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1.

The graph shows the change in the diameter of developing ovarian follicles and a corpus luteum
in a human ovary over 40 days.

11
10
9
8
Diameter/mm 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Time/days
Corpus luteum
Follicles

(a)

When would fertilisation be most likely to occur? Explain your answer.


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(2)

(b)

Describe two pieces of evidence which show that fertilisation did not occur during the 40
days.
(i)

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(ii)

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(2)

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(c)

One type of infertility can be treated by using a drug called clomiphene.


Clomiphene works by preventing the negative feedback of hormone X on FSH
production.
(i)

Name hormone X.
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(1)

(ii)

Explain how excess hormone X can cause infertility.


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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

2.

(a)

Describe the role of hormones in controlling the development of the changes associated
with puberty in girls.
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(6)

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(b)

The diagram shows the way in which hormones control the first part of the menstrual
cycle.

Anterior lobe of
pituitary gland
FSH
Ovary
Oestrogen
Target organs

(i)

Some oral contraceptives contain oestrogen. Using information from the diagram,
explain how these oral contraceptives function.
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(3)

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(ii)

The ovaries of women who have passed through the menopause no longer contain
active follicles. The concentration of oestrogen and of FSH in the blood change
after menopause. Use information from the diagram to explain why.
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(3)
(Total 12 marks)

3.

The graph shows changes in the concentration of oestrogen and progesterone in the blood of a
girl going through puberty.

Menstruation

Oestrogen
concentration

Progesterone
concentration
F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J
1994
1995
Time in years and months

(a)

The first ovulation usually takes place late in puberty. Suggest the advantage of this.
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(1)

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(b)

(i)

In which year and month did this girl first ovulate?


....................year....................month
(1)

(ii)

Explain the evidence from the graph that supports your answer to (c) (i).
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(2)
(Total 4 marks)

4.

Mitochondria contain the genes needed for the synthesis of the enzymes involved in the electron
transport chain. One of these enzymes is cytochrome oxidase. If a mutation occurs during
replication of the mitochondrial genes, functional cytochrome oxidase may not be produced.

Explain why mutation of a mitochondrial gene might result in no functional cytochrome oxidase
being produced.
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(Total 5 marks)

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