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LONDON

'A.

BRITISH S C H O O L OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT''

UNIVERSITY CO-LLEGE, 'GOWER STREET, W. C. I


AND

BERNARD Q U A R I T C H
I 1 GRAFTON STREET, N E W BOND STREET, W.',

1924

,G

:'

F;:,.
i

SEDMENT. STELE OF AMENHETEP AND ANCESTORS.

BRITISH SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT


AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT
TWENTY-SEVENTH YEAR, I 9 2 I

S E D M E N T
BY

SIR FLINDERS PETRIE F.R.S.


AND

GUY BRUNTON O.B.E.

LONDON
BRITISH S C H O O L O F ARCHAEOLOGY I N EGYPT
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, G O W E R STREET, W. C. I
AND

11

BERNARD Q U A R I T C H
GRAFTON STREET, N E W B O N D STREET, W.
I924

PRINTED BY
ADOLF HOLZHAUSEN
VIENNA (AUSTRIA)

BRITISH SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT


P.4TR O N :

F.-M.VISCOUNT ALLENBY, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

G E N E R A L C O M M I T T E E ("Executive Members)
Lord ABERCROMBY
HENRYBAT~FOUR
Prof. R. C. BOSANQUET
*Prof. J. B. BURY
"SOMERS
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CLODD
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Sir W. BOYDDAWKINS
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*Miss ECKENSTEIN
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"Prof. ERNEST
GARDNER
(Chairman)
LORDBISHOPOF GLOUCESTER
T. GOLDIE
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Mrs. J. R. GREEN
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GRENBELL
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ROBERTMOND
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P. E. NEWBERRY
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Dr. PINCHES
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WHYTE

Sir FLINDERS
PETRIE
Honorary Direcfor-Prof.
Honorary Treasurer "C. H. CORBETT
J. P.
DT
Honorary S ~ C Y ~ ~ ~ V - L APETRIE

AMERICAN BRANCH

THE EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT


President
JAMESHENRYBREASTED,
PH.D.

WII.LIAMJ, HOLLAND,
PH.D., Sc.D., LL.D.
EDMUND
J. JAMES, PH.D., LL.D.
F. W. SHIPLEY,
PR.D.

Vice-Presz'den fs
CHARLES
F. THWING,D.D., LL.D,
BENJAMIN
IDE WHEELER,PH.D., L.H.D., L L D .
WILLIAMCOPLETWINSLOW,Pa.D., L.H.D., LL.D.

1
/

Hon. Secrefary
Prof. MITCHELL
CARROLL,
PH.D.

PUBLICATIONS
O F T H E EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT AND

BRITISH SCHOOL O F ARCHAEOLOGY I N E G Y P T


I. BALLAS, 1895; by J. E. QUIBELL.(Out of print; obtainable in joint volume NAQADA AND
BALLAS, by W. M. F. PETRIE.68 plates. 20s. net.)
11. THE RAMESSEUM, 1896; by J. E. QUIBELL.(Out of print.)
111. EL KAB, 1897; by J. E.QUIBELL.
IV, HIERAKONPOLIS I, 1898; text by W. M. F. P. 43 plates. 20s net.
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photographic).

VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.

EL ARABAH, 1900; by J. GARSTANG.


40 plates. 16s. net. (Out of print.)
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-4. MURRAY. 37 plates. 25s. net.
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and GUROB, by L. LOAT.64 plates. 30s. net.
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PETRIEand J. GARROW
DUNCAN.

40 plates. 25s. net. In double volume with 94 plates. 45s. net. (This latter is out of print.)
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and J. H. WALKER.56 plates. (Out of print.)
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PETRIE
and J. H. WALKER.
35 plates. 25s. net.
XVIII, MEYDUM AND MEMPHIS (III), 1910; by W. M. F. PETRIE,E. MACKAY,
and G. WAINWRIGHT.
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XX. ROMAN PORTRAITS (MEMPHIS IV), 1911; by W. M. F. PETRIE. 35 plates. 25s. net.
XXI. THE LABYRINTH AND GERZEH, 1911; by W. M. F. PETRIE,E. MACKAY,
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XXIV. HELIOPOLIS I AND KAFR AMMAR, 1912; by W. M. F. PETRIE. 58 plates. 25s. net.
HILDAPETRIE, M. A. MURRAY,
and
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XXVII. LAHUN I, T H E TREASURE, 1914; by GUYBRUNTON.23 plates (8 coloured). 63s. net.
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XXX. TOOLS AND WEAPONS, 1916; by W. M. F. PETRIE. 76 plates. 35s. net.
XXXI, PREHISTORIC EGYPT, 1917; by W. M. F. PETRIE. 53 plates. 25s. net.
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XXXIII. LAHUN 11, THE PYRAMID, 1920; by W. M. F. PETRZE,
G. BRUNTON,
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XXXIV. SEDMENT I ; by W. M. F. PETRIEand G. BRUNTON.
47 plates. 25s. net.
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XIII. GIZEH AND RIFEH, 1907;

Subscrz;btions of One Guinea for the Annual Single Volumes, or Two Guineas f o r the Two Annual Vobmes,
are received by the Hon. Secretary, at the Edwards Libraty, Universii College, Gower Street, London, WC.,
where also copies of the above works can be obtained.

CONTENTS
VOLUMES
1 A N D 11
SEDMENT I

CHAPTER V

CHAPTER I
SECT

SECT

PAGE

. The position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Workers of the expedition . . . . . . . . . .
I

I
I

2 xoo

(G . B.)

PAGE

to 2105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
22 . Tomb of Uazet.hetep, 2106 . . . . . . . . . 10
23 . Tomb 2107; Khenty.khety. 21 I I . . . . . . I I
24. 2112. Mertetes. to 2123 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2
25 2127. Nekht.kaua. to 2137 . . . . . . . . . . 12
26 General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
21

T H E S I T E ( F P.)

CEMETERY

. Tombs

2100

.
.

CHAPTER I1

C H A P T E R V1

T H E TOMBS O F T H E OLD KINGDOM ( F P.)

T H E M A Y A N A CEMETERIES (G B.)

4 . Tomb 315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Tombs of IInd dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Tomb of Ra-mery-ha-shetef . . . . . . . . .
7. Tomb of Nenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Tombs of VIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.

The site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tombs of IInd-IIIrd dynasties . . . . . .
Cemetery N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cemetery K. XVIth dynasty . . . . . . . .
Large
. group 1300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32. Characteristics of K . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33. Beads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34. Pottery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35 . Scarabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36. Graves of XVIIIth dynasty. and round pits
37. Roman remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

CHAPTER I11
T H E TOMBS O F T H E N I N T H A N D T E N T H
DYNASTIES ( F P.)

g The dating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position of bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Coffins of Uazet-hetep and Nekht-kaua
12 . Cartonnage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 Collars and necklaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 Statuettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. Figures and boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16 Tools, arrows. games . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 Model offerings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18. Scarabs and seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.

10

..

.
.

5
5
5

7
7
8
8

CHAPTER I V

T H E CLASSIFICATION O F T H E P O T T E R Y ( F F.)

.................... 8
................. g

19 Sequences
Range of types

20

S E D M E N T I1
CHAPTER V11

6
6
6

T H E E I G H T E E N T H DYNASTY (F P.)

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

. Burial

under Amenhetep 1

.........

. Burial of TazZrti. 276A . . . . . . . . . . .


. Stele of Amenhetep. 276 . . . . . . . . . .

. Burial with baskets. 254 . . . . . . . . . . .


. Burials of mid XVIIIth dynasty . . . . .
. Stele of Neb-em-kemt . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Stele of Amen-em-hat . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Burials of late XVIIIth dynasty . . . . . .
. Register plate of outlines . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

CHAPTER IX

CHAPTER V111

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY (G. B.)

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY (F. P.)

SECT.
PAGE
47. Burials under Sety I . . .
.. .'
26
48. Tomb of general Sety
...
.
27
49. Tomb of Pa-hen-neter . .
. . . . . . 27
28
50. Tomb of Rahetep and Pa-ra-hetep .
51. Sarcophagi . .
. . .
. 28
52. Altar and columns
.
..
...
29
53. Figures of veziers, and altars
. 29
54. Lintel and inscriptions
. . . . . . . . 29
55. Family stele of Pa-ra-hetep .
. 30
56. Granite shrine of Rahetep . . , . . . .
30
..
30
57. Inscriptions of Rahetep
31
58. Distinction of the two veziers . . . .

. .. . ..
..
... ...
... .
...
. . ...... . . ...
. . . . ..
..
. . . . .. .
..
. .
. ... .. .
.
.
.
...... ...
. ..

SECT.

59. Large pits . . . . . . .


60. Burials in cemetery C

PAGE
31

...... .. . ...
. ... .. .. ....

DISTRIBUTION LIST
INDEX
T O TEXT, NAMES AND TITLES

I N D E X OF TOMBS

32

L I S T O F PLATES
SEDMENT

PLATE

VOL. I
PLATE

PAGES

I. Group 560, IInd dynasty. Group 613,


VIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . 2, 4, 6, 15
2
11. Group 560, IInd dynasty . . . . . . .
111. Stone vases 17-42,
1st and IInd
2
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV. Stone vases 43-69, IInd dynasty
V. Stone vases 70-86, IInd and IIIrd
dynasties. 87-94, XVIIIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 14, 16, 24
VI. Stone vases, IInd, IXth, and XVIIIth
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I4
VII. Mery-ra-ha-shetf, half length, nos. I
and I11 . . . . . , . . . . . . . . .
3
3
VIII. Mery-ra-ha-shetf, Figure I, VIth dyn.
3
IX. Mery-ra-ha-shetf, Figure I1 . . . . .
3
X . Mery-ra-ha-shetf, Figure I11 . . . . .
XI. Mery-ra-ha-shetf tomb furniture,
VIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 3
XII. Mery-ra-ha-shetf coffin, amulets I 680,
reed pipes . . . . . . . . . . 2, 4, 6, 24
XIII. Head rests, offering trays, masks,
IXth dynasty . . . . 5, 6, 8, 12, 14, 25
XIV. Head rests, VIth-Xth dynasties 4, 5, 12
XV. Head rests, XVIIIth dynasty . . 5, 25, 28
XVI. Nubian pottery, mask, VIIIth dynasty? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,6, g
XVII. Wooden figures, VIIth-Xth
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 7, 14
XVIII. Coffin of Khenty-khety, coloured
figures
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 12
XIXA. Coffin of Khenty-khety, sides . . . 5, 12
XIXB. Coffin of Khenty-khety, ends . . . 5, 12
X X . Wooden figures, IXth-Xth
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 10, I I
XXI. Tools, game board, head rests
7, 11, 12%13, I5
XXII. Group 3 I 5, hoe, game boards, columns
of Rahetep . . . . . 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 16, 29

. .

PAGES

XXIII. Coffins of Uazet-hetep, Daduif


5, 10, 12, 13
XXIV. Outside coffin of Nekht-kaua . . 5, 12
XXIVA. Outside of inner coffin, Nekhtkaua, plan cemetery N . . . . 5, 12
XXV. Inside of inner coffin, Nekht-kaua 5, 1 2
XXVI. Wooden figures and fishing boat,
. , . . . . 7, 8, 12
IXth dynasty
XXVII. Coffins of Hauremsekhtu, Henty,
5
and Neb, IXth dynasty . . . .
XXVIII. Coffin of An-onkh, IXth-Xth
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
X X I X . Pottery, VIth-Xth dyn., 1-33
8, g
,,
,, 34-49
8,9
XXX.
,,
,, 50-55
879
XXXI.
XXXII.
,,
61-65
8, 9
XXxIII.
,,
, 65-80
8, 9
XXXIV.
,,
,, 82-87
8, 9
xxxv. ,,
,, 88-95
8, 9
XXXVI. Register of graves, 1st-Xth
dynasties, 7 1-662 . . . . .
5
XXXVII. Register of graves, IXth-Xth
dynasties, 709-1 560 . . . . .
5
XXXVIII. Register of graves, IXth-Xth
dynasties, 1561-1650
.... 5
XXXIX. Register of graves, IXth -Xth
dynasties, 1651-2137 .
.. 5
XL. Group 1300, XVIth dynasty coffin and Bes, XVIIIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 23, 25
XLI. Stone and glazed vases, XVIth
dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 17, 18
dynXLII. Carvings, XVIth-XIXth
asties . . . . . 17, 18,21,23,32
XLIII. Scarabs, amulets and tools
15, 16, 17, 18, 21
XLIV. Pottery, XVIth dynasty 16, 17, 18, 19
XLV.
,,
16, 177 19
XLVI. Register ofgraves, XVIth dynasty
XLVII. Register of graves, XVIIthXVIIIth dynasties

..

7,

79

9,

7,

17

77

79

. .
.
.
..

. . .

97

17

LIST OF PLATES

VOL. I1
PLATE

PLATE
PAGES

XLVIII. Foreign pottery, group 263.


G, Ghurob. K, Kahun . . . . . .
23
XLIX. Stele and altar, 276, in place.
Statuette 280 . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 26
L. Stele of Amenhetep and ancestors
FRONT.
23
LI. Altar of Amenmes. Altar with tanks
23
LII. Stele of Nebenkemt and family . .
24
LIII. SteIe of Amenemhat and family .
24
LIV. Groups of XVIIIth dynasty. Girls
with dishes . . . . . . 23, 24, 25, 26, 32
LV. Basket group, 254. Sarcophagus.
Canopics . . . . . . . . . 24, 26, 27, 32
LVI. Sarcophagus of Pasar, reused by
Pahen-neter, XVIIIth dynasty 27, 29
LVII. Scarabs, IXth dynasty. Basket
group, 254, XVIIIth dynasty
5, 8, 13, 23-25
LVIII. Scarabs. Toilet box I I, 13, 24, 26, 31-33
LIX. Foreign pottery, XVIIIth dynasty 25, 28
LX. Pottery and groups, XVIIIth dynasty, 3 1-3 ro . . . . . . . . . 23, 24, 25
LXI. Groups of XVIIIth dynasty,
336-580. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 , 6, 25
LXII. Pottery of XVIIIth dynasty,
582-1691 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
LXIII. Sketches of groups . . . . . 6, 23, 24, 26
LXIV. Pottery, Nubian and XVIIIth dynasty. New types . . . . . . . . . .
21
LXV. Pottery, XVIIIth dynasty. New
types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3I
LXVI. Vases and inscriptions . g, 10, 13, 31-33
LXVII. Register of graves, XVIIIthXIXth dynasties
LXVIII. Stele of Pa-hen-neter, XIXth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 27

PAGES

LXIX. Pillars of tomb of Sety, XIXth


27
dynasty. . . . . . . . . . . . .
LXX. Lintel sculptures of Sety tomb 27, 28
LXXI. Sculpture of Parahetep. Toilet
boxes . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 29, 31
LXXII. Vezier Rahetep, scene and altar.
Door jamb . . . . . . . . . . 29, 30
30
LXXIII. Basalt stele of Parahetep
30
LXXIV. Granite shrine of Rahetep
LXXV. Granite sarcophagus of Rahetep . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
LXXVI. Stele of Nebuhetep. Fragments
30
LXXVII. Ushabtis of Ramery, Apuy, and
Nekht, XIXth dynasty
27
LXXVIII. Ushabtis of Pa-hen-neter, Hebanu, Amen-nekht, cartonnage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27,28
LXXIX. Numbers of graves with objects
figured
LXXX. Names and titles
LXXXI. Plans of tombs, IInd-VIth
dynasties . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 4
LXXXII. Plans of tombs, XVIIIth dynasty . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24, 26, 28
LXXXIII. Plans of tombs, XVIIIth26, 29, 32, 33
XIXth dynasties
LXXXIV. Rahetep tomb plan, canopic
inscriptions . . . . . . . . . .
28
LXXXV. Cemeteries general plan . . . . 9, I 5
LXXXVI. Cemeteries A and D 2, 4-8, 25-27
LXXXVII.
B, C, L, M, P, R
4, 14, 15, 26-29
EandF
7
LXXXVIII.
LXXXIX. Cemetery G . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
XC. Cemeteries H, J, K and W
6, 9, 14, 16-19

...
..
...

..

9,

p)

......

SEDMENT,
THE CEMETERY

H ERAKLEOPOLI S.

is cut out of a log of wood. (Cairo Mus.) With this


were the jars lx, 44 to 46, and small vases lxiii, 276A,
THE EIGH'I'EENTH DYNAS'I'Y.
also a necklace of beads. (All at Univ. Coll.) From
38. AT Sedment, the cemetery seems to be almost the style this cannot be later than Tehutmes I (see
blank between the X t h dynasty and Tehutmes 111, Rifeh xxvii D, 68, 69), and it is more probably of
but we include in this volume, pl. xlviii, 5 t o 24, Amenhetep I.
There is included in pl. liv, 22, 23, a scarab of
a group from Lahun, which has no connection with
things there. I n the brick buildings, adjoining the Amenhetep I found with a duck dish of alabaster
lower temple at Lahun, various later graves had at Ghurob. Also on pl. xlviii, I a prehistoric Greek
been dug. One of these contained a coarsely painted vase with three handles found in tomb 246 at
wooden coffin, in which were five bodies, dated to Ghurob, probably of the time of Tehutmes 111.
Amenhetep I. The lowest body was that of a large (Cairo.) Of the same age is the green glazed figure
woman, heavily wrapped u p ; on her fingers were of an ape holding a kohl tube, from grave 1214.
the scarabs 15 to 17, 21 t o 23. A young man was Mayana, pl. liv, 20. (Manchester.)
Dated to Tehutmes 111, there is the palette,
the next body, on which there was nothing. Three
girls' bodies were placed above ; one of these bore xlviii, 32, of the scribe Men-kheper (263, Philthe string of silver flies and garnet beads, 8 ; the adelphia). H e was obviously named after the king
silver earrings coiled, 14, 18; the bracelets of black (like the Men-kheper of Leyden stele v, 10) but is
glaze and ostrich shell beads, 19, 20 ; and necklaces not later, as the kohl pots 28, 30, 31 found with
of shell with green glaze and carnelian beads, g, this are not known after Tehutmes 111. This serves
shell and blue glaze, 10 to 12, black glaze and t o date the duck dishes, 27, 32, the inlaid lid 26,
ostrich shell, 13, amethyst and carnelian, 14. and the upper part of a fine figure in polished red
The square plaque on 12 is characteristic of the pottery, 25, all from tomb 263. (Oxford.) Of course,
reign of Amenhetep I, and the hemi-cylindrical the 54 years' reign of that king gives a wide range;
bead above it also belongs to that reign. I n the but i t marked a great change in Egypt, due to the
same coffin were the two kohl pbts and sticks of large importation of Syrians and their products.
40. Probably under Tehutmes 111 was carved a
haematite, 5, 7, and the casket with two sliding
lids. This is a good group for dating purposes. splendid family stele, which was found standing
in place in a niche, with its altar in front of it,
(Univ. Coll.)
I to 4, and pl. 1, frontispiece; and a kneeling
xlix,
39. The earliest burial of this dynasty a t Sedment
(276A) was that of Taziirti, xl, I , with a rudely figure holding a tablet of adoration placed a short
irregular band of hieroglyphs down the front, bands way before the stele (276). This was on the western
across, the jackal on a shrine, the uzat eye, and on top of the hill A, near the burial of TazBrti.
the other side a figure of TazLrti seated. The coffin Though a complete search was made within the

CHAPTER V11

24

THE EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY

chamber and ante-chamber, and on the hill top


around this, no trace of any tomb pit could be
found. The quality of work is finer than any that
I have seen on private steles, and the colouring
remains complete. The family consisted of the
priest Aohmes; his son Amen-mes and daughter
Auta, who married, and had a son Neb-nekhtu.
He married Sherit-ra, daughter of Sen-nefer, high
priest of Heliopolis and of Memphis; and their son
Amenhetep, who was hereditary priest of Her-shefi,
put up the stele. The altar is for Amen-mes the
grandfather (pl. xlix, 4, and li). The kneeling
figure, 4, with tablet of adoration is named Minmes, who does not appear on the stele. The whole
group is arranged in the original order in Cairo
Museum. Probably the four generations, by their
names, were born under Amenhetep I to Tehutmes 11. Sen-nefer who held the two greatest highpriesthoods, has the plaited lock of a royal son,
and was probably a son of Amenhetep I.
41. An unusual burial, 254, was also in hill A,
on the inner curve. The coffin with a ridge roof
of flat boards was of a rare type (lxiii, 254), and
was kept at Cairo Museum. I n it was the set of
baskets, pl. lv, 15 to 19. They were in perfect
condition, and contained the caskets and vases
I to 14. These are shown on a larger scale in
pl. Ivii, 30 to 40. The casket 30 has a ridge lid
taking off in one piece; the sides are inlaid with
squares of ebony and ivory. The casket 31 has
two sliding lids, and a hingeing lid of another
compartment. The bilbil flask 32 is one of five,
3 black, I brown, and I red, all tied over with
linen. 33 is a new form of red polished vase
imitating stitched leather; parts of another were
in a pit tomb. 34, 35 are alabaster vases of usual
forms. 36 is a red polished pilgrim flask. 37, 38 are
usual types of alabaster. The double kohl tubes are
of alabaster, 39, and of wood, 40. The mixture of
kohl pots and tubes dates this group to Tehutmes 111.
(Philadelphia.)
42. A small group, 3x0, is of the same reign,
v, 87 to gq, and lx, 53 to 56. The kohl pots 92, 94,
the red and black lines on 53, and the long foreign
flask, 54, all agree with this date. The gold earring go should be noted: it is flat on the sides,
cylindrical around, with a dividing line, and two
rings above to hold a pin passing through the ear.
(Brussels.) Of this reign also are two scarabs, lvii,
11, 12, from tomb 133; and a kohl pot with three
alabaster vessels, lxii, 107 to 110, from tomb 907.

(Melbourne.) Probably none of the jars with black


bands are later than Tehutmes 111.
I n tomb 1805 there were two reed pipes, cracked
and crushed, but complete so that the holes could
be measured. The distances from the open end are
shewn on half size a t the base of pl. xii. Above
them are the positions of holes on the pair of reeds
found in the Maket tomb, a t Kahun. Those reeds
were of E flat a t the open end, and assuming the
5th, dominant, to be most correct, the positions
required for other notes are marked in, I t will be
seen that all the pipes fairly agree with the major
scale; but as the distances are nearly equal the
resulting scale may only coincide by chance with
our ideas. (Oxford.) Adjacent tombs 1809 and 1810
are of Amenhetep I1 and Tehutmes IV (pl. lviii).
Of the reign of Amenhetep 11, apparently, is the
swimming girl with a box liv, 12, from tomb 2253
(Philadelphia) ; with it was a kohl tube and foreign
bilbil flasks.
43. Of Amenhetep 111, pl. lii, is the large stele of
Neb-em-kemt, who was in charge of Kho-em-maot
the royal barge of Amenhetep 111. A t the top is
the scene of Osiris in feathered dress, "prince of
the cycle of the gods," with the kher heb Ptah-ne-zB
(Ptah of the robe) behind, Before, are the fan
bearer of the royal boat Kho-em-maot, named
Neb-em-kemt, and his sister the mistress of the
house Nefer-hent also named Taiy. Below are
Neb-em-kemt and Taiy receiving offerings from
the eldest son and priest, Moy, and the daughters
Tem-ry and Sanebtef. Behind the parents are the
daughter S%t-thiri, and a son. These scenes and
the upper inscription are in relief, the lower one
is incised. A t the sides are the usual formulae.
This came from cemetery C. The boat is mentioned
on Eraser's Bull-hunt scarab.
44. Of about the same date, or rather earlier,
is the stele of Amen-em-hat, pl. liii, with charming
small groups a t the sides. The top is lost; beginning
down the sides, we read "For the ka of the beloved
of Maot, free from evil, entering unto truth as Lord
of Truth, the divine father Amenemhat"; on the
drink water upon the swirl of the
other side
stream, ka of the divine father of Hershefi, Amenemhat, born of the judge.. . born of the lady of
the house Maket." A s this name is not common,
it seems likely that this was the Maket who was
buried a t Kahun (Illahun xxvi, 7-9). The horizontal
lines read thus :-(I) The divine father of Hershefi,
Amenemhat; he says [Mayest thou worship R a in]

"...

..

25

STELES

. ..

...

(2) his rising in the horizon


(3) (4)
(5) gods,
god Creator (?) of the Rekhyt (?)... (6) 0 king,
behold there is not repetition (?), behold thou goest
over the backs without thy restraining (7) thy fire.
Their hearts are glad, they overthrow for thee
the rebel (8) May the king give an offering and
Hershefi lord of Henen-nesut, the king of heaven,
the ruler of the stars; may he give glory in heaven,
strength on earth, and acquittal (g) within the
Iihert-neter (divine underworld), and repetition of
life after. His refreshment is without evil, the
righteous one it is who receives him, his reckoning
is before (10) those who are in the Presence, his
name exists firm in Noun, that which he did on
earth is not destroyed, his son enters (?) with the
possessors of offerings (?) coming (I I) to him with
food. His statue is among those who belong to (?)
water-pouring (?). Fails not for him the return.
The things which are in the East are multiplied.
(12) Every one who knows stretches out the hands
to him. Graciousness it is which surrounds him.
The excellent heir he is in his character. (13) The
Osiris, divine father of Hershefi, Amenemhat,
deceased. Wide is he of eternity, his arm is not
limited, he is praised and his boundaries (14) are
not empty. Great is thy heart for thee, it justi,fies
for thee all thy actions (?), They listen to thee ; thou
hast power over land and water, (15) ...northern
breeze coming out from the marsh (Delta). Thou
eatest thy fruit unto thy desire according to thy
custom (when thou) wast upon earth. Thou art
caused to tarry in the city.. in Karnak. Thou hast
seen the Aten in [its] course, thy face has seen
Amen when he shines. Thou art satisfied [with]
the building of Truth ( I 6) . thou hast gone beyond
the camp (?) and its shrine, worshipping the chief
of his house. Thou shalt not be driven away a t
the entrance of heaven, 0 divine father of Hershefi,
Amenemhat, deceased, born of the judge Hati-o
southern
and born of the lady of the
of
house Maket."
A t the sides: "Divine father of Sebek-Shedety (?).
His son, his beloved. His daughter Isis. His daughter
Yu
The herdsman Sebekmes. His daughter Ykhy.
The scribe of the accounts (?) Her-ka. The lady
of the house Ta-pa-ser. Sa-ben." (Philadelphia.)
45. A group 419, Ixi, 63 to 75 includes an ostrakon
with a date, 27th year; the vase 75 is too early for
Sety I or Ramessu 11, so this is dated to the latter
years of Amenhetep 111. The part of a chair (68),
the lotus lid (67), and the alabasters 71 to 73 are

..

...

....

..

...

...

useful a s dating points. (Michigan.) The legs of


the chairs, 58, 68, look a t first as if turned in a
lathe; but all of these are hand-worked by filing
or grinding tools, though imitating turned work.
T h e Egyptian refused to employ the lathe or
the compasses, while both were in use near by,
probably in Syria.
T o the latter part of the XVIIIth dynasty belong
the groups 131, pottery lx, 40 to 43, and head-rests
xv, 23, 24 (Ipswich). Group 132 contained a toilet
box engraved with an ibex hunt by dogs and a lion
Ixxi, 3 (Manchester); found with this was foreign
pottery lix, g to 15 (Oxford), some broken serpentine
vases 16 and 17, and the grand vase 18, with some
coarsely written papyrus. Another group which
might be rather later is 59, with foreign pottery
lix, 3,4, 5 (Oxford), and the razor with other objects
lx, 32 to 38.
Of the close of the XVIIrth dynasty, there is
the group 406, dated b y a drab amphora with
inscription of Heremheb (U. C.). With this was
the red polished vase formed as a head of Bes
xl, 41 (Cairo), and a large number of scarabs
lvii, 14 to 29 (Edinburgh), mostly of the earlier
time of Tehutmes IV and Amenhetep 111. The
winged Bes with serpents b y the head, 18, is most
remarkable. There were also two plain cowroids
of carnelian and one of jasper. Six gold nefer
signs were found in position on the forehead of
the mummy, and a yellow glass long bead on a
copper core, with strings of small blue, red, and
white beads (U. C.) were also in this burial.
A group in which there also seems to be some
mixture of dates is 136, with the exquisite figure of
a girl carrying a toilet tray liv, 11. This figure has
not the slenderness of the early XVIIIth dynasty,
but belongs to the later naturalistic work, yet it
has not lost the old gracefulness. It could scarcely
be placed later than Amenhetep 111. Agreeing with
this is the serpentine vase liv, 3, the ushabti 4
inscribed on a yellow ground, and the curious
bust 5 (larger view below, and outline lx, 21). Yet
with these were two blue-green glazed ushabtis 7,8,
which could not be before Ramessu 11, and which
seem to belong to a later burial, or thrown in when
clearing an adjoining tomb. (No. I I is at Carlsberg,
the rest a t Univ. Coll.)
46. Here should be noted the plate, lxiii, of
register outlines. The great amount of the important
new remains of the I X t h dynasty, and the earlier
tombs, left little time for my drawing the later
4*

26

T H E NINETEENTH DYNASTT

remains, also I was laid up for a week or two.


In dealing with the minor groups of the XVIIIth
and XIXth dynasties it has been needful, therefore, to resort to the note book of Major Hynes,
who had sketched a good deal which I have
copied here. These outlines will suffice to show
the collocation of types, though not so precise as
the larger drawings. The long-necked bilbil (as
216E, 256C, and others) was only noted, without
drawing, so the varieties of form were not stated;
the same is true of the long red vase 256 G, 283A,
and probably the scale of 264B is too large.
216 was the burial of Bakt-per-shenut, "Servant
of the Court." The bilbil E seems to belong to the
reign of Tehutmes 111, and this will, then, date the
glazed pectoral, F, and the curious gold fish (?),B.
223 is named, by the neck-bead, for the priest
of Ptah, Moy, who may have been the same as
the "chief of the temples of Ptah" on the Leyden
stele, v, 35.
236, named by the ushabtis of Apuy, is certainly
of the X I X t h dynasty.
237 with canopic heads of wood and rude pottery,
and 243 with a head of green glaze, are probably
XIXth dynasty.
245 has a small wooden cup, B, with a circular
lid of wood ; probably of the middle of the XVIIIth
dynasty.
246. The curved ebony stick is a puzzling piece ;
the joint proves it not strong enough for any force,
and the butt seems as if to fit at right angles on
to a pole, like the joint of a bar on to a chair leg.
253. The sistrum head of Hathor, also in 261,
was part of a wand for dancers, as in Sanehat
the princesses took their sistra for dancing.
254. The unusual coffin with a ridge lid contained
the burial with the five baskets of toilet vases,
pls. lv, lvii. The coffin is 60 X 22 X 35 inches high ;
the ends rise 7II2 above the opening, the ridge is
ql/, high, and the body 24 inches high, on legs
3I/, long. (Cairo Museum.) The date appears to be
of the reign of Tehutmes 111, b y the mixture of
stone kohl pots and wooden tubes. The same date
may be given to group 256.
260 is probably about the reign of Sety I. The
blue glazed canopic jars (lv, 22) are too fine for
later times; yet there were as many as 24 ushabtis,
marking the date after the XVIIIth dynasty. The
name Kho-em-apt occurs, and probably the alabaster
canopics, A, were for him; the blue glazed canopics
were for the chantress of Amen, Hathor.

261. The private name A y on the wine-jar sealing


brings this group early in the X I X t h dynasty, to
which it must belong by the ushabtis 44 to 48.
263 is the pottery from the interesting group of
Men-kheper the scribe, xlviii, 25 to 32. The date
cannot be after Tehutmes I11 as there are three
kohl pots, but no tubes except the fluted one 263H.
267. The name is illegible. The small face B
is from a cartonnage, of a style which is the
last degradation of the Middle Kingdom masks,
Arabah,
extending down to Tehutmes I11 (GARSTANG,
pls. xviii, xxi). The banding on C suggests that it
is an early form of bilbil.
270 includes a large flat bag with rope edging
and handles, B. The red polished pot A is not
later than Tehutmes 111. A rod of wood, C, has
two grooves in it near the ends; the purpose is
unknown.
273 is a group of Tehutmes 111, by the style;
with it was the beautiful canopic head of red
polished pottery, lv, 23, and parts of others.
276A, the burial of Tazgrti, is described in sect. 39.
This group must be early in the XVIIIth dynasty.
280, a group with the wooden statuette xlix, 5.
The scale-pattern vase of green glaze and the stone
model vase B, seem early; yet the long glass beads
found with these would bring this late in the
XVIIIth, or into the X I X t h dynasty.
283 is a very interesting group for the impressed
glass, of which there were four figures, one copied
here, J. Hitherto such impressed glass has been
supposed to be of the Ptolemaic or late period;
here it is well dated to the middle of the XVIIIth
dynasty, and therefore as early as any common
use of glass in Egypt.
562. This group is of Hyksos age; compare B,
C , with xli, I to 3 ; and the style and colour of D
with xli, 15, 32.
171gA is probably a I X t h dynasty pot, left in
the grave from previous use.
1723 is a fine group, well dated to Tehutmes 111,
by the style of the scarabs lviii, 12, 14, 22, and the
glazed bowl of a full rich blue, J (Cambridge).

CHAPTER V111
T H E N I N E T E E N T H DYNASTY.

47. OF the time of Sety I, there is the fine


polychrome glazed pectoral, liv, IS, 21, from the
tomb of Rames (134, Manchester). The variety of
ushabtis found with this is unusual. The main types

RAMES, SETY, P A H E N N E T E R TOMBS

are drawn on pl. lxxvii, I to 17. There mere g with


the chapter inscribed on whitened wood, as I ; with
the name only, as 3, 4, 5, 6, there were 17; none
of these had the kilt.
Of Thiy, presumably the wife, there was one
with the chapter (2), and one with the kilt (7).
Of plain wood (fig. 12) there were 84 and 3 with
kilt; black wood 54, and 4 kilted; pottery, good, 4,
pitched 15; wood rudely inscribed 8, and I kilted.
Total 192 and g with kilt. There were also with
other names, Khnum-em-heb g and 2 kilted (fig. 10);
glazed 2 (fig. g) ; Hershefdada 5 (fig. I I) ; Ma5 I 7
(fig. I 7) ; Behuru 5 ; Au (fig. 16) ; Arurne ? (fig. 15) ;
two hieratic (fig. 13, 14) and of pottery painted
yellow (fig. 8).
The number for Rames, 201, with g overseers,
seems to show that a round hundred was already
intended, like 400 later; and one in twenty was
headman, instead of one in ten, later. I t is to be
observed that only a single ushabti was found in
any burial of the XVIIIth dynasty; but as soon as
we reach the XIXth, there are 200; this sudden
change was already noted, from other instances
(Ancient Egypt 1916, 159, 162), as the transfer from
being figures of the master to being figures of the
servants. The extremely different quality in the
same tomb, as here and in tomb 33, suggests that
each member of the family, household, and labourers
had to provide a substitute to work in the future.
From this tomb was a long papyrus of the Book
of the Dead; it had been roughly unrolled, and
left lying in a heap covered with rubbish, in the
tomb doorway. I t was brought away so far as
possible, and the hundreds of fragments need
restoration. The work of it is the most delicate
that I have seen, in the drawing and colouring
of the birds and animals; the face of Osiris and
ornaments of the gods are gilded, and this is
also very unusual. It contains not only the usual
chapters, but some parts of the pyramid texts.
(Cambridge.)
48. Coming, later, to the reign of Ramessu 11,
there is a great tomb (138) of a royal scribe, general,
chief of the followers, royal messenger in all lands,
Sety. Six octagonal columns (lxix) were placed in the
tomb chamber to support the soft rock roof, and each
of these had four inscriptions, varying in reference
to the gods, and in the titles. The gods named
are Osiris, 7, and I "prince of eternity"; Ptah 7,
Anup 5, Hathor z, Isis I, illegible I : see pl. lxix.
There are two unusual titles Ptah making works in

27

all things good and pure," and " Ptah circulating


eternally." (These pillars are at Cairo, Brussels,
Carlsberg, Chicago and Philadelphia.) There were
pieces of blue glazed canopic jars, and of plain
glazed and wooden ushabtis.
Almost certainly from this tomb were blocks
(pl. lxx) re-used a t the north-east edge of hill A,
in tomb 273. The title "royal messenger" is on
block 2, and on pillar-face 2 ; the title " great
chief of archers" is on block 3 and pillar-face g;
the title "head chief of messengers of his majesty"
is on block 5 and pillar-face 10; and the name
ended with a reed-leaf on block 2, which would
agree with the name Sety. The work of the faces
here has a mechanical grace, descended from the
beauty of the previous dynasty.
49. Another large tomb, 33, was that of Pa-henneter, with the stele pl. lxviii; this represents the
man and his wife Thy, " his sister, his beloved,
in his heart," offering to Herakhti-Tum and to
Osiris; also him, and his mother Bu5y&, offering
to Hershefi and to Amen. His titles were master
of the cavalry and over the archers; his son was
the charioteer Nefer. On the edges, the servants
have added their names, headed by the artist,
"scribe engraver," Yehu-nBmB; this seems to be
a Hebrew name Yehu-nam, or " Yehu speaks ";
just the converse of the familiar phrase "Saith
the Lord." The strong h in hu is found in other
instances of compounds, as equivalent to the
Semitic he. (Chicago.)
I n this tomb was the sarcophagus of black
granite Iv, 21, the inscriptions of which are in
pl. lvi. I t is plain that the name of Pa-hen-neter
has been put over an erasure; in one place the
original name remains, Pasar, in another place
part of the original title er seinyt "to (all) lands."
This agrees with the titles of Pasar, who was a
follower of the king to all lands, under Amenhetep 11, a date which would well agree with the
style of the sarcophagus. A s he was buried at
Qurneh, this must have been stolen and traded
down to Herakleopolis. (Philadelphia.) This is perhaps the same person as Pasar named on a cone
(Season xxii, 41).
The ushabtis of this tomb were very varied.
There were a few finely glazed, brown on white,
lxxviii, 28, or blue-green, 29 (U. C.), with the
inscription for " the charioteer Pa-neter-hen " ; also
an immense quantity of pottery ushabtis of all
degrees of cheapness, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, A few

28

T H E NINETEENTH DYNASTY

were for other persons, a s 30 for Fa-her-pedtiu,


and 34 for Thy the wife. There were also lids of
pottery canopic jars, 40, 41, with a bronze lance 39 ;
and on pl. x v wooden figures of the sons of Horus
25, 26, an alabaster kohl tube 27, and a limestone
lid, 28. On pl. lix, is a pan, I, found here, and a
foreign jar, 2, painted with dull purple bands on
drabbish white.
Other ushabtis on pl. lxxviii that may be noted
here, are the pottery figure 43 with a spirited sketch
of hoeing and sowing, on the back: five figures from
tomb 261, 44 to 48 with different names; and a few
others that are fairly legible. With 50, grave 106,
was found the blue glazed figure of a sleeping dog,
placed above it.
The cartonnage fig. 54, grave 601, is obviously
copied from a gold breast-plate inlaid with cut
stones. The open spaces between the figures are
barred across with bands inlaid with blue and red;
the whole ground is yellow. This cartonnage shows
what gorgeous gold breast-plates the mummies of
the nobles had upon them, and explains why a war
was carried on to recover such a treasure (Student's
History, iii, 321).
A lintel, lxx, I, from tomb 56 has the formula
" give an offering," without the usual royal prefix.
50. The greatest work under Ramessu I1 was
the tomb of Rahetep and Pa-ra-hetep the veziers,
which was worked entirely b y Major Hynes. This
was on the highest part of the cemetery, overlooking both the Nile and Fayum, grave 201, a t
the north end of cemetery B. I t was very rudely
excavated below, with eight chambers branching
in different directions, see pl. Ixxxiv. There were
two shafts of access, marked A and B. The levels
of roof and floor are all stated in inches below the
ground surface. Going down the western shaft A,
at 180, a passage is reached leading into the general
group of chambers, a t 225 floor. This however was
not large enough for the great granite sarcophagi,
so a large shaft passed down into the main hall,
and on through the floor to 481 level, and thence
descended westward, in a slope, to the sarcophagi
at 543 level, just beneath the floor of the lesser
entrance shaft, which is twenty-five feet higher up.
The broken outline shows the extent of this lower
excavation.
51. The two sarcophagi of red granite are sunk in
the floor of the chamber side by side, the southern
of Rahetep, the northern of Pa-ra-hetep. Only five
or seven inches separated the sarcophagi, and there

was much the same space around them. I t was


therefore impossible to see the sculpture of the
outsides, which are described as well polished and
cut. The paper squeeze could only be made by
hand-pressure in the narrow space. There are
therefore some gaps in parts of the copy, which
has been inked in directly on the squeeze. The
sarcophagus of Rahetep is almost complete; that
of Pa-ra-hetep is so much broken up and destroyed
that no copy could be taken.
The vertical line, pl. lxxv, down the middle of
the lid reads " words spoken b y the Osiris, vezier,
Rahetep, deceased; 0 [my] mother Nut, who
spreads wings above me.. . the never setting stars.
Do not (?) , . for the Osiris, vezier, Rahetep,
deceased." Along the right side of the sarcophagus
is (A) Thoth standing, " Words spoken by Thoth.
Lives R a , dies the tortoise. Well is he who is
in the coffin, he who is in the coffin, the Osiris,
ruler of the city, Rahetep, deceased."' Next is
(B) Anubis standing. "The Osiris, vezier, Rahetep,
deceased, I come with thy amulets.. he rests
upon his.. the Osiris, ruler of the city, vezier,
Rahetep, deceased." Next (C) Anubis standing
'l .. Rahetep, lord of devotion [I come] with thy
amulets, numerous (3) for thee, [thy] limbs, Osiris,
vezier, Rahetep, deceased." The next figure is
effaced. " .Rahetep, deceased. [I come] with [thy]
amulets ., Osiris, [vezier], Rahetep, deceased,"
Next (D) is the gateway, with uzat eyes above it,
to give the dead the power of going out and of
seeing. Lastly "Words spoken b y Thoth. ' Lives
R a , dies the tortoise. I s open the tomb.. ., Osiris,
ruler of the city, Rahetep, deceased.'"
On the other side of the sarcophagus it begins
"Words spoken by Thoth. 'Lives R a , dies the
tortoise: well is he who is in the coffin, he who
is in the coffin, the Osiris, Rahetep, deceased."'
Next (E) is the Anubis jackal on a portal. "Hapy,
[to] the Osiris, vezier, Rahetep. I come to thee,
[and I] smite for thee thy enemy (?), Osiris, ruler
of the city, Rahetep, deceased," with (F) the figure
of Hapy. "The Osiris, ruler of the city, Rahetep,
deceased, [says] I come to thee, I am placed upon
thy throne for ever, Osiris, Rahetep, deceased,"
with (G) the figure of Duat-mutef. " Osiris, ruler
of the city, vezier, Rahetep, deceased, I come
thy amulets..
Osiris, ruler of the city, vezier,
Ra[hetep], deceased," with (H) the figure of Qebhsenuf. " Osiris, ruler of the city, vezier, Rahetep,
deceased, Lives R a , dies the tortoise, well is he

..

..

.,

.. .

29

RAHETEP AND PARAHETEP TOMB

who is in the coffin, the Osiris, Rahetep, deceased,


lord of devotion l ' ; a figure (J) of Thoth closes the
series.
A t the feet was a figure of Nebhat, "Words spoken
by Nebhat, ' I come unto thee, Osiris, Divine Father
(of Ptah) a t the temple, Divine Father, [Ralhetep,
deceased, giving a funeral dwelling (?).'" On either
side is the zed and tlzet.
A t the head is the figure of Isis. "The words spoken
by Isis, 'I [come]. . dwelling for the divine father of
Ptah, ruler of the city, vezier, Rahetep, deceased.' "
Above these are two fragments, probably from
the sarcophagus of Pa-ra-hetep. The first appears to
read " unto the temple of Hesa, prince of Amentet" ;
this throws light on Hesa being a duplicate of
Diz. Mit. 850 where Hesa is
Osiris, see LANZONE,
only stated to be an early god of unknown function.
Another fragment refers perhaps to Hesa again,
"prince of Amentet." Lastly there is the inscription
on the base of a statue of Rahetep, "Offering
given to Hathor, lady of Amt res, mistress of the
western land; and given to Anup uti in his temple."
Amt res, the southern sycomore, is doubtless equivalent to Amt khent, Herakleopolis, in contrast to
the northern sycomore of the IIIrd nome.
52. In the chamber of the sarcophagi lay the
granite altar of offerings, lxxi, 6, in the south
corner; the basalt stele, lxxi, 4, was a t the entrance
to this chamber. Here also lay the base of a pair
of hard limestone figures, lvi, 3, 4, 5. Another base
and a pectoral of wood lay in the north-west
chamber. It is evident that the whole place had
been so ravaged that none of the moveable objects
are in their original positions; and it was so easy to
throw blocks down the great shaft, when destroying
the chapel on the surface, that no conclusions
can be drawn from positions. The objects will be
described here, therefore, in the order of the plates.
The wide scattering of pieces of the tomb-chapel
and statues, makes it impossible to identify the
source of all the loose blocks, and they are therefore all described together.
XXII. r 6-24. Fragments of limestone columns,
found widely scattered; no. 24 has the name of
Rahetep, and the other blocks, being of similar
work, are doubtless all from his tomb-chapel. The
diameters of the columns are, no. 18, 17.4 inches;
no. 20, 20'6 inches; no. 21, 22I/, inches; no. 22, about
20 inches; base of no. 24, 19'1, inches. There are
thus certainly three sizes, implying as many different
positions of columnar work.

53. LVI. I. Part of figure of an unknown vezier,


from a scene of purification.
2. Upper part of a figure of a vezier Tehutimes;
this was from the tomb of Rahetep, yet this vezier
was of the time of Amenhetep 11; there may be
a tomb of that reign close by, or this vezier may
have been an ancestor commemorated by Rahetep,
or this may be a later vezier Tehutmes, who has
been supposed to belong to the X X t h dynasty
(WEIL, Veziere 45, p. I 19).
3. Inscription down the front of a hard limestone
figure of a vezier (see the two scarf ends), with
the arm of the wife joining a t the right side.
Above is 4, the offering formula (without nesut) to
Hathor and Seker, and (5) on the base the ends of
names, that of the vezier .my, and of the wife . .ry.
The group was 28 inches wide and the base 14 inches
thick. (Reburied.) The sarcophagus, 6, on this plate,
has been already noted under Pa-hen-neter, sect. 49.
L X X I . I . Side of an alabaster altar, with legs
of lions in relief. This is the latter stage of an altar
like the alabaster libation-tables found near the
Step-pyramid (Cairo Museum, 63-4). The purpose
of this block is evident, a s on the front of it there
was drawn a list of offerings, the cutting of which
had been slightly begun and then abandoned. The
white patches all over the surface are due to the
hammer dressing not having been polished away.
(Cairo; and another, imperfect, reburied.)
54. 2. Limestone lintel of Rahetep, found broken
in the great tomb, 216, about 150 feet from tomb 201;
A t each end is a figure of Rahetep, kneeling in
adoration of the cartouches of Ramessu I1 in the
middle. The inscriptions of adoration are by " t h e
heir, the prince, the keeper of Nekhen, priest of
Maot, ruler of the city, vezier, Rahetep, of the
palace of Ramessu mery Amen, the great ka of the
Hor-akhti." This adulation of the king is repeated
on lxxii, 3. The great stele, 4, is noted under the
copy, pl. Ixxiii, and the altar, 6, is on pl. Ixxii.
LXXII. I. A fragment of the vezier's titles.
2. Part of a scene of Thoth introducing Rahetep
before Osiris in a shrine, with the four children
of Horus in front of him. "Words spoken by
Tehuti, lord of divine speech for the ruler of the
city, vezier, Rahetep."
3. Jamb of a doorway of the tomb of Nebhetep,
with mention of Rahetep by "the servant of the
palace of Ramessu mery Amen, the great ka of
the Hor-gkhti, Nebhetep, justified in peace." This
is the same adulation of the king as on lxxi, 2.

..

30

T H E NINETEENTH DYNASTY

The position of Nebhetep is further seen from his


stele lxxvi, 4.
4. Red granite altar of Rahetep. Here again the
hetep leads the formula, although nesut follows it.
"May an offering of the king be given to Osiris
Khent-amenti" and t o "Anup amiut," of the usual
benefits for "the ruler of the city, vezier, judge,
Rahetep " : see lxxi, 6.
5 , 6. Fragments of two steles ; 6 possibly a lower
part of 5, but lines rather wider. On 5 Set, great
and mighty, son of Nut" shows that this belongs
to the XIXth dynasty. 6 begins with a speech b y
the king, "praise thou the kas of Hor-akhti," and
names Isis great in magic.
55. LXXIII. This was the family stele, of basalt,
unfortunately deficient down one side. A t the top
is the vezier Pa-ra-hetep, followed by the royal
messenger Hatiaay. I n the middle line Pa-ra-hetep
is with the prophet of Osiris, Thay. A t the base
Pa-ra-hetep is followed b y the chief of the archers
Apuaa. Whether these followers were relatives is
not stated ; the first and third appear on the granite
shrine Ixxiv, and the second on a libation cup,
lxxxiv. The gods are Memphite at the top, Nefertum
Bastet (Sekhmet) and P t a h ; in the middle are
Ra-akhti, Maot, Hathor, Hotus and Osiris; a t the
base are Hersheftu, Hathor, Mehyt of Edfu and
Anhur (?).
56. LXXIV. The granite shrine, of which one
side and the back remain, had a figure of one of the
veziers standing in it. On the side, I , is Rahetep;
but on the front edge, 3, the name is merely Hetep.
I has the adoration of Osiris at the top. Below
that is Hathor of the southern sycomore adored
by the vezier Rahetep, and the chief of the
archers ApuaB. A t the base, Hathor is adored b y
a priestess, " chief of the priestly order H u y (?),"
another priestess Merti, a woman MoaBny (Lb.
Dict. 895), and a priestess
y,
2. The back of the shrine has the adorers completing the groups on the two sides. For the side
just noticed, there are two a t the top, nameless.
In the middle, the keepers of the stables T a y and
Hora. At the base, the priestesses Tar (?) and
"his sister Auy." Down the middle are the wishes
that Rahetep should be like " Horus the prince,
becoming as a god, without enemies of thine in
thy palace of right and rule."
3. The remaining edges of the front give some
titles, "great one making laws for the people of
the land unto its limits, chief of the chiefs"; and
I'

....

"ruler of the city, vezier, Hetep." The " chiefs"


were the southern court of thirty.
4. A t the feet are two subordinates, one of whom
was "chief prophet of Horus lord of Khes, named
Meryra, justified in peace."
5. Four priestesses before a goddess: the only
portion of the other side of the shrine. This shrine
is broken in three pieces, and a large part is missing;
as it weighs more than half a ton, it was reburied.
LXXV. The sarcophagus has been described in
the account of the tomb.
57. LXXVI. I. This inscription is on the back
of the feet of a lesser granite figure. " Commander
priests, divine father in the temple of
of all
Ptah, ruler of the city, vezier, Rahetep of the house
of Ramessu.
fan bearer on the right hand of the
king," and repeated titles.
2. Fragment of inscription, on the top of a small
limestone shrine.
3. Figure of "Pa-ra-hetep, justified, of the fortress
of Rarnessu," holding his staff of office.
4. Stele of Nebuhetep. Scene of Rahetep adoring
Osiris, and the four sons of Horus on the lotus.
Below "Adoration to thy ka Osiris lord of the west,
the great god, the excellent god, prince of eternity.
May he give bread, breath and water to the Osiris
Nebuhetep, justified in peace. May the king give
an offering and Osiris Khenti, lord of heaven, for
the ka of Tem-hetep and purification of the ka of
the Osiris, ruler of the city, vezier, Rahetep. The
great god in his throne listen to the uab priest,
reciter, Nebuhetep, justified," above a figure of the
speaker, kneeling. This was found broken in two
parts, in different tombs, the top in 56, the base
in 60, cemetery B.
The smaller objects of Rahetep's tomb are on
pl. lxxxiv. D is the inscription on a green glazed
libation vase, " The devoted to Horus of Hipponon
(B.D.G. 700) the third prophet of Osiris, the Osiris
T h i y . make strong of flesh possessing both lands
in thy burial Osiris ThLy."
E. F. Parts of canopic jars of alabaster for Para-hetep were in the tomb ; perhaps F, of a different
text, was for Rahetep. There were many large
broken ushabtis of coarsely glazed pottery, so
rough and so much stained that no clear photograph could be taken. The name of Pa-ra-hetep is
legible on the largest. One is of limestone, much
flaked; another of glaze has the long robe and
sleeves, with the hands down toward the knees.

...

..

3I

LARGE CRATER TOMBS

In tomb 240, there was found a n ebony girdle


tie of Isis, thet, inscribed for "the Osiris, ruler of
the city, vezier, Pa-ra-hetep."
58. The named objects from this tomb, in the
order of this description, are
Pa-ra-hetep. 5 I, sarcophagus ; 55, basalt stele ;
57, relief figure; 57, canopic jar; 57, ushabti;
57, tlzet tie.
Rahetep. 5 I, sarcophagus; 51, base of statue;
52, limestone columns; 54, lintel; 54, scene with
Thoth and Osiris; 54, jamb of Nebhetep; 54, granite
altar; 56, granite shrine; 57, base of statue; 57,
Nebuhetep stele.
There has been a supposition that these two
veziers were only names for one person (Rec. xxxii,
35). They are, however, neatly separated on one
statue; on one side is the address b y Rahetep;
a t the end of that, " T h e vezier Pa-ra-hetep, who
is as a god, says," and there follows the address b y
Pa-ra-hetep on the other side. He is thus distinctly
among the gods, and the address is posthumous
b y the dead (Abydos 11, 45 ;
piety,-prayers
pl. xxxvii).
This great family, including the high-priest of
Osiris Unnefer, has been partly set out in the
Student's History 11, go. There is much fresh
material, and it is so complicated b y repetitions
of names that a complete working out of the
genealogies from all sources is now required. The
basalt stele was kept at Cairo Museum, but all the
other objects of tomb 201 which were removed,
are at Chicago.

CHAPTER IX
T H E N I N E T E E N T H DYNASTY.
By GUY BRUNTON.

59. OF the X I X t h dynasty were the two huge


pits which formed the nucleus of our camp. Each
took many days and a large number of men to
clear, but the results were disappointing. These
pits are not on the detailed plans as they lie
between the cemeteries B, C and E,
Their size was chiefly due to the edges having
fallen in continually, in the past, thus forming
large craters. The shaft of 1955, over 24 feet deep,
led into a large room on the north, or rather northwest (actual bearing 340). Out of this, on the
north, opened two smaller rooms, with floors a t
a rather higher level. In the south-east corner was
a trench, roughly cut, about 70 X I I O inches, and

4 feet deep, containing the white limestone sarcophagus, inscribed for the ha-prince Menna of Henennysut. The two coffins had been of wood, painted
black, inscribed in yellow, but the whole burial
had been burnt, and but little remained. All that
the robbers had left were a few of the blue glass
drop beads, well known a t this time, and some
pieces of the painted gods from an openwork
cartonnage. Very little remained in the room,
and what there was included rubbish left by the
tomb-makers and undertakers. There were two
wooden ushabtis, black with yellow hieroglyphs,
unreadable; part of a red sandstone ushabti of
Kha-em-uas (pl. lxvi, 14); seven sticks of various
lengths, some bound with rush (from furniture?);
and several scraps of painted wood. From here
also came a large jar containing pitch (pl. lxv, 49 D)
inscribed on the shoulder in hieratic (pl. lxvi, 16);
a broken pot containing plaster; a few sherds; two
rough tool-handles ; a little broom of bound twigs;
and much broken limestone.
Between the sarcophagus and the east wall, however, we found the toilet basket, which had escaped
the eyes of the robbers. This was rectangular and
made of reeds, with a separate lining of papyrus;
both baskets had lids. Inside were five divisions,
one across the end, with the remaining space divided
equally into four squares. The papyrus was in a
completely rotten state, and the floors had all fallen
through. Division 1 contained, on the top, a little
leather bag (for eye paint ?); four reed kohl tubes,
three being faintly inscribed, and two with linen
plugs; also a haematite kohl stick with bronze
handle. Underneath was the fine carved cylindrical
toilet box, shown in all its details on pl. lviii, 47:
some of the divisions still contained traces of
smeared cosmetic or unguent. Under the toilet
box was the unusual wooden comb with long
handle (pl. lxvi, 13), and the triangular whetstone
lxvi, 15. I n division 2 was the handled pot, pl. lxv,
61 K , much decayed; a bronze pin or needle wound
with thread; a linen bag, and some loose antimony (?). Division 3 was empty, and 4 only contained a few kernels of some fruit or nuts. 5 had,
on top, the wooden bowl with carved handle
(pl. lxvi, IZ), and, beneath, the false-necked vase
with tall foot (pl. lxv, 97C). Though a t first sight
the carving on the toilet box suggests the end of
the XVIIIth dynasty, we know such were in use
in the XIXth, a s a scarab of Ramessu I1 was
found with one at Ghurob. This then agrees with
5

32

THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY

the other objects found in the tomb, and we may


infer that the false-necked vases with tall foot are
a late development of that class of perfume jar.
A ushabti with the name of the ha-prince Menna
was discovered a t Sedment b y Prof. Naville (Ahnas,
p. IZ), but he does not say where, or with what
it was found. Possibly it came from the adjoining
large tomb 1956, which we dug at considerable
cost, only to find it empty. The plan was the same
as that of 1955, but it may never have been finished,
as the small rooms are incomplete, and the roof of
the main chamber was much collapsed. Six wooden
chisels were all that remained.
Round these two large pits were a few smaller
ones of the same date, but they had been apparently
worked out recently, and produced little except
odds and ends. 1951 had scraps of coffin wood,
painted black, with yellow hieroglyphs, two wooden
ushabtis inscribed in yellow, papyrus and leather
sandals, figs, d6m fruit, Cyperus rotundus and
Minzusops schimperi; it also contained part of a
box, a grey stone weight, part of a walking stick,
an oblong basket with ridge lid containing a reed
kohl tube and stick, a bilbil, and the pots 2E, 5M,
23G,, 36G, 43E, 52N, 64L. The shaft was 10 feet
deep, with rooms on north and south.
1952 had a room on the north only. I n it were
two anthropoid coffins. One was head east, painted
black, with yellow gods, and bands of red with
yellow hieroglyphs; the head striped blue and red
alternating with yellow. On the left side was the
eye over the doorway, and figures of a lion-headed
god, two other gods, and Thoth; on the right side
was the eye over the doorway, a hawk-headed god,
Anpu, another god, and Thoth. Foot plain. The
coffin was made for a nebt per Staui. The other
coffin was head west; head black, remainder yellow,
uninscribed. In the chamber was a ridge-roofed
clothes-box on short legs, painted white, pl. lv, 20;
the lid bore the inscriptions pl. lxvi, 17. These were
studied by M. Golknischeff, but are mostly illegible.
The rgth year and the 27th year are mentioned,
presumably of Ramessu 11. Also in the chamber
were leather sandals, d6m fruit, scraps of papyrus,
a bundle of reeds, stoppers of plastered straw, little
pieces of rouge, and the pots 5 S, 12 P , and 43 F,
parts of a big jar, like 49D, and fragments with
blue, white and black decoration.
60. In cemetery C, a few discoveries were made
by Mr. Bach during April, while the main packing
was going on. T h e tombs were all of the XIXth-

X X t h dynasties and had been almost completely


plundered. The following are the principal points
of interest.
2010. Shaft 175 inches deep, with two rooms on
south, one on east, and one on north. Pieces of five
pottery coffins, and openwork wooden mummycase coated with linen and painted. Three male
and two female skulls. No pottery except scraps
of three false-necked vases, and a flat oblong stand
painted white. Fragment of a stele, and of alabaster
and limestone vessels. Pieces of dark blue glaze
bowl. Pointed whet-stone. Blue glaze kohl tube,
and pieces of a blue glaze rhyton (?). Scraps of
multicoloured glass vase. Ivory : fragments of inlay,
the fine tray in the form of lion attacking a calf
(pl. xlii, IO), lid in form of fish (lxvi, 11, liv, 14),
duck dish (Ixvi, 10, liv, 13). One scarab, apparently
re-used, from the style (lviii, 45). One plaque of
the "royal scribe and general Hora" (lviii, 46,
liv, 16, 17). Piece of stool with pink straw. Casket
leg. P a r t of large o x horn. Many ushabtis: 30 white
and yellow painted wood, with illegible inscriptions,
3 similar uninscribed: 43 black painted wood,
inscribed in yellow: 37 uninscribed: 14 pottery
painted yellow and black: 31 plain pottery.
5 ushabti and 6 other baskets. Parts of ushabti
boxes painted black. The feet of two large wooden
statues. I wooden comb. 3 wooden hair-pins carved.
2 brushes. I winnowing spoon.
2013. Shaft 185 inches deep, one room on south,
two on north. No remains of coffins or bodies. Pot
type 2 G, and another smaller. Scraps of painted
alabaster vase. A few pale blue glass beads.
A complete square linen garment, with holes for
neck and arms, Wooden jackal painted black.
2 wooden implements of unknown use.
2014. Shaft 160 inches deep, four rooms on north,
two on south. Hand, holding girdle tie, wood, painted
black and yellow from coffin. Pottery ushabti-box,
decorated in black and yellow, with jackal on lid
(type 999). Scraps of alabaster dish. Pieces of
carved wooden head-rest. 2 yellow wooden ushabtis,
with black hieroglyphs, I black not inscribed.
2017. Shaft 160 inches deep, one room on north,
east, and south, two on west. Painted pottery coffin.
False-necked vase, scraps. Pale blue and orange
glass beads, pendants and balls. Piece of wooden
head-rest. Comb. Hairpin. Wooden tadpole toilet
dish (lxvi, g, liv, 18). 40 ushabtis: 6 plain wood:
6 yellow, black inscriptions: 13 black, yellow
inscriptions : 15 pottery with black inscriptions.

SMALLER TOMBS

2018. Shaft 182 inches deep, room on north.


Wooden head-rest; wooden kohl pot (sic); I ushabti
painted white and blue with black hieroglyphs.
2019. Shaft 230 inches deep, five rooms on north,
one west, one begun on south. No remains of coffins
or bodies. Scarab of Set-nekht (lviii, 44). Blue glaze
libation jar of Ramessu I1 (lxvi, 7). Parts of a second
blue glaze vase.
2020. Shaft 307 inches deep, room on north, with
two loculi, rooms on east and west, room on south
with two loculi, exactly similar to the north chamber.
No remains of burials except bones. Alabaster vase
(lxvi, g), and parts of another. Large and small blue
glaze beads, one jasper seed-pod bead. Wooden
hair-pin carved. Reed kohl tube. Small clay animal
(donkey?). 67 ushabtis, 49 pottery, plain, inscribed

33

in black, I I whitewashed inscribed in black, 7 yellow


painted wood, black inscriptions.
2023. Shaft 178 inches deep, chamber on north
and south. Glass eye from coffin. 7 ushabtis of
blue glaze, inscribed in black, I of white glaze
uninscribed, fragments of 17 others of blue glaze.
2025. Shaft 205 inches deep, three rooms on north,
one each east, west and south. Black coffin, with
yellow decorations. Fragments of glaze pectoral.
Long beads of blue and green glass. Arms and feet
of two wooden figures. Two lids of wooden canopic
jars, painted black. Three wooden jackals from
ushabti-boxes, and three jackal heads. 13 wooden
ushabtis, painted black, 35 similar, inscribed in
yellow, 8 yellow inscribed in black, 8 plain, I whitewashed, and 2 of pottery with black hieroglyphs.

SEDMENT A N D MAYANA

DISTRIBUTION L I S T
L I S T O F ABBREVIATIONS
Ab.
Ash.
Bex.
Br
Bruss.
G.
Car.
Char.
Chic.
Cop.
Econ.

52
3
6
7
S

g
67
71
2

81
7
92
4
5
g
IOO
2

Aberdeen
Ashmolean, Oxford
Bexhill
Brighton
Brussels
Cairo
Ny Carlsberg
Charleston
Chicago
Copenhagen
London School
of Economies

Eth., Br.
Ash.
Char.
Mel.
G.
R., Ash.
Ash.
Ed.
Man.
Ed.
G.
Ab.
U. C.
R.
G., Bex.
Br.
Syd.

6 G.
7 Bex.
I I O Syd.
3 Mel.
4 Eth., Sun., R.
g Ash.

Ed.
Eth.

= Edinburgh

Fitz.

= Fitzwilliam,

G.

= Glasgow

Cambridge
Cambridge
Hag. = The Hague
Hor. = Horniman
Ip.
= Ipswich
J.
= Johannesburg
Man. = Manchester
Mel. = Melbourne

Br.
3 Chic., Hor.
131 Ip.,Mel.,Man.,
Eth., Sun.
2 U. C., Sh.,
Ash.
4 15 Museums.
5 Hor.
6 Car., U. C.
7 Ash., Chic.
8 Br.
g Ash., Fitz.,
Man., U. C.
165 Hor.
201 Chic.
204 Eth.
5 Eth.
214 Char.
6 R.
g Sh.
220 Ab.
I Bex.
3 R.
121

= Ethnological,

224 Ab.
7 Mel.
8 Mel.
234 Hor.
5 Chic.
6 R.
7 Fitz.
g U. C.
241 Read.
2 Sh.
3 Read.
4 R.
5 G.
6 Man.
8 Ab.
g Fitz.
251 Man.
3 Br.
4 Ph.
5 SY~.
6 R.
7 Man.
8 Char.

Mich. = Michigan
Ph.
= Philadelphia
R.
= Rochdale
Read. = Reading
Sh. = Sherborne
Sun. = Sunderland
Syd. = Sydney
U. C. = University College,
London
Up. = Upsala

259 Bex.
260 Ph., Man.
I Ed.
2 Ab.
263 Ph., Ash.
4 Ash.
5 Sh.
6 G.
7 R.
S Sh.

g Hor.
270 Chic.
I Hag.
2 Mel.
3 Fitz., Sun.,
Man.
4 Car.
5 Ed.
6~ U. C.
7 Eth., Man.
8 Bex.
280 Ip., Man.
I Cop.

282
3
4
6
292
3
7
8

307
310
4
5
6
8

320
6
8

332
5
6
360
374
8

Man.
Ed.

IP.
Eth.
Man.
Man.
U. C.
U. C.
Ash.
Bruss.
Hag.
SydBex.
U. C.
Ash.
Fitz.
Ed.
Hor.
Ab., Man.
Ash.
G.
Bruss.
up.

DISTRIBUTION LIST

383
390
g
406
413
5
g
421

U.C.
Man.
Man.
Ed.
Mel., Syd.
Ip., Man.
Mich.
U. c.

501

G.

4
6
7
8
g
514
5
7
8
520

G.
Man.
U.C.
Ab.
Car.
Syd.
Man.
Man.
Man.
Man.
Chic.
Mel.
Ed.
Sh.
Bruss.
U.C., Cop.
Char.
Read.
Mel.
G.

I
2

4
6
534
6
7
8
550
9
560 Ph.
2 Man.
5 SY~.
574 U.C., Man.
8 Ip.
9 COP.
589 IP.
593 Sh.
4 Man.
g Man.
600 Man.
4 Ash.
6 Ed.
613 Chic.
4 Ed.
7 Char.
624 Ip.
6 Char.
630 U.C.
640 Mel.
6 Sh.
g Mich.

656 Sh.
g Econ.
665 Hor.
684 U.C.
5 G706 Mel.
902 Bex.
3 U. C.
7 Mel.
8 U.C.
9 R.
g10 Ph.
952 U. c.
5 Hor.
989 Sun.
1002 Man.
q Man.
7 Sun.
8 U.C.
1013 Br.
1026 Man.
1201 Man.
2 Man.
4 Ed.
1213 Syd.
4 Man.
5 Ed.
1224 Man.
6 Man.
8 Ab.
1231 Mel.
1253 Man.
5 Man.
6 Syd.
7 Man.
1262 C., Ash.
4 Mel.
5 Ab.
8 Ed.
1270 Ash.
2 Mel.
3 Ed.
6 Ed.
7 Eth.
8 Mel.
g Ash.
1281 Syd.
7 Eth.
8 U.C.
g Ash.
1290 Man.

1291 Sh.
2 Man.
4 Bex.
5 Ed.
8 Mel.
g Read.
1300 U. c.
I Mel.
6 Ed.
7 Bex.
8 U. C.
1314 Ed.
5 Ed.
7 Eth.
1324 Bex.
1354 U. C.
6 R.
7 R.
8 Sun.
g Bex.
1365 U.C.
1371 Ph.
2 Sun.
3 Bex.
4 Sun.
6 Mel., Eth.
I502 R.
I512 U.C.
I522 Eth,
1525 Man.
6 Ash.
8 G.
1536 Eth.
7 Bruss.
8 Eth.
I542 U. c.
4 Eth.
7 Eth.
g Bruss.
1553 Sh.
1560 Man.
5 Ed.
8 Ash.
g Sh.
I570 IP.
I Chic.
2 Ip.
1580 G.
2 Fitz.
4 Ash.
6 Mich.

1587 Hag.
8 Ed.
1591 Eth.
2 Fitz.
3 Sun.
5 Man.
8 Chic.
g Eth.
1602 Ash.
5 Br.
6 R.
7 Syd.
8 U. C.
g Ed.
1610 Hor.
I Ash.
2 Eth.
3 G.
5 Eth.
7 Ash.
g Ed.
1622 Ip.
6 Eth.
7 Syd.
1630 Br.
I Sun.
3 Ab.
g Ash.
1640 Man.
I Bruss.
6 Char.
g Bruss.
1650 Bex.
1666 Syd.
1674 Syd.
5 Chic.
7 Man.
8 Ip.
1680 U.C.
g Eth.
1693 Syd.
I700 Ip.
1711 Sun.
5 Eth.
6 G.
8 Bruss.
1720 U.C.
2 Ed.
3 Fitz.
5 Ed.
7 Hag.

1728 Ph.
g U. C.
1730 Ed.
6 Eth.
7 Syd.
g Sh.
1804 R.
5 Ash., U.C.
6 Mel.
1810 Man.
I Ash.
9 J.
1845 U.C.
1850 Hor.
1951 Cop.
2 Chic.
5 C., Ab.
2002 Hor.
5 Man.
8 G.
2010 C., Ph.
I Man., Syd.
2 Hor.
3 R.,U. C.
4 Bex.
6 Sun.
7 Ash.
8 Sh.
g
2020

I
2

3
5
6
7
2030

I
2

3
2100

I
2

5
6
7
8
2111
2

R.,U.C.
Man.
Man.
Br., Fitz,,
Man.
Fitz., Hag.
Hor.
Ab.
Sun.
Man.
Hor.
Sh.
Eth.

R.
Hor.
U. C.
Chic.
Car., Up.
UP.
Ash.
Ph.
Ed.
Ash.
sa*

DISTRIBUTION LIST

U.C.
3 Mich.
5 U. C.
7 Car.,Cop.,U.C.

Syd.
g Sun.
2120 Man.
I Read.

2122

2115

Cem.

1000

Cem.

2100

Baskets
Shell
Alabaster
Alabaster
Bread
do.
Scarab

Sun.
2131 U. c.
2 U. C.
7 U.C.

2151

2129

2
2200

G.

225 IA Mel.

Man.

2253

R.

2250~
Man.

Eth.
Hor.
Mel.
Syd.
Man.
Ash.

Cem.2100

2 Scarabs
Head-rest
do.
do.
do.

Man.
Mel.
Ab.
Chic.
Ash.

Ph.

Cem.

Scarab

Man.

1900

Ph.

INDEX
SEDMENT I, pages 1-21,
SEDMENT 11, pages 23-33,

Ages represented in statuettes, 2


Alabaster figure vase, 18
vases, XVIth dynasty, 18
Altar of alabaster, 29
granite, 30
Amen-em-hat stele, 24
Amenhetep I plaque, 23
scarab, 23
Amenhetep I11 boat on stele, 24
group of, 25
Amenhetep, family stele of, 24
Amen-mes on stele, 24
Amulets, X t h dynasty, 6
An-onkh, 5
Aohmes on stele, 24
Ape and kohl tube, 21, 23
Apuaa on stele, 30
Apuy ushabtis, 26
Arurne ushabti, 27
Au ushabti, 27
Auta on stele, 24
Auy on shrine, 30
Axe handle, 17
A y jar sealing, 26
Bach, Mr. Henri, I, g, 32
Bahsamun, 21
Bakt-per-shenut, 26
Baskets in coffin, 24
tomb, 31
Beads amethyst and carnelian, 16, 20, 23
glass, 16, 20
sewn on linen, 16
shell, 19

plates I-XLVII
plates XLVIII-XC

Bead strings wound on bodies, 19


Behuru ushabtis, 27
Bes head vase, 25
ivory figure, 18
Birds, ivory inlays, 19
Boat models, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13
Bodies, direction of, 5, 15
Body raised on sticks, 16, 17, 19
Bones, red, 17, I 8
Book of the Dead papyrus, 27
Bows and arrows, 7
Box inscribed in hieratic, 32
Bricks, 19
Broome, Miss Myrtle, g
Brunton, Mr. and Mrs., I, 5, 9
Buaya on stele, a7
Canopic jars, 26, 30
Cartonnage copied from gold work, 28
earliest, 5
head pieces, 6, 10, I I, 12, 15
Caskets in coffin, 24
Cemetery of 1st-IIIrd dynasties, 2, g, 14
VIth dynasty, 3-4
I X t h dynasty, 5-13
I X t h dynasty, Mayana, 14-15
XVIth dynasty, Mayana, I 6-2
XVIIIth dynasty, 23-26
X I X t h dynasty, 27-33
Coffin cut in block, 23
of Ra-mery-ha-shetef, 3
of bricks, 16
ridge roof, 24, 26
stolen and re-used, 27

INDEX

Hora on shrine, 30
Hora, general, 32
Huy on shrine, 30
Hynes, Major, I , 3, 28

Coffins of IXth dynasty, 5, 10-16


Collars of beads, 6, I I, 15
Copper bowls unaltered, 2
hoe, 8, 16
tie and armlets, 2
Crumb beads, 6
Cyperus roots in graves, 18

Isis, daughter of Amenemhat, 25


Ivory figure of Bes, 18
inlay of birds, 19
scoop carved, 18

Diorite bowls, 2
Doll, clay, 16
Duck bowl of wood, 18
Dudufi tomb, 10, I 2

Kha-em-uas ushabti, 3 I
Khenty-khety coffin, 5, I I
figures, 7
Kherp carried by head of clan, 3
Khes, city, 30
Khety-ankh coffin, I 3
Khnum-em-heb ushabtis, 27
Kho-em-apt, canopic jar, 26

Earring, gold, 24
silver, 23
Eye uzat, glass, 6
Eyes on coffins, 10
Figure vase, alabaster, 18
red pottery, 23
Fish, gold, 26
Fishing boat and net, 7
Frog of IXth dynasty, 13

Lahun, group from, 23


Lance heads, model, 21
Leather pillows, 17, 18, 19
Linen garment, complete, 32
Lion and calf on tray, 32
Loaves offered, 13
Lucas, Mr. A., 17

Game board series, 7, 12


Garnet beads, 19, 23
Girl carrying tray, 25
swimming with box, 2 +
Glass amulets, X t h dynasty, 6
beads, 16
figures impressed, 26
of XVIth dynasty?, 19
Granite sarcophagi, 28
Greek vase, prehistoric, 23
Handle of coffin lid sawn off, 10
Handwork on chair legs, 25
Hathor, chantress, 26
Hatiaay on stele, 30
Ha-ur-em-sekhtu, 5
Head rest of alabaster, 2, 3
Henty, 5
Herakleopolis, early settlement, I
founded b y Libyans,
Henen-nesut, I
Heremheb jar, 25
Her-ka on stele, 25
Hershefdada ushabtis, 27
Hes vase model, 8
Hipponon, Horus of, 30
Hoe of copper, 8, 16

Maa ushabtis, 27
Maket, 24, 25
Mallet, 8
Masks of cartonnage, 6, 10, 11,
earliest, 5
Mayana cemetery, I, 14-21
Meals divided in offerings, 4
Men-kheper, scribe, 23, 26
Menna, prince, 32
Mertetes figure, 7, 12
Merti on shrine, 30
Meryra on shrine, 30
Meydum pottery, g
Eller, Mr. Eustace, I
Min-mes kneeling figure, 24
Mirror, earliest, Syrian?, 2
I X t h dynasty, 6
Moaany on shrine, 30
Monkey kohl tube, 21, 23
Moy neck-bead, 26
on stele, 24
Neb-em-kemt stele, 24
Neb-em-suhet figure, 4, 14

12,

15

INDEX

Nebhetep stele, 29, 30


Neb-ka-ra scarab, 17, 20
Neb-nekhtu on stele, 24
Nefer on stele, 27
Nefer-hent on stele, 24
Neferesigns on head band, 25
Neilson, Mr.Montgomerie, I, g, 11, 14, 16, 19, 20
Neit-nebt, 5
Nekht-kaua coffin, 5, 12
figures, 7
Nenna, tomb of, 4, 15
Nubian pottery, g
Nude figures before the gods, 3
Offerings, list of, 3, 4
painted, 5, 12
trays of, 8
Oils, names of, 4
Osiris relics at Herakleopolis,

Pa-hen-neter stele, 27
Pa-her-pedtiu ushabti, 28
Papyrus with gilding, 27
Pa-ra-hetep tomb, 28-3 I
Pasar coffin, 27
Pectoral, circular, inlaid, 6, 11, 15
glazed, 26
Petrie, Mrs., I, 3
. Pillars of Sety, 27
Pillows of leather, 17, 18, 19
Pipes, musical, 24
Pits without burials, 21
Plummet rod, 7, 8
Porters with sedan chair, 7
Pottery, box, painted, 10
classification of, 8
foreign, 20, 25, 28
foreign sources, 20
Syrian, 18, 20, 24
XVIth dynasty, 19
Ptah circulating eternally, 27
Ptah-ne-za on stele, 24
Pyramid texts in Book of the Dead,
Ra-hetep tomb, 28-3 I
Ra-mery-ha-shetef tomb, 2, 3
Rames tomb, pectoral, 26
Ramessu I1 jar, 32
scarab, 31
Ramessu I11 scarab, P I
Reed pipes, 24

Resin balls, 12
Roman graves,

21

Saben on stele, 25
Sandals, 6
Sanebtef on stele, 24
Sat-thiri on stele, 24
Scarabs of IXth-Xth dynasties, 5, 8, 11, 13
XVIth dynasty, 20
XVIIIth dynasty, 23, 25
worn b y men, 8, 19
women, 8, 23
Scribe figure amulet, 13
Seal with early writing, 8
Sealing on basket, 17, 18
S,ebek-mes on stele, 25
Sedment position, I
Sen-nefer on stele, 24
position, I
Servant figures, VIth dynasty, 3, 4
IXth-Xth dynasties, 6, 7, 10-13
Set-nekht scarab, 33
Sety messenger, tomb, 27
Shabtis, 27, 28, 30
Sherit-ra on stele, 24
Silver flies, 23
Skin, sheep's, 17, 18
Square, mason's, 7, 8
Stairway tombs, 2
Statuettes, 3, 6
Staui, coffin of, 32
Stone vases of 1st dynasty, 2
Swimming girl with box, 24
Taiy on stele, 24
Ta-pa-ser on stele, 25
T a r ? on shrine, 30
T a y on shrine, 30
Tazarti coffin, 23
pottery, 26
Tehutmes I11 group, 24, 26
palette, 23
Tehutmes vezier, 29
Tem-ry on stele, 24
Thay on stele, 30
vase, 30
Thiy ushabtis, 27
T h y on stele, 27
ushabti, 28
Tie for head, copper, 2
Tip cat and ball, 7

Toilet boxes, 23, 25, 31


Tools, model, 7, 10, 11, 13
Tray, wooden, under body,
Trays of offerings, 8
Uazet-hetep coffin, 5, 10,
figures, 7
tomb, 10
Ushabtis, 27, 28, 30

Ushabtis, number of, 27


W i g curler, 8
Winnowing board, 4
Wool, yellow, 17

11

Yehu-nama on stele, 27
Ykhy on stele, 25
Yu.. on stele, 25

INDEX O F TOMBS
Tomb

33
56
59
99
106
131
I 32
133
134
136
138
20 I

216
23
36
37
45
46
53
54
60
6I
63
67
70
73
2,
74
76
7 6 ~
8o
83
3 10
I4
I5
406

Tomb

Tomb

INDEX
Tomb

Tomb

Tomb