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DNA

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes
found in the nucleus, too large to leave the
nucleus

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes
found in the nucleus, too large to leave the
nucleus
looks like a twisted ladder

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes
found in the nucleus, too large to leave the
nucleus
looks like a twisted ladder
has 4 bases: A, T, C, G

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes
found in the nucleus, too large to leave the
nucleus
looks like a twisted ladder
has 4 bases: A, T, C, G
A always pairs with T; C always pairs with G

DNA
other names for it are chromosomes and genes
found in the nucleus, too large to leave the
nucleus
looks like a twisted ladder
has 4 bases: A, T, C, G
A always pairs with T; C always pairs with G
can unzip to make RNA

A - T
T - A

DNA

C - G
G - C
C - G
A - T
G - C

When a cell wants to make another


cell, the DNA copies itself.

When a cell wants to make another


cell, the DNA copies itself.
The cell splits into two cells.

When a cell wants to make another


cell, the DNA copies itself.
The cell splits into two cells.
Each of the cells has the same DNA.

When a cell wants to make another


cell, the DNA copies itself.
The cell splits into two cells.
Each of the cells has the same DNA.
You came from one cell (union of egg
and sperm). That one cell split into
two cells. Those cells split into 4, etc.

When a cell wants to make another


cell, the DNA copies itself.
The cell splits into two cells.
Each of the cells has the same DNA.
You came from one cell (union of egg
and sperm). That one cell split into
two cells. Those cells split into 4, etc.
That is how all of your cells have the
same DNA.

Sometimes a person needs more cells. For


example, after an injury.
The cells of the skin must be touching on
all sides. If not, they will start to divide
and form new cells. They will continue to
divide until they are touching other cells.
One exception is when a cell becomes
cancerous. It will divide repeatedly and
cause a mass, or tumor, to form. The cells
are not obeying the feedback signal.

DNA
Replication

A - T
T - A

DNA

C - G
G - C
C - G
A - T
G - C

A -

T -

C -

G -

DNA

C -

A -

G -

A - T

A - T

T - A

T - A

C - G

C - G

G - C

DNA

G - C

C - G

C - G

A - T

A - T

G - C

G - C

Since DNA cant get out of the


nucleus, it must write a message
and send the message to the
ribosomes so that the cell knows
what to do.
The message is mRNA.

RNA
smaller than DNA, it can leave the nucleus

RNA
smaller than DNA, it can leave the nucleus
has 4 bases: A, U, C, G

RNA
smaller than DNA, it can leave the nucleus
has 4 bases: A, U, C, G
A always pairs with U; C always pairs with G

When DNA makes mRNA, it is


called transcription.

DNA

A - U

T - A

C - G

G - C

mRNA

C - G

A - U

G - C

The mRNA leaves the nucleus and


goes into the ER until it gets to a
ribosome.

When a ribosome reads the message,


it is called translation.
Ribsomes read the message 3 bases at
at time and connect the mRNA to a
tRNA.

The tRNA is carrying an amino acid.


The amino acids hook together to
form a protein.

Triplet three bases on DNA

Codon three bases on mRNA

Anticodon three bases on tRNA

Mutation when there


is a change in the DNA
of the cell
Most mutations are
minor. Major
mutations are lethal.

Insertion adding an extra


base
Deletion leaving out a base
Frameshift mutation
changing the order of the
bases for any reason. It
throws off the meaning.

The dog ate the cat


The ddo gat eth eca t
Thd oga tet hec at

A A C G G C T A G
U U G C C G A U C

UUG is Leucine

CCG is Proline

AUC is Isoleucine

If the base C is changed to an A, what


happens?

A A C G G C
A T A G
U U G C C U
G A U C
Leucine

Proline

Isoleucine

The amino acid does not change!

If the base G is changed to an A, what


happens?

A A C GA G C T A G
U U G C
U C G A U C
Leucine

Proline
Serine

Isoleucine

The amino acid does change!

The base that makes the


least amount of change
in the protein is the
third base. It can
change the amino acid,
but it doesnt about half
the time.

The base that makes the


most amount of change
in the protein is the first
base. If it changes, the
amino acid will change
most of the time.