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Name ________________________

Period ______

Grade 8

English - First Semester Study Guide


I. Academic and Text Vocabulary
allegory:
alliteration:
analogy:
antonym:
archetype:
authors purpose:
authors style/voice:
tone:

(mood):

diction:

imagery:

syntax:

organization:

point of view:
-

first person:

third-person limited:

Characters
major characters:
minor characters:
protagonist:
antagonist:
character analysis:
Conflict:
internal

man vs. self

external

man vs. man

man vs. nature

man vs. society

compare/Contrast:
concise:
context:
connotation:
definition essay:
denotation:
diction:
flashback:
foreshadowing:
Heros Journey (How is the Heros Journey similar to the Plot?)
Stage 1: Departure

The Call to Adventure

Refusal of the Call

The Beginning of the Adventure

Stage 2: Initiation

The Road of Trials

The Experience with Unconditional Love

The Ultimate Boon

Stage 3: Return

Refusal of the Return

The Magic Flight

Rescue from Without

The Crossing, or Return Threshold

inference:
internal rhyme:
negate:

Plot:

exposition

setting

complications/rising action

climax

falling action

resolution/denouement

Quotation:
direct

indirect

simile:
situational irony:
symbolism:
synecdoche:
synonym:
theme:
thesis
II. Conventions, Grammar & Usage
A. Sentence Types According to Structure
1. simple sentence
= 1 independent clause
2. compound sentence
= 2+ independent clauses
3. complex sentence
= 1 independent and 2+ dependent clauses

phrase

clause

independent clause

conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

B. Sentence Types According to Mood


1. declarative
(.)
2. imperative
(. or !)
3. interrogative
(?)
4. exclamatory
(!)

a statement
a _______________________________
a _______________________________
a _______________________________

C. Sentence Types According to Arrangement


1. participle
2. gerund
D. Parallel Structure
examples: I came, I saw, I conquered. (Julius Caesar)
She told Cinderella to finish her sewing, her baking, and her cleaning before the ball.
E.

Sentence Parts
subject
verb
adjective
adverb
subject complement

III. Writing
A. Basic Essay
Introduction
Hook (bold statement, thought-provoking question, quote, anecdote):
Commentary:
Thesis:
Body Paragraphs
Topic Sentence:
Support/Evidence:
Detail:
Transitions:
Conclusion
Summary:
B. Definition essay:
Definition strategies
function:
example:
negation:

demonstrate how heroism functions or operates in the real world


using examples to help the reader understand your definition
explain what something is by showing what it is not

IV. Root Words


VOC/VOK

FA

PHOT/PHOS

SPEC/SPECT

NUNC/NOUNC

LUC

VID/VIS

DIC/DICT

affable

edict

infantile

provocative

indicted

renounce

invoke

enunciate

dictums

ineffable

pronouncements

revoke