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The Circulatory System

Junior Science

Components of the
Circulatory System
Heart
Blood
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries

What is Blood?
Blood is a tissue composed of Plasma and

Blood cells.
It travels around the body in over 75,000

miles of arteries, veins and capillaries.


The arteries and capillaries transport

oxygen from the lungs, Capillaries and


Veins remove carbon dioxide from the
cells, Plasma carries nutrients, hormones
and water to all parts of the body.

Function of the Blood


Transportation
oxygen from lungs to tissues.
carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs.
waste products (Urea) from the liver to the

kidneys
Nutrients from the small intestine to the tissues.
Distribution of hormones.
Acts as a heat and temperature regulator.

Defence
Protects the body against infection and foreign
material
Forms clots

Components of Blood
Plasma (55%)
Blood Cells (45%)
Plasma is a pale yellow fluid that

consists of about 92% water and


8% other substances, such as
proteins, hormones, nutrients,
gases, and waste products.

Blood Cells

Red blood cells carry


oxygen, contained in the
protein haemoglobin.
1 cm3 of human blood
contains about 5 million red
blood cells.
They are formed in the bone
marrow.
The average life span is120
days,

White blood cells kill bacteria ,


combat infections / allergies
Ratio of red to white Cells
600 : 1.
Formed in bone marrow, the
spleen, liver, and lymph
nodes,.ifespan of white
Life span13 to 20 days,

Platelets are small round


fragments of cytoplasm
with no nucleus,
Ration of red to platelets
20:1
About one-third the size of
red blood cells.
They are formed in the
bone marrow.
Life Span 10 days

Blood Vessels
Blood flows throughout our body in blood
vessels. There are three main categories
of vessels:
Arteries
thick, muscular walls
carry blood away from the heart

Veins
thin, stretchy, muscular walls
return blood to the heart

Capillaries
tiny blood vessels
connect arteries and veins
carry blood to the cells of the body

Arteries, Capillaries and Veins

Arteries
and Veins

Muscles movement and veins

Veins

The Heart in Action


The average heart beats
- 72 times per minute,
- 100,000 times per day,
- 38 million times per year,
- 2.5 billion times in a life time.
An average heart pumps about
- 70 ml of blood per heartbeat.
- 7,200 litres of blood per day,
- 2.6 million litres per year
- 184 million litres by the time you die.
Impressive for a little pump weighing just 300 grams!!

Pulmonary
and
Systemic
Circulation

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation


Blood is transported to the lungs via
the pulmonary artery.

Gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs


Oxygenated blood is returned
to the heart via the Pulmonary vein.

Oxygenated blood is then


circulated around the
body (systemic circulation)
via the Aorta.

The Heart Interior Structure


Aorta
Vena Cava
to the lungs
Right Atrium

(Pulmunary Artery)

from the lungs


(Pulmunary Vein)

Left Atrium

Valve
(Tricuspid)

Valve
(Bicuspid)

Right Ventricle

Left Ventricle

Septum

Summary

The circulatory system consists of blood, arteries, veins


capillaries and the heart.
Blood consists of plasma and cells (Red, White and Platelets)
Blood transports vital oxygen and nutrients and protects
from disease.
The heart is a pump made from cardiac muscle and consists
of four chambers right and left atrium, right and left
ventricles.
The Vena cava bring oxygen deficient blood to the heart.
The Aorta pumps oxygen rich blood from the heart around
the body.

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