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LTE RACH Procedure with Call Flow

The Base station continuously broadcast MIB's and SIB's. When the UE powers on, it syncs up
with the network and it looks for these messages.

1. First, the UE has to

DL synchronize with the networkat the frame and slot level.

The Primary Synchronization Signal is responsible for slot synchronization.

The Synchronization Signal are sent only on time slots (1st and 11th) of each frame.
PSS is send at the last OFDM symbol of the 1st and 11th slot of each frame.
The Secondary Synchronization Signal is responsible for frame synchronization.
Using both these signals, the UE derives the Physical Cell ID of the corresponding cell.

From PSS: PHYSICAL LAYER CELL IDENTITY is derived. It carries the value of 0, 1 and 2.

From SSS: PHYSICAL LAYER CELL IDENTITY GROUP is derived. It can take the value to 0 to 167.


2. Once the UE synchronizes with the network, it proceeds to read MIB and then requires the
following info for camping on a cell:
Tracking Area Id
Cell Id
Radio and Core n/w capabilities (for it's n/w selection)

3. The above information is being broadcast by the network in order to help the UE for it's
selection process.


This broadcast is known as SYSTEM INFORMATION which is MIB and SIB's.

From the MIB, UE gets the following information:

Channel bandwidth in terms of Resource Blocks

SFN (System Frame Number)

PHICH configuration (used for HARQ ACK/NACK)

5. Till now, the UE has synchronized itself with the Cell with the help of PSS and SSS; followed
by reading the MIB. Now, UE will proceed to read SIB1 and SIB2 which carriers important
information for the UE to select a Cell.

6. After the above process the UE is synchronized with the network in the Downlink
direction and have read SIB1 and SIB 2. Now, it needs to synchronize in the Uplink direction

7. For this to happen, RAP (Random Access Procedure) is initiated