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Regents Chemistry

Midterm Review Sheet


Topic 1 : Intro to Chem
1. Draw the density triangle:
2. If mass = 35.0 g and volume is 75 ml, calculate the density.

3. If volume is 100 ml and density is 2 g/ml, calculate the mass.

Topic 2: Matter

Use the key to draw diagrams of the following:


1.

an element

1.

4. Mixture of 2 elements

1.

KEY:

Atom A

2. A diatomic element

1.

5. Mixture of 2 diatomic elements

1.

Atom B

3. A compound

1.

6. Mixture of 2 compounds

1.

7. Mixture of 1 compound and 1 element

8. Mixture of 1 diatomic element & 2 compounds

1.

1.
9. Draw a possible combination of the 2 substances that
physical change.

1.

1.

results in a

1.

10. Draw a possible combination of the 2 substances that results in a chemical change.

1.

1.

1.

11. Draw a possible combination of the 2 substances that results in a homogeneous mixture.

1.

1.

1.

12. Draw a possible combination of the 2 substances that results in a heterogeneous mixture.

1.

1.

1.

13. Draw a possible combination of the 2 substances that results in a compound.

1.

1.

1.

14. a. Describe the differences between the following substances:


H2O(s)
H2O(l)

H2O(g)

b. Draw at least six particles to represent each substance.


H2O(s)

H2O(l)

1.

H2O(g)

1.

15. Describe what you can tell about the following substance:

1.
NaCl(aq)

a. Is this a pure substance or a mixture?


b. Is this substance homogeneous or heterogeneous?
c. What does the subscript (aq) tell you about the substance?

16. How is kinetic energy related to temperature?

17. (Circle correct choices) When two substances are mixed, they (retain, lose) their individual
physical properties. When two substances are chemically combined, they (retain, lose) their
individual physical properties.

18. Define:
a. sublimation:
b. Filtration:
c. distillation:

19. If there is a mixture of saltwater and sand, describe the physical processes needed to
separate the mixture into salt, sand and water.

20. Write the 3 Heat formulas from the back page of your CRT:

a. 400 joules of heat are absorbed by a 25.0 g sample of water. If the beginning
temperature was 18 C, find the final temperature of the water.

b. How much heat is gained by a 100 g sample of water during vaporization?

c. A sample of ice absorbs 4000 joules of heat as it melts. Find the mass of the ice.

21. What is the smallest particle that cannot be decomposed by chemical means? __________

Topic 3: The Atom


1. Complete:
Scientist Name

Theory/Experiment

Main Points of Theory

Drawing of Atom

Dalton

Thomson

Rutherford

Bohr

Present

2. a. Write the ground state electron configuration of magnesium: _______________


b. Write a possible electron configuration of magnesium in the excited state:_________
c. Describe the movement of electrons and the changes in energy that cause excited
atoms to emit light:

3. Draw the Bohr model for an atom of aluminum:

4. Compare the amount of energy in each shell of the aluminum atom:


5. Complete:
Charge
proton
neutron

Mass

Location

electron

6. Identify the elements present in Spectra A, B and C below:

Topic 4: Periodic Table


1. Define:
a. Mass number
b. Atomic mass
c. Atomic number
d. Isotope
e. Allotrope
f. Period
g. Group

2. What number defines an element and can never change? _______________________


3. When only the number of neutrons changes, what is this called? _________________
4. When the number of electrons changes, what is formed? ______________________
5. Elements are most similar to other elements in the same ______________________
6. Define:
a. electronegativity
b. first ionization energy
c. How does atomic radius change across a period?_____________ group?___________
d. How does electronegativity change across a period?__________ group?__________
e. How does ionization energy change across a period?___________group?__________
7. What is the melting point of iron? ______________ Convert into C_____________
8. What is the charge on an ion that contains: 5 electrons, 7 protons and 8 neutrons?____
Name this element___________ Mass Number __________ Nuclear Charge________
9. What is the charge on an ion that contains: 8 electrons, 6 protons and 6 neutrons?____
Name this element___________ Mass Number __________ Nuclear Charge________
10. Describe what happens to the size of an atom of a metal when it becomes an ion.

11. Describe what happens to the size of an atom of a nonmetal when it becomes an ion.

Topic 5: Chemical Bonding


Type of Bonds

Forms
Between

EN Difference

Type of Bonds

Ionic

Metallic

Nonpolar Covalent

Hydrogen

Polar Covalent

Dipole-Dipole

Forms Between

2. In a covalent bond, each bond () indicates how many shared electrons? _____

3. Draw the Lewis Dot Diagrams for a fluorine atom and for a molecule of fluorine:

a. Which substance is more stable? ________________________ Why?


4. Which substance is more polar, HI or HF? Explain.

5. Draw a Lewis electron dot diagram and a structural model for methane:

Topic 6: Organic Chemistry


1. If organic compounds have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas,
they are called ____________________ and they have (different/the same) chemical
properties.
2. Describe how to tell the difference between a saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon.
3. Define the following reactions:
a. Combustion
b. Substitution
c. Addition
d. Esterification
e. Saponification
f. Fermentation
g. Polymerization
4. What happens to the boiling and melting points as additional carbons are added to
hydrocarbons?

5. If intermolecular forces are strong, boiling/melting point is (high/low). If intermolecular


forces are weak, boiling/melting point is (high/low).