tan 1 x

dx

1 + x2

(Checks.)

Note: This answer can be transformed to

x sec 1 x + ln (| x | + x 2 1 ) + C.

7.

= 1.930131 .

The Simpsons rule answer differs from this

by 0.0104 , or about 0.5%.

9. By vertical slices,

1

A = sin 1 x dx

0 2

1

= x x sin 1 x 1 x 2

2

0

1

= sin 1 0 0 + 0 + 1 = 1

2

= x csc x + sgn x ln x + x 1 + C

1

= x sec 1 x sgn x ln ( x + x 2 1 )

2

same answer as by vertical slices.

10. By cylindrical shells, dV = 2 x tan 1 x dx.

x sgn x csc d

= x csc 1 x sgn x

x dx

dv

1

= cos y

csc 1 x dx

= x csc 1

By horizontal slices, A =

x 2 1 = cot , = csc 1 x

sec

A=

dv

x

1 2

2x

x2

1 2

1

x tan 1 x

dx

2

2 1+ x2

1

1

1

= x 2 tan 1 x

dx

1

2

2 1+ x2

1

1

1

= x 2 tan 1 x x + tan 1 x + C

2

2

2

1

2

1

V = x tan x x + tan 1 x 0

=

= tan 1 1 + tan 1 1 0 + 0 0

= 2 tan 1 1 = 2

4

1 2

= = 1.7932 K

2

Compare this with a cylinder ( r2h) minus a

cone ( r2h/3), both of radius 1 and altitude / 4,

which has volume 2 ( / 4)/3 = 2/6 = 1.6449 ;

the volume is slightly less than V, which is

expected because the cylinder minus the cone is

generated by rotating a line that lies below the

graph.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

7.

x

5

1

Q3.

tan 3 x + C

3

Q5. ln |x| + C

Q7. False

Q2. xex ex + C

Q4. 2x1/ 2 + C

Q6. reduction formula

Q8.

8.

9.

10.

dx 2 + dy 2 or dr 2 + (rd )2

Q9. (1 x2)1/ 2

1.

Q10. C

11.

12.

cosh

1

d

(csch x sin x )

dx

= csch x coth x sin x + csch x cos x

d

(tan x tanh x ) = sec 2 x tanh x + tan x sech2 x

dx

1

sech 2 4 x dx = tanh 4 x + C

4

1

sech 7 x tanh 7 x dx = sech 7 x + C

7

d 3

2

( x coth x ) = 3 x coth x x 3 csch 2 x

dx

d 2.5

( x csch 4 x )

dx

= 2.5x1.5 csch 4x 4x2.5 csch 4x coth 4x

tanh

13.

sinh

14.

sech 1

x

1

csch

2.

y

cosh1

3

1

coth

tanh x dx = ln (cosh x )

coth1

x

1

tanh

sinh x dx = cosh x

4

4

=0

d sinh 5 x

15.

dx ln 3 x

5 cosh 5 x ln 3 x x 1 sinh 5 x

=

(ln 3 x )2

d cosh 6 x

16.

dx cos 3 x

6 sinh 6 x cos 3 x + 3 cosh 6 x sin 3 x

=

cos 2 3 x

sinh

17.

y

1

sech

1

x sinh x dx

u

x

1

0

csch1

1

1

dv

sinh x

cosh x

sinh x

= x cosh x sinh x + C

d

tanh 3 x = 3 tanh 2 x sec h 2 x

dx

d

4.

5 sec h 3 x = 15 sec h 3 x tanh 3 x

dx

1

5. cosh 5 x sinh x dx = cosh 6 x + C

6

1

3

6. (sinh x ) cosh x dx = (sinh x ) 2 + C

2

1

2

= csch x + C

2

Or: (sinh x ) 3 cosh x dx = csch 2 x coth x dx

1

1

= coth 2 x + C1 = (csch 2 x + 1) + C1

2

2

1

2

= csch x + C

2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= x cosh x sinh x

3.

x sinh x dx

=e

18.

1

0

= cosh 1 sinh 1

= 0.36787

u

x2

2x

2

0

cosh x dx

dv

cosh x

sinh x

cosh x

sinh x

x 2 cosh x dx

b

a

239

a2 sinh a + 2a cosh a 2 sinh a

12

d

19.

(3 sinh 1 4 x ) =

dx

16 x 2 + 1

tanh

=

22.

25 sinh

4

4

x cosh 1 6 x [(6 x )2 1]1/2 + C

6

6

2

2

1

= x cosh 6 x

36 x 2 1 + C

3

3

23. Let x = 3 sinh t, dx = 3 cosh t dt,

x 2 + 9 = 9 sinh 2 t + 9 = 3 cosh t,

x

t = sinh 1 .

3

x 2 + 9 dx = 3 cosh t 3 cosh t dt

=

= 9 cosh 2 t dt

u

cosh t

sinh t

dv

cosh t

sinh t

= 9 cosh t sinh t 9 cosh t + 9 dt

18 cosh t dt = 9 cosh t sinh t + 9t + C

9 cosh t dt = 4.5 cosh t sinh t + 4.5t + C

= 1 + ( y)2 dx

w

w

d ( y) = ds =

1 + ( y)2 dx

h

h

d.

u

sinh t

cosh t

2

t + 1) dt

1/2

w

x+C

h

At x = 0, y = 0, so

w

sinh 1 0 = 0 + C C = 0.

h

w

w

sinh 1 y = x y = sinh x

h

h

dy

w

w

= sinh x dy = sinh x dx

dx

h

h

h

w

y = cosh x + C

w

h

1

y = 2 when x = 0 2 = k cosh 0 + C

k

2=k+CC=2k

4

y = 5 when x = 4 5 = k cosh + 2 k

k

Using the solver feature of your grapher,

k 3.0668 .

sinh 1 y =

e.

f.

1/2

= 25 sinh 2 t dt

2 1/2

x2 + 9 x

x

= 4.5

+ 4.5 sinh 1 + C

3

3

3

x

= 0.5 x x 2 + 9 + 4.5 sinh 1 + C

3

24. Let x = 5 cosh t, dx = 5 sinh t dt,

x 2 25 = 25 cosh 2 t 25 = 5 sinh t,

x

t = cosh 1 .

5

x 2 25 dx = 5 sinh t 5 sinh t dt

[1 + ( y) ] d( y)

= (1 + sinh t ) d (sinh t )

= (cosh t ) (cosh t dt )

= dt = t + C = sinh y + C

w

w

h dx = h x + C

2

c. ds = dx 2 + dy 2 = dx 2 [1 + ( dy/dx )2 ]

240

x 2 25 x

x

12.5 cosh 1

5

5

5

x

= 0.5 x x 2 25 12.5 cosh 1 + C

5

25. a. Figure 9-9g shows that the horizontal force

is given by the vector (h, 0) and the vertical

force is the vector (0, v), so their sum, the

tension vector, is the vector (h, v), which has

v

slope . Because the tension vector points

h

along the graph, the graphs slope, y , also

v

equals .

h

b. v = weight of chain below (x, y) = s w

v sw w

y = =

= s

h

h

h

1

1

x tanh 1 5 x + ln |1 (5 x )2 | + C

5

10

4 cosh 1 6 x dx

= 12.5

5x dx

15 x 2

d

20.

(5 tanh 1 x 3 ) =

1 x6

dx

21.

g.

dv

sinh t

cosh t

26. a.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

x + 2 3.0668

3.0668

1

y = 3.0668 cosh

x 1.0668

3.0668

y (20) = 1040.9739

y = 4:

1

4 = 3.0668 cosh

x 1.0668

3.0668

1

5.0668K

cosh

x=

3.0668K

3.0668K

1 5.0668

x = 3.0668 cosh

= 3.3355

3.0668

By symmetry, x = 3.3355 .

The answer can be found numerically using

the solver feature of your grapher.

1

y = sinh x; y(3) = 1.1418

k

3

1

A = k cosh x + 2 k dx

1

k

y = 3.0668 cosh

b.

c.

d.

e.

= k 2 sinh

1

x + (2 k ) x

k

3

1

3

1

= (3.0668)2 sinh

sinh

3.0668

3.0668

+ 4(2 3.0668)

= 9.5937

f.

L=

1

3

1 + ( y)2 dx

1 + sinh 2 ( x/k ) dx

cosh

1

1

x dx = k sinh x

k

k

3

1

3

1

= k sinh + sinh = 4.5196

k

k

27. a. The vertex is midway between the poles,

so y = 110 ft when x = 150 ft.

h

w

y = cosh x + C

w

h

400 lb

0.8

=

cosh

x+C

0.8 lb / ft

400

1

110 = 500 cosh

150 + C

500

1

y = 500 cosh

x + 110 500 cosh 0.3

500

The cable comes closest to the ground at

x = 0.

y (0) = 500 cosh 0 + 110 500 cosh 0.3

= 610 500 cosh 0.3 = 87.3307 87.3 ft

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b. y = sinh

L=

150

150

150

1

x

500

1 + sinh 2 ( x/500) dx

1

x dx

500

150

1

= 500 sinh

x

500 150

= 500 sinh 0.3 500 sinh (0.3)

= 1000 sinh 0.3 = 304.5202 304.5 ft

A faster method is:

Half weight of cable = vertical tension at

(150, 110) = h y (150) (Compare

Problem 25.)

1

Weight = 2 400 sinh

150 = 800 sinh 0.3

500

= 243.6162 243.6 lb

(Note: Because w L = weight, either of these

methods could give both the weight and the

length.)

150

cosh

at the ends, so the maximum tension is at

x = 150 ft.

T (150) = h 2 + [hy(150)]2

= 400 1 + sinh 2 0.3 = 400 cosh 0.3

= 418.1354 418.1 lb

h

w

d. The general equation is y = cosh x + C.

w

h

If y (0) = 100 and y (150) = 110, find h such

that y (150) y (0) = 10. Solve:

h

w

h

cosh 150 = 10, or

w

h

w

120

8

cosh

1 =

h

h

By grapher, h = 901.3301... 901.3 lb.

28. The answers will depend on the dimensions

of the chain used. Note that the answer is

independent of the kind of chain. You might

show students how a heavy chain and a light

chain of equal length will hang in the same

catenary if they are suspended from the same

points.

Assume that the dimensions are the same as in

Example 5.

a. Vertex: (0, 20). Supports: (90, 120).

1

x 31.78K

b. y = 51.78 cosh

51.78K

c. Note: To conserve class time, you might have

students plot only each 20 cm for x, as shown

here for Example 5. Use the TABLE feature.

241

0

20

40

60

80

20.0

23.9

36.2

58.8

95.1

dV = x 2 dy = (sinh1 y)2 dy

Top of bowl is at

1

y = sinh 1

= 1.133534K .

24

V =

are vertical is to hold a book against the board

with its bottom edge along the chalk tray.

Then hold the meterstick against the vertical

edge of the book. It is crucial that the points

be plotted accurately to get the dramatic

impact of perfect fit.

e. For a quadratic function with vertex on the

y-axis, y = ax2 + c. Using the data for

Example 5,

20 = a(0) + c c = 20

1

120 = a(90 2 ) + 20 a =

81

1 2

y=

x + 20

81

y

1.133K

1.253 ft3

1

x+C

k

Inner catenary: yinner(0) = 612, yinner(260) = 0

0

612 = ki cosh + Ci Ci = 612 + ki

ki

260

0 = ki cosh

+ 612 + ki

ki

ki = 97.1522 (numerically)

1

yinner = 97.1522 cosh

x + 1 + 612

97.1522 K

Outer catenary: youter (0) = 630, youter (315) = 0

0

630 = ko cosh

+ C o C o = 630 + k o

ko

30. a. y = k cosh

315

+ 630 + k o

ko

ko = 127.7114 (numerically)

1

youter = 127.7114 K cosh

x + 1 + 630

127.7114 K

0 = ko cosh

parabola

catenary

10

x

20

f. For Example 5,

dL = 1 + ( y)2 dx = 1 + sinh 2

1

x dx

51.78K

1

x dx

51.78K

90

1

L=

cosh

x dx

90

51.78K

90

1

= 51.78Ksinh

x

= 285.349K

51.78K 90

285.3 cm

The actual length should be close to this.

29. a. y = sinh x

100

= cosh

dS = 2 x dL = 2 x 1 + cosh 2 x dx

S = 2

x

0

1 + cosh 2 x dx

5.07 ft2

b. Cost = 2(57)(5.07327) = 578.3532

$578.35

242

(sinh 1 y)2 dy

x

100

c. A =

=

315

315

ko2

+

youter dx

260

260

yinner dx

x

sinh + ko x + 630 x

ko

ki2

x

sinh ki x 612 x

ki

315

315

260

260

dyouter

1

d.

= sinh x, so

dx

ko

L=

=

315

315

1 + sinh 2

315

315

cosh

1

x dx

ko

1

1

x dx = ko sinh x

ko

ko

315

315

2005 Key Curriculum Press

315

127.7114 K

= 1493.7422 1494 ft.

315

315

e. youter

= sinh

( 315) = sinh

127.7144K

ko

to hyperbolic form, as shown here.)

1 3x 1 x

1

1

e + e + C = e x e 2 x + e 2 x + C

6

6

2

2

= 2 127.7114 K sinh

f. Jos can fly through at altitude yinner(x) if

x 50 + 120/2 = 110.

yinner(110) = 542.7829 , so the plane can

fly through at heights between 0 and 542 feet.

(Because of the curvature of the arch and the

vertical thickness of the plane, the closest

distance is slightly less than 50 feet when the

horizontal distance is 50 feet. The plane can

fly through at slightly higher altitudes by

banking slightly.)

31. a. H(x) = csch x H(x) = csch x coth x

H(1) = csch 1 coth 1 = 1.1172855

csch (1.01) csch (0.99)

b. H(1)

0.02

= 1.11738505 . The answers differ by

0.0000995 , which is about 0.0089% of

the actual answer.

32.

sech x dx = 0.435990K

1

(Checks.)

33. By parts:

x

u

sinh 2x

2 cosh 2x

4 sinh 2x

u

ex

ex

ex

sinh x dx

3 e sinh 2 x dx

x

x

2

1

= e x cosh 2 x e x sinh 2 x + C

3

3

By transforming to exponential form:

1 x 2 x 2 x

e x sinh 2 x dx =

e (e e ) dx

2

1

1

1

=

(e 3 x e x ) dx = e 3 x + e x + C

2

6

2

Transforming to exponential form is easier!

(Note that the two answers can be shown to be

equivalent either by transforming the first to

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv

sinh x

cosh x

sinh x

x

coefficient, so when it was added again to the left

side, it exactly canceled out the desired integral.

Use the exponential form of sinh x.

1 x x

e x sinh x dx =

e (e e x ) dx

2

1

=

(e 2 x 1) dx

2

1

1

= e2 x x + C

4

2

2

35. a. cosh x sinh2 x

ex + e x ex e x

=

2

2

dv

ex

ex

ex

sinh 2 x dx

34.

= 0.435990

2 x e 2 x + e 2 x 1 x e 2 x e 2 x

e

e

+C

3

2

3

2

2

1

= e x cosh 2 x e x sinh 2 x + C

3

3

2

1

Numerically,

1

1

1

1

= e x e 2 x + e 2 x e 2 x + e 2 x + C

3

3

6

6

e 2 x + 2 + e 2 x e 2 x 2 + e 2 x

=1

4

4

cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1, Q .E.D .

=

b.

1

1

(cosh 2 x sinh 2 x ) =

cosh 2 x

cosh 2 x

1 tanh2 x = sech2 x

1

1

c.

(cosh 2 x sinh 2 x ) =

sinh 2 x

sinh 2 x

coth2 x 1 = csch2 x

36. a. Substitute 2x for x in the definition of sinh x.

1

b. sinh 2 x = (e 2 x e 2 x )

2

1

1

= 2 (e x e x ) (e x + e x )

2

2

= 2 sinh x cosh x

243

1 2x

(e + e 2 x )

2

1

+ 1 + e 2 x ) + ( e 2 x 1 + e 2 x )

4

c. cosh 2 x =

=

1 2x

(e

4

d. Slice as in part b.

Let l = sinh 2 t dt

u

sinh t

cosh t

2

1

1

= (e x + e x ) + (e x e x )

2

2

2

= cosh x + sinh2 x

d. cosh2 x sinh2 x = 1 cosh2 x = 1 + sinh2 x

cosh 2x = cosh2 x + sinh2 x

= (1 + sinh2 x) + sinh2 x = 1 + 2 sinh2 x

e. 1 + 2 sinh2 x = cosh 2x

2 sinh2 x = cosh 2x 1

1

sinh 2 x = (cosh 2 x 1)

2

37. a. On the circle, u2 + v2 = 1

2u du + 2v dv = 0 dv = (u/v) du.

dL = du 2 + dv 2 = du 2 + (u/v)2 du 2

=

L=

1

1

u2 + v2

du = du =

du

2

v

v

1 u2

1

du

cos 2

1 u2

= cos 1 u

1

cos 2

= cos 1 1 + 2 = 2

u = cosh 2 has length greater than the line

segment along the horizontal axis from (1, 0)

to (cosh 2, 0). This segment has length

L = cosh 2 1 = 2.762 . So the length of

the curve is greater than 2, Q.E.D.

b. The area of the triangle that circumscribes the

sector is 0.5(2 sinh 2 cosh 2) = sinh 2 cosh 2.

The area of the sector is the area of this

triangle minus the area of the region between

the upper and lower branches of the hyperbola

from u = 1 to u = cosh 2.

Slice this region vertically. Pick sample point

(u, v) on the upper branch, within the strip.

Let t be the argument of sinh and cosh at the

sample point. 0 t 2.

dA = 2v du = 2 sinh t d(cosh t) = 2 sinh2 t dt

A=2

sinh

t dt 11.644958K

cosh 2 sinh 2 11.644958 = 2, Q.E.D.

c. By definition of the circular functions,

x is the length of the arc from (1, 0) to

(cos x sin x). So the total arc has length 2x.

The circumference of a unit circle is 2, and

its area is . Thus,

2x

Asector =

= x , Q .E .D .

2

244

dv

sinh t

cosh t

= sinh t cosh t t sinh t dt

= sinh t cosh t cosh 2 t dt

2

sinh

upper and lower branches of the hyperbola is

A=2

sinh

t dt

= sinh x cosh x x

Thus, the area of the sector is

cosh x sinh x (sinh x cosh x x) = x,

Q .E .D .

38. a. y = sinh 1 x sinh y = x cosh y y = 1

1

1

1

, Q. E . D .

y =

=

=

2

2

cosh y

x +1

sinh y + 1

b. y = tanh 1 x tanh y = x sech2 y y = 1

1

1

1

y =

, Q.E.D.

2 =

2 =

sec h y 1 tan h y 1 x 2

c. y = coth 1 x coth y = x

csch2 y y = 1

1

1

1

y =

=

,

2 =

2

csch y (coth y 1) 1 x 2

Q .E .D .

d. y = sech 1 x sech y = x

sech y tanh y y = 1

1

y =

sech y tanh y

1

=

sech y 1 sech 2 y

=

1

x 1 x2

, Q. E . D .

e. y = csch 1 x csch y = x

csch y coth y y = 1

1

1

=

y =

csch y coth y csch y 1 + csch 2 y

=

1

| x| 1 + x 2

, Q .E .D .

2005 Key Curriculum Press

4. a.

Q2. sinh x + C

Q1.

y

x

1

x

1

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

1.

sinh x

sin x + C

y = tan x

y = ex

y

a.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

sin x

y = x3

y = sinh x or x 3 + x

A

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.

1

b.

0

= lim+ ln | x |

a 0

a 0

1

a

= lim+ (0 ln a) =

a 0

5. a.

x

2

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

(x

(1/ x ) dx = lim

2

b 2

1

2

1

Integral converges to .

2

2. a.

) dx

b

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

1/ x 0.2 dx = lim

= lim 1.25 x

b 1

b

0.8

x 0.2 dx

b

6. a.

x

3

1

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

1/ x 4 dx = lim

b 3

b

3

x 4 dx

1

1

1

= lim 3 + =

3

b

81

81

3

1

The integral converges to

.

81

1

= lim x

b 3

3. a.

x

1

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

1/ x 1.2 dx = lim

b 1

= lim 5 x 0.2

b

1

x 1.2 dx

b

7. a.

x

1

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

(1/ x ) dx = lim

b

1

x

1

(1/x ) dx

b 1

= lim ln | x |

= lim (ln b 0) =

b

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

245

b.

1/ x 0.2 dx = lim+

a0

1

a 0

0.2

11. a.

dx

y

1

a 0

= 1.25

The integral converges to 1.25.

8. a.

becomes infinite only as x approaches 0 or 1.

b. To determine whether this converges, split the

integral into two pieces. Each piece must

converge in order for the integral to converge.

The integral can be written

x

1

1/( x ln x ) dx

= 1/( x ln x ) dx + 1/( x ln x ) dx

= lim 1/( x ln x ) dx + lim 1/( x ln x ) dx

0

becomes infinite only as x approaches zero.

1

b.

1/x

1.2

dx = lim+

a0

a 0

1.2

dx

a0

b 1

= lim+ ln | ln x | + lim ln | ln x |

= lim+ (5 + 5a 0.2 ) =

a0

a0

b1

b

c

a 0

b1

=+

For the integral to converge, both limits must

exist. Because neither exists, the integral

diverges.

x

0

9. a.

= lim+ 5 x 0.2

12. a.

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

1/(1 + x 2 ) dx = lim

b 0

= lim tan 1 x

b

b

0

1/(1 + x 2 ) dx

= lim (tan 1 b 0) =

b

10. a.

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b. The indefinite integral can be written

(ln x ) 2 ( dx/ x ) = (ln x ) 1 + C.

b

3

b 3

= lim (ln x ) 1

0

1/[ x(ln x ) ] dx

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

b.

1/(1 + x ) dx = lim

b 0

b

1/(1 + x ) dx

(ln 3) 1 = 0.910239 .

13. a.

y

1

b

x

2

approaches zero as x approaches infinity.

246

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b.

e 0.4 x dx = lim

= lim 2.5e

0.4 x

b 2

b

0.4 x

17. a.

dx

y

1

b

= 1.1233 .

x

0

14. a.

to approach zero as x approaches infinity.

b. Integrate by parts:

xe x dx = e x ( x + 1) + C

y

1

xe x dx = lim

= lim e x ( x + 1)

b

approach zero as x approaches infinity.

b. (Not applicable)

15. a.

b 0

xe x dx

= lim [ e b (b + 1) + 1] = 1

b

Integral converges to 1.

18. a.

y

x

1

undefined for x < 0.

b. (Not applicable)

16. a.

becomes infinite only as x approaches 1.

3

b.

( x 1) dx

= lim ( x 1)

2

b1

dx + lim+

a1

( x 1)

= lim ( x 1) 1 + lim+ ( x 1) 1

b1

a1

1

dx

3

a

1

b1

+ lim+ [2 1 + ( a 1) 1 ]

x

1

a1

=+

For the integral to converge, both limits must

exist. Because neither exists, the integral

diverges.

becomes infinite only as x approaches 3.

7

b.

( x 3) dx

= lim ( x 3)

2/3

19. a.

2/3

b3 1

= lim 3( x 3)

1/3

b3

dx + lim+

a3

b

1

( x 3)

dx

+ lim+ 3( x 3)1/3

a3

2/3

y

1

7

a

x

20

b 3

a3

= 3 21/3 + 3 41/3

The integral converges to 3 21/3 + 3 41/3

= 8.5419 .

2005 Key Curriculum Press

approach zero as x approaches infinity.

b. (Not applicable)

247

24. y = 1/x x = y 1

Slice the vertical cross section horizontally.

dA = x dy = y 1 dy

20. a.

y

1

A = lim

20

a a

y 1 dy = lim ln | y|

a

1

a

= lim ( ln | 1| + ln |a|) =

a

approach zero as x approaches infinity.

b. (Not applicable)

b

21. As b ,

b

a. I

= 1/ x

dx = lim x

dx

0

22.

1.001

1.001

b 1

b

= lim 1000 x

1.001

0.001

= lim (1000 b

0.001

b 1

b

x 0.999 dx

f (2) = lim

23. a. y = 1/x = x 1

dA = y dx = x 1 dx

x dx = (See Problem 3)

b 1

x 2 dx = lim x 1

b

b

1

= lim ( b 1 + ) =

b

V = lim

b 1

2 dx = lim 2 x

b

= lim (2b 2 ) =

b

1

Volume diverges.

d. False. The volume could approach a constant

as in part b or become infinite as in part c.

248

+2

te t dt

2b

2

lim b 2 e b = lim b = lim b = 0.)

b

b e

b e

f (3) = lim

b 0

t 3e t dt

= lim t 3e t

b

b

0

+3

t 2 e t dt

= lim ( b 3e b + 0) + 3(2) = 6

b

lim b 3e b = lim

c. By cylindrical shells, dV = 2 xy dx

= 2 x(x 1) dx = 2 dx.

= lim ( b 2 e b + 0) + 2(1) = 2

b. By plane slices, dV = y2 dx = x 2 dx.

V = lim

+ 0 + 1) = 1

t 2 e t dt

= lim t 2 e t

diverges.

A=

b 0

b

1

lim be b = lim b = lim b = 0. )

b

b e

b e

= (diverges), Q.E.D.

te t dt = lim ( te t e t )

= lim ( be e

b. I1 =

t x e t dt

f (1) = lim

+ 1000)

1/ x 0.999 dx = lim

b 0

25. a. f ( x ) =

I 0.999 =

the area of the cross section, and the crosssectional area diverges. Thus, the bucket has

infinite surface area. The bucket is congruent to

the solid in Problem 23b, which has volume

approaching . Thus, cubic units of paint

would fill the bucket but could not coat the

whole surface!

3b 2

6b

6

b = lim b = lim b = 0.)

b e

b e

e

b. Conjecture:

f ( 4) = 4 f (3) = 24 = 4!

f ( 5) = 5 f (4) = 120 = 5!

f ( 6) = 6 f (5) = 720 = 6!

c. f ( x ) =

t x e t dt

u

tx

xt x1

dv

e t

e t

2005 Key Curriculum Press

= lim t x e t

b

b

0

+x

t x 1e t dt

= lim ( b x e b + 0) + x f ( x 1)

b

= 0 + 0 + x f (x 1)

= x f (x 1), Q .E .D .

( lim ( b x e b ) = 0 can be proved by

b

lHospitals rule.)

d. Part a shows that f (1) = 1 = 1!.

Part c shows that f (n) = nf (n 1) =

n(n 1) f (n 2) = n(n 1)(n 2)(2)(1)

= n!, Q .E .D .

e.

1000

3 t

t e dt 6

3 t

dt

3 b

2 b

= b e 3b e 6be 6e + 6

|b3e b + 3b2e b + 6be b + 6e b| < 0.000001

for b > 23.4050 , say, b 24.

f. 0.5! =

t 0.5e t dt

within 0.000001 of 6 can be found numerically

(though it will be slow), or algebraically:

te

(3)!, which equal (1)!/(1) and (2)!/(2),

are also infinite. However,

(0.5)! = 0.5!/(0.5) = 1.77245

(1.5)! = (0.5)!/(0.5) = 3.54490

(2.5)! = (1.5)!/(1.5) = 2.36327

all of which are finite.

j. 0.5! =

2

with the tabulated value.

26. dW = F dr = 1000r 2 dr

At the earths surface, r = 1.

b

W = 1000 r 2 dr = lim 1000 r 1 1

b

1

= lim (1000 b 1 + 1000)

24

t 0.5e t dt

= 1000 radius-pounds

Thus, the amount of work does not increase

without bound as r goes to infinity.

3

x2

x

27. a.

2

dx

1

x2

b.

Error =

t 0.5e t dt <

24

t 3e t dt < 0.000001

24

of 0.5! and the value calculated here is

0.8862269255

0.866227311

= 0.000000386

which is less in absolute value than 0.000001.

Note, however, that the difference is negative

because the calculated value is larger than

the tabulated value. This observation means

that either the tabulated value is incorrect or

there is more inaccuracy in the numerical

integration algorithm than there is in the error

caused by dropping the tail of the integral.

(Using a smaller tolerance in the numerical

integrator gives a value of 0.8862269252 .)

g. Using the tabulated value of 0.5!,

1.5! = 1.5(0.5!) = 1.3293

2.5! = 2.5(1.5!) = 3.3233

3.5! = 3.5(2.5!) = 11.6317

h. 0! =

b

t 0 e t dt = lim e t 0

b

= lim( e b + 1) = 1, Q .E.D .

b

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x2

dx

b2 1

x2

3

x2

+ lim+ 2 x

dx

a2 a

x2

0.886227311

From the graphs, t0.5 e t < t3e t for x 24. The

error in 0.5! from stopping at b = 24 is the

area under the tail of the graph from b = 24.

3

x2

x2

x

x

dx

2

dx + 2

1

2

x2

x2

2

3

x2

x2

x

x

dx

dx + 2

2

1

2

x2

x2

= lim

c.

x2

dx

x2

3

x2

+ lim+ 2 x

dx

a 2 a

x2

lim

b2

= lim

b2

(2

1

+ 1) dx + lim+

a2

(2

a

1) dx

b2

a2

3

a

b

b2

a 2

4/ln 2 + 2 = 6/ln 2

The integral converges to 6/ln 2 = 8.6561 .

d. The integral is defined by dividing the

interval into Riemann partitions and summing

the subintervals. But the Riemann partitions

may be chosen so that the discontinuities

are at endpoints of subintervals. Then the

subintervals corresponding to each continuous

piece may be summed separately.

e. False. Some discontinuous functions (notably,

piecewise continuous functions) are integrable.

28. Answers will vary.

Problem Set 9-10

249

1. y = sec 3x tan 3x

y = (3 sec 3x tan 3x) tan 3x + sec 3x (3 sec2 3x)

= 3 sec 3x tan2 3x + 3 sec3 3x

2. y = sinh 5x tanh 5x

y = (5 cosh 5x) tanh 5x + sinh 5x (5 sech2 5x)

= 5 sinh 5x + 5 sinh 5x sech2 5x or

5 sinh 5x + 5 tanh 5x sech 5x

3.

4.

x cosh 4 x dx

u

x

1

0

1

1

x sinh 4 x cosh 4 x + C

4

16

x cos x dx

dv

cosh 4x

1

4 sinh 4x

1

16 cosh 4x

250

1

t

g(t ) = (t 2 1) 1/2 (2t ) =

2

2

t 1

1 + t 2 dt =

= sec 3 d =

dv

cos x

sin x

cos x

= x sin x + cos x + C

5. f (x) = (3x + 5) 1 f (x) = 3(3x + 5) 2

6. f (x) = (5 2x 1) f (x) = 2(5 2x) 2

1

7. (3 x + 5) 1 dx = ln |3 x + 5| + C

3

1

8. (5 2 x ) 1 dx = ln |5 2 x | + C

2

9. t(x) = tan5 4x

t(x) = 5 tan4 4x (4 sec2 4x) = 20 tan4 4x sec2 4x

10. h(x) = sech3 7x

h(x) = 3 sech2 7x (7 sech 7x tanh 7x)

= 21 sech3 7x tanh 7x

1

11. sin 2 x dx =

(1 cos 2 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x sin 2 x + C

2

4

1

1

= x sin x cos x + C (or integrate by parts)

2

2

1

12. cos 2 x dx =

(1 + cos 2 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x + sin 2 x + C

2

4

1

1

= x + sin x cos x + C (or integrate by parts)

2

2

6 x 11

13. y =

x+2

6( x + 2) (6 x 11)(1)

23

y =

=

2

( x + 2)

( x + 2)2

5x + 9

14. y =

x4

5( x 4) (5 x + 9)(1)

29

y =

=

( x 4) 2

( x 4) 2

17. f (t ) = 1 + t 2 = (1 + t 2 )1/2

1

t

f (t ) = (1 + t 2 ) 1/2 (2t ) =

2

1+ t2

19.

u

x

1

0

6 x 11

23

dx = 6

dx

x+2

x + 2

= 6x 23 ln | x + 2 | + C

5x + 9

29

16.

dx = 5 +

dx

x4

x 4

= 5x + 29 ln | x 4 | + C

15.

1 + tan 2 d ( tan )

1

sec tan

2

1

+ ln | sec + tan | + C

2

1

1

= t 1 + t 2 + ln 1 + t 2 + t + C

2

2

20.

t 2 1 dt =

sec 2 1 d (sec )

1

1

sec tan + ln | sec + tan |

2

2

ln | sec + tan | + C

1

1

= sec tan ln | sec + tan | + C

2

2

1

1

2

= t t 1 ln t + t 2 1 + C

2

2

3 x

21. y = x e

y = 3x2ex + x3ex = x2ex(3 + x)

22. y = x4e x

y = 4x3e x x4e x = x3e x(4 x)

=

23.

x e

3 x

u

x3

3x 2

6x

6

0

dx

dv

ex

ex

ex

ex

ex

24.

x e

4 x

dx

u

x4

4x 3

12x 2

24x

24

0

dv

e x

e x

e x

e x

e x

e x

1

25. f ( x ) = sin 1 x f ( x ) =

= (1 x 2 ) 1/2

2

1 x

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

26. g( x ) = tan 1 x g( x ) =

27.

sin

1

x +1

2

u

sin 1 x

(1 x 2)1/2

x dx

dv

1

x

= x sin 1 x + 1 x 2 + C

tan

u

tan 1 x

1

1 + x2

x dx

= x tan 1 x

1+ x

1

cosh x dx

36. coth x dx =

= ln | sinh x | + C

sinh x

( x dx )

dv

1

x

39.

1

ln |1 + x 2 | + C

2

1

1/6 1/6

29.

dx =

+

dx

x + 5 x 1

x2 + 4x 5

1

1

= ln | x + 5| + ln | x 1| + C

6

6

1

1/8

1/8

30.

dx =

+

dx

2

x 6x 7

x + 1 x 7

1

1

= ln | x + 1| + ln | x 7| + C

8

8

1

1

dx =

dx

31.

2

x + 4x 5

( x + 2)2 9

1

=

(3 sec tan d )

(3 sec )2 9

1

=

(3 sec tan d ) = sec d

3 tan

= ln | sec + tan | + C

1

1

= ln ( x + 2) +

( x + 2)2 9 + C1

3

3

2x

cos 3 x dx

x2 6x 7

1

dx =

1

( x 3)2 16

dx

( 4 sec tan d )

( 4 sec ) 16

1

=

( 4 sec tan d ) = sec d

4 tan

= ln |sec + tan | + C

2

= ln

1

1

( x 3) +

( x 3)2 16 + C1

4

4

= ln x 3 + x 2 6 x 7 + C

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dv

cos 3x

1

3 sin 3x

1

9 cos 3x

=

40.

2x

cos 3 x dx

3 2x

2

e sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x + C

13

13

3 x

cos 4 x dx

= ln x + 2 + x 2 + 4 x 5 + C

32.

u

e 2x

2e 2x

4e 2x

1

2

= e 2 x sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x

3

9

4 2x

e cos 3 x dx

9

13 2 x

e cos 3 x dx

9

1

2

= e 2 x sin 3 x + e 2 x cos 3 x + C1

3

9

37. y = e2x cos 3x

y = (2e2x) cos 3x + e2x(3 sin 3x)

= e2x(2 cos 3x 3 sin 3x)

38. y = e 3x cos 4x

y = (3e3x) cos 4x + e3x(4 sin 4x)

= e3x(3 cos 4x + 4 sin 4x)

= x tan 1 x

= x sin 1 x (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( x dx )

28.

34. f (x) = coth x f (x) = csch2 x

sinh x dx

35. tanh x dx =

= ln |cosh x | + C

cosh x

u

e 3x

3e 3x

9e 3x

dv

cos 4x

1

4 sin 4x

1

16 cos 4x

1 3 x

3

e sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x

4

16

9

e 3 x cos 4 x dx

16

25 3 x

e cos 4 x dx

16

1

3

= e 3 x sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x + C1

4

16

=

e

=

3 x

cos 4 x dx

4 3 x

3

e sin 4 x e 3 x cos 4 x + C

25

25

Problem Set 9-11

251

Problems 39 and 40, the numerators of the

coefficients equal the 3 and 4 in the arguments

of e3x and cos 4x. The denominators equal

32 + 42, or 25.

41. g (x) = x 3 ln 5x

g (x) = (3x2) ln 5x + x3 (5/5x)

= x 2 (3 ln 5x + 1)

42. h (x) = x 2 ln 8x

h (x) = (2x) ln 8x + x2 (8/8x)

= x(2 ln 8x + 1)

43.

x ln 5x dx

3

u

ln 5x

1

x

dv

x3

1 4

4x

48.

1

0

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

=

44.

1 4

1

x ln 5 x x 4 + C

4

16

ln 8 x dx

u

ln 8x

= cos x dx sin x (cos x dx )

3

1

= sin x sin 3 x + C

3

1

2

Or: cos3 x dx = cos 2 x sin x +

cos x dx

3

3

1

2

= cos 2 x sin x + sin x + C

3

3

dv

x2

1 3

3x

------------------------

1

0

1 2

3x

1 3

9x

1

1

= x 3 ln 8 x x 3 + C

3

9

x

45. y =

( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)

ln y = ln x ln (x + 2)

ln (x + 3) ln (x + 4)

y = y[x 1 (x + 2) 1 (x + 3) 1 (x + 4) 1]

x

=

[ x 1 ( x + 2) 1

( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)

(x + 3) 1 (x + 4) 1]

x

46. y =

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

ln y = ln x ln (x 1)

ln (x 2) ln (x 3)

y = y[x 1 (x 1) 1 (x 2) 1 (x 3) 1]

x

=

[ x 1 ( x 1) 1

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

1/2

2

3/2

=

+

dx

x 1 x 2 x 3

1

3

= ln | x 1| 2 ln | x 2| + ln | x 3| + C

2

2

y = cos3 x sin x

y = (3 cos2 x sin x) sin x + cos3 x (cos x)

= 3 cos2 x sin2 x + cos4 x

y = sin5 x cos x

y = (5 sin4 x cos x) cos x + sin5 x (sin x)

= 5 sin4 x cos2 x sin6 x

1

cos3 x (sin x dx ) = cos 4 x + C

4

1 6

5

sin x (cos x dx ) = sin x + C

6

1

x

47.

------------------------

1 3

4x

1 4

16 x

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) dx

(x 2) 1 (x 3) 1]

x

dx

( x + 2)( x + 3)( x + 4)

1

3

2

=

+

dx

x + 2 x + 3 x + 4

54.

= (1 2 cos x + cos x )(sin x dx )

= sin x dx 2 cos x sin x dx

+ cos x sin x dx

5

2

1

cos3 x cos 5 x + C

3

5

1

4

Or: sin 5 x dx = sin 4 x cos x +

sin 3 x dx

5

5

1

4

8

= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x +

sin x dx

5

15

15

1

4

= sin 4 x cos x sin 2 x cos x

5

15

8

cos x + C

15

1

3

55. cos 4 x dx = cos3 x sin x +

cos 2 x dx

4

4

1

3

3

= cos3 x sin x + cos x sin x +

dx

4

8

8

1

3

3

= cos3 x sin x + cos x sin x + x + C

4

8

8

= cos x +

= ln |x + 2| + 3 ln |x + 3| 2 ln |x + 4| + C

252

2005 Key Curriculum Press

56.

1

5

sin 6 x dx = sin 5 x cos x +

sin 4 x dx

6

6

1

5

= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x

6

24

15

+

sin 2 x dx

24

1

5

= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x

6

24

15

15

sin x cos x +

dx

48

48

1

5

= sin 5 x cos x sin 3 x cos x

6

24

5

5

sin x cos x +

x+C

16

16

68.

= xe x e x

72. r ( x ) =

58. f (x) = (x 1)

f (x) = 4(x3 1)3(3x2) = 12x2(x3 1)3

59.

(x

( x 1) dx

= (x 4x

3

62.

63.

64.

(t

66. h( x ) =

(t

+ 6 x 6 4 x 3 + 1) dx

74.

1 13 2 10 6 7 4

x x + x x + x+C

13

5

7

1

( x 4 + 3)3 x 3 dx = ( x 4 + 3) 4 + C

16

1

( x 3 1) 4 x 2 dx = ( x 3 1)5 + C

15

1

( x 4 + 3) dx = x 5 + 3 x + C

5

1

( x 3 1) dx = x 4 x + C

4

65. f ( x ) =

67.

12

61.

3(ln x )2 (ln x )3 4

x2

ln x + 2

dx

73.

dx = (ln x + 2)

x

x

1

= (ln x + 2)2 + C

2

1 13 9 27 5

x +x +

x + 27 x + C

13

5

=

60.

(ln x )3 + 4

dx

dx = (ln x )3

+

x

x

1

= (ln x ) 4 + 4 ln | x | + C

4

75. f ( x ) = e x f ( x ) = 2 xe x

3

1) 4 dt h ( x ) = ( x 3 1) 4

79.

2

1

= 2e 2 e 2 e + e = e 2 = 7.3890 K

2005 Key Curriculum Press

u

x

1

0

xe x dx

+ 3)3 dt f ( x ) = ( x 4 + 3)3

x dx

appears in the original integrand, so only

positive values of x can be used.)

= xe x e x

76. f ( x ) = e x f ( x ) = 3 x 2 e x

2

1 2

77.

xe x dx = e x + C

2

3

1 3

78.

x 2 e x dx = e x + C

3

x2

+ 3) dx = ( x + 9 x + 27 x + 27) dx

8

= 2e 2 e 2 + 0 + 1

(ln x )3 + 4

r ( x ) =

12

ln x + 2

71. q( x ) =

x

(1/ x ) x (ln x + 2) 1 1 ln x

q ( x ) =

=

x2

x2

dv

e x

e x

e x

57. g (x) = (x + 3)

g (x) = 3(x4 + 3)2(4x3) = 12x3(x4 + 3)2

u

x

1

0

= 3e 2 + 1 = 0.59399

xe x dx

x e

3 x2

dx

dv

ex

ex

ex

u

x2

2x

dv

xe x 2

1 x2

2e

---------------------

2

0

=

1 x2

2 xe

1 x2

4e

1 2 x2 1 x2

x e e +C

2

2

253

80.

x e

5 x3

u

x3

3x 2

dx

dv

x 2e x 3

1 x3

3e

84.

---------------------

1

0

x 2e x 3

1 x3

3e

ax

u

e ax

ae ax

cos bx dx

1 ax

a

a2

e sin bx + 2 e ax cos bx 2

b

b

b

a2 + b2

e ax cos bx dx

b2

1

a

= e ax sin bx + 2 e ax cos bx + C1

b

b

ax

cos

e

bx dx

dv

cos bx

1

b sin bx

1

b 2 cos bx

a 2e ax

ax

cos bx dx

87.

ax

u

e ax

ae ax

a 2e ax

sin bx dx

83.

254

a

b

e ax sin bx 2

e ax cos bx + C

a2 + b2

a + b2

(for a, b not both 0)

ax

e sin bx dx = C

(for a = b = 0)

sin

cx dx =

1

(1 cos 2cx ) dx

2

1

1

x

sin 2cx + C

2

4c

sin 2 cx dx = C

(1 + cos 2cx ) dx

1

1

x+

sin 2cx + C

2

4c

cos 2 cx dx = x + C

ax + b

88.

(for c 0)

(for c = 0)

dv

sinbx

1

b cosbx

1

2 sinbx

b

1

a

= e ax cos bx + 2 e ax sin bx

b

b

a2

ax

2 e sin bx dx

b

a2 + b2

e ax sin bx dx

b2

1

a

= e ax cos bx + 2 e ax sin bx + C1

b

b

e ax sin bx dx

1

2

89.

cx + d dx = c +

=

b

a

= 2

e ax sin bx + 2

e ax cos bx + C

a + b2

a + b2

(for a, b not both 0)

ax

e cos bx dx = x + C

(for a = b = 0)

cx dx =

(for c 0)

(for c = 0)

ax + b

cx + d

a(cx + d ) c( ax + b)

ad bc

f ( x ) =

=

2

(cx + d )

(cx + d )2

(for c, d not both 0)

(undefined for c = d = 0)

86. f (x) = (ax + b)n

f ( x ) = na( ax + b) n1

(for a, b not both 0, or n 1)

f (x) = 0

(for a = b = 0 and 0 n 1)

(undefined for a = b = 0 and n < 0)

82.

85. f ( x ) =

3

1

1 3

= x 3e x e x + C

3

3

81.

cos

b ( a/c)d

dx

cx + d

ax bc ad

+

ln |cx + d | + C (for c 0)

c

c2

ax + b

a 2 b

dx =

x + x+C

cx + d

2d

d

(for c = 0, d 0)

(undefined for c = d = 0)

( ax + b) n+1

+C

a(n + 1)

(for n 1, a 0)

1

n

( ax + b) dx = ln |ax + b| + C

a

(for n = 1, a 0)

n

n

(for a = 0)

( ax + b) dx = b x + C

( ax + b) n dx =

x dx

x +a

2

1

( x 2 + a 2 ) 1/2 (2 x dx )

2

1

2( x 2 + a 2 )1/2 + C = x 2 + a 2 + C

2

x dx

1

=

90.

( a 2 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )

2

2

2

a x

1

= 2( a 2 x 2 )1/ 2 + C = a 2 x 2 + C

2

(for a 0)

(undefined for a = 0)

dx

d ( a tan )

=

91.

2

2

x +a

a 2 tan 2 + a 2

=

a sec 2 d

= sec d

a sec

= ln |sec + tan | + C1

1 2

1

= ln

x + a 2 + x + C1

a

a

=

= ln

x 2 + a2 + x + C

2005 Key Curriculum Press

92.

dx

d ( a sin )

a x

a a sin

a cos d

x

=

= d = + C = sin 1 + C

a cos

a

(for a 0)

(undefined for a = 0)

2

93. f (x) = x sin ax f (x) = 2x sin ax + ax2 cos ax

94. f (x) = x2 cos ax f (x) = 2x cos ax ax2 sin ax

2

95.

u

x2

2x

2

sin ax dx

100.

dv

sinax

1

a cosax

1

2 sinax

a

96.

u

x2

2x

2

cos ax dx

0

=

97.

98.

99.

1

sinax

a3

1 2

2

2

x sin ax + 2 x cos ax 3 sin ax + C

a

a

a

(for a 0)

1 3

2

x cos ax dx = x + C

(for a = 0)

3

1

sinh ax dx = cosh ax + C

(for a 0)

a

(for a = 0)

sinh ax dx = C

1

cosh ax dx = a sinh ax + C

cosh ax dx = x + C

cos

= x cos 1 ax +

= x cos 1 ax

1

[1 ( ax )2 ]1/ 2 ( 2 a 2 x dx )

2a

ax dx

1 ( ax )2

ax dx

1 ( ax )2

1

1 + x dx

Let u = 1 + x .

x = (u 1)2

dx = 2(u 1) du

2(u 1) du

= 2 du (2/u) du

u

= 2u 2 ln |u| + C

= 2(1 + x ) 2 ln |1 + x | + C

Or: 2 x 2 ln |1 + x | + C1

Absolute values are optional because

1 + x > 0.

1

102.

Let u = 1 x .

dx

1 x

x = (1 u)2

dx = 2(u 1) du

2(u 1) du

=

= 2 du (2/u) du

u

= 2u 2 ln |u| + C

= 2(1 x ) 2 ln |1 x | + C

Or: 2 x 2 ln |1 x | + C1

1

dx

103.

Let u = 1 + 4 x .

1+ 4 x

x = (u 1)4

dx = 4(u 1)3 du

3

4(u 1) du

=

= ( 4u 2 12u + 12 4/u) du

u

4

= u 3 6u 2 + 12 u 4 ln |u| + C

3

4

= (1 + 4 x )3 6(1 + 4 x )2 + 12(1 + 4 x )

3

4 ln 1 + 4 x + C

=

dv

1

x

Or:

2005 Key Curriculum Press

(for a = 0)

dv

1

(for a 0)

u

cos 1ax

a

1 (ax) 2

ax dx

u

sin 1ax

a

1 (ax) 2

ax dx

1

[1 ( ax )2 ]1/2 ( 2 a 2 x dx )

2a

1

= x sin 1 ax +

1 ( ax )2 + C

(for a 0)

a

(for a = 0)

sin 1 ax dx = C

101.

dv

cosax

1

a sinax

1

2 cosax

a

= x sin 1 ax +

sin

= x sin 1 ax

1

cosax

a3

1 2

2

2

x cos ax + 2 x sin ax + 3 cos ax + C

a

a

a

(for a 0)

(for a = 0)

x 2 sin ax dx = C

1

1 ( ax )2 + C

a

(for a 0)

1

cos ax dx = x + C

(for a = 0)

2

= x cos 1 ax

4 4 3

( x ) 2( 4 x )2 + 4 4 x 4 ln |1 + 4 x | + C1 ,

3

255

u = 4 x.

Absolute values are optional because 1 + 4 x > 0.

1

dx

104.

Let u = x 1/ 6 .

x+3x

x = u6

dx = 6u5 du

5

3

6u du

6u du

=

3

2 =

u +u

u +1

6

2

= 6u 6u + 6

du

u + 1

(by long division)

= 2u 3 3u 2 + 6u 6 ln |u + 1| + C

= 2 x 33 x + 66 x 6 ln (6 x + 1) + C

1

105.

Let u = e x + 1.

dx

x

e +1

ex = u2 1

x = ln (u 2 1)

2u du

dx = 2

u 1

2 du

1

1

=

=

du

u 1 u + 1

u2 1

(by partial fractions)

= ln |u 1| ln |u + 1| + C

= ln ( e + 1 1) ln ( e + 1 + 1) + C

1

dx

106.

Let u = e x 1.

x

e 1

ex = u2 + 1

x = ln (u 2 + 1)

2u du

dx = 2

u +1

2 du

1

=

= 2 tan u + C = 2 tan 1 e x 1 + C

u2 + 1

107. a. Let t = x/2 and substitute, getting

cos x = 2 cos2 (x/2) 1 and

sin x = 2 sin (x/2) cos (x/2).

2

b. cos x =

1

sec 2 ( x/2)

2 sec 2 ( x/2)

=

sec 2 ( x/2)

2 [1 + tan 2 ( x/2)]

=

1 + tan 2 ( x/2)

1 tan 2 ( x/2)

=

, Q .E .D .

1 + tan 2 ( x/2)

sin ( x/2)

sin x = 2

cos 2 ( x/2)

cos ( x/2)

1

= 2 tan ( x/2)

sec 2 ( x/2)

2 tan ( x/2)

=

, Q .E .D .

1 + tan 2 ( x/2)

x

cos x =

1

1+

1+ u

2 du

=

= du

(1 + u 2 ) + (1 u 2 )

1

e.

dx = du = u + C = tan ( x/2) + C

1 + cos x

1

dx

108. a. sec x dx =

cos x

1 + u 2 2 du

2

=

=

du

1 u2 1 + u2

1 u2

1

1

+

du

b. sec x dx =

1 u 1+ u

= ln | 1 u | + ln |1 + u| + C

2

1+ u

1 + tan ( x/2)

+ C = ln

+C

1 u

1 tan ( x/2)

= ln

sec x dx = ln

c.

1 + tan ( x/2)

+C

1 1 tan ( x/2)

+C

1 tan ( /4) tan ( x/2)

= ln |tan ( /4 + x/2)| + C

= ln

d. i.

1

0

= ln |tan (/4 + 1/2)| = 1.226191

1 u2

2u

from part b.

2 and sin x =

1+ u

1 + u2

1 + cos x dx

1

2 du

=

1 u 1+ u

d.

256

2 du

1 + u2

ii.

= ln |sec 1 + tan 1| ln |1 + 0| =

ln |sec 1 + tan 1| = 1.226191 , which

agrees with the answer in part i.

1

1

2 du

109.

dx =

2

1 u 1 + u2

1 cos x

1

1 + u2

2 du

du 1

=

=

+C

2

2 =

(1 + u ) (1 u )

u2

u

= cot (x/2) + C

1

1

2 du

110.

dx =

2

u

1 + sin x

1 + u2

1+

2

1+ u

2 du

du

1

=

=

+C

2

2 =

(1 + u ) + 2u

(u + 1)

u +1

1

=

+C

tan ( x/2) + 1

2005 Key Curriculum Press

111.

1 u2

cos x

1 + u 2 2 du

dx =

1 u2 1 + u2

1 cos x

1

1 + u2

R3. a.

1 u2

1

2

=

du = 2

du

2

u

u (1 + u 2 )

1 + u2

1

= 2 tan 1 u + C

u

1

=

2 tan 1[tan ( x/2)] + C

tan ( x/2)

x cos 2 x dx

3

= cot (x/2) x + C

Or:

1 cos x dx = 1 + 1 cos x dx

cos x

= dx +

b.

4x

sin 3 x dx

Review Problems

R0. Answers will vary.

R1. f ( x ) = x cos x

f ( x ) = x(sin x) + (1) cos x = cos x x sin x

x cos x dx + C = f ( x ) dx

=

c.

x (ln x ) dx

2

1

0

u

dv

(ln x)2 + x

1

1 2

2 ln x x

2x

-----------------------ln x

x

1 1 2

x

2x

------------------------

1

2x

1 2

4x

R2.

3 4x

4

e cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x + C

25

25

= sin x x sin x dx

Numerically,

4x

dv

sin 3x

1

3 cos 3x

1

9 sin 3x

= (cos x x sin x ) dx

1

4

= e 4x cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x

3

9

16 4x

e sin 3 x dx

9

25 4x

e sin 3 x dx

9

1

4

= e 4x cos 3 x + e 4x sin 3 x + C1

3

9

e 4x sin 3 x dx

u

e 4x

4e 4x

16e

dv

cos 2x

1

2 sin 2x

1

4 cos 2x

1

8 sin 2x

1

16 cos 2x

1 3

3

x sin 2 x + x 2 cos 2 x

2

4

3

3

x sin 2 x cos 2 x + C

4

8

1 cos x dx

u

x3

3x 2

6x

6

0

x sin x dx 1.5566 K .

5x sin 2 x dx

u = 5x

dv = sin 2x dx

du = 5 dx

1

v = cos 2 x

2

1

1

= 5 x cos 2 x +

cos 2 x (5 dx )

2

2

5

5

= x cos 2 x + sin 2 x + C

2

4

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1 2

1

1

x (ln x )2 x 2 ln x + x 2 + C

2

2

4

d. Slice parallel to the y-axis. Pick a sample

point (x, y) on the graph, within the slice.

dV = 2 x y dx = 2 x(x ln x) dx

= 2 x 2 ln x dx

=

V = 2

x 2 ln x dx

u

ln x

1

x

dv

x2

1 3

3x

----------------------

1

0

1 2

3x

1 3

9x

257

2

1

1

= 2 x 3 ln x x 3

3

9 1

16

16

2

16

14

= ln 2 + = ln 2

3

9

9

3

9

= 6.7268K

R4. a.

cos

d.

sec

u

secx

secx tanx

x dx

dv

sec 2 x

tanx

= sec x tan x + sec x dx sec x dx

2 sec x dx

= sec x tan x tan 2 x sec x dx

2

30

u

cos 29x

29 cos 28x sinx

dx

dv

cosx

sinx

x sin x + 29 cos

29

= cos

29

28

28

sec

x (1 cos x ) dx

2

30 cos dx

30

e.

cos dx

30

1

29

cos 29 x sin x +

cos 28 x dx

30

30

1

4

b. sec 6 x dx = sec 4 x tan x +

sec 4 x dx

5

5

1

4

= sec 4 x tan x + sec 2 x tan x

5

15

8

2

+

sec x dx

15

1

4

= sec 4 x tan x + sec 2 x tan x

5

15

8

+ tan x + C

15

=

c.

= tan x (sec x 1) dx

= tan x sec x dx tan x dx

1

=

tan x tan x dx

n 1

cos x dx = (1 sin x ) (cos x dx )

= (1 2 sin x + sin x )(cos x dx )

n2

n2

n2

n2

n 1

R5. a.

f. r = 9 + 8 sin

1

1

dA = r 2 d = (9 + 8 sin )2 d

2

2

1 /4

A=

(64 sin 2 + 144 sin + 81) d

2 0

1 /4

=

[32(1 cos 2 ) + 144 sin + 81] d

2 0

1

81 /4

= 16 sin 2 72 cos +

2

2 0

81

= 4 8 36 2 + + 72

8

113

=

+ 64 36 2 = 57.4633K

8

R6. a.

x 2 49 dx

v

x 2 49

u

7

x

= sec . x = 7 sec ,

7

dx = 7 sec tan d,

Let

2

1

2

= tan 5 x + tan 3 x + tan x + C

5

3

1

c.

sin 2 7 x dx =

(1 cos 14 x ) dx

2

1

1

= x sin 14 x + C

2

28

258

= (tan x + 2 tan x + 1)(sec x dx )

tan

2

1

= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x + C

3

5

b.

x dx

1

1

sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x | + C

2

2

n2

x 2 49 = 7 tan , = sec 1

x

7

x 49 dx

= (7 tan )(7 sec tan d )

= 49 sec tan d

= 49 sec d sec d

2005 Key Curriculum Press

1

1

= 49 sec tan + ln |sec + tan |

2

2

ln |sec + tan | + C1

c.

1 0.25 x 2 dx

v

49

49

=

sec tan

ln |sec + tan | + C1

2

2

49 x

2 7

x 2 49

7

1

x x 2 49

2

49

+

ln 7 + C1

2

1

= x x 2 49

2

=

b.

1 0.25x 2

0.5 x

= sin .

1

x = 2 sin , dx = 2 cos d,

Let

x 2 49

+ C1

7

49

x

ln +

2

7

0.5x

x

2

1 0.25 x 2 dx = (cos )(2 cos d )

49

ln x + x 2 49

2

= 2 cos d = (1 + cos 2 ) d

49

ln x + x 2 49 + C

2

x 2 10 x + 34 dx =

( x 5)2 + 9 dx

(x 5)2 + 9

x5

1

= + sin 2 + C = + sin cos + C

2

1

1 x

= sin

+ x 1 0.25 x 2 + C

2 2

d. Slice region vertically. Pick sample point

(x, y) on the upper branch of the circle,

within the strip.

dA = 2 y dx = 2 25 x 2 dx

v

u

3

x5

= tan .

3

x = 5 + 3 tan , dx = 3 sec2 d,

Let

x5

3

x

= sin . x = 5 sin , dx = 5 cos d ,

5

x

25 x 2 = 5 cos , = sin 1

5

Let

9

9

sec tan + ln |sec + tan | + C1

2

2

9 ( x 5)2 + 9 x 5

2

3

3

+

9

ln

2

( x 5) + 9 x 5

+

+ C1

3

3

2

= 2

= 25

A=

x =4

25 x 2 dx

5 cos (5 cos d )

x =3

x =4

x =3

(1 + cos 2 ) d

= 25 + 12.5 sin 2

1

=

( x 5)2 + 9 ( x 5)

2

9

9

+ ln ( x 5)2 + 9 + x 5 ln 3 + C1

2

2

1

2

= ( x 5) x 10 x + 34

2

9

+ ln x 2 10 x + 34 + x 5 + C

2

2005 Key Curriculum Press

25 x 2

( x 5) + 9 dx

= (3 sec )(3 sec d ) = 9 sec d

x =4

x =3

= 25 + 25 sin cos

x =4

x =3

4

x

x 1

+ 25

25 x 2

5

5 5

3

= 25 sin 1 0.8 + 4 9 25 sin 1 0.6 3 16

= 25(sin 1 0.8 sin 1 0.6) = 7.0948

(6 x + 1) dx

(6 x + 1) dx

R7. a.

=

x 2 3x 4

( x + 1)( x 4)

1

5

=

+

dx

x +1 x 4

= 25 sin 1

= ln |x + 1| + 5 ln |x 4| + C

Problem Set 9-13

259

b.

5 x 2 21x 2

dx

( x 1)( x + 2)( x 3)

R8. a.

y

3

4

2

=

+

dx

x 1 x + 2 x 3

= 3 ln |x 1| + 4 ln |x + 2| 2 ln |x 3| + C

c.

5 x 2 + 3 x + 45

dx =

x3 + 9x

5 x 2 + 3 x + 45

dx

x ( x 2 + 9)

5

3

x

= + 2

dx = 5 ln | x | + tan 1 + C

x x + 9

3

inspection or by trigonometric substitution.)

d.

5 x + 27 x + 32

dx

x ( x + 4) 2

2

x

1

b. f ( x ) = sec 1 3x

3

1

f ( x ) =

=

2

|3 x | (3 x ) 1 | x | 9 x 2 1

c.

2

3

1

= +

dx

x x + 4 ( x + 4) 2

= 2 ln | x | + 3 ln | x + 4 | + (x + 4) 1 + C

1

= ln | x 2 ( x + 4)3 | +

+C

x+4

dy

e.

= 0.1( y 3)( y 8)

dx

dy

= 0.1 dx

( y 3)( y 8)

1/5

1/5

y 3 + y 8 dy = 0.1 dx

dv

1

x

1 + 25x dx

1

1

5x

(50 x dx )

10 1 + 25 x

5x

1

ln |1 + 25 x 2 | + C

10

(Absolute values are optional because

1 + 25x 2 > 0.)

d. Obvious way: Slice the region vertically.

Pick a sample point (x, y) on the graph,

within the strip.

dA = y dx = cos 1 x dx

= x tan 1 5 x

A=

cos 1 x dx = x cos 1 x 1 x 2

1

0

= cos 1 0 0 + 1 = 1

Easier way: Slice horizontally. Pick a sample

point (x, y) on the graph within the strip.

dA = x dy = cos y dy

A=

y8

= 0.25e 0.5 x

y3

((y 8)/(y 3) < 0 because (0, 7) is on the

graph)

5

y = 3+

1 + 0.25e 0.5 x

The graph shows that solution fits slope field.

u

tan 1 5x

5

1 + 25x 2

5x dx

= x tan 1

y8

= 0.5 x ln 4

y3

y8

= e 0.5 x ln 4 = 0.25e 0.5 x

y3

= x tan 1 5 x

1

1

ln | y 3 | + ln | y 8 | = 0.1x + C1

5

5

ln | y 3 | + ln | y 8 | = 0.5x + C

Substituting (0, 7) gives

C = ln 4 + ln 1 = ln 4.

ln

tan

/2

cos y dy = sin y

/2

= 1 0 = 1

R9. a.

y

x

1

b.

y

y

1

7

1

260

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. h(x) = x2 sech x

h(x) = x2 sech x tanh x + 2x sech x

d. f ( x ) = sinh 1 5x

5

f ( x ) =

25 x 2 + 1

e.

tanh 3 x dx =

b.

f.

cosh

u

cosh 1 7x

7

49x 2 1

/2

= x cosh 7 x

7x

49 x 2 1

a /2

R10. a.

= lim 5( x 2)

b

b

0.2

c.

b

2005 Key Curriculum Press

x 2/3 dx

= lim

b 0

x 2/3 dx + lim+

a 0

= lim 3 x 1/3

dv

1

b 0

b

1

2/3

dx

+ lim+ 3 x 1/3

a 0

1

a

1/3

b0

dx

( x 2) 1.2 dx

a /2

a0

d.

x | x 1| dx

x 1

= lim

( x 2) 1.2 dx = lim

tan x dx

1

( 49 x 2 1) 1/2 (98 x dx )

14

1

= x cosh 1 7 x 2( 49 x 2 1)1/2 + C

14

1

= x cosh 1 7 x

49 x 2 1 + C

7

g. cosh2 x sinh2 x

1

1

= (e x + e x ) 2 (e x e x ) 2

2

2

1 2x

1

2 x

= (e + 2 + e ) (e 2 x 2 + e 2 x )

4

4

= 1, Q .E .D .

1

h. The general equation is y = k cosh x + C.

k

y = 5 at x = 0 5 = k cosh 0 + C

C=5k

3

y = 7 at x = 3 7 = k cosh + 5 k

k

3

2 = k cosh k

k

k = 2.5269 (solving numerically)

t

y = 2.5269K cosh

+ 5 2.5269K

2.5269K

y(10) = 68.5961 20

x

= 2.5269K cosh

+ 5 2.5269K

2.5269K

x = 6.6324 (solving numerically)

= x cosh 1 7 x

a /2

= lim ln |sec x |

1

sinh 3 x dx

cosh 3 x

7x dx

tan x dx = lim

0

1

= ln |cosh 3 x | + C

3

(Absolute values are optional because

cosh 3x > 0.)

1

b1

( x + 1) dx + lim+

a1

(

a

x 1) dx

2

= lim x 3/2 + x

b1 3

2

+ lim+ x 3/2 x

1

a

3

0

4

a

2

= lim b 3/ 2 + b 0

b1 3

2

2

+ lim+ 4 3/2 4 a 3/2 + a

a1 3

3

2 3/2

2 3/2

2 3/2

= 1 +1 + 4 4 1 +1

3

3

3

16

10

= 1+ 4 +1 =

3

3

10

The integral converges to

= 3.333K .

3

e.

otherwise.

R11. a. f ( x ) = x sin 1 x f ( x ) = sin 1 x +

b. I = x sin 1 x dx

1 2 1

1

x sin x

2

2

Let I1 =

u

sin 1 x

1

1 x2

x 2 dx

1 x2

dx = cos d ,

= sin 1 x

x

1 x2

dv

x

1 2

2x

x 2 dx

1 x2

and x = sin .

1 x 2 = cos ,

261

sin 2 cos d

= sin 2 d

cos

1

1

1

=

(1 cos 2 ) d = sin 2 + C

2

2

4

1

1

= sin cos + C

2

2

1

1

1

= sin x x 1 x 2 + C

2

2

1 2 1

1

1

I = x sin x sin 1 x + x 1 x 2 + C

2

4

4

d

x

x

2 x

c.

tanh e = e sech e

dx

1

d. ( x 3 x ) 1 dx = 3

dx

x x

1

=

dx

x ( x 1)( x + 1)

1 1/2

1/2

= +

+

dx

x x 1 x + 1

1

1

= ln | x | + ln | x 1| + ln | x + 1| + C

2

2

e. f ( x ) = (1 x 2)1/2

1

f ( x ) = (1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x ) = x (1 x 2 ) 1/2

2

I1 =

requires multiplying by a variable. Because the

integral of a product does not equal the product of

the two integrals, you cant divide on the outside

of the integral by 2x. So a more sophisticated

technique must be used, in this case,

trigonometric substitution. As a result, an

inverse sine appears in the answer:

x

(9 x 2 ) 1/2 dx = sin 1 + C

3

f. I = (1 x 2 )1/2 dx

Let x = sin .

dx = cos d , (1 x 2 )1/2 = cos ,

= sin 1 x

I = cos cos d = cos 2 d

x ln x dx

1

x

dv

x

1 2

2x

-------------------1

1 2x

0

1 2

4x

1 2

1

x ln x x 2 + C

2

4

transformed to the differential of the inside

function by multiplying by a constant,

1

(9 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx ) = (9 x 2 )1/2 + C,

2

and thus has no inverse sine.

262

C1.

sech x dx =

1 tanh 2 x dx

tanh x

u

tanh2x

x = tanh 1 (sin ) and = sin 1 (tanh x)

1

1

dx =

d

2 cos d =

1 sin

cos

u

ln x

Concept Problems

1

sech x dx = cos

d = d

cos

= + C = sin 1 (tanh x ) + C, Q .E.D .

1

1

1

=

(1 + cos 2 ) d = + sin 2 + C

2

2

4

1

1

= + sin cos + C

2

2

1

1

1

= sin x + x 1 x 2 + C

2

2

1

g. g( x ) = (ln x )2 g( x ) = 2 ln x

x

h.

1

0

= sin 1 (tanh 1) = 0.86576948

Numerical integration gives 0.86576948 ,

which agrees with the exact answer.

C2. From sinh 2A = 2 sinh A cosh A,

let A = x/2, so

sinh x = 2 sinh (x/2) cosh (x/2) csch x

1

1

=

=

sinh x 2 sinh ( x/2) cosh ( x/2)

1

sech 2 ( x/2)

csch x =

1

sech 2 ( x/2)

sech 2 ( x/2)

2

=

=

tanh ( x/2)

2 tanh ( x/2)

1

1

csch x dx =

sech 2 ( x/2) dx

tanh ( x/2) 2

= ln | tanh (x/2) | + C, Q .E .D .

2

1

Numerical integration gives 0.49959536 .

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sin x = 2 sin (x/2) cos (x/2)

1

1

csc x =

=

sin x 2 sin ( x/2) cos ( x/2)

1

sec 2 ( x/2)

1

sec 2 ( x/2)

sec 2 ( x/2)

2

=

=

tan ( x/2)

2 tan ( x/2)

1

1

csc x dx =

sec 2 ( x/2) dx

tan ( x/2) 2

= ln | tan (x/2) | + C, Q .E .D .

Or:

Let u = tan (x/2), as in Problem 107 of Problem

Set 9-11.

2 du

1 + u2

Then dx =

2 and csc x =

1+ u

2u

1 + u 2 2 du

csc x dx =

2u 1 + u 2

= (1/u) du = ln | u | + C = ln |tan ( x/2)| + C,

=

Chapter Test

T1.

sin

T2.

T3.

Q .E .D .

Confirmation:

1

0.5

1 6

sin x + C

6

u

x3

3x 2

6x

6

0

sinh 6 x dx

1

2 dx

1 + x

0

1

= lim

2 dx + lim

a a 1 + x

b

= lim tan 1 x

a

0

a

1+ x

0

+ lim tan 1 x

b

x

1 x2

dv

1

x

dx

T4.

sec x dx

3

1

1

sec x tan x + ln |sec x + tan x | + C

2

2

2x

cos 5 x dx

u

e 2x

2e 2x

4e 2x

dv

cos 5x

1

5 sin 5x

1

25 cos 5x

b

0

= ( /2) + ( /2) =

C5. Prove that f (x) = ln x is unbounded above.

Proof:

Assume f (x) = ln x is not unbounded above.

Then there is a number M > 0 such that

ln x < M for all x > 0.

Let x = eM+ 1.

Then ln x = ln eM+ 1 = M + 1.

ln x > M, which is a contradiction.

the assumption is false, and ln x is unbounded

above, Q.E.D.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

dx

a

1

(1 x 2 ) 1/2 ( 2 x dx )

2

1

= x cos 1 x (2)(1 x 2 )1/2 + C

2

1

= x cos x 1 x 2 + C

T5.

b

u

cos 1x

1

x2

x dx

= x cos 1 x

0.5

cos

1

1

= ln tan ln tan = 0.7605K

2

4

Numerical integration gives 0.7605 .

2 sin ( x/2) cos ( x/2)

Note that tan ( x/2) =

2 cos 2 ( x/2)

sin x

1

=

=

, so

1 + cos x csc x + cot x

ln |tan ( x/2)| = ln |csc x + cot x | .

dv

sinh 6x

1

6 cosh 6x

1

36 sinh 6x

1

216 cosh 6x

1

1296 sinh 6x

1 3

1

x cosh 6 x x 2 sinh 6 x

6

12

1

1

+ x cosh 6 x

sinh 6 x + C

36

216

= x cos 1 x +

C4. A =

x cos x dx =

1 2x

2

e sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x

5

25

4

e 2 x cos 5 x dx

25

29 2 x

e cos 5 x dx

25

1

2

= e 2 x sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x + C

5

25

=

e

=

2x

cos 5 x dx

5 2x

2

e sin 5 x + e 2 x cos 5 x + C

29

29

263

T6.

ln 3x dx

u

ln 3x

1/x

= ln

dv

1

x

= x ln 3 x dx = x ln 3 x x + C

ii.

f (x) = 3 sech2 (e5x) [sech (e5x)

tanh (e5x)] 5e5x

= 15e5x sech3 (e5x) tanh (e5x)

1

T8. g( x ) = sin 1 x g ( x ) =

1 x2

3

5x

sech2 f(x) f (x) = 1

[1 tanh2 f (x)] f (x) = 1

(1 x2) f (x) = 1

1

f ( x ) =

, |x | < 1

1 x2

1

1

f (0.6) =

=

= 1.5625

1 0.36 0.64

Numerically, f (0.6) 1.5625 (depending on

the tolerance of the calculator).

1

T10. General equation is y = k cosh x + C.

k

y = 1 at x = 0 1 = k cosh 0 + C

C=1k

5

y = 3 at x = 5 3 = k cosh + 1 k

k

Solving numerically, k 6.5586 .

1

y = 6.5586 K cosh

x + 1 6.5586 K

6.5586 K

x3

x3

T11. a. i. I =

dx =

dx

2

x 6x + 5

( x 3)2 4

x3

(x 3)2 4

x3

= sec . x 3 = 2 sec ,

2

dx = 2 sec tan d,

Let

x3

2

(2 sec )(2 sec tan d )

4 tan 2

= ln

264

1

( x 3)2 4 + C1

2

1

ln | x 2 6 x + 5 | + C

2

x 3

1/2

1/2

+

dx =

dx

6x + 5

x 1 x 5

1

1

= ln | x 1| + ln | x 5 | + C

2

2

1

= ln | ( x 1)( x 5) | + C

2

1

= ln | x 2 6 x + 5 | + C,

2

which agrees with part a.

x3

dx

6x + 5

1

1

=

(2 x 6) dx

2 x2 6x + 5

1

= ln | x 2 6 x + 5| + C, as in parts a and b.

2

b. See parts i, ii, and iii.

iii.

T12.

cos

x dx =

2 (1 + cos 2 x ) dx

=

T13. a. i.

1

1

x + sin 2 x + C

2

4

= (1 2 sin x + sin x ) cos x dx

5

2 3

1

sin x + sin 5 x + C

3

5

1

4

ii. cos 5 x dx = cos 4 x sin x +

cos3 x dx

5

5

1

4

= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x

5

15

8

+

cos x dx

15

1

4

= cos 4 x sin x + cos 2 x sin x

5

15

8

+ sin x + C

15

1

4

8

4

b.

cos x sin x + cos 2 x sin x + sin x

5

15

15

1

= (1 sin 2 x )2 sin x

5

4

8

+ (1 sin 2 x ) sin x + sin x

15

15

1

2 3

1 5

= sin x sin x + sin x

5

5

5

4

4

8

+ sin x sin 3 x + sin x

15

15

15

= sin x

u

2

I=

( x 3)2 4 + C

2005 Key Curriculum Press

T14.

1 4

8

2 4

= + + sin x + sin 3 x

5 15 15

5 15

1

+ sin 5 x

5

2

1

= sin x sin 3 x + sin 5 x

3

5

= lim (10 be

xe 0.1x dx

2005 Key Curriculum Press

b

b

0.1b

100e

0.1b

b

0

+ 0 + 100)

10 b + 100

+ 100

e 0.1b

10

= lim

0.1b + 100 (by lHospitals rule)

b 0.1e

= 100

T15. Answers will vary.

= lim

b

u

x

1

0

dv

e 0.1x

10e 0.1x

100e 0.1x

265

Extremes, and Vectors

Problem Set 10-1

1. v(t) = 100(0.8) 30 = 100e

30 = 0

ln 0.3

t ln 0.8

e

= 0.3 t =

= 5.3955K

ln 0.8

v becomes negative after t0 5.40 min.

t

2. sup =

t0

v dt =

t ln 0.8

t0

sdown =

10

t0

v dt =

10

t0

Distance = sup + sdown = 203.6452 203.6 ft

3. Displacement = sup sdown = 100.0231

100.0 ft

The displacement is positive, so Calvin is

upstream of his starting point.

4. Displacement =

10

5. Distance =

Distance =

|t

(t

0

10t + 16) dt = 12 ft

1

10t + 16 | dt = 41 ft

3

2

2

+ 26 = 12 ft

3

3

2

2

1

Distance = 14 + 26 = 41 ft

3

3

3

d. Displacement = 14

e. a(t) = v(t) = 2t 10

a(3) = 2(3) 10 = 4 (ft/s)/s

2. a. v(t) = tan 0.2t on [10, 20]

v(t) = 0 t = 0, 5 , 10 , = 5 in

[10, 20]

v(t) is infinite t = 2.5 , 7.5 , ,

none of which is in [10, 20].

v(t) < 0 for t in [10, 5 ). v(t) > 0 for t in

(5, 20].

10

c. Displacement =

|v| dt =

10

|100e

t ln 0.8

30 | dt

Q1. 120 mi

Q3. 1.25 h

Q5. x ln x x + C

Q7. g(t) = sech2 t

Q9.

1 x

2 +C

ln 2

Q2. 25 mi/h

Q4. f (x) = 1/x

Q6. f (t) = sec2 t

1 3

Q8.

x +C

3

Q10. ln 2 e x ln 2 = 2 x ln 2

v(t) = (t 2)(t 8) = 0 t = 2 or 8 s

v(t) > 0 for t in [0, 2). v(t) < 0 for t in (2, 6].

b. For [0, 2), displacement

2

2

= (t 2 10t + 16) dt = 14

0

3

2

Distance = 14 ft

3

For (2, 6], displacement

6

2

= (t 2 10t + 16) dt = 26

2

3

2

Distance = 26 ft

3

266

tan 0.2t dt

10

Distance = 4.3835 4.38 cm

For (5, 20], displacement =

20

tan 0.2t dt

Distance = 2.1259 2.13 cm

c. Displacement =

2.26 cm

Distance =

20

10

20

10

6.51 cm

d. Displacement = 4.3835 + 2.1259 =

2.2576 2.26 cm

Distance = (4.3835) + 2.1259 =

6.5095 6.51 cm

e. a( t) = v(t) = 0.2 sec2 t

a( 15) = 0.2 sec2 3 = 0.2040 0.20 (cm/s)/s

t 2 on [1, 11]

24

v(t) = 0 when

24

v(t) < 0 for t in [1, 8). v(t) > 0 for t in

(8, 11].

3. a. v(t ) = sec

2005 Key Curriculum Press

sec 24 t 2 dt

1

24

=

ln sec + tan

16

3

3

24

ln sec

+ tan

+2

24

24

= 4.9420

Distance 4.94 km

For (8, 11], displacement

11

= sec t 2 dt

8

24

24

11

11

ln sec + tan 22

24

24

24

ln sec + tan + 16

3

3

= 4.7569

Distance 4.76 km

11

c. Displacement = sec t 2 dt =

1

24

0.1850 K 0.19 km

11

Distance =

sec t 2 dt = 9.6990 K

1

24

9.70 km

0.1850 0.19 km

Distance = (4.9420) + 4.7569 =

9.6990 9.70 km

t tan

t

sec

e. a(t ) = v (t ) =

24

24

24

a( 6) = 0.1851 0.19 (km/h)/h

exactly 2

24

4. a. v(t) = t3 5t2 + 8t 6 on [0, 5]

v(t) = (t 3)(t2 2t + 2) = 0 t = 3 in [0, 5]

v < 0 for t in [0, 3). v > 0 for t in (3, 5].

b. For [0, 3), displacement =

3

3

(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 6

0

4

3

Distance = 6 mi

4

For (3, 5], displacement =

5

2

(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 24

3

3

2

Distance = 24 mi

3

c. Displacement =

5

11

(t 3 5t 2 + 8t 6) dt = 17 mi

0

12

5

5

3

2

Distance = | t 5t + 8t 6 | dt = 31 mi

0

12

2005 Key Curriculum Press

3

2

11

+ 24 = 17 mi

4

3

12

3

2

5

Distance = 6 + 24 = 31 mi

4

3

12

e. a( t) = v(t) = 3t2 10t + 8

a(2.5) = 1.75 (mi/min)/min

d. Displacement = 6

2

v(t ) = t 1/2 dt = t 3/2 + C; v(0) = 18 C = 18

3

2 3/2

v(t ) = t 18

3

16 2

t 3/2 18 dt = 14 14 ft

Displacement =

0 3

15

16 2

7

Distance =

t 3/2 18 dt = 179 ft

0

3

15

v(t ) = ln t

Displacement =

1.6

0.4

ln t dt = 0.0814

0.081 cm

Distance =

1.6

0.4

|ln t | dt = 0.3854

0.385 cm

7. a(t ) = 6 sin t, v(0) = 9, on [0, ]

v(t ) = 6 sin t dt = 6 cos t + C; v(0)

= 9 C = 3

v(t) = 6 cos t 3

Displacement =

(6 cos t 3) dt =

Distance =

| 6 cos t 3| dt = 13.5338

13.53 km (exact: 6 3 + )

8. a(t) = sinh t, v(0) = 2, on [0, 5]

v(t ) = sinh t dt = cosh t + C

v(0) = 2 C = 3

v(t) = cosh t 3

Displacement =

(cosh t 3) dt =

0

Distance =

|cosh t 3| dt

0

= 64.1230 K 64.12 mi

9. a. v = t 2 = 0 t = 4 s;

v < 0 if t < 4, v > 0 if t > 4

1/2

b. Displacement =

c. Distance =

|t

1

(t

1

1/2

1/2

1

2) dt = 1 ft

3

2| dt = 4 ft

267

1

1

10. a. v = sin 2t = 0 at t = , , , 0, ,

2

2

3

, ,

2

1

sin 2t 0 on 0, , so

2

Distance =

/2

4.5

4.5

Displacement =

b. Distance =

40

10

40

10

(60 2t ) dt = 300 ft

|60 2t | dt = 500 ft

40

=

sin 0.015t 9.8t + C

0.015

v(0) = 0 C = 0

For t > 100, v(t ) = 9.8 dt = 9.8t + C

40

sin 1.5 980 = 1679.986

0.015

C = 1679.986 + 980 = 2659.986

40 sin 0.015t 9.8t, t in [0, 100]

v(t ) = 0.015

9.8t + 2659.986 K ,

t > 100

v(100) =

a (t )

30

t

100

v (t )

1000

268

100

sin 2t dt = 9 cm

12. a. a(t ) =

t > 100

9.8,

For t in [0, 100],

100

sin 2t dt = 1 cm

the x-axis cancel out the regions where the

graph is above the axis, leaving only one

uncancelled region above the graph, so

Displacement = area from part a = 1 cm. The

absolute values of the regions above and

below the graph are the same, so Distance =

9 times the area from part a = 9 cm.

11. a. v = 60 2t

c. Displacement =

sin 2t dt = 1 cm

b. Displacement =

Distance =

1

9.8

cos 1

=

0.015

40

88.2184 K 88.2 s

v = 0 at t = 2,659.986/9.8 = 271.4272

271.4 s

b. a = 0 at t =

300

v(t ) dt

0.015

300

100

(9.8t + 2659.986 K) dt

Distance = 116202.27 +

300

100

| 9.8t + 2659.986 K | dt

The distance is greater than the displacement,

which agrees with the fact that the velocity

becomes negative at t = 271.4 s.

d. v(300) = 9.8(300) + 2,659.986 =

280.0133 , so the rocket is moving

downward (falling) at about 280 m/s.

13. a.

tend

s

aav

(mi/h)/s

vend

mi/h

vav

mi/h

7.375

send

mi

0

2.95

14.75

10

3.8

33.75

24.25

0.0102

0.0439

15

1.75

42.5

38.125

0.0968

20

0.3

44

43.25

0.1569

25

44

44

0.2180

30

44

44

0.2791

35

44

44

0.3402

40

0.2

43

43.5

0.4006

45

0.9

38.5

40.75

0.4572

50

2.6

25.5

32

0.5017

55

3.5

16.75

0.525

60

1.6

0.5305

c. The train is just starting at t = 0; its

acceleration must be greater than zero to get it

moving, even though it is stopped at t = 0.

Acceleration and velocity are different

quantities; the velocity can be zero but

changing, which means the acceleration is

nonzero.

d. Zero acceleration means the velocity is

constant, but not necessarily zero.

e. The last entry in the last column is the

displacement at time t = 60. Thus, it is

0.5305 0.53 mi between stations.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

14. a.

v (t )

tend

s

aav

(mi/h)/s

v end

mi/h

vav

mi/h

send

mi

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

8.5

22

33

39.5

42.5

53

71

83.5

47.5

3

6000

6085

6305

6635

7030

7455

7985

8695

9530

10005

10035

6042.5

6195

6470

6832.5

7242.5

7720

8340

9112.5

9767.5

10020

400

416.7847

433.9930

451.9652

470.9444

491.0625

512.5069

535.6736

560.9861

588.1180

615.9513

is only about 620 mi from the launchpad and

moving at only about 10,000 mi/h. So the

specifications are definitely not met, and the

project should be sent back to the drawing

board.

dv

15. a. a =

v = a dt = at + C;

dt

v = v 0 when t = 0 C = v 0 v = v 0 + at

ds

b. v =

s = v dt = (v0 + at ) dt =

dt

1

v0 t + at 2 + C

2

s = s0 when t = 0 C = s0

1

s = v0 t + at 2 + s0

2

16. Use s(t) for displacement. Assume v(0) =

s(0) = 0.

2, if 0 t < 6

a. a(t ) =

0, if t 6

10

t

0

10

t

0

at t = 0 and drops back to 0 at t = 6. (The

velocity graph has cusps in both places.)

c. a(t ) = 2 2 cos t

3

t0

t0

3

= 2 2 cos 0 = 0

t 6

3

t 6

= 2 2 cos 2 = 0

Because a(t) is continuous at t = 0 and 6,

there are no sudden changes in acceleration.

2 2 cos t, if 0 t 6

d. a(t ) =

3

0,

if t 6

2t 6 sin t, if 0 t 6

v(t ) =

3

if t 6

12,

e.

v (t )

10

t 2 ,

if 0 t < 6

s( t ) =

,

t

12

36

if t > 6

t

0

s(6) = 36.

a (t )

10

thus the graph of v(t) is smooth.

f.

2t 6 sin t dt = t 2 + 18 cos t

0

3

3 0

18

18

2 0 2 = 36

= 36 +

t

2005 Key Curriculum Press

50

2t, if 0 t < 6

v(t ) =

12, if t > 6

10

s(t )

10

269

down and stop. So the deceleration should

start where the elevator is 564 ft up, about

the 47th floor (from part h, one floor = 12 ft).

h. The elevator takes a total of 12 s to accelerate

and decelerate. During these intervals it

travels a total of 72 ft, leaving 528 ft for the

constant velocity portion. At 12 ft/s, this part

of the trip will take 44 s. Thus, the total trip

takes 56 s.

i. The elevator must start to decelerate halfway

through the trip, where s(t) = 6 ft. Solving

b

2t sin 3 t dt = 6

6

3.1 s.

a(3.1043) = 3.9880 4.0 ft/s2

By symmetry, the deceleration process must

start at this time, meaning the acceleration

jumps to 3.9880 ft/s2. The graph looks

like this:

region.

f (x )

y = 41

50

x

1

c. 41 = c3 c + 5

c = 3.4028 , which is in [1, 5].

1 9 1/2

1

2. a. yav =

( x x + 7) dx = 4

8 1

6

b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.

f (x )

5

y = 4.1666...

x

1

5 a (t )

1

= c1/2 c + 7

6

c = 5.0892 , which is in [1, 9].

1 7

3. a. yav =

3 sin 0.2 x dx = 2.0252

6 1

b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.

c. 4

t

0

6.2

midpoint of the trip.

One way to remedy the problem is to reduce

the acceleration so that the elevator goes only

6 ft instead of 36 ft in the first 6 seconds.

That is,

1 1

a(t ) = cos t

3 3

3

You may think of other ways.

50 mi/h

20 min

No local maximum

f (x) = 16 (at x = 1)

Mean value theorem

1. a. yav =

270

1

4

Q2.

Q4.

Q6.

Q8.

Q10.

( x 3 x + 5) dx =

y = 2.0252...

x

1

c = 3.7053 , which is in [1, 7].

1 1.5

4. a. yav =

tan x dx = 2.5181

1 0.5

b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.

Q1.

Q3.

Q5.

Q7.

Q9.

g (x )

3

30 mi

2

1.5

infinite

D

1

(164) = 41

4

h(x )

10

y = 2.5181...

x

0.5

1.5

2005 Key Curriculum Press

c. 2.5181 = tan c

c = 1.1927 , which is in [0.5, 1.5].

1 9

1

5. a. yav =

t dt = 2

8 1

6

b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.

v (t)

3

y = 2.1666...

t

1

1

= c

6

25

c = 4 , which is in [1, 9].

36

1 3

100

6. a. yav =

(2 + e 3 )

100(1 e t ) dt =

3 0

3

= 68.3262

b. The rectangle has the same area as the shaded

region.

c. 2

v (t )

100

y = 68.32...

t

0

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

c. 68.3262 = 100(1 e c)

c = 1.1496 , which is in [0, 3].

1 k 2

1

yav =

ax dx = ak 2

k 0

3

1 k 3

1 3

yav =

ax dx = ak

k 0

4

1 k x

1

yav =

ae dx = a(e k 1)

k 0

k

1 k

1

yav =

tan x dx = ln | sec k |

k 0

k

1/2

a(t) = 6t

v(t) = 12t1/2 + C; v(0) = 60 C = 60

v(t) = 12t1/2 + 60

s(t) = 8t3/2 + 60t + s0

v(25) = 120 ft/s

Displacement = s(25) s(0) = 2500 ft

vav = 2500/25 = 100 ft/s

The general equation of a parabola with vertex

(h, k) is v k = a(t h)2. Vertex is at

(t, v) = (2, 50), so

v 50 = a(t 2)2 . v = 30 when t = 0, so

20 = a(2)2 a = 5.

2005 Key Curriculum Press

v = 50 5(t 2)2

1 4

1

vav =

[50 5(t 2)2 ] dt = 43 mi/h

4 0

3

1

This is just 13 mi/h above the speed limit.

3

If Ida wins her appeal, her fine will be

1

1

7 13 = $93 $93.33, which is $46.67 less

3

3

than what she now faces.

13. Consider an object with constant acceleration a,

for a time interval [t0, t1].

v(t ) = a dt = at + C

C = v 0 at0.

v(t) = at + v0 at0 = v0 + a(t t0)

t1

vav

[v

=

t0

+ a(t t0 )] dt

t1 t0

1

1

1

=

v0 t1 + a(t1 t0 )2 v0 t0 a(t0 t0 )2

2

2

t1 t0

1

a(t1 t0 )

2

The average of v0 and v1 is

1

1

(v0 + v1 ) = [v0 + v0 + a(t1 t0 )]

2

2

1

= v0 + a(t1 t0 )

2

vav = the average of v0 and v1, Q.E.D.

14. Counterexample: In Problem 11, the cars

acceleration is a = 6/ t .The initial velocity is

v(0) = 60 ft/s; the final velocity after 25 seconds

is v(25) = 120 ft/s; and the average velocity is

vav = 100 ft/s. But the average of the initial and

1

final velocities is [v(0) + v(25)] = 90 ft/s vav .

2

15. a. Integral = area = 12(100 + 70)/2 + 6(40) +

12(40 + 10)/2 = 1560

yav = 1560/30 = 52, or $52,000

Cost of inventory = 0.50(52000)/100 =

$260.00

b. At x = 12, they may have had a single, large

sale, dropping the inventory from $70,000 to

$40,000. There is no day on which the inventory

is worth $52,000.

= v0 +

y (thousand dollars)

100

No x where y = 52

50

10

20

x (days)

30

271

16.

y (ft)

Water surface

5

10

15

20

25

x (ft)

30

1 1/60

yav =

| A sin 120 t | dt

1/60 0

= 60

y av = 6.5142

=

10

and 2 quarter-circles)

2(8) + 8(10) + 7(3) + 1(2) +

7[10 + (5)]/2 + 5[5 + (3)]/2 (22)

(1)2/4 = 195.4269

yav = 195.4269/30 = 6.5142 , or about

6.51 feet deep.

The volume would equal 6.5142 times the area

of the horizontal cross section times the number

of gallons in a cubic foot.

17. Integral 3(16/2 + 15 + 15 + 17/2) +

2(17 + 20)/2 + 1(20 + 14)/2 + 3(14/2 + 10 +

9 + 8 + 9/2) = 139.5 + 37 + 17 + 115.5 = 309

yav = 309/24 = 12.875 12.9C

The average of the high and low temperatures is

(20 + 8)/2 = 14C, which is higher than the

actual average. Averaging high and low

temperatures is easier than finding the average by

calculus, but the latter is more realistic for such

applications as determining heating and air

conditioning needs.

18. a. At x = 3, y = 81.3139 81.3 mg.

1 3

1

yav =

200e 0.3 x dx = (395.6202 K)

3 0

3

= 131.8734 131.9 mg

y = 281.3139e 0.3(x 3 ) .

6

1

3

6

1

= (395.6202 K + 556.4674 K) = 158.6812 K

6

158.7 mg

[0, 6] at which there are 158.7 mg. So the

conclusion of the mean value theorem is true,

in spite of the discontinuity.

/

1120

A sin 120 t dt 60

1/120

A

cos 120t

2

1/60

/

1120

A sin 120 t dt

A

cos 120t

2

1/60

1/120

A

2A

( cos + cos 0 + cos 2 cos ) =

2

2A

If yav = 110, then

= 110 A = 55

= 172.78 V.

The average value of one arc of

1

2

y = sin x is

sin x dx = , and

0 0

horizontal stretch does not affect the average

value. Write a proportion to find the maximum

of a sinusoidal curve with an average value

2/ 110

of 110.

=

, so m = 55 .

m

1

=

20. a. d = k sin x

1 2 2 2

2

dav

k sin x dx

=

2 0

=

=

k2 1

1

x sin 2 x

2 2

4

k

k2

( 0 0 + 0) =

2

2

rms = k/ 2 = 0.7071K k

b. cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x sin 2 x =

1 1

cos 2 x

2 2

y

1

1

, the

2

1 1

cos 2 x (and hence

2 2

1

y = sin2 x) over [0, 2] is . Thus, the

2

1

2

2

average of y = k sin x is k 2 .

2

rms = k/ 2 , as in part a.

average of y =

y (mg)

300

y av = 158.68...

200

100

Two times

x (h)

1

272

2005 Key Curriculum Press

and rms for one arch of the graph, that is,

over [0, ].

1

yav =

|sin x | dx

0

1

=

sin x dx (because sin x 0 in [0, ])

0

1

2

= cos x =

0

1

2

dav =

(|sin x | 2/ ) 2 dx 0.094715K

0

rms 0.0947151/2 = 0.3077

The maximum distance between high and low

points for this curve is 1; a sinusoidal curve

with maximum distance 1 between high and

1

low points has equation y = sin x, with

2

rms = 2 /4 = 0.3535K(using part a). This

number is greater than the rms for |sin x|,

so |sin x| is smoother.

downstream.

2.

100

100 x

30

1

1

(100 x ) +

30 2 + x 2

13

12

The graph shows a minimum T at x 72.

T =

T

10

x

100

Algebraic solution:

1

1

T = + (30 2 + x 2 ) 1/2 2 x

13 24

1

1

=

T = 0

x (30 2 + x 2 ) 1/ 2

13 12

13x = 12(302 + x2)1/2

169x2 = 144 302 + 144x2

x = 72

The diver should swim for 100 72 = 28 m,

then dive.

Q1. x = 81

1

Q3. (100 x 2 )3/2 + C

3

1 2x 1 2x

Q5.

xe e + C

2

4

Q7. 1.5

Q9. t = 4

Q2. y = x(100 x 2) 1/ 2

Q4. y = 3 (1 9x2) 1/ 2

Q6. y = sech2 x

Q8. t = 1 and t = 4

Q10. A

3.

1000

1.

1000 x

300

50

C = 40(1000 x ) + 50 300 2 + x 2

The graph shows a minimum C at x 400

(exactly x = 400).

100 x

100

1

1

50 2 + x 2 + (100 x )

2

5

The graph shows a minimum T at x 22 m.

T=

C

100,000

T 100

x

1000

x

100

Algebraic solution:

1

1

T = (50 2 + x 2 ) 1/2 2 x

4

5

1

1

2

2 1/2

T = 0 (50 + x ) x =

2

5

5x = 2(502 + x 2)1/2

25x 2 = 4 502 + 4x 2

x = 100/ 21 = 21.8217K

2005 Key Curriculum Press

from the storage tanks, then straight across the

field to meet the well.

4.

120

400 x

400

273

The graph shows a minimum W at x 136

(exactly x = 360/ 7 = 136.067K).

9.

W

2,000,000

x

400

263.9 m parallel to the street, then cross

the street.

5. a. For minimal path, x = 100/ 21.

sin =

x

50 + x 2

2

x

sin =

= 0.8 = 40/50, Q .E.D .

300 2 + x 2

7. sin =

49,213

49,002

49,000

49,002

49,155

T (x )

x

500

900

domain. Because Calvin can walk entirely along

pavement when x = 0, there is a removable

discontinuity in the above function and

T(0) = 100 + 240 = 340 s. Because T(500) =

433.333 , which is greater than 340, the

minimum time is at x = 0. Calvins time is

minimized by staying on the sidewalks. If road

construction (for instance) prevented Calvin from

walking on Heights Street, his time would be

minimized by walking directly to Phoebes

house.

12

13

7 x 2 = 9 120 2 x = 360/ 7 = 136.067

The walkway should go 400 136.067

263.9 m parallel to the street, then cross the

street.

The algebraic solution is easier than before

because no algebraic calculus needs to be done.

Mathematicians find general solutions to gain

insight, and to find patterns and methods to allow

easier solution of similar problems.

300

390

400

410

500

500

s

, Q .E .D .

w

12

x = 30 tan sin 1 = 72

13

The diver should swim 100 72 = 28 m, then

dive. The algebraic solution is easier than before

because no algebraic calculus needs to be done.

Mathematicians find general solutions to gain

insight, and to find patterns and methods to allow

easier solution of similar problems.

x

3000 3

8. sin =

=

=

2

2

4000 4

120 + x

C(x), approximate

virtually no effect on the minimal cost. For

instance, missing the optimal value of x by

10 m will make about a $2 difference in cost,

and missing by 100 m makes only a $150 to

$200 difference.

1

1

10. T ( x ) = (500 x ) +

1200 2 + x 2

5

3

The graph shows a local minimum at x 900 ft

(exact: 900 ft), which is out of the domain.

walking = k x.

1 2

1

T=

p + x 2 + (k x )

s

w

x

1 1

1

T =

= sin

2

2

w s

w

s p +x

T = 0 sin =

11.

120

300 x

x

70

1

1

120 2 + x 2 +

70 2 + (300 x )2

50

130

The graph shows a minimum T at x 48 yd.

T=

x

300

274

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Algebraically:

x

300 x

T =

2

2

50 120 + x

130 70 2 + (300 x )2

Setting T = 0 and simplifying leads to a

fourth-degree equation, which must be solved

numerically. Minimum is at x = 47.8809

47.9 yd.

time between two points.

c. When you look at the object, your mind tells

you that the light rays go straight. Actually,

they are bent, as shown in the diagram. So

the object is deeper than it appears to be.

Because water < air, v water < v air.

12.

Apparent path

of light rays

Air

120 1

1

300 x

Apparent

depth

Actual path

of light rays

Water

70

Actual

depth

From Problem 11,

x

300 x

T =

2

2

50 120 + x

130 70 2 + (300 x )2

By trigonometry,

x

sin 1 =

,

120 2 + x 2

300 x

sin 2 =

2

70 + (300 x )2

1

1

T =

sin 1

sin 2

50

130

For minimal path, T = 0. Thus,

1

1

sin 1 =

sin 2

50

130

sin 1

50

=

, Q. E . D .

sin 2 130

1

1

a2 + x 2 +

b 2 + (k x )2

v1

v2

x

kx

T =

2

2

2

v1 a + x

v2 b + ( k x ) 2

13. T =

sin 1 =

sin 2 =

T =

Q1. f (x) = sin x + x cos x

Q3. xex ex + C

Q5. x

Q6.

Q2. g(x) = x 1

Q4. Snells law

Q7.

y

1

x

1

Q9. Newton and Leibniz

Q10. C

1

1. D = t + D = 1 t 2

t

The graphs show zero derivative and local

minimum of D at t = 1, and maximum of D at

t = 3.

3 D or D'

D

D'

t

a2 + x 2

kx

b 2 + (k x )2

1

1

sin 1 sin 2

v1

v2

1

1

sin 1 = sin 2

v1

v2

sin 1 v1

= , Q .E .D .

sin 2 v2

14. a. The light rays take the minimal time to get

from one point to another, just as Robinson

Crusoe wanted to take the minimal time to

get from hut to wreck.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Minimum is D(1) = 2, or 2000 mi.

1

Maximum is D(3) = 3 , or about 3333 mi.

3

2. Fuel cost per mile = k v2.

At v = 30, cost = 0.18.

1

0.18 = k 30 2 k =

5000

100 2000

Driver cost is 20t = 20

=

.

v

v

2000

v2

2000 v 2

C=

+

100 =

+

v

5000

v

50

2000 v

C = 2 +

v

25

Problem Set 10-5

275

C is multiplied by 10 so that it is easier to see

its behavior around C = 0.

C = 0 at v = 103 50 = 36.8403

C or C' times 100

C

100

v

85 100

37

C' times 10

f (x) = 1 2x; f (x) = 0 at x = 0.5;

f (x) = 2, so graph is concave down

everywhere.

Maximum of f (x) is at x = 0.5.

4. Maximize f (x) = x x 2 for x 2.

The graph shows maximum at endpoint x = 2.

f (x )

less.

6. a. = 130 12T + 15T 2 4T 3 , 0 T 3

d

= 12 + 30T 12T 2 = 6(2T 1)(T 2)

dT

d

= 0 at T = 0.5 or T = 2

dT

(0) = 130

(0.5) = 127.25

(2) = 134

(3) = 121

Maximum viscosity occurs at T = 2, or 200.

b. Minimum viscosity = 121 centipoise at

T = 3, or 300.

c.

d d dT

=

dt dT dt

Because T = t ,

When T = 1,

dT

1

1

=

=

.

dt 2 t 2T

dT

d

= 0.5 and

= 6.

dt

dT

d

= 0.5(6) = 3

dt

Viscosity is increasing at 3 centipoise/min.

7. a. Put a coordinate system with origin at the

center of the cones base. Pick a sample point

(x, y) where the cylinder touches the element

of the cone. Thus, x is the radius of the

cylinder and y is its altitude. The volume and

surface area are

V = x 2y

A = 2 x 2 + 2 x y

The cone element has equation y = 0.6x + 6.

V = x 2(0.6x + 6) = (0.6x3 + 6x2)

A = 2 x 2 + 2 x(0.6x + 6)

= (0.8x2 + 12x)

there is no number greater than 2 that exceeds its

square.

100t

9

900t

5. a. S =

;F=

;G =

t +1

t+9

(t + 1)(t + 9)

The graph shows a maximum of G at t = 3

hours.

y

S

G

50

F times 20

t

10

900t

900t

= 2

(t + 1)(t + 9) t + 10t + 9

900(t 2 + 10t + 9) 900t (2t + 10)

G =

(t 2 + 10t + 9)2

900(9 t 2 )

= 2

(t + 10t + 9)2

G = 0 t = 3

Because G changes from positive to negative

at t = 3, there is a local maximum there, as

in the graph.

Fran should study for 3 hours.

c. Optimum grade = G(3) = 56.25 56 (Not

good!)

i. G(4) = 55.3846 55, about 1 point

less.

b. G =

276

y

600

A

V

x

10

occurs where the radius x 6.7 in. The

maximum area occurs at x = 10, where all of

the area is in the two bases of the cone.

Algebraically,

V = ( 1.8x2 + 12x)

2

V = 0 x = 0 or x = 6

3

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Maximum V is at x = 6

2

in., as shown on

3

A = (1.6x + 12)

A = 0 x = 7.5, which is out of the

domain.

A(0) = 0 and A(10) = 200, so maximum A

is at x = 10 in., as shown on the graph, and

y = 0 in.

The maximum volume and maximum area do

not occur at the same radius.

Note that the radius of the cone is large

compared to its altitude. Thus, the increase in

areas of the two bases of the cylinder offsets

the decrease in its lateral area as x increases,

making the maximum area that of the

degenerate cylinder of altitude zero.

8. a. Put a coordinate system with origin at the

center of the cones base. Pick a sample point

(x, y) where the cylinder touches the element

of the cone. Thus, x is the radius of the

cylinder and y is its altitude.

dy

dV

Know:

= 2 in./min. Want:

.

dt

dt

V = x 2y

The cone element has equation y = 3x + 18,

1

from which x = 6 y.

3

2

1

1

V = 6 y y = 36 y 4 y 2 + y 3

3

9

1

1

dV

= 36 8 y + y 2 = ( y 6)( y 18)

3 3

dy

dV dV dy 2

=

= ( y 6)( y 18)

dt

dy dt 3

dV

When y = 12,

= 24 .

dt

V is decreasing at 24 = 75.3982

75.4 in.3/min.

b. If t [0, 9], then y [0, 18].

dV

= 0 y = 6 or y = 18

dt

V(0) = 0; V(6) = 96 ; V(18) = 0

Maximum V is 96 in.3 at t = 3 min.

c. If t [4, 6], then y [8, 12].

No critical points for V are in [8, 12].

V(8) = 88.8888; V(12) = 48

Maximum V is 88.8888 279.3 in.3 at

t = 4 min.

dV

dy

= 0.7 m 3 /min. Want: .

9. Know:

dt

dt

dV = x2 dy

dV

dy

dy 0.7

= x 2

=

dt

dt

dt x 2

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

Because y = x 4 + 5, x = 4 3 .

dy 0.7

=

= 0.1286 K 0.129 m/min

dt 3

10. a. Pick a sample point (x, y) where the cylinder

touches the parabola. Thus, the radius of the

cylinder is x and its altitude is y.

dx

dV

Know:

= 0.3. Want:

.

dt

dt

V = x 2y = x 2(4 x 2) = (4x 2 x 4)

dV

dx

= (8 x 4 x 3 )

= 1.2 (2 x x 3 )

dt

dt

dV

When x = 1.5,

= 0.45 .

dt

dV

b.

= 4 (2 x x 3 )

dx

dV

= 0 x = 0, 2 ( 2 is out of domain)

dx

V (0) = V (2) = 0; V ( 2 ) = 4

Maximum volume = 4 12.6 units3 at

radius = 2 units.

11. a. w = 1000 + 15t (lb); p = 0.90 0.01t ($/lb)

A = (1000 + 15t)(0.90 0.01t)

= 900 + 3.5t 0.15t2 ($)

dA

35

2

b.

= 3.5 0.3t = 0 at t =

= 11 days

dt

3

3

2

Maximum A at t = 11 , not a minimum,

3

dA

because

goes from positive to negative

dt

there.

2

5

c. A 11 = 920 $920.42

3

12

12. a. 0 D 130 0 20x + 10 130

1

x6

2

0 W 310 0 10(x 2 8x + 22)

310 1 x 9

Given x 1, the domain of x is [1, 6].

b. Minimize/maximize W on x [1, 6].

dW

= 10(2 x 8) = 0 at x = 4.

dx

W(1) = 150; W(4) = 60; W(6) = 100

Minimum: W = 60 ft (at x = 4 mi)

Maximum: W = 150 ft (at x = 1 mi)

c. C = k D W

= k (20x + 10) 10(x 2 8x + 22)

= 100k(2x3 15x2 + 36x + 22)

(k > 0)

dC

2

= 100 k (6 x 30 x + 36)

dx

= 600 k ( x 2)( x 3)

dC

= 0 x = 2 or x = 3

dx

Problem Set 10-5

277

C(6) = 13,000k

Cheapest bridge at x = 1 mi.

d. No. The shortest bridge at x = 4 mi would

cost C(4) = 5400k, which is 900k more than

the cheapest bridge at x = 1.

Q1. x cos x + sin x + C Q2. 2xe3x + 3x2e3x

2x

Q3.

+C

Q4. 53 = 125

ln 2

1 4

6 sec 2 6t 2

x +7

Q6.

= sec 2 ln x 2

4

3e 3t

x

Q7. parametric

Q8. x ln x x + C

Q9. x2

Q10. E

1. The velocity is tangent to the path, the

acceleration is toward the concave side of the

path, and there is an obtuse angle between

acceleration and velocity.

Q5.

acceleration is toward the concave side of the

path, and there is an acute angle between the

acceleration vector and the velocity vector.

y

r

r

r

3. a. r = (e t cos t ) i + (e t sinr t ) j

r

r

v = (e t cos t e t sin t ) i + (e t sin t + e t cos t ) j

r

r

r

v (1) = 0.8186 Ki + 3.7560 j

x is decreasing at t = 1 because dx/dt is

negative.

Speed = 0.8186 K2 + 3.7560...2 =

3.8442 3.84 cm/s

b. L =

1

t

s2 (1) = 1.52 + 1.52 2.12 cm/s

b. Distance =

12 + [2(t 2)]2 dt

6.1257 6.13 m

c. The paths cross at (x, y) = (1,

r 1) and (2, 4).

By tracing on the grapher, r1 is at (1, 1)

r

when t = 1, but r2 is not at (1, 1) until

t = 2.

By further tracing, both paths are at (2, 4)

when t = 4.

So the particles collide only at (x, y) = (2, 4)

when t = 4.

r

r

r

5. a. r (t ) = (10 sin 0.6t )i + ( 4 cos 1.2t ) j

r

r

r

v (t ) = (6 cos 0.6t )i + ( 4.8 sin 1.2t ) j

r

r

r

a (t ) = ( 3.6 sin 0.6t )i + ( 5.76 cos 1.2t ) j

r

r

r

b. r (0.5) = (10 sin 0.3)i + ( 4 cos 0.6) j

r

r

= 2.9552 i + 3.3013 j

r

r

r

v (0.5) = (6 cos 0.3)i + ( 4.8 sin 0.6) j

r

r

= 5.7320 i 2.7102 j

r

r

r

a (0.5) = ( 3.6 sin 0.3)i + ( 5.76 cos 0.6) j

r

r

= 1.0638i 4.7539 j

r r

r

The graph shows r , v , and a at t = 0.5.

y

t = 0.5

at

v

x

an a

t=7

v

2e 2 t dt = 2 (e 1) = 2.4300 K 2.43

= (e1 cos1)2 + (e1 sin 1)2

= e = 2.7812 2.78 cm

278

distance from the origin because the particle

started at (1, 0), not at (0, 0).)

r

r

r

c. a = ( 2e t sin t )i + (2e t cos t ) j .

r

r

r

a (1) = ( 4.5747...) i + (2.9373...) j

r

r

r

4. a. r1 = (t 2)i + (t 2) 2 j and

r

r

r

r2 = (1.5t 4)i + (1.5t 2) j

r

r

r

r

r

r

v1 = 1i + 2(t 2) j and v2 = 1.5i + 1.5 j

r

r

r

r

r

r

a1 = 0i + 2 j and a2 = 0i + 0 j

r

r

r

r

r

r

v1 (1) = i 2 j and v2 (1) = 1.5i + 1.5 j

r

r

r

r

r

r

a1 (1) = 0i + 2 j and a2 (1) = 0i + 0 j

r

r

r is on the graph, v is tangent to the graph,

r

and a points to the concave side of the graph.

c. The object is speeding up because the angle

r

r

between a and v is acute.

Calculus Solutions Manual

2005 Key Curriculum Press

r

d. | v(0.5) | = (6 cos 0.3)2 + (4.8 sin 0.6)2

= 6.3404

r

r

a (0.5) v (0.5) = ( 3.6 sin 0.3)(6 cos 0.3)

+ (5.76 cos 0.6)(4.8 sin 0.6)

= 6.7863 , so the angle is acute.

r

r

a (0.5) v (0.5)

P=

= 1.0703

r

|v (0.5)|

r

r

v (0.5)

at (0.5) = P r

| v (0.5)|

r

r

(6 cos 0.3)i + (4.8 sin 0.6) j

=P

r

| v (0.5)|

r

r

= 0.9676 i 0.4575 j

r

r

r

an (0.5) = a (0.5) at (0.5)

r

r

= 2.0314 i 4.2964 j

See the graph in part b.

r

e. The object is speeding up at | at (0.5)| = P

= 1.0703 1.07 (ft/s)/s.

r

r

r

f. r (7) = (10 sin 4.2)ri + ( 4 cos 8.4r) j

= 8.7157i 2.0771 j

r

r

r

v (7) = (6 cos 4.2)i + ( 4.8 sin 8.4) j

r

r

= 2.9415i 4.1020 j

r

r

r

a (7) = ( 3.6 sin 4.2)i + ( 5.76 cos 8.4) j

r

r

= 3.1376 i + 2.9911 j

See the graph in part b.

The object is slowing down because the

r

r

angle between ra andr v is obtuse.

a (7) v (7)

(Note that P =

= 4.2592 , so

r

| v (7)|

the object is slowing down at 4.2592

4.26 (ft/s)/s.)

r

r

r

r

r

g. r (0) = (10 sin 0)i + ( 4 cos 0) j = 0i + 4 j

r

r

r

r

r

v (0) = (6 cos 0)i + ( 4.8 sin 0) j = 6i + 0 j

r

r

r

a (0) = ( 3.6 sin 0)i + ( 5.76 cos 0) j

r

r

= 0i 5.76 j

r

r

a (0) v (0) = (0)(6) + ( 5.76)(0) = 0

r

r

a(0) and v(0) are perpendicular, Q.E.D.

This means the object is neither slowing

down nor speeding up at t = 0.

r

r

r

6. a. r (t ) = (8 cos 0.8t )i + (6 sin 0.4t ) j

r

r

r

v (t ) = ( 6.4 sin 0.8t )i + (2.4 cos 0.4t ) j

r

r

r

a (t ) = ( 5.12 cos 0.8t )i + ( 0.96 sin 0.4t ) j

r

r

r

b. r (1) = (8 cos 0.8)i + (6 sin 0.4) j

r

r

= 5.5736 i + 2.3365 j

r

r

r

v (1) = ( 6.4 sin 0.8)i + (2.4 cos 0.4) j

r

r

= 4.5910 i + 2.2105 j

r

r

r

a (1) = ( 5.12 cos 0.8)i + ( 0.96 sin 0.4) j

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