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COLLISION

THEORY

collision theory is based on the


kinetic theory and supposes
that particles must collide with
both the correct orientation
and with sufficient kinetic
energy if the reactants are to be
converted into products.

There are therefore two main ways of


increasing the rate of a reaction:
1) increase the number of collisions
2) increase the amount of
movement (kinetic) energy so that
more collisions lead to a reaction

THE ORIENTATION OF
COLLISION
Consider a simple reaction
involving a collision between two
molecules - ethene, CH2=CH2,
and hydrogen chloride, HCl, for
example. These react to give
chloroethane.

As a result of the collision


between the two molecules, the
double bond between the two
carbons is converted into a single
bond. A hydrogen atom gets
attached to one of the carbons
and a chlorine atom to the other.
.

THE ENERGY OF THE COLLISION

The minimum amount of


kinetic (movement) energy
that two particles need if
they are going to react when
they collide is called the
ACTIVATION ENERGY.

Exothermic Reaction

Endothermic Reaction

TRANSITION
STATE THEORY

This theory suggests that as


reactant molecules approach
each other closely they are
momentarily in a less stable
state than either the reactants or
the products.

In this less stable state, the atoms


re-arrange themselves, original bonds
are weakened and new bonds are
partially formed. The potential
energy of the system increases at this
point because:

the approaching reactant


molecules must overcome the
mutual repulsive forces between
the outer shell electrons of their
constituent atoms
atoms must be separated from
each other as bonds are broken.

ACTIVATED COMPLEX
The transition state or activated
complex is neither a reactant nor a
product but a transitional species
with partial bonds. It forms only if
the molecules collide in an effective
orientation and the energy of the
collision is equal to or greater than
the activation energy.

The combination can either go on to


form products or fall apart to
return to the unchanged reactants.
the energy difference between the
reactants and the potential energy
maximum is referred to as the
ACTIVATION ENERGY.

REACTION CO-ORDINATE
DIAGRAM

CATALYSIS

Catalysts work by providing an


(alternative) mechanism involving a
different transition state and lower
activation energy. The effect of this is
that more molecular collisions have the
energy needed to reach the transition
state. Hence, catalysts can enable
reactions that would otherwise be
blocked or slowed by a kinetic barrier.

Types of Catalysts
Heterogeneous catalysts
Heterogeneous catalysts are those which
act in a different phases than the reactants.
Homogeneous catalysts
Homogeneous catalysts function in the
same phase as the reactants