You are on page 1of 473

www.alfalahuni.edu.

af
.


) (

.

10

11

13

17

21

( )

23

25

27

27

32

33

34

38

44

46

47

51

52

52

53

92

95

96

97

99

100

104

108

111

113

116

117

118

118

126

127

130

133

BS FS

140

142

155

157

Reduced level

161

164

Reduced level

165

(Road and Rail way

165

175

180

181

182


GPS

188

GPS

188

GPS

189

GPS

191

193

193

194

195

197

198

199

200

203

205

207

210

214

217

217

220

221

222

235

241

244

247

252

252

253

253

254

255

256

256

258

265

268

270

272

273

277

281

281

282

283

285

288

290

292

293

293

294

297

300

304

307

309

309

310

spot level

328

334

334

335

338

342

342

343

344

345

348

348

350

354

358

359

360

360

360

361

361

362

364

364

366

367

370

374

377

378

378

381

382

384

384

384

388

395

400

405

408

410

410

412

412

417

418

425

.
.
. .
.
. .

. .
.

. .


.
.
.. .
. .

. .
.
.
. . .



Email: - ikraam2015@yahoo.com

. .
.
.


. . .. .
. .
..

.
.


. . .
. . .
.

.

.
. . .


-.
17Nov2014

)(CHAPTER#1
INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
-:SURVEYING DEFINATION


)(Details
.
-:LEVLEING DEFINATION

.
.


.




.
History of Survey -:
DOOMSDAY BOOK Willaim
1086
.


.


)National Geodetic Survey (NGS
)Bureau of Land Management (BLM
)The US Geological Survey (USGS
)The Defence Mapping Agency(DMA
)US Army Corps of Engineers(COE

OBJECT OF SURVEYIN

-:PLAN

.
- MAP




-:
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY-:

.
-:Cadastral survey



-:Engineering Map

.
Military Map


Contour Map-:

.
Geological Map


Archeological Map

.
Classification of Surveying

Geodetic Survey -:
4


.


1800


25okm2 .

Plane Survey



5


180 .

Secondary Classification of Surveying:


Ocean survey
Astronomical survey
Surveying of earth

Archeological survey
Geological survey
Mine survey
Military survey


Chain or Tape survey
Compass survey
Plane table surveying
6

Theodolite survey
Tachometric survey
photographic survey
Aerial survey

Electronic Equipment
survey:-


topographic survey

.
Cadastral survey

.
City survey

.

Engineering survey



7

Reconnaissance Survey


Preliminary survey

.
Construction survey

.

Triangulation survey

Traversing


.

-:
Funemental principle of surveying:8


.
Work from whole to a part
Take extra care in fixing new control point

work from whole to a part -:






.

TAKE EXTRA CARE IN FIXING NEW CONTROL POINT:-



. x y

Distance Measurement
-:Distance


10

.

Direct Method
Indirect Method

-:
Direct method for measurement of distance:

pacing method-:

.


80cm.
30

11


.
AB


)(m
30


35.5


32.9

34.4

34.267

87cm

-:By passometer

.

-:By speedometer
.

12

by parambulator-:


-:Chain


.
judge ment-:
.
Time management-:
3km
30min1.5km
.

Accessories for liner measurement:-

13

chain
-:
-:Ranging rod

.
25mm
2m 20cm
.
-:Ranging pole


4-8m 60mm-100mm 0.5m

14

-:Offset Rod
3m

.
90
90
.

15

Arrows


4mm
400mm .
Pegs


16

50mmx50mm 400mm
.

Plumb bob-:


.

17

:Laths-
0.5-1.0m


.
Chain
100150 4mm



1025 tallies

18

Chain

Metric Chain
Steel Chain

Engineer chain

Gunters Chain
Revenue Chain
2030 20m100link
0.2m 10 tallies

19

20

-:Steal Band
16mm
20,30m


.
-: Engineering Chain
100ft 100links
link1ft talley10link
talley
.
gunters chain -:
66ft 100links
1link=0.66ft
.
-:Revenue Chain
33ft 16link
.

21


chain have the following
advantage -:
.
.
chain have the following
disadvantage -:
-:
.
-:
.
-:
.

tape-:
Clothes or linen tape
Metallic tape
Steel tape
Invar tape
Clothes Tape-:

15mm 10,15m
22



metallic tape -:

metallic tape
15,20,and 30m
.
steel tape -:
(6-16)mm
50m

and

10,15,20,30

m,dm,cm


.
-:Invare tape
64% 36%


30,50 and 100m

23

triangulation
.

-: Ranging

.
.
.
Direct ranging
Indirect ranging
-:direct method of ranging

A B
A B

.C
A 2m
AB C

AB ABC
.

24

-:
Indirect method of ranging: A B
A B
M1 N1 AB
M1 AN1
AM2N1 B N1
N2

25

Folding and unfolding of chain:unfolding the chain





.

26

-: folding the chain







.

-: Testing of chain



test gauge
20
8kg test gauge

27

20-30m


Degree of Accuracy in chaining:
1/5000 5000
1m .


Obstacle in Chaining: .
-:
28

(
)
-:
(
)
-:

-:obstacle to ranging

.

29

obstacle to chaining -:

,,
CB
.

-: AB CD EB
CD=EB DE=CB
.

30

-: AB CD
CD DB .
=CB
-: CD DB
DB CD
=CB
-:F FE=CF
FD =FB CB=DE.

-: F
ED CF=n DF BF=n EF
DE .

CB= n DE

31

-:
CB .
E D C
CE,DB,EBCD, BDE

-:


.
-:AC BD
BD=ACCDF
CF EG FH
32

EG=FH=AC
BG=DE
-:BCAB A
CDH

AD=DH EDH
DE=CDEG=CB HG=AB

.
Method of chaining on level ground:-

33







.
.


Method of chaining on sloping ground:
.
.
1.2.
direct method -:


Step slope .

34

indirect method -:
stepping slope method

By measuring the slope with a clinometer
By applying hypotenusal allowance
By knowing the difference of level between the points


Measurement the slope with a Clinometer-:

35

P1 P2
. O
.
C D
C D
C1 D1
CC1=DD1 C1
p1.p2 D1


CD .

CB=L*COS

36

By applying hypotenuse allowance: i


hypotenuse Abney level
. allowance
=angle of slope measured by clinometer or abney level

37

)100(sec-1

B1 .


.
Knowing the difference of level: A,B,C,D

h1,h2,h3,h4
AB,BC,CD .

=AB1
=BC1
38

=CD1

Total horizontal distance=AB1+BC1+CD1

Setting Out Straight Line




.
setting out straight line our
short distance -:

39

-:step 1
12a BA
A2m
A B
.
step 2-:
CA B
A



Setting out straight lines over a hill:40

step1 -:
C D
A B
C D A B
BC D
A
.
41

step 2 -:
AC1C2
AC2 .

42

step3-:BD1D2
BD2
.

43

-:step4
CA D
. DB C

44


To find the height of an object by using only tape
and ranging rod:
.
45

PT
A B

T P
C D AC=BDCD
E .
C P
C,D1,P
D1 B
AB,AT,DD1 PEC D1DC
here CD=AB

PE/CE=DD1/CD
CE=AT
PE=DD1XEC/CD
PE=DD1XAT/AB

Height of tower =PE+ET

46

-:
Errors and mistake in chaining:error -:



.
-:mistake

.

47

-:


Temperature correction:

.
CT=(Tm-T0) L
Ct

Tm
T0
L


Pull correction:

.
Cp= (Pm-P0) xL/AE
48

Cp

Pm
P0
L
A
E


Slope correction (Ch.):
Ch =l-
, =Ch

49

)Ch=L (1-cos


Sag correction:
-:

)

=Cs



=Cs

50



Chain correction:-

.
Correction to incorrect length
(

True length of line (TL) =

L=standard length
L'=true length error
=Le (e=error in chain or tape, when its too long or short)

.

-:
Correction of incorrect area:True area = (L'/L)2x measured area

Hypotenusal allowance:51

)Hypotenusal allowance per tape=L(sec -1


L

hypotensual allowance
.

-:
Problem related to sloping ground:A B280m
10 .
8m .
Horizontal distance AB=280cos100=278.60m

52

Unites of Measurement

1foot=12 inch
5.5yards=1rod or pole
4pole= (66) Ft=1chain
1yard=3feet
1 inch=2.54cm

10chain=1furlong

8furlong=1mile

1mile=1760yard=5280feet=1.609km

1foot=0.3048m 10decamtere=1hectametre
10hectametre=1kilometre

53

100hectare=1km2

100m2=1are (a) 100ares=1hectare


640acres=1mile2
1hectere=2.47acres

-: Scale


.1mm
1m
1:1000 .

representative factor
)(RF

Representative factor (RF) = dmap/Dland
RF=1/1000



1cm=10m

54

RF>1:1000

RF=1/1000 and 1/10,000

RF<1/10,000

0.25mm
.

1-plain scale
2-daigonal scale

-:
Plain scale:

-: RF=1/500
66M
-:
20cm
500x20cm=100m

55

20cm 10
20mm
2mm 1m
. 66m60 m 70m
60 6m

-: diagonal scale



.
AB

56

AC90
AB
AC BC
AC BC
1-1

AB

6-6 AB .

62.6m .

57

=RF


-:
-:
20
327
3cm

58

-:
L=20m
e=3cm=0.03m
L=L+e =20+0.03=20.03m
Measured length=327m
True lengthof line= xML
X327=327.49m
-:
1cm=50m
3500m
1cm=100m

-:

1cm=100m

=Distance between stations on map

59

=35x50=1750m
-:
=True distance
= True distance
-:
1cm=40m

20cm. 19.5cm.
20m 5cm .
125.50cm2

-:

19.5cm 20cm
1cm cm1

=cm
)
)

)
)

(=1cm2

(=X125.50=132.0184cm2125.50cm2 was originally


60

1cm=40m
1cm2=1600m2
=1600x132.0184=211,229.44m2
0.05m
X211, 229.44=212,286.90m2=21.2286 hectare
-: 30m 20C0
10kg
15kg
32C0 780m
0.03cm2 0.693kg=11x10-6
E=2.1x106kg/cm2.
30m
15m

L=30m
A=0.03cm2
To=20C0
=11X10-6 per C0
Po=10kg
E=2.1x106kg/cm2
61

Pm=15kg
W=0.693kg
Tm=32C0
ML=780m
A -:
30m n=1

1

Ct=(Tm-To) L
)Ct=11x10-6(32-20) x30=0.00396m (+ve

2-

=Cp

=0.00238m
)

=Cp

2
=Cs
)Cs=30x (0.693)2/24x (15)2 =0.00267m (-ve

62

Total correction=0.00396+0.00238-0.00267=+0.00367m (too


)long
L'=L+e=30.00367m
=780.094m
B -:
15m n=2
.
.
.
.
=Sag correction
)=30x (0.693)2/24x22x (15)2 =0.00067m (-ve
Total correction=0.00396+0.00238-0.00067=+0.00567m (too
)long
L'=L+e=30.00567m
=780.147m
-:

63

20C0
15kg
30C0 pkg
0.22cm2
400gr E=2.1X10-
6Kg/cm2 =11x10-6C0.
p=10kg
L=20m
A=0.02cm2
To=20C0
=11X10-6 per C0
Po=15kg
E=2.1x106kg/cm2
P=10kg
W=0.4kg
Tm=30C0
n=1
p=10kg
Ct=(Tm-To) L

Temperature correction:-6

)Ct=11x10 (30-20) x20=0.00220m (+ve


Pull correction:-

64

=Cp

)Cp=0.00238m (-ve
Sag correction:Cs=LW2/24n2P2
)=20X (0.4)2/24X (10)2=0.00133M (-Ve
Total correction=+0.00220-0.00238-0.00133=-0.00151m
Correct horizontal distance=20-0.00151=19.99849m
-:
CD .
DE 87mD
E . EF EG
500 650EF,EG
DF

DEF
65

Cos500=DE/EF
EF=DE/Cos500=87/0.6428m=135.345m
Tang 500=DF/DE
DF=Tan500 DE=87X1.1918=103.68m
DEG
DE/DG=Cos650
EG=DE/Cos650=205.90m
-:
p Q
367m
P Q'N360 25'E N40035' W
PQ
S86035'E
-:

66

P Q
T
TAPQ TA
.
PA=X
AQ=367-X
=1800-(360 25 '+860 35')=570
=86 035'-40035'=460
67

PTA
TA
TA/PA=Tan--------------------1
TA=X tan570
QTA
TA/AQ=tan-----------------------2
TA=(367-X)tang 460

X tan570= (367-X) tang 460
1.5399X= (367-X) 1.0355
X=147.56m

TA=147.56X1.5399=227.229m
227.229m
-:

68

p Q
517m
P Q'N330 40'E N43020' W
PQ N780E

-:

69


P Q
T
TAPQ TA
.
PA=X
AQ=517-X
' = (780 -330 40') =440 20
' =1800-(43 020'+780) =580 40
PTA
TA/PA=Tan--------------------1
'TA=X tan440 20
QTA
TA/AQ=tan-----------------------2
'TA= (517-X) tang 580 40

'(517-X) tang 580 40'= X tan440 20
70

X=324.18m

TA=324.18X1.5399=316.724m
316.724m
-:
BAC A C
AAD
40m .AD DC
'480 30 '2880 30

BAC C
A 207.8m

71


-:
< ADC==FB of DC-BB of AD
=2880 30'-(480 30'+1800) =600
=90 -48030'=410 30'
Bearing of the chain line BAC=3600-410 30'=3180 30'

ADC

Tang=AC/AD
AC=40 tan600=69.284m
C
C=207.80+69.284=277.08m
-:

72

ABC
B CBM75m
B BM MC

'2870 15 '62015

<BMC= BB of BM-FB of MC
=(287015'-1800)-620 15' =450
MBC

Tang450=BC/BM
BC=BM tan450=75m

75m
-:

73

PQ A B

AC=250m AB .
AD=300m AB
C,B,D CB=100m
BD=150MAB

74

-:
ABCB C
A BE
50mB
AB=25m CA E
67030 and 1570 30C
B 275,5m
-:
75

-:
20m

-:

76

-:
A B280m A B

100
.1 1:10
.2A B 8m
77

-:

-:
30m

Angle of slope

Slope distance

150

28.7m

1 70

23.8m

100

20.6m

78

120

15.6m

0.02m

-:
550m .
150 20m
0.05m

-:

Horizontal distance AB=AB1 Cos150


=550x0.9659=531.25m
L'= (20+0.05)=20.05m
ML=531.25m
79

=532.6m
Truelength=
-:
12.0m,16.5m,and23.0m
well-conditioned
-:

1=acute angle opposite smallest side


2=obtuse angle opposite to greatest side
cos 1=232+16.52-122/2x23x16.5=0.866
1=300
cos 2=16.52+122-232/2x16.5x12=-0.2847
cos 2=-cos73027'
=cos (1800-730 27') =cos 106033'
-:
80

156.0m,103m,and257.0m
well-conditioned
-:

1=ac
ute
angle
opposi
te
smallest side
2=obtuse angle opposite to greatest side
cos 1=2572+1562-1032/2x257x156=0.9949
1=5048'
cos 2=1562+1032-2572/2x156x103=-0.9679
cos 2=-cos14033'
=cos (1800-14033') =cos 165027'
2=1650 27'
-:

81

6.0x6.25cm
93,750m2
1m


-:
93, 750m2

6x6.25cm2 represents

1cm2represents 93750/6x6.25=2500m2
=1cm
1cm=50m
=RF

14cm .
14cm=14x50=700m
14cm7 100m
10 .

82


-:
1.2km 30cm
)representative factor(RF
=RF
=RF
1cm=4000cm=40m

15cm
15cm=15x40=600m
15cm6 100m
-:

83

-:
0.45hectar

5cm2
5cm2=0.45hectare
=900m2

=1cm2
1cm=30m
RF=1/3000

400m .
=13.33cm

84

= Length of scale

-:

1m=2.5cm
6m

85

15cm 6
1m 10
1cm .

-:
30m
0.025m

Angle of slope

Slope distance

50

28.7m

70

23.4m

100

20.9m

120

29.6m

-:
AB=28.7Cos50=28.59m
86

B1C=23.4cos70=23.22m
C1D=20.9cos100=20.58m
D1E=29.6cos120=28.95m
Total distance=101.34m
L=30m
L'=30-0.025=29.975m
ML=101.34m
=101.25m

-:




-:

87

-:

:
P Q25m
842.6m '80 40

-:
1848.5m
64m

-:
P Q1350.60m P
1828m Q 1888m

-:

88

2648km 1cm=5m


-:


1m=2.5cm

-:
30m
0.025m

Angle of slope

Distance

50

28.7m

70

23.4m

100

20.9m

120

89

29.6m

-:
20
327
3cm

-:
1cm=50m
3500m
1cm=100m

-:
1cm=40m

20cm. 19.5cm.
20m 5cm .
90

125.50cm2

-:
30m 20C0
10kg
15kg 32C0
780m
0.03cm2 0.693kg=11x10-6
E=2.1x106kg/cm2.
30m
15m
-:
20C0
15kg
30C0 pkg
0.22cm2
400gr E=2.1X10-
91

6Kg/cm2 =11x10-6C0.
p=10kg
-:
CD .
DE 87mD
E . EF EG
500 650EF,EG
DF
-:
p Q
367m
P Q'N360 25'E N40035' W
PQ
S86035'E
-:

92

p Q
517m
P Q'N330 40'E N43020' W
PQ N780E

-:
BAC A C
AAD
40m .AD DC
'480 30 '2880 30

BAC C
A207.8m

-:
550m .
150 20m

93

0.05m

-:
12.0m,16.5m,and23.0m
well-conditioned
-:
156.0m,103m,and257.0m
well-conditioned
-:
6.0x6.25cm
93,750m2
1m


-:
0.45hectar

5cm2
-:
94

30m
0.025m


Chain Surveying
triangulation


300-1200
-:

(
)


95


Chain surveying is unsuitable when: .1
.2
.3
.4

96

-:
Large scale map and small scale map:1cm

-:
1cm=1m
RF=1/100
1cm
.
-:
1cm=100m
RF=1/10,000
RF1/500
.
RF 1/500
.


Well conditioned and ill conditioned traingles

300 1200 well

97

conditioned triangle .
best conditioned .

sharp

.
300 1200

ill conditioned traingles.

.

Reconnaissance survey and index sketch:




98


.


.

index skatchmain skatch


feild book
.

99

-:
Technical Terms Used in Chain Surveying:
.
-:stationsurvey
.

100

1. Main station
2. Subsidiary station
3. Tie station
Main Station -:


main survey line

A,B,C
)(------.
-:Subsidiary Station
main survey line

subsidairy lines

)S1,S2,S3Sn)
() .
-:Tie Station
Subsidairy station
tie station tie
101

line chain angle


chain traversing
triangulation .Tie station
T1,T2,T3,T4.
.
Base Line -:




.
Check Line -:


.

-: Selection of Station

102

300

-: Offset
chain line

offset
perpendicular offset oblique offset

offset .

Perpendicular Offset-:

103


.
.
Perpendicular offsets are preferred for the following reason

field book

The progress of survey is not hampered


.
Swinging
Using Cross staff
Optical square or prism square
By setting right angle in the ratio 3:4:5
By setting right angle with the help of builders square or tri
square

swinging :-

( )

104

Cross Staff -:
Cross Staff .
1. Open cross staff
2. French cross staff
3. Adjustable cross staff
:Open cross staff -
cross staff
a
:French cross staff-cross staff 900
450 .b
-Adjustable cross staff:cross staff
c
105

-:


)(3:4:5
builder square tri square

106

oblique offset-:


chain line

-: Number of Offset


.
.
.
107


fig
2.8.


fig
2.9.

zig zag


2.10

108


chainage fig2.11


a.b

c,d fig 2.12.



.fig2.13

109

zig zag


feild book.
fig 2.14


.fig 2.15

Limiting length of offsets


-:


15m
.
110


Problem related on length of offset: -:
50
1cm=20m


0.03cm
-:
AB 50
BC .
AB=L m

Maximum length of offset


From triangle ABC

)BC=AB sin50=Lsin50 m (displacement of the ground


1cm=20m
111

on the paper

There fore ,Lsin50 in the ground represent


According to the given condition,
=L

6.884m.

-:
15m
10m=1cm 30

1.
2.
-:
BC=displacement parallel to chain line
112

CD=displacement perpendicular to chain line


-:
CD=AD-AC=AB-AC
=15-15COS300
=15(1-Cos300) m (displacement on the ground)
1cm=10m
15(1-cos300) on the ground=
ground

=0.002cm on the

.0.002cm
-:
BC=ABsin300
=15sin300
=0.7850m (displacement on the ground)
1cm=10m
Displacement parallel to chain line=
paper.

113

=0.0785cm on the

-: degree of accuracy

.1 scale of plotting
2. permissible error in
plotting


80cm.


.

114


5m=1cm
0.02cm .
1cm on the map=500cm on the ground
0.02cm on the map=500x0.02=10cm on the ground
10cm .

-: selection of survey station


.
.1
.
.2 .
.3 well-
condationed .
.4

.5 .
.6


-: equipment used in chain survey

115

1. Metric chain (20m)= 1no


2. Arrow
=10nos
)3. Metallic tape(15m
=1no
4. Ranging rods
=3nos
5. Offset rod
=1no
6. Clinometer
=1no
7. Plumb bob eith thread
=1no
8. Cross staff or optical square =1no
9. Prismatic compass with stand =1no
10. Wooden pegs
=10nos
11. Mallet
=1no
12. Field book
=1no
13. Good pencil
=1no
14. Pen knife
=1no
)15. Erasr (rubber
=1no

-: feild book

field book


standard field book oblong book
200mmx120mm
. single line
field book

116

double line field


book
15-20mm

117

118

triangulation
-:

119

( field notes) -:

Chainage of line AB is 95.5 m
The offset to the pond at the left of chain line are as follows:
120

Chainage -10, 15, 20, 25,30m


Offset -16, 12,10,14,20 m
Offset to the river at the right of the chain line.
Chainage -5, 25, 40, 80 m
Offset-13, 17, 19, 19.5 m


leveling operation
-: LEVELING


.
.

121

RL
.


.

(
.

-: DEFINATION
-: LEVELING



.

-: level surface


122

.
.
level line -:

( )
.
horizontal plane -:

.
( ) .
horizontal line -:

. .
vertical line -:

. .
vertical plane -:

123

-:


.
.
)Reduced level(RL -:
Datum line

Datum line .
124


line of collimation -:
)(cross-hair
. .
axis of telescope -:
object glass
optical center eye peice optical
center .
axis of bubble tube -:
bubble tube longitudinal
curve .
)Bench mark(BM-:
(RL
Datum line reduced level

125


.

Great trigonometry survey Bench Mark GTS
Permanent Bench Mark
Temporary Bench mark
Arbitrary Bench mark
-:GTS Bench mark



.

126

Permanent Bench mark




. GTS BM

127

Arbitrary bench mark -:



.

.
-:temporary bench mark
128


.
.
)Back sight reading(BS -:


)Fore Sight (FS


.
) -:Intermediate sight(IS

BS FS

129

Turning Point ,Change Point


)(CP-:

FS BS .
Height of instrument HI -:
Line of collimation
. BS BM
.

-: focusing
eye piece object glass

focussing screw
. object glass
focus
daiphragm eye piece
cross hairobject .

130

focusing .
-:Focusing the eye piece1
eye piece

cross hair .
-:focussing the object glass2
focusing screw

.

-:Tripod stand .1


.
.
.2

telescope-:
131


object glass eye piece
daipragham .
eye piece . daipraghamcross-
hair. focussing focusing
screw . focusing
internal foussing external focusing.
focusing Outer tube
. focusing screw

cross hair . internal
focusing eye piece .
Leveling staff .3


staves .
1-Target staff
2-The self-reading staff

-:Target staff1
132

target
verneir

.

.
.

Staff man
Points to be remember by Staff man

.
..
.
.

level man -:
Points to be remember by Level man

.
.
133


center line
,profile line .
Eye piece focusing

focusing .
.

reading
.

bubble

-:
TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENT OF LEVEL

.
.
134

1- Selection of
-suitable position:



.

2 fixing the level with


-tripod stand:
tripod
.
.
3
Approximae leveling by legs of tripod:Foot screw .


bubble .
4 foot screw .
Perfect leveling by foot screw:135

Foot screw bubble


foot screw
900 foot screw


( )
.
.
5eye piece -:focusing the eye peice
object glass eye peice

cross-hair .
-:Focusing the object glass6
eye piece
focusing screw

136


.
7

-:taking the staff reading

.
types of leveling operation:-
-1 Simple leveling -:

.
.
A B
O
(A B).
A B
.
-:

137

-: B

Differential leveling -:
.
.
138

.


Readings .
A B
O1,O2,O3

C1,C2,C3 Chainge point
. A B
A
B A
B.-:

-:
B

139

140

Flyleveling

fly leveling
fly leveling

BS FS
.

141

-:Longitudinal or profile leveling



()
BS,FS,IS

level book

.

142

-:Cross sectionalleveling

.
20,30,40m

.

143

-:Check leveling
fly leveling

chek leveling.
.
-:

Back Sight Fore Sight

PRINCIPLE OF EQUALISING BACK SIGHT AND FORE


SIGHT distance: line of collimation

.
144

collimation line
bubble
collimation line .
disturb
line of collimation
line of
collimation
FS BS
Line of collimation
.
.
-:
collimation line -:
when the line of collimation is inclined upwards:

O A B
.

145

Let =angle of inclination of collimition line


Aa=true reading
Aa1=observed staff reading on A
Error =Aa1-Aa=aa1=D tan-------------------------------1
True reading Aa=Aa1-aa1=Aa1-Dtan

Bb=observed staff reading on B
Error =Bb1-bb1=Bb1-Dtan-----------------------------2

True differnce of level ,between A and B=Aa-Bb (fall from B
to A)
Aa1-D tan-Bb1+Dtan
=Aa1-Bb1

. .
-:
collimation line
When the line of collimation inclined downwards:Aa=true staff reading
Aa2=observed staff reading on A
Error =Aa-Aa2=aa2=Dtan
146

True reading Aa=Aa2+aa2=Aa2+Dtan-----------------1



Bb=true reading
Bb2=observed staff reading on B
Error =Bb-Bb2=bb2=Dtan-------------------------------2

True difference of level between A and B=Aa-Bb fall from B
toA
Aa2+Dtan-Bb2-Dtan
=Aa2-Bb2

. .

-:
CORRECTION TO BE APPLIED
1 -:curvature to be applied

147


reading line of
sight
. line of
sight level line
curvature correction
.

AB=D
BD=Cc=curvature correction
DC=AC=R=radius of earth
DD=diameterconsider as 12,742km
ABC
148

BC2=AC2+AB2
(R+Cc)2=R2+D2
R2+2RCc+Cc2=R2+D2
Cc2R=D2
Curvature correction Cc=D2/2R
Cc2 .
Cc=D21000/12742=0.0785D2

True staff reading=observed staff reading-curvature correction
Refraction Correction -:





.

Cr=1/7 xD2/2R
Refraction correction, Cr=1/7 x 0.0785D2=0.0112D2m

149

Combined correction -:


Combined correction= curvature correction+refraction
correction
=-0.0785D2+0.0112D2
=-0.0673D2

True staff reading=observed staff reading-combined correction

)(negative

D2/2R-1/7XD2/2R=-6D2/14R

visible horizon distance -:


AB=D

h

h =0.0673D2

150

=D

dip of horizon
AB=D
BD OB

horizontal line tangent line
dip of horizon

)Dip =arc CA/radius of the earths (in radian
) =D/R (in radian
CA AB
D R
151

problem on correction-:

-:
A
150m B 100m A
2.525m B 1.755mA
B .
-:

A .
A=0.0673D2=0.0673X (150/1000)2=0.0015m
Correct reading on A=2.525-0.0015=2.523m

B .
B=0.0673D2=0.0673X (100/1000)2=0.000673m=0.0007m
Correct reading on B=1.755-0.0007=1.7543m

152

A B
True difference of level between point A and B=2.5231.754=0.7692m
Fall from B to A
-:


30km
-:

153

h =0.0673D2
AL=D=30Km
=0.0673x (30)2=60.57m
light house 60.57m
-:
50m visible horizon
dip of horizon
60.370km
-:
)h=0.0673D2 (where D is visible horizon distance
= D
h=height of tower=50m
D=27.26km
Dip of horizon=D/R (radian)=27.26/6.370 radain
= (27.26/6.370)x(180x60/) min=14.71mins
-:
154


50m
10m

-:



D1+D2 .
=D1
D1=27.26Km
=D2
Distance between man and object=D1+D2
=27.26+12.19=39.45km

155

-:

10m
80km
-:


D1+D2=80Km

h 1=0.0673D2
=D2

D2=12.19km h1=1om height of mans eye


h2=height of the hill

D2=80-12.19=67.81km

h2=0.0673D22=0.0673x(67.81)2=309.46m
309.46m.

156

-:
B A
A B
100m 150mAB
12880km
-:
A
150m B 100m A
.525m1 B2.755mA
B .
-:


30km
-:
50m visible horizon
dip of horizon
60.370km
157

-:

50m
10m

-:

10m
80km
-:
A
150m B 100m A
.525m1 B2.755mA
B .
-:

158

B A
A B
100m 150mAB
12880km
-:Reciprocal leveling

BS FS



Reciprocal leveling
.

.
.
A B
A A

a1,b1 .
a2,b2
159

B A -h
-e
.
Correct staff reading at A=a1
very near)
Correct staff reading at B =b1-e
True difference of level between A and B,

(as the level is

h=a1-(b1-e) -------------------1
.
Correct staff reading at B=a1
very near)
Correct staff reading at A =a2-e
True difference of level between A and B,

(as the level is

h= (a2-e)-b2---------------------2

2h=a1-(b1-e) +(a2-e)-b2
h = (a1-b1) + (a2-b2)/2

160


Problems on reciprocal leveling: :
A B
.
A A B
2.245m,3.375m . B
A B
161

1.955m,3.055mB
A 125.550m
-:


)(fall from A to B

A and B=3.375-2.245=1.130m



A and B=3.055-1.955=1.100m
True difference of level =1.130+1.100/2=1.115m
RL of B= 125.550-1.115=124.435m
-:


remarks
distance
AB=500m
RLof

Staff reading on

Instrument at

2.595

1.155

2.415

0.985

162

A=525.5m

BRL

( )



-:
-:
True diffrerence between A and B= (2.959-1.155)+(2.4150.985)/2=1.435
( fall from A to B)------1
RL of B=525.500-1.435=524.065m
-:
500m
)(negative

=0.0673x (0.5)2=0.0168m

-:


163

Collimation error in 500m=e (positive, as it is inclined


)upwards
correction
.
A
When the instrument is at A
Correct staff reading at A=1.155m
)Correct staff reading at B=(2.595-0.0168-e
A B
)True difference of level between A and B=(2.595-0.0168-e1.155=1.4232-e---2

1.4232-e=1.4350
e=-0.0118
100m
Collimation error per 100m=-0.0118x100/500=-0.00023m

164

down ward
.

REDUCED LEVEL
.
)1- The collimation system or height of instrument system (HI
2- The rise- and- fall system
line of collimation RL.
BS BM
RL HI
HI

HI RL

RL
.
-:
A,B,C,D
.
(a) RL of HI in first setting =100+1.255=101.255
165

RL of A=101.255-1.750=99.505
RL of B=101.255-2.150=99.105
(b) RL of HI in 2nd setting=99.105+2.750=101.855
RL of C =101.855-1.950=99.905
RL of D=101.855-1.550=100.305


BS-FS=Last RL-first RL
BS FS
RL RL .
-:
Rise and Fall system -:

.

rise
Rise
RL RL .


Fall fall
RL RL .
-:
166


Point A (with respect to BM)=0.75-1.25=-0.50
)(fall
Point B( with respect to A)=1.25-2.75=-1.50
)(fall
Point C (with respect to B)=2.75-1.50=+1.25
)(rise
Point D(with respect to C)=1.50-1.75=-0.25
)(fall
RL of BM=100.00
RL of A=100-0.50=99.50
RL of B=99.50-1.50=98.00
RL of C=98.00+1.25=99.25
RL of D=99.25-0.25=99.00

BS-FS=Rise-Fall
BS FS
rise fall

fall rise
Collimation system

Rise and fall system

RL RL


167



BS FS

Fly

IS
.

leveling
rise and fall

RL .



Points to remembered while entering the level
book.

BS

FS IS

.
BS FS.
IS

IS FS


BS IS .
168

)Change point (CPBS FS


.
RL
BS .
BM,CP,Important point remarks
.
-:

15m 65m .
RL98.085M

3.150, 2.245, 1.125, 0.860, 3.125, 2.760, 1.835, 1.470, 1.965,


1.225, 2.390 and 3.035m.
By collimation system:procedure -:
Missing data for line 2=3.250+0.750=4.000
Missing data for line 4=2.340+1.500=3.840
Missing data for line 6=2.340-1.000=1.340
Missing data for line 9=1.895+1.650=3.545
Missing data for line 10=1.350+0.750=2.100
.
BS-FS=12.795-11.350=1.445
Rise-Fall=5.205-3.460=1.445
169

.
Last RL- fisrt RL=250.705-249.260=1.445

-:
)Project work (ROAD, RAILWAYS, ETC
-: marking tentative alignment


.
1
2
3
4

5

Preparation of compass survey map:



170


.
(20-40)m
.

-:

fly leveling

RLs
.
Fly leveling from BM No.1 at--------to the starting point of the
proposed road from -------------------------- to--------------------171

Statio
n
point

BS

BM

0.95
5

I
S

FS

Rise

Fall

(+)

(-)

RL

Remark
s

250.55
0

On
BM1

1.25
0

2.15
0

1.19
5

249.35
5

0.78
5

1.76
0

0.51
0

248.84
5

1.53
5

2.05
5

1.27
0

247.57
5

1.26
0

0.83
5

0.70
0

248.27
5

0.67
5

0.95
5

0.30
5

248.58
0

1.27
5

1.50
5

0.83
0

247.75
0

1.65
5

2.05
0

0.77
5

246.97
5

0.45
0

2.16
0

0.50
5

246.47
0

1.00
5

0.55
5

245.91
5

Sp,road

172

-: profile leveling

profile leveling
20m-30m
.

.
procedure
AB,BC,CD and DE

)(L1,L2,L3Ln Staff reading

BS

FS

IS Fore
Bearing Back Bearing
.
1000m

TBM

173

174

175

Cross section of Road -:





20m 40m


(20-40)m 5m

.

plotting of profile (longitudinal


)-:section

.
)(1:1000-1:2000
)(1:100-1:200
datum line
.
()Chainage datum
line)(RL
176

. Chainage
.


.

177

plotting of cross section



178

)(1:400-1:100

working profile
formation level

179


working profile .
formation level
falling gradient 1:50formation line
.
Fall per 20m=20/50=0.400m
Formation level at Chainage 0=245.000m
Formation level at Chainage 20m=245.000-0.400=244.600m
Formation level at Chainage 40m=244.600-0.400=244.200m
.
colour convention
Datum line1 black ink
.
ordinates2
formation line3
finished surfaced4
5

180

6
7


Difficulties faced in leveling:- -:




-
Leveling across a large pond or lake

.


A B O1
O2
.

181

-
Leveling across a river:


A A B
RECIPROCAL LEVELING
.B .
-
LEVELING A CROSS THE SOLID WALL:
A B
.A


182

B
B
.
RL of A=HI-AC
)RL of E=RL of A+AE=RL of F(same level
o2

RL of B=RL of F-BF
HI at O2=RL of B+BD

WHEN BM IS ABOVE LINE OF COLLIMATION:-

183

BS BM
HI

FS RL

Leveling along asteep slope


BS FS

zig-zag
BS FS

184

AB I1,I2,I3.In
S1,S2,.Sn

6





.

185

source of error in
-: leveling

instrumental error -:

focussing tube


personal error

eye piece object glassfocusing



.
186

error due to natural causes



permissible error in level

machine


.
E=C
E=closing error in meters
C=constant
D=distance in kilometers

.
E= 0.100
E= 0.025
E= 0.012
187

Rough leveling
Ordinary leveling
Accurate leveling

E= 0.006

Precise leveling

ERROR IN LEVEL MACHINE






.

360

188

5mm
.
BM shifting and closing
A 200mB
.

189

horizontal distance
on level machine

A B
A B

.
Horizantal distance=(upper reading-down reading)x100
upper reading=1.567m down
reading=1.453m
Horizantal distance=(upper reading-down reading) x100
190

Horizantal distance=(1.567-1.453) x100=11.40m

vertical
-: distance by level machine

.
Height=direct reading+indirect reading
indirect reading=1.398m

Direct reading=1.576m

Height =1.576m+1.398m=2.974m

slope on level
machine:
1 Raising slope
2 falling gradient
.
.

A


191

1) A-B/L X100=Slope %
L

2) slope /distance1st RL=2nd RL


+ Raising .
falling .
-:
1.345m
1.387m 3.8m

-:
1) A-B/L X100=Slope %
(1.387-1.345/3.8)x100=1.105%
-:
RL=525.50m
Falling gradient 1:20
30m
BS reading=1.525m
HI=525.500+1.525=527.025m
RL of next point=525.500-30/20=525.500-1.50=524.00m
Staff reading on next peg=527.025-524.00=3.025m
staff30m
reading=3.025m .pegs
.

)-: TARGET AREA (TA

192



TA .
-:
sub grade 40cm
3%



BS=1.897m

BM=450m

Is reading on CL=1.230m

-:
HI=BM+BS
HI=450+1.897=451.897m
NSL at CL=HI-IS=451.897-1.230=450.667m
FRL at CL=NSL+thickness of layer=450.667+0.40=451.067m
Required rod reading (3R) = HI-FRL=451.897-451.067=0.83m


0.830m.
. 40cm

193

GPS
GPS

longitude latitude
elevation
GPS .
1:Single frequency GPS-
receiver antenna .
2GPS Hand held set

.
tracking

.GPS GPS
194

24 Satellite
12000mile
24
7000mile/hour

195

196

signal
signal receiver
GPS .

GPS GPS
.
:POWER KEY .1-
GPS ) (on/off.
:Rocker key .2-
.
:Page key .3- screen
.
:Entere key .4- screen
.
-:Zoom key .5
)(zoom in/out
:Menue key .6- screenoption
.

197

:Find key .7- screen


.
-:Qite key .8 .
:Antenna .9-
.
.11
SB port-:gps
Data port .11-: .

GPS -: USES OF GPS


GPS function
.
1:Mode menue.- mode function
.
:Tracks-function
.
:Routes- .
:High way- .
Setup:is setting .:Calendar-
.
198

:Alarm clock-
.

199


200


chain and Compass traversing

.

.
. -1
open traverse2 close travers .
1:open traverse-

.

2 :closed traverse-

.

201

-: method of traversing


.
1.
2.
3.
4.

By the chain angles.


By the free or lose needle method
By the fast needle method
By the measuring of angles between successive line
202

1 method of chain
-:angles or chain traversing


.



.

AB AD
A A
20m
AB ADP Q
PQ BAD
.

203

but PR=20m

proof: sin/2=PR/PA

Sin/2=QR/40
and PR=1/2PQ
Sin/2=PR/40



.
-:Free or lose needle method2



.
-:Fast needle method3

204

-:Method of measurement of angles4



includes angle 1
deflection angles methodmethod2
includes angle method

.

instrument
-: for measurement angles



reference line

.
-1
-2

205



.
.

2-graduated circle 3- line of sight

1-magnetic needle

- prismatic compass

surveying or surveyor compass



)(85-110
.

206

method of using prismatic


-: compass

tri pad
.
Centering: -1


peg
.

207

leveling-:

observing the

reading-: AB
.

A .

prism sight
vane
prism
.

B
.


. 15

-: surveyor compass


.
208

.1

209

.2
.

.
.3

00 900 1800
2700 .
.

900 .
.4

1m
Jacob staff light
tripod.

210

bearing of line

.
.
1 line True meridian
2 Magnetic meridian line
211

3 arbitrary meridian line


True meridian -1 :

-2 magnetic meridian line-:



.

.

212

3 -:arbitrary meridian line







.

designation of
-: bearing

1Whole circle Bearing system
2Quadrantal system
-:Whole circle bearing system

.
00 and 3600.
.
-:Quadrantal bearing system2

213



.

.

N,S,E and W
AP2= 2S.E AP2=S E
.

214

-Reduced bearing: Whole circle bearing


angle 900
quadrant system 900
reduced bearing
WCB RB .

Quadrant

Rule for RB

WCB system

Case

NE

=WCB

00 and 900

SE

=1800-WCB

900 and 1800

SW

=WCB-1800

1800 and 2700

NW

=360 -WCB

270 and 360

-: Fore and Back bearing



.
fore
)bearing (FB
)Back bearing (BB reverse bearing
AB
215

Fore bearing AB Back bearing


BA . WCB FBBB
1800
.

FB=BB-1800BB1800
1800 . Quadrant Bearing
systemFB BB
FB=N40
025'E BB=S400 25'W .
-:)whole circle bearing(WCB quadrant
) bearing(QB
'3340 52
-:

'1320 12

'2360 37

'QB=N68032E OR N,E 680 32


QB=1800-WCB, QB=S47048E OR S,

216

'680 32

'WCB= 680 32
'WCB=1320 12
'E 470 48

WCB=2360 37'
QB=WCB-1800, QB=S560 37'W OR S,
W560 37'
WCB=3340 52'QB=3600-WCB, QB=N2508'WOR N, W2508
whole circle bearing reduced bearing -:

N360 16'E

S280 14'E

S470 26'W

N580 24'W

RB= N360 16'E

WCB=RB = 360 16'

RB= S280 14'E

WCB=1800-RB, WCB=1510 46'

RB= S470 26'WWCB=1800+RB, WCB=2270 26'


RB= N580 24'W

WCB=3600-RB, WCB=3010 36'

back fore bearing


bearing
AB,380 14'
DE,3180 26'

BC,1420 18'

CD,2080 37'

and
-:

BB of AB =380 14'+1800=3180 14'


BB of BC=1420 18'+1800=3220 18'
BB of CD= 2080 37'-1800=280 37'
BB of DE=3180 26'-1800=1380 26'

217

-:
fore bearing
back bearing
and

CD,S260 30' W

BC,S43 18' E

AB, N32 12'E


DE,N650 24'W

Calculation of
-: angles from bearings

( )
3600.
.
case 1 -:
whole circle bearing
.
-:
.
.
1800 . 1800
.
218

3600
.AB AC
.
BAC CAB
3600.
AE,3250

AB,410

AC,1150 AD,2100 and


.
< BAC=bearing of AC-bearing of AB
1150-410=740
<CAD= bearing of AD bearing of AC
=2100-1150=950
< DAE=bearing of AE-bearing of AD
3250-2100=1150
<BAE= bearing of AE bearing of AB
3250-410=2840
<EAB=3600-2840=760
-:
.

219


.CA AB
AC
ACCABack Bearing
CAFore bearing+1800 .CAB
.
Reduced bearing
.

.
1
)(a
reduced bearing .
The includes angle= difference of two reduced bearing
AOB=difference of the bearing of OA and OB
2
)(b
The includes angle =1800-sum of the two reduced bearing
AOB=1800-sum of the reduced bearing of OA and OB
220


3
.
)(c
The includes angle=1800-difference of the two reduced bearing
BOA=1800-difference of thebearing OB and OA
4
.
d
The includes angle=sum of the two reduced bearing

221

Calculated bearings

.
observed bearing
.
calculated bearing.

222

observed bearing .

Bearing of line =given bearing +include angle
WCB

Bearing of AB=300 the angle of BAC=1100 CAD=1000 and
DAE=650AC, AD, AE

-:
223

Bearing of AB=300
Bearing of AC=300+1100=1400
Bearing of AD=1400+1000=2400
Bearing of AE=2400+650=3050
-:
AB Reduced bearing
N350E BAC,CAD,and DAF
950,1100,750reduced bearing
AC,AD and AF

-:
BAC=950

Sum=1300

= S500E
224

RB of AB=350

RB of AC=1800-1300

CAD=1100

RB of AC=500

difference =600

RB of AD= S600W
DAF=750

RB of AD=600

Sum =1350

RB of AF=1800-1350
=N450W

example on computation
-: of included angles
OB OA -:
a) 320 15' and 1480 45' b) 160 10'
and 3320 18' and c) 1260 12' and 3000 15'

-:
<AOB=bearing of OB-bearing of OA )a(
1480 45'-320 15'=1160 30'
(b)<AOB=bearing of OB-bearing of OA
3320 18'-160 10'=3160 18' Exterior angle
1800
BOA3600
.
BOA=3600-3160 8'=430 52
(c) <AOB=bearing of OB- bearing of OA
<AOB=3000 15'-1260 12'=740 3'
225

-:
BC AB

a) 1460 12' and 680 24'

b) 700 38' and 1260 18'


-:

a)
Bearing of AB=1460 12
Bearing of BA=1460+1800=3260 12
Bearing of BC=680 24
Deffrence between two bearing=3260 12-680 24=2570 48=
exterior angle
<ABC=3600-2570 48=1020 12
b)
Bearing of AB=700 38
Bearing of BA=700 38+1800=2500 38
Bearing of BC=1260 18
Deffrence between two bearing=2500 38 -1260 18=124020=
<CBA

226

-:
AB1520 20 ABC 1240 38
BC ' 960 58
-:
AB AC
BAC
1-AB, N150 15' E
AC, N870 10'E
2-AB, N120 24'E
AC, S520 30'E
3-AB, S580 50'E
AC, S280 15'W

4-AB, N48024'E
AC, N38 18'E
5-AB, N620 45' E
AC, S280 15 'W
6-AB, S 360 12'W
AC, N670 48'W
-:
0

ABCDE

Back bearing

Fore bearing

' 2870 15

' 1070 15

AB

2020

220

BC

' 1010 30

' 2310 30

CD

' 90 15

' 1890 15

DE

' 3040 45

' 1240 45

EA

227

Sides

-:


Fore bearing

Sides

N450 10' E

AB

S60040'E

BC

S90 50'W

CD

N800 40'W

DA

-:

800

-:

S300E

-: local attraction

228


N S

(
)
.


.

-: magnetic declination

229


Magnetic bearing and true bearing:true bearing =magnetic bearing declination
declination east
declination west .
Magnetic bearing =true bearing declination
declination west
declination east .
-:

230

)AAB '1350 30
. declianation
'west=50 15
)BCD 2100 45
declination 8015w

-:
A) True bearing of AB=magnetic bearing declination
'=1350 30' -50 15'=1300 15
B) Magnetic bearing =true bearing +declination
'210045'+80 15'=2190 0
-:
CDS30015'E
100 15'E
-:
RB WCB
WCB
RB.
RB of CD=S30015'W
'WCB of CD=1800 +30015'=2100 15
231

)True bearing =magnetic bearing +delination (east


'=2100 15'+10 0 15'=220030
Required true bearing=2200 30'-1800=S40030'W
-:
'320030
Dclination =3030'w
declination=40 15'E
-:
)True bearing=magnetic bearing-declination (west
3200 30-3030=3170

3170
)Magnetic bearing=true bearing declination (east
3170-40 15=3120 45
-:
'1750 30

(A
(B'5030

232

-:
(A
'1750 30

.
'175030
.
Magnetic declination=1800-1750 30'=40 30'E
(B
'5045

.
'5045
.
'Magnetic declination=50 45

233

-:
OA,OB ,OC,OD
<AOB,<BOC 30030',140015',220045' and 310030'
and <COD
-:
>AOB=bearing of OB-bearing of -bearing of OA
=1400 15'-30030'=109045'
<BOC=bearing of OC-bearing of OB
=220045'-140015'=80030'
<COD=bearing of OD-bearing of OC
=3100 30'-220045'=89045'

234

-:
A,B and C

AB'800 30

-:
'FB of AB=800 30
235

FB of BC=BB of AB-<B
=(800 30'+1800) -600=200030'
FB of CA=BB of BC+exteroir<C
= (2000 30'-1800) + (3600-600) = 3200 30'
FB of AB=BB of CA-<A
( = 320030'-1800)-600=800 30'(Checked)

-:

236

FB
45030,120015,200030 and AB,BC,CD,DE
A,B,C280045
Interior <B=BB of AB-Fb of BC
=(45030+1800)-120015
225030-120015=105015
Interior< C=BBof BC-FB of CD
=(1200+1800)-200030
300015-200030=99045
Exterior< D=FB of BC-FB of CD
=280045-(200030-1800)
280045-20030=260015
Interoir <D=3600-260015=99045

237

-:
ABCDA
AB
120030

238

-:
FB of AB=120030
FB of BC=BB of AB-<B
=(120030+1800)-900
=300030-900=2100 30
FB of CD=BB of BC+exterior<C
=(210030-1800)+(3600-900)
=30030+2700=300030
FB of DA=BB of CD-<D
=(300030-1800)-900=30030'
FB of AB=BB of DA-<A
=(30030+1800)-900=120030' checked
239

-:

A,B,C,D,E
.ABFB
300FBs

-:
FB BB

240

-:
FB BB

241

-:



BB

FB

LINES

'3300 00

'1500 00

AB

'480 00

'230030

BC

'1270 45

'3060 15

CD

'1200 00

'2980 00

DE

'2290 30

'490 30

EA

242

a)
b)

c)

d)
e)

229030'-1500=79030'
Interoir <B= BB of AB-FB of BC
=3300-230030'=99030'
Exterior <C=FB of CD-BB of BC
=3060 15'-480=2580 15'
Interior <C=3600-258015'
Interoir <D= FB of DE-BB of CD
=2980 00-127045'=170015'
Interior <D=3600-170015'=189045'
Interior <E=BB of DE-FB of EA
=1200-49030'=70030'

Sum of interior angles=<A+<B+<C+<D+<E
243

'=5410 0
But,the sum of angles should be (2N-4)900=5400 0
Error =5410-5400=10
12

Correction per angles= -

PROBLEM ON
LOCAL ATTRACTION
-:

244

-:
-:
.
a) Calculation of interior angles
Interior <A=FB of AB-BB of EA
=191045-1470 45=440
b) Interior <B=FB of BC-BB of AB
=39030-130=26030
245

c) Exterior <C=BB of BC-FB of CD


222030-22015=200015
Interior <C=3600-200015=159045
d) Interir <D=FB of DE-BB of CD
=2420 45-200030=420 15
e) Interior <E=FB of EA-BB of DE
=330015-620 45=2670 30
Sum of interior angles=440+260
30+159045+42015+267030=5400 00
Which is equal to (2N-4)900=5400 00
-:
DE

FB of DE=2420 45(Correct)
FB of EA=3300 15(correct)
FB of AB=BB of EA+<A
=(3300 15-1800)440=1940 15
FB of BC=BB of AB+<B
=(194015-1800)+26030=400 45
FB of CD=BB of BC-Exterior <C
=(40045+1800)-200015=20030
FB of DE=BB of CD+<D
(20030+1800)+42015=242045 Checked
.
246

Corrected angle
FB
BB
0
194 15
14015

lines
AB

220045

40045

BC

200030

20030

CD

62045

2420 45

DE

150015

330015

EA

-:





AB=100m,BC=100m and CD=50m

BB

FB
0

Lines

'248015

'68 15

AB

'326015

'1480 45

BC

'46000

'224030

CD

'38015

'2170 15

DE

247

'1470 45

327045

EA

-:



100W
BB

FB

Lines

2390

590

AB

248

3170

' 139030

BC

' 36030

' 215015

CD

290

2080

DE

' 138045

' 3180 30

EA

-:



FB

BB
0

N45 30'W

Lines

S45 30'E
0

AB

N60040'W

S60 E

BC

N3020'W

S5030'E

CD

S850E

N83030'W

DA


1. Prismatic compass with stand =1no
2. Metric chain(20m)=1no
3. Metallic tape(15m)=1no
249

4. Arrows =10nos
5. Ranging rod=3n0s
6. Cross staff or optical square =1no
7. Plumb bob=1set
8. Tri square or wooden square set=1no
9. Wooden pegs=10nos
10. Mallet or hummer=1no
11. Field book=1no
12. Good pencil=1no
13. Eraser=1no
14. Knife=1no

field procedure
of compass survey
prismatic compass
.

Recconnaissance survey-:




.
250

2 -:preparation of index sketch.




.

3. marking the station on


-:the ground

pegs
3cm
refrence skatch
.
4. measurment of
-:bearing of Travers Legs

.index sketch
.
A,B,C and D .

251

A
.AB
FB DA BB AB
AB
field book .B
BB .

BCFB AB

FB
BB Field book
.


.

252

plotting -

.
1

By parallel meridian through each station
A

AB dprotactor

. B
253

BC

.

.
closing error
.

by considering
-:included angle
A

AB
.B
254

<B BC
.<C
C CD
.
.


By considering the centeral meridian line:O

. O
ab,bc,cd da
255

. ABab
.

ADJUSTMENT OF CLOSING
-:ERROR


Closing error





256

Bowditchs rule

A,B1,C1,D1,E1,A1
RF=1/400
AA1
closing error .

AA1

and E1A1

AB1,B1C1,C1D1,D1E1

A1a
Aa
B1,C1,D1,E1B1b,C1c,D1d,E1e
A1a


ABCDEA

257

-: Limit of closing error


15
N
Reletaive closing error=amount of closing error/perimeter of
traverse
1/600
source of error in compass -:

instrumental error -:

258




Sight vane
Horse hair
Pivot point
Ring
pivot
.
personal error -:

Graduated ring


other source of error -:

.
259



PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN IN COMPASS
SURVEYING


brake pin
press


Sight vane glass cover

260

Glass covers
. glass
cover .
-:
-:
-:
-:


Contouring surveying
-:

.
100m
.

261

-: Technical terms
contour map-:
contour lines
.
262

-: Contour interval

100m,98m,96m
2m
.

( )


0.25m,0.50m,0.75m .

5m,10m,15m
1m,2m,3m
0.25m,0.50m,0.75m
.
horizontal Equivalent-:
.

263


.
-: object of preparing contour map

.
.


.

-: Uses of Contour map


-: Characteristic of contour map


264


.

.


.


.

265

266

. overhanging cliff

-: Method of Contouring

12
Direct method

-:Case 1


pegs

267



procedure -:

fly leveling

.

.

.
BS

TBM=249.500M BS=2.250M
HI=249.500+2.250=251.750M
250.000M

1.750M

1.750M

250M .

268

Staff man staff


1.750m


A,B,C,D. .

269

Case 2 -:

.

BS

TBM=150. 50M BS=2.750M


HI=150.500+2.750=153.250M 152.
00M

1.250M

1.250M

152.0M .

270

-: Indirect Method
RL


Spot level



1cross section method
2quare method
271

Cross section :


25m, 50m, 100m



RL



.

272

-: Square method

. (5-20)m
1,2,3,A,B..
273

.
.

-: contour interpolation

274



-1arithmetical method
-2 the graphic method
-:
A B A
RL=98.75m B RL=100.75m
10m
RL=99m
Vertical difference between A and B=100.75-98.75=2m
Difference of elevation between A and 99m contour=9998.75=0.25m
Distance of 99m contour line from A=10x0.25/2=1.25m

Ps=HE-CE/HE-LE X L
Ps=100.75-99/100.75-98.75x10=8.75
8.75mB .

RL=99m
.
Graphic method

275

tracing paperAB
ABC
O
O
AB 1-1,2-2,3-3
AB . guide
line . boundary line
.
2m
a b RLs92.5m
100.75m
OB
90,0m
95,100,105m
Tracing paper
a92.5m b
100.25m abAB .
94, 96, 98,100m
.

276

-:contour gradient




grade contour
abney level
.
location of contour gradient -:

1:20
277

94m
2m A
96m2x20=40m
A 40m (
) B
B
C

.
.

278

field location of grade contour


-:

1.abney level
2.level instrument

-: abney level


Telescope and spirit buble buobble450
bubble

279

bubble tube varneir arm



Wheel arrangement.
index of verneir

abney levelA
pole


pole

pole
DB
bubble
ABline of sight .A B
pegs .

-:
280

RL


Rquired staff reading
.
-:
RL=525.50m
Falling gradient 1:20
30m
BS reading=1.525m
HI=525.500+1.525=527.025m
RL of next point=525.500-30/20=525.500-1.50=524.00m
Staff reading on next peg=527.025-524.00=3.025m
staff30m
reading=3.025m .
pegs
.


Area calculation

281


.
.
Square meters
)Hectare (1hectare=10,000m2
Square feet
)Acres (1acres=4840sq.yd=43.560sq.ft

Area

Graphic Method

From Field Notes

Instrumental Method

From plotted plan


COMPUTATION OF AREA FROM FIELD
NOTES:
282


STEP 1 -:

.

..


Area=BxH

area= AxA

A=bxh

A=0.5bxh

herons
.
283


a,b,c s



A=r2 or A=d2/4

.

284

-:


x-staff
-:
x-staff

285


-:

286

computation of area
from field notes

.
-:

287

considering the entire area -:


.1 by dividing the area into
traingles -:


give and take
.
=Area

.2 by dividing the area into


square
tracing paper
1cm2,0.5cm2
tracing paper

288

give and take


.
.

.
By drawing parallel line and converting them to rectangle: tracing paper
tracing
paper
give and take
.

.
Required area=length of rectangle x constant distance

289

case 2 -:



boundary area
.

The mide-ordinates rule


290

2. The average ordinates rule


3. The trapezoidal rule
4. Simpsons rule

-: the mide-ordinates rule


.

O1, O2, O3.On


L

Area of plot=h1xd+h2xd+..+hnxd
)=d(h1+h2+h3+..hn
Area=common distance x sum of ordinates

-:
-: The Average Ordinates

.
291


.
O1, O2, O3.On
L
n
n +1

= Area
= Area

-:
-: trapezoidal rule

boundary
.

292


.
O1, O2, O3.On
d
= 1st area
= 2nd area
= 3rdarea
= Last area
* =Total area

+
*
+=total area

=
(

-:
-: SIMPSONS RULE


Parabolic rule .

293


O0,O1,O2
d
Area of AFeDC=area of trapezoim AFDC+area of segment
FeDEF
=Area of trapezoim
= Area of segment
{

{ +

=1

( =



)and so on
)

( =2
( =Total area

294

simpsons rule trapezoidal rule

Simpsons rule

Trapezoidal rule

boundary boundary

-: practical problems
-:

10m .
0, 2.50, 3.5, 5.00, 4.60, 3.20, 0m
boundary

1. The mid-ordinates rule
2. The average ordinates rule
295

3. The trapezoidal rule


4. Simpsons rule
-:

1.by mide ordinates rule


h 1=
h 2=
h 3=
h 4=
h 5=
h 1=
Required area=10(125+3.00+4.25+4.80+3.90+1.60)
=10x18.80=188m2
2. by average ordinates rule
d =10m and n=6(no of division)
296

Base length=10x6=60m
Number of ordinates =7
Required area=60
{

}=60x

=161.14m2

3.by trapezoidal rule


d =10m
required area=

)+

required area=5x37.60=188m2
4.by simpsons rule
d =10m
required area=
)+

=196.66m2
-:
15m

3.50, 4.30, 6.75, 5.25, 7.50, 8.80, 7.90, 6.40, 4.40, 3.25m
.
1. The trapezoidal rule
2. Simpsons rule
297

-:

curved boundary .
60

40
5.80

20

15

30

6.10 4.70

5.20

Distance (m) 0
80

10

3.80 4.60

Offset (m) 2.50


3.90 2.20

.
1. The simsons rule
2. The trapezoidal rule

COORDINATES
-:METHOD FOR FINDING AREA



.
Procedure -:

x
y .
298

.
points

coordinates
y

y0

y1

x1

y2

x2

y3

x3

y4

x4

x4

y0


.
-:

299



Chainage (m) 0,5.5,12.7,25.5,40.5
Offset(m) 5.25,6.50,4.75,5.20,4.20


.
coordinates

points

5.25

6.50

5.5

4.75

12.7

5.20

25.5

4.20

40.5

40.5

300

0
5.25


=P
(5.25x5.50+6.50x12.70+4.75x25.5+5.20x40.5+4.20x40.5+0x0
)+0x0
=28.88+82.55+121.13+210.60+170.10=613.26m2
=Q
)(0x6.50+5.50x4.75+12.70x5.20+25.50x4.20+40.5x0+0x5.5
=26.13+66.04+107.10=199.27m2
)Required area =1/2(P-Q
=1/2(613.26-199.27) =206.995m2

301


volume calculation



.
Level
Two level
Three level
Side- hill two -level
Multi- level


302


Formulae for calculation of cross sectional area
level section -:

.

=Cross sectional area


= (b+nh) h

-:


10m2:1

2.5m
-:
h=2.5m

b=10m, n=2

.
Cross sectional area= (b+nh) h
303

= (10+2x2.5) x2.5=37.5m2

-: TWO LEVEL SECTION



.

PB=b/2
Bx=sh1
b 1=b/2+sh1---------a
)Ee=(h1-h
b 1=nxEe=n(h1-h)----------b
a b
304

b/2+sh1= n(h1-h)

h1(n-s)=n(h+b/2n)

h1=

)--------------2
a
(

b 1=
h2=

b2=

)--------3
)--------------4

) ---------5

Area ABCED=DOE+COE-AOB
=

OE=OP+PE=
Dd=b2

Ce=b1

AB=b

OP=

Area = {(

Area = {(

)(

}--------------------6
305

-:
10m
1:1 1:6

3m
-:

b =10m
n=6

s=1
h=3m

)
)

=b1

=
=9.60m


)
)

=b2

=
=6.85m

}
306

()

({ = Area
()

({ =

( =

three
-: level section
.

Area ABCOD=DOP+COP+DAP+BCP
= Area
(

)}-------------------------7

( {= Area


h 1=OP+Oe=h+
h 2=OP ef=h-

307


------------a

( )+

(*

=b 2=AP+AK

=or h 2


---------b

=or h2

b a

b 2=ef

( )+

== h2

(*

=h 2


)-------------10
)----------------11

=b 2
(

=b 1

-:


Station

cross section
2.90/6.50

1.50/0

0.95/4.55

3.200/8.3

2.00/0

1.750/5.50

8m
308

-:

})+

(* {=Area


h=1.50m b=8m
h1=2.90m b1=6.50m
h2=0.95m b2=4.55m

})+

(
(

)
)

(* {=Area
(*

{=1

)+}=(0.75x11.05+2x3.85)=15.99m2

b=8m

h=2.0m

b1=8.30m

h1=3.20m

b2=5.50m

h2=1.75


=})+

)
(
{=2
(*
(1.00x13.80+2x4.95) =23.70m2
309


-:
Side-hill two level sections:

.

=h 1

310

=b 1

='b 2= +AA

)(a

)) -----------(b
a b

'b 2=EE'=O'E

(=

)-----------12

=h 2

a
)---------------------13

=b 2

-:

Area of PBC
=A1
=PB=OB+OP

311

})

{)

=A1

]--------------14

( =
) ({

[ =

-:

Area of PAE
=A2
=PA
})
)

(
(

{)

( =A2

( =A2

]----------------15

) ({

[ =

312


s1:1 .
-:
)

=b1

]-------------------------17

) ({

[ =A1

-:
10m 1:1
2:1
1:5 0.8m

-:
.
n=5

h =0.8m

s=1 b=10m
313

14
}

) ({

) ({

]
]

})

[ =required area
[ =required area

Required area=10.1m2
.
n=5

h =0.8m

b=10m

s=2

) ({

[ =Required area

}=0.16m2

{ =

-: Multi level section


314


Right

Center

Left

+_h3/b3 ,+_h4/b4

+_h/0

+_h1/b1,+_h2/b2


.x y
.
.


.
315

P=h3x0+h4xb3+0xb4+h1x0+h2xb1+0xb2

-:
Q=hxb3+h3Xb4+h4x +hxb1+h1xb1+h2x

( = Area

)
-:


6M 1:1

Right

Center

+6.20/4.50
+7.00/9.00

+3.75/0.00

Left
+2.25/5.50
+3.20/3.00

316


)p=(6.2x0+7.0x4.5+0x9.0+3.20x0+2.25x3.0+0x5.5
=0+31.5+0+0+6.75=38.25

)Q=(3.75x4.5+6.2x9.0+7.0x3.0+3.75x3.0+3.2x5.5+2.25x3.0
=129.27
)Area =0.5(P-Q
=0.5(38.25-129.27) =45.51m2


FORMULLA FOR CALCULATION OF
-: VOLUME

1 TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
2 PRISMOIDAL RULE


317

* =Volume(cutting or filling),V

)+
*
)+

=Volume


.
* =Volume (cutting or filling),V

)+
*
)

)
=Volume

(
)+

318



PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FOR
TRAPEZOAIDAL RULE:-

=Cp

=Cp

Prismoidal correction for side hill two level sections


(

)
)

(
)

= Cp for curtting
(

319

)a

= b) Cp for filling

) (whole width of 1st section-whole width of

( = Cp
)2nd section

worked out problems -:


-:
10m :1side
slope 1 40m

0.90, 1.25, 2.15, 2.50, 1.85, 1.35 and 0.85

1-trapezoidal ruel 2-prismoidal rule
-:
.
=(b+sh)h
1=(10+1.5x0.90)x0.90=10.22m2
2= (10+1.5x1.25) x1.5=14.84m2
3= (10+1.5x2.15) x2.15=28.43m2
4= (10+1.5x2.50) x2.50=34.28m2
320

5= (10+1.5x1.85) x1.85=23.63m2
6= (10+1.5x1.35) x13.5=16.23m2
7= (10+1.5x0.855) x0.85=9.58m2
.
)+

* =V

* =V

)+
V=5096.40m2
.
(

* =V

(
)+
(

* =V
(

)+

V=5142.9m2
-:
formation level
width=8m side slope=1:2
321

ground level
.
200

150

100

50

118.50

115.20

116.80

114.35

Chainage250

)GL(m
115.75
118.25

1:100 raising
slope
formation level 0m
115.00m
= Rise per 50m
section Filling(-
)

) Cutting(+

FL

GL

Chainage

A1

0.75

A2

1.15

115.50 114.35

A3

0.80

116.00 116.80

100

A4

1.30

116.50 115.20

150

322

115.00

115.75

0
50

A5

1.50

117.00 118.50

200

A6

0.75

117.50 118.25

250

=> 1.15x1=37.5-0.75x1=>x1=19.74m

)a

=> 0.80x2=57.5-1.15x2=>x2=29.44m

)b

=> 1.30x3=40-0.8x3=>x3=19.05m

)c

=> 1.50x4=65-1.30x4=>x4=23.21m

)d


.
A= (b+sh)h
A1= (8+2x0.75) x0.75=7.13m2
A2= (8+2x1.15) x1.15=11.85m2
A3= (8+2x0.80) x0.80=7.68m2
323

A4= (8+2x1.30) x1.30=13.78m2


A5= (8+2x1.5) x1.50=16.50m2
A6= (8+2x0.75) x0.75=7.13m2
.
From Chainage 0 to 50m
Cutting =
Filling =
From Chainage 50 to 100
Cutting =
Filling =

From Chainage 100 to 150


Cutting =
Filling =
From Chainage 150 to 200
Cutting =

324

= Filling
From Chainage 200 to 250
= Cutting
Total cutting=70.37+78.76+73.15+221.02+590.75=1034.05m3
Total filling=179.29+174.73+213.55+159.92=727.19m3
-:
ground level .
200

150

100

50

118.50

115.20

116.80

114.35

Chainage250

)GL(m
115.75
118.25

formation
level=115m
formation width=8m side slope=1:1
-:

285

280

275
325

270

)Contour (m
290

16300

24600

8400

)Area (m2
31500

2050

270m 290m .

-:
.
)+

* =V

)+

* =V

=330375m3
.
)

* =V

(
)+

)+

* = V

V=330250m3
-:

326

40mx30m
2:1
5m
-:
Bottom section
B=30m

L=40m

Area (A1) =40x30=1200m2


Mid section
L=b+2sh=40+2x2x2.5=50m
B=30+2x2x2.5=40m
Area (A2) =50x40=2000m2
Top section
L=40+2x5=50m
B=30+2x2x5=50m
Area (A3) =50x50=2500m2
.
(

* =V

(
)+
327

( )+

=V

=10166.66m3
-:
8m 1:1
1:10
2m,3m,4m
40m
-:

b =8m h =2m n =10 s=1
-:
)--------3
)

(
(

=b 1
=b 1
b 1=6.67m


) ---------5

328

=b2

b2=

b 2=5.45m

)(

Area = {(

}--------------------6

)(

Area = {(

Area =20.36m2

b =8m ,h =3m
b 1=

,n=10

)--------3

b 1=

,s=1

b 1=7.78m
b2=
b2=

) ---------5

b 2=6.36
Area = {(

)(

}--------------------6

329

()

({ = Area
Area =33.49m2

-:
,s=1

,n=10

)--------3

b =8m ,h =4m
(

=b 1

=b 1
b 1=8.88m
(

) ---------5

=b2
=b2
b2=7.27m

}--------------------6
}

()

({ = Area

()

({ = Area
Area =48.64m2

* =V

(
)+
330

)+

* = V

V=48.64m3

-:

10m
1:1
Transverse slop

Depth of cutting

chainage

1 in10

1.00

1in 5

2.00

50

1 in 8

1.500

100

2222.0m3:
-:

formation
width=9m1:1
50m
331

Right

center

station

left

1
2
-:

h =1.00m ,h1=2.55m,h2=0.95m,b=9m,b1=7.50m,b2=5.25m
.
)}-------------------------7
)}=14.26m2

(
(

( {= Area
(

{= Area

h =1.50m, h1=2.80m,h2=1.35m,b=9m,b1=8.10m,b2=4.75m
.
)}-------------------------7
)}=19.01m2

(
(

( {= Area

)
(

{= Area

.
332

V= *

V= *(

)+
)+=831.75m3

prismoidal correction
Cp= (

)(
)

D=50m
h1=centeral height of 1st section=1.00m
h 2=centeral height of 2nd section=1.50m
Width of 1st section=7.50+5.25=12.75m
Width of 2nd section=8.10+4.75=12.85
Cp= (

)(
)

Cp= (

) (

Cp=0.20m3

Correct volume=831.75-0.20=831.55m3
333

-:
formation width=10m
11: 2:1
1:5 fall
50m
0.50m 0.70m

-:

b =10m
n=5
)s=1(in cutting
s1=2 in filling
D=50m
h1=0.50m central height in 1st section
h2=0.70 centeral height at 2nd section
14
334

1st section
A= [

{( )

]--------------14
{( )

Area in cutting = [

]=7.03m2
17

A1= [

{( )

]-------------------------17
{( )

Area in filling= [

]=1.04m2

A= [

{( )

]--------------14
{( )

Area in cutting = [

]=9.03m2
17

A1= [

{( )

]-------------------------17

335

{( )

Area in filling= [

]=0.38m2

.
V=

=401.50m3

=35.50m3

V=


Cp=
Cp=

(
( ) (

)
) =1.04m3

Prismoidal correction for filling=


Cp=

( ) (

) =1.4m3

Corrected volume in cutting=401.50-1.04=400.46m3


Corrected volume in filling=35.50-1.40=34.10m3
-:

336


6m 1:1
50m

Right

center

Left

station

4.75/5.25,6.40/7.30

1.5/0

2.2/5.5 ,
1.75/3.00

5.25/.00,7.40/8.50

2.00/0

3.1/5.25
,2.2/3.00

-:


p=4.75x0+6.40x5.25+0x7.30+1.75x0+2.20x3.00+0x5.50=40.
20m2

337

Q=1.50x5.25+4.75x7.30+6.40x3.00+1.50x3.00+1.75x5.50+2
.20x3.00
=82.49m2
)
)=21.14m2

( = Area
( = Area



P=5.25x0+7.40x6.00+0x8.50+2.2x0+3.1x3.00+0x5.25=53.70
m2

Q=2.00x6.00+5.25x8.50+7.40x3.00+2.00x3.00+2.2x5.25+3.
10x3.00
=105.68m2
)
)=25.99m2

( = Area
( = Area


=1178.25m3
338

=V

spot level -:
Computation of volume from spot level:

.

spot level

V=Area of figure X Average depth


ha,hb,hc
and hd
V=area of rectangle x
.
339

V=area of triangle x


.
h1=some of depth used once time
h2=some of depth used twice time
h1=some of depth used thrice time
h1=some of depth used four time

340

-:
Computation of area from contour:

100m
341

A0,A1,A2,A3An

342

-:

343


plane table surveying
:-



.
344



.



.

ACCESSORIES OF
PLANE TABLE
:The plain table- (750x600) mm

345

tri pod .

-:The Alidade .
1 :plain Alidade- 50cm
object
vane
sight vane narrow slit
.

2 :telescopic Alidade-
.

346

:The spirit level-


bobble ( )
.
The compass:-
.
:The trough compass1-

347

)(0 N-S.

-2-:The Circular Box Compass



.
-:U-fork or plumbing fork with plum bob
U
) (point
)(hook . .

348

-: Orientation


.
Orientation

orientation

349

Back sight method


Magnetic needle method
Back sight -:

-:
A B.A
a
a B
AB
AB .
B
bB ba
A


350


Orientation
.

plane table :

fixing the table in the tripod


stand-:


wing nut
.

leveling the table-:




( )
.
351

Centering The Table-:



P
U-
fork
.

Marking the North Line-:


trough compass .

0-0

.

Orientation-:

Orientation .

Plane table surveying


-: method

352

Radiation Method

Intersection Method

Traversing Method

Resection Method


-:


.


-:

O
)(A,B,C,D

353


-: Intersection method


Base line


.
354



.
.

-: Traversing Method


fore sigh
355

-: Resection method

356




.
procedure -:
)A p
A B
AB AB
.
)BA(
) B AB.
)C A P
P1.
)DP p1p
.A

)E P B
P
357

P
U-fork
.

-: special method of resection


358





missing detail


1-the -two point problem
2-the -three point problem

-:The two-point problem




.
.
procedure -:
1

-1 P Q
p

359

q AP
Q
2

B
.B.

pq . PQ
b
.

b .A
a1.

A A
. p
ba1a1
.

a1 Q
bq q1
pqq1
traingle of error .

360

pq1 R
Table . pq
table R
tableoriented

p q P Q
a
a
A .

-:The three point problem



p
.
361

plane table
. .
1. The graphical or Bessels method
2. The mechanical method
3. The trail-and-error method
1 -:
.1 A,B,C
a,b,c
P
.
.2p ca
A C
B
.3 ac C
a
B .
d.

362

.4

db B
.
Aa,Bb,Cc P

U-Fork .

the mechanical method


-1 A,B,C
a,b,c
P
.
-2P tracing
paper p .

363

-3

p A,B,C
a,b,c
orientation

-4tracing paper

a,b,c .p
p.
tracing paper
.
-5

p A,B,C
a,b,c
.

-:The method of trail and Error

.1 A,B,C
a,b,c

364

P
.
.2p
oreintation .
.3 Aa,Bb,Cc
orientation
.
.
.4

Aa,Bb,Cc
p
U-Fork .

error in plane table


surveying


instrumental error-:
365

1
2
Vanes 3
4
5 trough compassneedle

personal error
.1
.2
.3
.4clamped
.5
.6

.7
plotting error -:
1 pencil

366

2

3 .

.
-1
.
-2
-3
-4
-5

-6 tri
pod .
-7
-8
.
ploting.
367

-9

-:EQUIPMENTS
123456789-

Plane table with tripod


-1no
Alidade(plane or telescopic -1no
Trough compass or circular compass -1no
Spirite level
-1no
U-fork with plum bob -1set
Metric chain (20m) -1no
Metallic chain (15m) -1no
Arrows -10nos
Ranging rods -3nos

10-Wooden peg s -10nos


11-Mallet

-1no

12-Drawing sheet (good quality) -1no


13-Board pins or clips

-4no

14-Cardboard scale (set of 8scale)

-1set

15-Good pencil

-1no

16-Eraser

-1no

17-Knife

-1no
368

-5no

18-pins

-2no

)19- set-square (450,600

-1no

20- Duster

-: plane table procedure


-: Reconnaissance survey

.

marking the station-:
pegs .

pegs .

Connecting the traverse legs and marking details

Advantages and
Disadvantages of Plane Tabling
369

advantages -:
.1
.2field book
.3
.4
.5
.6
.
Disadvantage of plane tabling -:
.1

.2 (

) .
.3
.4
.5
.
370

-: EXERCISE
-:

-:
Oreintation

-:
leveling and centering


Hydrographic survey


barrage and weirs
and for cross drainage works

. ports,docks,harbours,light house

.
371

Rain gauging

River gauging

Marine survey

-: Rain Gauging
-: Necessity
catchment area




.


Location of site for Rain Gauging Station
catchment
Area .
500km2
150km2 .
372

Measurement of Rainfall
)(Rain gauges
373

)Non recording type(Simons rain gauge Automatic rain gauge


Non recording type rain gauge
.

127mm 305mm
.

0.2mm
24
8:30am .

374

-: RIVER GAUGING
Necessity



)High Flood Level(HFL
.

375

Guide banks

spill way

Selection of Discharge
Site


500m .

376


section N-N
.

: fixing the Gauge post


:-Gauge post
377

10cmX5cm 2m

0.01m

.
.
post RL fly
leveling .
post

.
RL=155.25m
gauge

1.0m

156.25m . .

378


)-: Water(Sounding

Measurement Depth of

-: Sounding Rod

bamboopole 5cm
2.5m )(disk

379

15cm .


2m

. .

Sounding cable
2m



380

5kg

.

Echo-sounder-:

10m . .

381

Measurement of velocity of
-: water

The surface float method


The sub-surface float method
The velocity rod method
The pitot tube method
The current meter method

surface float method -:


Surface float
10cm

382

1


.

float
C/S1
floatC/S2

383

Sub-surface float method-:


Sub surface float cord
surface float sub-surface
0.2D
D .

384

The velocity rod method-:


Velocity rod
2.5-5cm rod

0.6d .

The pitot tube method-:

90

.

h
.
=V

385

Determinationn of Cross-
-: Sectional Area ofRiver
-:
when the river is small-:
ranging pole



d0,d1,d2..
b

386


A1=0.5d1xb-----------------for triangle
A2=0.5(d1+d2) xb------------------ for trapezium
A3=0.5(d1+d2) xb------------------ for trapezium
=A4
Total cross-sectional Area=A1+A2+A3--------


-: When the river is large
AB
)(T1,T2
.

387

A AB


AP1,P2,P3,P4.

C ACAB
AC D

1.2.n
1=arc tan
2=arc tan

388

-:Calculation of Discharge of River





) Discharge Q=AxV (cu meter/sec


layout
-: introduction

Drawing



site clearance

.




389


()

-:Nessicity of layout

.
Check before starting
Preliminary site work
First layout
Erecting profile
Running offset
Final checking
1 (check before
) -:starting

.

.
2 ) -: (preliminary site work
390

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.


pegs (
).....
.
3 ) -:(first layout

pegs pegs
nails
strain
.
4 -:erecting profile

1m
.
5 -:Running offset


.
.
391

6 -:final checking




900
)(3:4:5

.

392

-: Setting Out of Building


1
drawing

.
.
2 2m
.

393

3
.
4
5
.
6
7

-: Setting out a culvert



drawing
.

394

x y
.
y-axis

x-axis

Point

Remarks

Y1

X1

P1

Y2

X2

P2

Y3

X3

P3

Yn

Xn

pn


.1
.
.2 x-axis x

.3 y-axis y

395


project survey
-:introduction
.
-:The Mass Diagram

barrow pitprobable locationwast bank,

.
-:The balancing line

mass diagram .

-:Lead
barrow pit 15m
.
396

-:Lift Barrow pit


Excavated earth 1.5m
.
:Haul distance-
.
-:Average haul distance
embankment
.

-:PREPARETION OF MASS DAIGRAM


Mass Diagram

( )
.
397

ordinate
Chainage.

smooth curve
.

-:


Mass Diagram.
)Filling (m3
-ve
-150

)Cutting(m3
+ve

) Chainage(m
0-50

+120

50-100

+90

100-150

-60

150-200

+100

200-250

398

250-300

-80

300-350

-120

350-400

+130

-:

Table for mass diagram


section

Chainage

Algebraic
sum of
cutting and
filling
0

50

0-150

100

-150+200

150

-30+90

200

+60-60

250

0+100

300

+100-80

350

+20-120

399

Remarks

Starting point of work


Filling of -150m3 between 0
and 50
Cutting of +120m3 between
50 and 100
Cutting of +90m3 between
100 and 150
Filling of -60m3 between 150
and 200
Cutting of +100m3 between
200 and 250
Filling of -80m3 between 250
and 300
Filling of -120m3between
300 and 350

Cutting of +130m3 between


350 and 400

-100+120

400

RAILWAY PROJECT
SURVEY

.
justification of constructing new line -:


.

.
400

-:Marking of tentative Alignment



tentative
alignment

401

zigzag


Reconnaissance survey -:

tentative alignment


.
.


100m



402



.
-:Selection of Good Alignment

.



403

.
detailed preliminary survey -:



.

Constructing pillar
.

fly levelingGTS
.


100m .

20m40m


.

404

100m.

2km
.

)(Upstream and downstream km1 .




scoure depth .


bearing capacity of soil
. .

drawing
estimation.
final location survey -:

405


project report -:

.

back ground.



.
406


.

General map of the country through which the proposed line
will pass (scale-1cm=20km).
)Rout survey map(to suitable scale
)Longitudinal section( to suitable scale
)Cross section(to suitable scale
General map and contour map
Detailed drawing of culvert, bridge, tunnels, level crossing.

-: ROAD PROJECTS
Necessity -:


.
.


407


Marking the tentative aligment -:

general map
contour map

.


reconnaissance survey -:

408

tentative
alighment
.
.


field book .


80cm2.5ft.

50m
.

tentative aligment


.

rail way crossing,canal

crossing .

HFL 10

.
409

-:Preliminary location survey



preliminary survey
.

.

fly leveling GTS


.


route survey 50m

profile leveling(20,40)m
.

cross section 100m

drawing drawing .
410

)a
)b formation level
)cformation width side slope
)d
)e
Mass diagram )f

)a route survey
.
)b
)c
)d compensation
.
)e
)f
final location survey -:


.

30m
411


project report -:




.

back ground

drawings

)a
)b
)c
)d
)e

Route survey
Longtidunal section
Cross-section


412

project survey on flow


-: irrigation
necessity -:


.

avallibility of irrigation water -:




.


wier

413

study of topography -:

.
selection of site for dam and
barrage or weir -:


.

borring,pile testing





-:river gauging



414


iver gauging

marking of tentative alignment-:







reconnaissance survey -:



.
.
.
.
415

.
.
.

.
preliminary location survey -:

.


.

fly leveling GTS


.


Down stream Up
stream 1km.
416


100m
route survey map

(20)m
.

100

PROJECT ON TOWN SHIP OR


-: CITY SURVEYING

.
Street system
Property lines
Water supply system
Sanitary system
Electrification system
Telephone system
417



master plan
.
.
Toppgraphy survey
Street survey
Property demecration
Water supply
Sanitary system
Electrification system
Telephone system




.

Instrument required for conducting city survey: .
Transite theodolite with stand
Leveling instrument with stand
Leveling staff
Metallic tape
418

Invare tape
Metric chain with arrows
Plane table with accessories
Ranging rod,optical square,pegs,etc
preparation of topographic map





.
fly leveling
RLs
.
preparation of street map





419

leveling

fly

.
preparation of property map-:


.
preparation of water supply and
sanitary map -:



intake
point purification pointcheck valves fire
hydrantchambers

manholes,lampholes,inspection

.
preparation of electrification map



.
420

coordination works -:

.

.
.


Curves

Alignment
Deflection angle .

( original line
deflection line)
Curve .

421


)(Rising gradient
)(falling gradient
)(parabolic curve

curve


DEFINITION AND EXPLANATION OF DIFFERENT
TERMS

relstion between
: radius and degree of curve

AB 30m OR
D .
422


OA=R
AB=30m
AC=15m
<AOC=D/2
From triangle OAC.
Sin D/2=AC/OA=15/R
R=15/sinD/2
D/2
sinD/2D/2
)R=15/(D/2)X( /180)=1.719/D (approx.
-:Super elevation


.



423



.
super
elevation P
Wsinh

Wsin =Wv2/gR
Or
Wxh/b=WV2/gR
When is very small, sin =tan =h/b
h=b V2/gR
for road
)(1
Or
h=GV2/gR
for railways
)(2
424

b
G rails
R
g m/sec2
V
h
-:Centerifugal ratio
centerfugal ratio

Centrifugal ratio (CR)=P/W=WV2/gR xW=V2/gR


Allowable value for CR in road =1/4
Allowable value for CR in rail ways=1/8
TYPES OF HORIZANTAL CURVE -:

simple curve -:


.

425


compound curve

.

426

Reverse curve


.
tangent .

-: transition curve

spiril curve. railways

.
427


Lemniscate curve -:

deflection
angle OPD
. OD
'PP O )OA,OB,OP(p
.

428



r=P/3sin2
p=polar ray of any point
r=radius of curvature of any point
=polar deflection angle


Length of curv OPD=1.3115K
K=3r

429


NOTATION USED WITH CIRCULAR CURVE:-

AB BC

B
Deflection angle
Iangle of intersection
T1 T2
BT1 BT2
)(Deflect right hand
curve

430

left hand curve


.
AB BC
T1DT2
T1ET2
ET1ET2
BE

R
<T1OT2 deflection angle
T1 T2
point of tangency .

properties of simple
-: circular curve

) =180 -I (I= angle of intersection



R=1.719/D
)(D=degree of curve
Tangent length BT1or BT2=Rtan /2
.

431

T1ET2=R

arc

Length
of
curve=length
radains=R 0/1800

of


Length of curve=30 /D
if degree of curve D is
given
)Length of long chord =2T1D=2OT1 sin /2=2R sin /2 (m

Apex distance=BE=OB-OE
Rsec /2-R=r(sec /2-1) m
full chord -:
pegs


. 1/20
.
20-30m
10m
.
.
Chainage of first tangent point=Chainage of intersection-tangent
length
Chainage of second tangent point=Chainage of first
tangentpoint+curve length
Horizontal curve setting by chain and tape method:432


.
Taking offset or
-1
ordinates from the long chord
Taking offset from the
chord procedure

2-

Successively bisecting
the arcs

3-

Taking offset from the


tangents

4-

taking offset or ordinates from the


long chord -:
AB BCB
) deflection angle (
.

433

TL=Rtan /2.

. 2T1 T2
3
0

CL=R /1800

T1 T2
5
)(L
L=2Rsin /2

434

6

.
7
Oo .
O0=DE=versed sine of curve=R (1-cos /2)---------------------1
OF=R and OD=R-O0
From triangle OT1D, OT12=OD2+T1D2
Or R2=(R-O0)2+ (L/2)2
) (

=R-O0
) (

---2O0=R-

1 2 mid-ordinates
.
9
O1.O2,.On
x1,x2xn D
T1
.

435

px D
pp1 P1P2 TT1
.

OP12=OP2 +P1P2

R2=(R-O0) +Ox)2+x2
Where OP2=(R-O0)+Ox
(
)
=Ox

.
-:
AB BC b
150.5m
R=100m
Deflection angle=300
offset from long chord
-:

TL=Rtan /2
Tangent length=100xtan150=26.79m

436

Chainage of T1=150.50-26.79=123.71m
.1

CL=R /180
Curve length=3.14x100x300/1800=52.36m
Chainage of T2=123.71+52.36=176.07m
.2
)(L
L=2Rsin /2
Length of long chord=2x100sin150=51.76m
.
Each half=0.5x51.76=25.88m
.
) (

O0=R-

(
) =3.41m
O0=100-
5m
.
)=3.28m
)=2.91m
)=2.28m
)=1.38m
)=0.23m
(
)=0m,

)
(
(
(
(
(

437

=O5
=O5
=O10
=O15
=O20
=O25
=O25.88
CHECK


-:




.
-:

-:

438

.
.

260km2 100sq miles


260km2
100sq miles.


.
-:


439

-:
10cm in length of 18.2km
30cm in length of 54.50km
50cm in alength of 91km
-:
triangle

plane

spherical

triangle
-:
1sec degree195.5km2
.
-:
traingulation


.
-:

-:
:-

.
440

:-

.
:-
.
-:
.
survey

Archeological-:

.
mine survey-:
military survey-:
.
city survey-:
.

.
-:
.
-:
catch ment
.
441

marine survey-:
.
-:
large scale small scale

-:
1cm 1cm=1km
1cm 1cm=1m .
-:
Test gauge
-:
pegs
.
-:
minor instrument
-:
Cross-staff ---for taking perpendicular offset
Optical square---for taking perpedndicular `offset
Clinometer---for measuring angles of slope
Box sextant---for measuring any horizontal angle

442

Abney level---for measuring angle of slope and setting out


grades
Planimeter---for measuring area on the map
Pentagraph---for enlarging or reducing area of the map
Ceylon ghate tracer---for measuring angle of slope and setting
out grade contour
Substenc bar---for measuring horizontal angles in stadea
method
-:

-:
De Lisles clinometer
Watkins mirror clinometer
Foot rule clinometer
Indain pattern clinometer
-:

Absolute correction Cs=L*C/l


Tem.correction Ct=(Tm-T)l
Pull correction Cp=(pm-p0)L/AE
Sag correction ,Cs=w2l/24n2p2m
Hypotenusal allowance,Ch=L(cos -1)

-:

443

-:


=Ch
) Ch=L(1-cos
Ch=L/sin
=Ch
Ch=0.00015L 2
)Ch= slope(1:n

-:


-:

)Error in length =d2/40(for 20m chain),d2/60(for 30m chain


-:

-:
1:1000
1:2000
-:
444

chain survey theodolite



-:
.
.
-:


-:
whole circle bearing
00-3600 quadrantal
bearing 00-900 NE,NW,SE
and SW .
-:

-:
15
-:

-:
445

degree of curve .
-:

)1
)2
)3
)4
)5
)6

Tangent length=2Rtan /2
Curve length=R 0/1800 or 30 /D
Long chord=2Rsin /2
((Apex distance=R
)
)Versed sine=R(1-cos /2
=Deflection angle
-:

Super elevation for roads h=BV2/gR


Super elevation for rail ways h=GV2/gR

-:


-:

CR for rail ways =1/8

446

CR=v /gR
CR for road =1/4


FIELD SURVEYING 1MAY2014
-:

-:


-:


-:
ABCB C
BX
BY X,C and Y

BX=67m,BY=111m,CX=42m and CY=78m
C B329m
447

-:

1.
Check line 2.tie line 3.maximum length of offset
field book
D
E
-:
5.6m
18.1m .
-:
3.20m
18.80m .
-:
4.60m 20.30m .
-:
11.40m and 10.50m
13.0 and 23.0m .
-: 28.40m .

-:
448

A B



-:
20m

3cm
Slope distance (m) =18.70, 13.4, 10.1, 16.90, 11.6, 17.8
Deference of elevation between end (m) =0.85, 3.90, 3.25,
2.75, 3.1,180
Ans.86.7499m
-:
20m 20c0
20kgf
10kgf
13C0 480m
0.03cm20.45kgf
=11x10-6perC0
E=2.1x106kg/cm2
10,20m
Ans ,479.846m ,479.876m
449

-:

20m

260m
RL=9.850m

RLs

(2.410,1.765,0.650,3.485,2.870,2.105,1.865,1.020,0.475,1.670,
)2.290 and 3.625m
-:
fly leveling
A DA
RL D 116.72m
D

C
3.38

B
3.47

0.24

0.35

0.87

A
2.63

Staff at
BS
FS

-:

PQ=23m,QR=48m,RS=40m ,SP=24m and SQ=40m

450

PR

Ans:- Area =8804.43m2 PR=57.69m

References:
.
1. Surveying vol1and vol2 by P.C.PUNAMAI.
2. Surveying and leveling vol1 and vol2 by T.P
KANETKAR and S.V KULKARNI.
3. Surveying vol1,2 and3 by Dr K .R AROARA.
4. Surveying vol1 and vol2 by S.K Duggal.
5. Surveying and leveling by N.N BASAK.
6. Surveying and leveling by R.Agor.
7. Advance surveying by R.Agor.
8. Roy S.K fundamental of surveying, prentice hall, New
Delhi India.
9. Subramanian surveying and leveling Oxford University
press New Delhi.
451

452