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PN HOW TO mr People Learn to draw step by step Understanding anatomy = Drawing hands & feet Capturing movement « Incorporating colored pencil BY DEBORAH KAUFFMAN YAUN Toone Chia svighorcened awa 6 saa ‘kn en bid hsp i Repo eh ny fn sea yt rn men psn i hice oma spac lc wih wen ocr hte oer aang a sittin eon basic shapes ofa figure, as well as ways to develop realistic details. You'll also discover important information about the influences of bone structure and musculature, as well asthe differences between child and adult proportions. To get started, you'll find helpful information about drawing tools and materials, followed by basic instruction on shading with graphite pencil, Detailed examples of hands, feet, and facial features will help guide you through the most challenging aspects of drawing people. In addition to the graphite lessons, two step-by-step projects explore People People are such interesting and varied subjects to draw. In this book, you will learn how to block in the Aft Mu figure drawing in colored pencil. With practice, you'll soon be able to successfully capture the likenesses of family and friends in your drawings! ‘Tools and Materials Shading Techniques Anatomy, ‘Adult Proportions ‘Adult Heads Hands Feet. Showing Movement Foreshortening CONTENTS 2 Understanding Lighting. 3 Drawing from Life 4 Bridal Portrait, Chile's Proportions 6 Children in Action 7 Choosing a Pose. 8 Using Colored Pencil 9 Achieving the Best Results Las § med Y pts. TOOLS AND MATERIALS Graphite pencil is versatile, practical mein hat masini today comesit or any ~ ) beginning artist. All you really need are a few basic tools, AScEING THE Wott PICTURE AREMOVING TONE the a eraser which are relatively inexpensive and easily can be taken with Amapning ls is heb wl ‘Sake asinents,conect mistakes, of ‘nis especay when sings photograph pl ot ahh, Vy easrs (ene) you almost anywhere, Even when you're just starting out, a eeece Uta maging iso ale eg on “ : ies 7 oe See enact wht rerance,Areucing in pois fo erasing smal areas or ® best to purchase the highest quality materials you can ils wil mae the donne ner saler fr being woes reste son ola you ca eke se ny lens you tans. Be gente wien ers 0 you ayferemie when ings htogaph Sr omg oper ome the most pleasing results. Here you'll find a quick overview of Sbeweyeur dew unt lappa he od Sone sie be pot Then compare the items that I find most helpful. Wat yu se tooth he redeing wa {othe pos Ket and make ay necessary hanes afford—better-quality materials last longer and will produce YVEINDING A GooD SURFACE ——-ASMOOTHING TRANSITIONS Drawing pape comes Ina range of dierent verte") ae sirfaces, rm sgh o aug and stn perl sos, fan be purcnced in single sues rin smoothing actions betwee ark od envenemly bone books Most arts ‘physics When he lensing stomp thoose tue single sheets of high-quality ecomes dy, ro itn en to remove rowing paper bas shech pa sone exces rope Use sump pati, hetptltrwawing cathe go—especay as overuse ean make Your awigappea ven you're rowing gute an need to sit overwork, ati and pope nate fr inspation Youmnay want begin avingenpaper_Y SHARPENING YOUR TooLs etc sharpeners reat a ery sharp ‘hat ea emath te medion aan 23 this f paper provides the mest Versa ring sta 2 pocket or ag and ey ental A sandpaper lk ase ean fom iy goed panel pins. CHoosine PeNens ‘Theis hing you wat a when sting a raw is purchase several iteen hinds bf apie pencils Peel ae eed wit umber ao leters—and the combination a ‘he wo inleates the soe ofthe graphite. pene, for example ae so and produce fark, Reavy ses, whore H enc ar harder caste hi, ins aH pane issomewbee between te wo, wich makes ia goog, versae to fr mest aris The ‘umber at companies et Inieses Now hard eso eeh peel the ight ‘he number, he mare tense he soess or hatdoess oyu ines wl be. (AH peels harder 324, anda 4 1s soe han 328). Cotorep Pencris (i This chart shows thecolors used tocomplete the sy ac last Wo projects inthis book. Look for colored pencils that closely match these colors at your local art and craft store, Puchase artist's quality colored pencils forthe best results Because colored pencils have @ translucent ‘ualty, the paper undereath the pencil strokes shows through, affecting the color you perceive. White paper appears to lighten the pene color, hereas toned or colored papers derken te color (of your stokes. Experiment with afferent paper Colors to ee the varied effects and change= om colar aver another to achieve the appearance of 42 “mized” color when viewed, Layered coors become more visually comples, adding. more ‘dept tothe forms, Practice ona smal piece of the paper you plan to use for your drawing to 2 the various effects you can create by layering your eolored pencils SHADING TECHNIQUES Transform flat shapes imotifelike forms using shading techniques like those below. Make soft strokes for lighter tones, or put more pressure on your pencil to make heavy strokes for darker tones. These contrasts in CREATING DEPTH Indicating the shadows and highlights of your subject using value helps produce a sense of depth and volume in your drawing. As you shade, note the direction of the light source and how it creates varia tions in value on your subject. Apply fewer strokes and less pressure for lighter values (highlights), and use more strokes and heavier pres- sure for darker values (shadows). For extreme highlights, leave the paper free of tone or pull out cone using a kneaded eraser. Suapixe To CREATE FoRM When jes ae dawn, shading mus be SEEING VALUES Tsvalee scale added create the ilsion a ep, The Shows th gradation ram lack he plain cel top) is simply it i, farkestvale—tvugh varios shades of ‘Boy ending with whte—the gtes vale, bat ading shading eves frm, resting 2 wee dmensonal sphere Ct ato, value (the relative lightness or darkness of black or a color) are what give depth and form to your drawings. First establish the simple, basic shape of your subject, and then try these techniques to see your subjects come to life on paper! PRACTICING BASIC TECHNIQUES ‘With just the basic shading techniques below, you can render every- thing from a smooth complexion to a simple background. Whatever techniques you use, though, remember to shade evenly. Shading in a ‘mechanical side-to-side direction, with each stroke ending below the last, can create unwanted bands of tone throughout the shaded ate Instead try shading evenly, in a back-and-forth motion over the same area, varying the spot where the peneil point changes direction. CRossHATcHING Te aden of thes oer of abn, ata oe Called croeeatesng." GRADATING To create watts ales om darko ie, pt esey esate ith he eof your psa then (adal lessen the pressure as you stoke, BLENDING Tosmoot oath tans ions betwee stokes a create 3 ek, Sold one gent eines wih Maing tmp se, Le arpered ‘atstach tart Site ofrnd EXPERIMENTING WITH STROKES Learning tocraw equites certain amount of control and precision, sogetused to the fee! ofa pencil in your hand andthe kinds of stokes you can achive ‘Before you begin sketching, experiment with diferent pencil ris to see how they affect the lines you produce. Fie etal wrk smare easily accomplished with a sharp peril held as though you were wing, wheres baad shading, Is best done withthe side of your pencil, hesing it in. an underhand position. Practice holding the pencil underhand, overhend, and ina writing position to See the citferent lines you can crest, You also can vary your strokes by experimenting with the sharpness or dullness of your pencil points. A sharp point is good for Keeping your crewing detaled and relied the harder the ead, the longer your pene point remains sharp and clean. A flat pint or chisel point is helpful for creating a wider stoke, which can quicky il arger areas. Create aft or chisel point by ubbing the Sides of pencil on a sandpaper back r even on a separate sheet of pape. ANATOMY Figure drawing iseasier when youhave an the figure correct proportion—the relationship of the indi- understanding of the basic structure of the body. The muscles vidual body parts to one another and to the body as a whole. and bones give the body three-dimensional form, with the Knowing what is beneath the skin of the figure will make your muscles filling out the skeletal foundation. Together they give drawings more realistic and true to the form of your subject. Musctrs AfvEcr FoRo Te msesatie of tere indians can vary depending on tev ot physical ness, bet weal ave to Same muscles tndereat Treo the general atmo bumps and ures tat make up the sape and orm of igure are very Similar om persone person sa good ieao become” TORSO MUSCULATURE (FRONT) Thoms TORSO MUSCULATURE (BACK) The muscles {ania wit te placement the stuctures sewn nthe muscles—tom he peckto he sours, across the ches, inthe back fhe rs general extend arse the dy, ‘nt vw ave and back view (blow so you can beter down an around he i cage, nd ten om he ipso theater han a and down 3 ne Tey ol te body vision the way the sin ay over he muscles to create leps~con the movemea ofthe boy and gv form the ec, sheng phy actos te Back whe he mts {he bman form ‘elm Compare is ihe ral tp Let Ive tareard. Compare is with ewig a a et ADULT PROPORTIONS The proportional measurements of the when we look at the skeletal and muscular views of the body. parts of the human body vary slightly for every person, ‘When drawing a figure, we measure in “heads,” the vertical making them unique; paying attention to these variations will distance from the top of the head to the chin. Use rough help you render accurate likenesses. But first it’s important to measurements to help place the parts of your figure. Ifa head understand how we're all the same by studying the average or other body part appears too large or too small, you can proportions of the human body, which are more apparent check the body's proportions to correct the problem. SKELETAL STRUCTURE 8) staying BODY MUSCULATURE Propotin MALE PROPORTIONS Theavenge FEMALE PROPORTIONS The hone structure, we can clearly sete re dest ap length alone—e ales approximately 7-12 besds igh ef__aerge female stot ala ead shorter “tions ofthe feng ofeach part afte ctness the body also mast be Course, ese proportions vay wit efeent_ han be male, or7 heads igh Ass on eay tte whee Moprtot. This aspect of propetin ona te female ire speci aves depending on tetas a he Tntviua bathe waving sbove wl bel you assess these properions based on feel bimon maser fasnon ‘han a mal, bt ropetonally wie bp. ADULT HEapDs The elements of each separate part of the body must be in proportion, just as the entice body must be proportional. We need to know the accurate proportions for drawing parts like the human face. Understanding the proper proportions and using placement guidelines helps you determine the correct size and location of each facial feature. Whether you are viewing the subject from front, in profile, or from three-quarter view, the basie proportions are the same. / Metest / vers! Nera! J eseine J cenrine ‘trie ate fing | | row ie z Sow ine Hit Moncons! entering ono 1p on FRONTAL VIEW Thebaa gks ike althat ht—-PROFILE VIEW Todeaw an adult in profi stat THREE-QUARTER VIEW Wane ei trea en tenet a he se, longa De tin at hertz and veal, Dv the btm prion nasa ein wi ieee fo thee fl cts is cet, whereas he eyes a tothe siete vera! ceneine as shte—in ber Worst contein i centred; abe, be fous ase The nose, ot ain show where the def the nse wl be ad ence orto see wher the bot ip ends. The atin i abot tne id down Kom he po the hea beeps, nd {he bow ne is js above te ers. Te eyes ae centered etveon he vrs amerine a the sso te hed ramain sie The lane, dase nes indeate he paral slant of temas andthe eat. Noe hat be as Placed jst behing the verialcestartne and sts te FM he hrzonal coterie, The hornet placement Tne re the same 35 he otal iw, tthe fae ist on sie of Ts perspec lcs he {eats proportions, wih nearer items appearing ler fo ‘aml, the eye closer the viewer appers larg. Aa heconse he head ited slighty downward inhi pose, ‘he bara ies curve up rand he baa DEPICTING FACIAL FEATURES covering slighty, Shae Uppy ace the pol aa te whe of beep round te ees 26 simesin. een (O\"'\' inthe genera shape (1), andthe sh ‘nls (2 To ish shade the ene eat ain ghia in rise areas (3. EyEs 1N FRONTAL VIEW Mato acl forth, nd ow thei vr, ii, stoking tar om he pup, anda eyelashes, EYES IN PROFILE Draw ace fort raw eyelid round it Te isan poplar alipses. Sate tes, sking outward fo te pul ity shade ‘he whit ofthe ye around te eps to Soest curate. Nose AND MOUTH Simpy te nse by diving the rig into four planes, with curved ote sides a eel onthe Up. Oa a shale oa ene, aa 8 inert (Lg shade the nase wih Ines flowing he canto, leaving intone wpper pane and. Shae elisa he detonate sows Fate etures wit mae shag, ang ake ras shadows (3) Hanps Hands are very complex and involve many moveable elements, which can be a challenge to draw. Some positions of the hand are more difficult to draw. than others. You may want to try posing a hand—yours or a model’s—in many different positions and drawing them for practice. In general, draw men’s hands more angularly, with a heavier line quality; draw women’s hands lightly with smooth, ‘graceful lines, When sizing a hand to a figure, remember that a hand is about the same length as the face, from chin to hairline, If hand is posed in a way that does not allow you £0 see al the fingers, don’t be tempted to draw what you can’t see or it will look unnatural. Try not to be discouraged if your first few drawings aren't lifelike; hands definitely take a lot of practice! or ad move se te Hand.Ta inurl ou render more wings Waite ola of te fagers, el elapse abet nes, {tnd bow the nes and moles entend tom the base ofthe hand SHOWING AN OPEN PALM Anaper-plm randrng fa ut fal’ Rand oul be ates. Showing us someting ihe had, reaching fr same ‘bing Wit iting om above the highs ae on {ops fhe ner palm, ith he Dack ef the hand in stad han hols 2 paints, bathe ‘pun or pee Tho ston ight ‘id wit shadow. Nobel EXTENDED VERSUS FOLDED FINGERS Tee thin tthe ote of the umd howe mre moding oat ‘han ter nger. The vie tom above, se hing ae om he ose the ngs, nate shadows sre beneath into te vawors ie, HOLDING & PEN On BRUSIE Thad male Iblis the ingrs and faves te back of te hand MAKING 4 FIST The mil aged male fiat ae cul be baldng something tighten to. The gn is oan vey iste rom 2 source hat DIFFERENCES IN MALE AND FEMALE HANDS Here he hands of 2 yourg marie couple Cleary sow how mal an femal ans ar ran sere. Te san lipig irom above, eeaing Ig hei on he Baek the woman's had same pose cau held rom tight nds na heyoard, several ol he figers These hand aso cul eit reaching for Something The ight ee ram above, Ming te eke a he hands FEET Toes are less exible than fingers, so feet are muscles, and tendons to assist you in rendering accurate not as complicated to draw as hands, Because feet have a drawings. Practice drawing feet in various views, a shown unique structure, however, itis still helpful to study the bones, here, ro build your skills. 4 Crossep Feet From ou viewpoiat in xt fis mars ersed ft, Wwe as th ere btm ot is gt oo The Teetoaed oe eight ‘dhe fot pitt us, shee svere forest 4 Back View oF FEET When viawes tom val hen they are se ight on ke is. 4 Young Fewate Teer Theta ote seo aioe soon 4 Aputt Mate 44 Frer is PRoriLe Feet tsman'is is view fa woman ting it ost ng her rig oat ‘ananpeto ake a step, 2 competes iw with inact sale than the aber ao because ‘aly thet te showing. Here fat boing thts and pointed sient soding gt ‘od enh aes, toiwhen tis bar Foot ANATOMY SKELETAL STRUCTURE Iatistmlvew, HEEL AND ARCH FORMATION Bate MusCLES Th relaonsip betwee fot neg bas ote eet ae Revi than atachent oe lg Boes athe ankle athe heavy ar eauyo een ie view a he muscle fe ‘hos ofthe ans. The tae jit ar close ete, tone hal ems te hel and ach are visible ins {oat Yu can low est fe foot msces up tee, 25 compared wih he widely separated tiga is. sie view eth shoe stu of fo. rom wich most ot movement comes. SHOWING MOVEMENT All the parts ofthe body combine to show movement of the figure. Our jointed skeleton and muscles \ allow us to bend and stretch into many different positions. To create drawings with realistic poses, it helps to study how a body looks and changes when stretched or flexed, as well as > when sitting or standing. Begin by drawing the lie of action Z (a line ro indicate the curve and movement of the body) o “gesture” first; then build the forms of the figure around it EXTENDING AND CONTRACTING The sie feb sal allows ut bend { f many ways wl setching and eontating ou ints. Test thes posts show how the j ‘ape a he body ean change dasa whe he proportions aye sme. y Sreercune ano BENDING Youalmost can el he mole tetching on hs Tears toys: er ig ending igure eater ‘wrinkles aa tity — toed ara in he Clog Bo suet eraw ‘hese teases and smth Everynay Acr sea make your rang Aros is tele fay sae The cue Pi This woman kesing ner garde i eign a 8 shape eae aon he neat ide fe bays Bed the Ba ie ie trae aol sight intuece oo ine of cen, FORESHORTENING To achieve realistic depivinyour drawings, it's important to understand foreshortening. Foreshortening refers to the visual effect (or optical illusion) that an object is shorter than it actually is because it is angled toward the viewer—and that objects closer to the viewer appear proportionately larger than objects farther away. For example, an arm held out roward the viewer wil look shorter {and the hand will look larger) than an arm held straight down by the subject's side, When foreshortening something in a drawing, be sure to draw the object the way you really see snot the way you think it should look. Foreshortening helps ‘create a three-dimensional effect and often provides dramatic emphasis, Study the examples here to see how foreshortening influences their sense of depth. ANGLED View ‘ws view the nea i loser tte views than ‘hee The igs seem to disappear etna te hips. Ot gar of one foot visible aod reat sal ae to Torsten. The et is paral wih side ott ite plane i, net angle tomar ray ftom te vewe) The toro eighty by trestanen holes ae closer ue ‘ad appear ie rgerin empaisan with he. Sipe View mis ew, th young womans Tims ar not tones ecawea he iw it Sheet tom ese, rot atan ane Wer ro, ead, ante at al at rough te same distance ‘tom te vewe. The ‘ingest hané re romewat oreed teease ty dre ture ova ie viewer, Focus ON FINGERS When foreshortening occurs, you must forget everthing you know about proportion and draw ‘hat you see instead of what you expect to see, — Even something as simple as 2 fingertip can ‘ke ona casticaly citferent appearance. appear egal in sz. When te Ainge and nl are hate, bob appetite fares aay, s the fest: “re foreshornned beau heya ale ie tvar te vewer, Mor fh rs 0 ‘he ams are iden tein the legs—temener at you shalt aw wht you ean seat STRAIGHT-ON ViEW Now the leg ae extended dec toward the vewet—s0 ‘he legs are foreshore, making tem appear uh shat tan the real ae Tas ‘stort erates isin tthe et are mach lose tte ewe Base ret the ted The tas, head names onthe sme plane, ey ar prope propetin 10 ne anater, Nace er tha the Svetched-oat ys apea le oly tot bens ln. Back VIEW WHTit ANGLED HEAD AND ARR Inti view, marot be body ‘son te some plane an paral te pct pan), bth haan ams ae angled ligt away Hom the viewers thy appar lately small when compare wit the et of ‘oe ne. u UNDERSTANDING LIGHTING An important aspect ofdrawi especially when drawing people—is lighting the subject. Lighting can have a dramatic effect on the figure’s appear ance, eliciting an emotional response from the viewer and setting the mood of the drawing, Subtle lighting often is associated with tranquility and can make a subject appear soft and smooth. This type of lighting tends to lighten the mood, generally lending a more cheerfal feel to the composition. On the other hand, strong lighting makes it easier to see the contrasts between light and dark, which can add drama and make the subject appear more precisely formed. Longer shadows can mute the mood of a portrait, producing an air of pensiveness, Here strong shadows on the subject's face make her subtle smile seem reflective rather than content. siting ea yang te featises and / ) ihe na, erasing umeeded| Al rowing progresses. Rei sears a 4 he og Add te Back fhe cha, nae fine hap fe rst ch fingers ad the shapes the shes. The j main concer a his tag is establishing the over shape ofthe aure—sading Inet iping and mood wil come rex \ Fist ste he utes fe re nwt eran pape sng an HE pci Sat wih tetas, aed hen ad Be sape he head Tis is ee ‘arr view a te Body but he ace is incomplete poi as the sujet ols tothe inflow Blok ne tron of er andthe lt ple ck ward he hai UN Using a yet toch raw he ges the shows aan the ce, front i eat UsiNG SrRONG NATURAL Lic The modelo this raving siting bes a Hor. toceling window. The sn steaming trough the lass rom above ad in ont of et. The Son ig rates vil inet yeastng Seop tadows an resig tight Nps ‘Skate he shi asing it agonal stokes, except whee te hg is strongest. placement ané strength et your ihs ad ar valus. Then appl abétonal shaing to {each ad legs fhe ay, ed shee window ae ‘hie jeans uring stroke that allo he form fa gs Wt» sor panel pit, cre {uy 368 aye shading tthe darker areas ofthe sin, Reflected Tih rom the sit ‘hei hte them Becnue the portal elizes ong coast ng, ager paran of ing wl oman nery wating the igh on er ls, ber treat. ae hr chs. ara hat comprises varying dogrens of sagows without tas rg areas of ialignt wold ose drama aa ions, Net shade the shoes, making them drter where ‘te woven ptm s more etal. On the fo, se slagna acing stokes, aging Woy ‘om te ight to crete he atows cst ty he legs ef he sujet andthe ena. B DRAWING FROM LIFE Drawing from a live mode also called “drawing from life” or “life drawing”) is a wonderful exercise in drawing the human body in its various shapes and positions. Drawing from life helps you avoid overworking your drawing because you're instead focused on quickly recording the gesture and specific details of your model before he or she moves, resulting in a spontaneous, uncomplicated finished drawing, Take advantage of available models—your children, other family members, or friends—whenever possible. When drawing, from life, be sure the pose is comfortable for the model. Allow short breaks for your smodels (also providing you time to rest), and don't require them to smile, as this can tire out ther facial muscles. Because you're working ata faster pace, drawing from lie will help you learn freedom and flexibility—both of which will benefit your drawings regardless of the type of reference. It will also help you appreciate the subtleties the eye perceives thatthe ‘camera can't—such as the twinkle in this man’s eye! Ides facet ste howe poperions and placemect he ears ier om te "aeage” proportions ‘plained on page 6. ‘sigan HB pencil ty Bock in the baie stapes gue does oak a he's gig porn the ha Note tat the ode ack cures rae whl te back te chai anlsbacward ar his ead lg verily tribe back efthe cal. aes the Fight ‘make th rip ot ge thane le beeause he int Tok i aa toward te viewer. ‘Wit 8 pani, daw in teal eats and eine {he Shapes fhe bea iui the er bal, al Rat Te hoe he et fhe ody, tang he ls and tals tli tare a onthe et hand ext turer deve io creat suagh ch thea ck, Using 228 pel, begin shading te ht eving = he tap edge an in on the vin wae a . ‘some cetiling othe hair and beard with shor strokes, Face Detain To create the beard, apply very ark tone to areas of the beard, showing the gas between groups of hair Also leave some areas of the paper completely white to reflect the areas of the beard that ‘are inthe diect path of sunlight Wien detailing the face, shade very lightly 10 indicte wrinkles fad ceases, The wrinles should appear so, so avoid using hard lines. To create the twinkle Inthe eyes, pul out highlight in each pupil with 3 kneaded eraser, shapes ote wikis an how sec the pts an shades sa sade some of he Tackr se phy skteh In te shapes fhe es, shadavs 5 tas ae, ain ahs few ‘etre planes is arte tis nd shading ‘hadows = nened to anbance the sion of opt Use 2.8 pen fr the srkst ras and eave he test. “reas pre wie Sater aya edges wi an ase, 9 Being stump, or se. Fray, stp back ram your Sawing, sit your eyes, and seit that need te be corte any te orks tam 1s