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Chapter 7 Homework

Chapter 7 Homework
Due: 10:00pm on Monday, March 17, 2014
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Energy Required to Lift a Heavy Box


As you are trying to move a heavy box of mass m, you realize that it is too heavy for you to lift by yourself. There is no
one around to help, so you attach an ideal pulley to the box and a massless rope to the ceiling, which you wrap around
the pulley. You pull up on the rope to lift the box.
Use g for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity and
neglect friction forces.

Part A
Once you have pulled hard enough to start the box moving upward, what is the magnitude F of the upward force
you must apply to the rope to start raising the box with constant velocity?
Express the magnitude of the force in terms of m, the mass of the box.

Hint 1. What force must be applied to the box to keep it moving at a constant speed?
Once you have pulled hard enough to start the box moving upward, what is the magnitude of the force that
the pulley must exert on the box so that it moves at a constant speed?
Express your answer in terms of the mass of the box.
ANSWER:
Fp

mg

Hint 2. What force does the pulley exert on the box?


If you take the tension in the rope to be T , what is

Fp

, the magnitude of the net upward force that the pulley

exerts on the box?


Express your answer in terms of T .
ANSWER:
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Fp

2T

Hint 3. Find the tension in the rope


Find the tension in the rope in terms of F , the force with which you are pulling upward.
ANSWER:
=

Hint 4. Putting it all together


On your own or using the previous hints, you should have found equations for he following:
1. the force needed to lift the box at constant velocity, in terms of its mass,
2. the relationship between the force on the box due to the pulley and the tension in the rope, and
3. the relationship between the force applied to the rope and the tension in the rope.
Use two of these equations to eliminate the force applied by the pulley and the tension in the rope. You
should then be able to express the force applied on the rope in terms of the mass of the box.
ANSWER:
F

mg
2

Correct

Part B
Consider lifting a box of mass m to a height
using a pulley (as in the previous part).
What is

Wd / Wp

using two different methods: lifting the box directly or lifting the box

, the ratio of the work done lifting the box directly to the work done lifting the box with a pulley?

Express the ratio numerically.

Hint 1. Definition of work


In each case, the amount of work
which you apply the force:

you do is equal to the force F you apply times the distance d over

W = Fd

Hint 2. Ratio of the forces


What is the ratio of the force needed to lift the box directly to the force needed to lift the box using the
pulley?
Express your answer numerically.
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ANSWER:
Fd
Fp

= 2

Hint 3. Ratio of the distances


What is the ratio of the distance over which force is applied when lifting the box directly to the distance over
which force is applied when lifting the box with the pulley?
Express the ratio of distances numerically.

Hint 1. Find the distance when using the pulley


Find Dp , the distance over which you must apply force when lifting the box using the pulley.
Express your answer in terms of h, the total height that the box is lifted.

Hint 1. Pulling the rope a short distance


Using the pully, imagine that you pull the end of the rope a short distance dx upward. The box
will actually rise a distance dx/2. (Draw a picture if you have trouble visualizing this.)

ANSWER:
Dp

2h

Hint 2. Find the distance when lifting directly


When lifting the box directly, the distance over which force is applied,

Dd

, is equal to the vertical

distance h that the box is raised.

ANSWER:
Dd
Dp

= 0.500

ANSWER:
Wd
Wp

= 1

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Chapter 7 Homework

Correct
No matter which method you use to lift the box, its gravitational potential energy will increase by

. So,

mgh

neglecting friction, you will always need to do an amount of work equal to mgh to lift it.

Loop the Loop


A roller coaster car may be approximated by a block of mass
m. The car, which starts from rest, is released at a height h
above the ground and slides along a frictionless track. The car
encounters a loop of radius R, as shown. Assume that the
initial height h is great enough so that the car never loses
contact with the track.

Part A
Find an expression for the kinetic energy of the car at the top of the loop.
Express the kinetic energy in terms of m, g,

, and

Hint 1. Find the potential energy at the top of the loop


What is the potential energy of the car when it is at the top of the loop? Define the gravitational potential
energy to be zero at h = 0.
Express your answer in terms of R and other given quantities.
ANSWER:
U top

mg2R

Correct

ANSWER:

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Chapter 7 Homework

mgh mg2R

Correct

Part B
Find the minimum initial height h at which the car can be released that still allows the car to stay in contact with
the track at the top of the loop.
Express the minimum height in terms of R.

Hint 1. How to approach this part


Meaning of "stay in contact"
For the car to just stay in contact through the loop, without falling, the normal force that acts on the car
when it's at the top of the loop must be zero (i.e., N = 0 ).
Find the velocity at the top such that the remaining force on the car i.e. its weight provides the necessary
centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any greater, you would additionally require some force from the
track to provide the necessary centripetal acceleration. If the velocity were any less, the car would fall off the
track.
Use the above described condition to find the velocity and then the result from the above part to find the
required height.

Hint 2. Acceleration at the top of the loop


Assuming that the speed of the car at the top of the loop is

vtop

, and that the car stays on the track, find

the acceleration of the car. Take the positive y direction to be upward.


Express your answer in terms of vtop and any other quantities given in the problem introduction.
ANSWER:
atop

vtop

Hint 3. Normal force at the top of the loop


Suppose the car stays on the track and has speed vtop at the top of the loop. Use Newton's 2nd law to find
an expression for N , the magnitude of the normal force that the loop exerts on the car when the car is at the
top of the loop.
Express your answer in terms of m, g,

, and

vtop

Hint 1. Find the sum of forces at the top of the loop


Find the sum of the forces acting on the car at the top of the loop. Remember that the positive y
direction is upward.
N
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Chapter 7 Homework

Express your answer in terms of N ,

, and

ANSWER:
Ftop

N mg

ANSWER:

m(

vtop
R

g)

Hint 4. Solving for

The requirement to stay in contact results in an expression for v2top in terms of R and g. Substitute this into
your expression for kinetic energy, found in Part A, to determine a relation between h and R.

ANSWER:
hmin

2.5R

Correct
For h > 2.5
top.

the car will still complete the loop, though it will require some normal reaction even at the very

For h < R the car will just oscillate. Do you see this?
For R < h < 2.5 R , the cart will lose contact with the track at some earlier point. That is why roller coasters
must have a lot of safety features. If you like, you can check that the angle at which the cart loses contact with
the track is given by

= arcsin (

2
3

h
R

1 )).

Where is the angle measured counterclockwise from

the horizontal positive x-axis, where the origin of the x-axis is at the center of the loop.

Work and Potential Energy on a Sliding Block with Friction


A block of weight w sits on a plane inclined at an angle as shown. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the plane
and the block is .

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Chapter 7 Homework

A force F is applied to push the block up the incline at constant speed.

Part A
What is the work

Wf

done on the block by the force of friction as the block moves a distance L up the incline?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

, ,

Hint 1. A formula for work


The work done by a constant force is given by the dot product of the force vector with the vector representing
the displacement over which the force is applied.

Hint 2. Find the magnitude of the frictional force


What is the magnitude ff of the frictional force?
Express your answer in terms of ,

, and .

Hint 1. Compute the normal force


Find the magnitude n of the normal force on the block.
Express your answer in terms of w and .
ANSWER:
n

wcos()

ANSWER:
ff

wcos()

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Correct

ANSWER:
=

Wf

wcos()L

Correct

Part B
What is the work

done by the applied force of magnitude F ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

, ,

ANSWER:
W

wsin()L + wcos()L

Correct

Part C
What is the change in the potential energy of the block,

, after it has been pushed a distance L up the incline?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

, ,

ANSWER:
U

wLsin()

Correct

Now the applied force is changed so that instead of pulling the block up the incline, the force F pulls the block down the
incline at a constant speed.

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Chapter 7 Homework

Part D
What is the change in potential energy of the block,

, as it moves a distance L down the incline?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

ANSWER:
U

wLsin()

Correct

Part E
What is the work

done by the applied force of magnitude F ?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

ANSWER:
W

wsin()L + wcos()L

Correct

Part F
What is the work

Wf

done on the block by the frictional force?

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the following: ,

ANSWER:

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Chapter 7 Homework

Wf

wcos()L

Correct

Exercise 7.5
A baseball is thrown from the roof of 20.7m -tall building with an initial velocity of magnitude 13.1m/s and directed at an
angle of 57.1 above the horizontal.

Part A
What is the speed of the ball just before it strikes the ground? Use energy methods and ignore air resistance.
ANSWER:
v2

= 24.0

m/s

Correct

Part B
What is the answer for part (A) if the initial velocity is at an angle of 57.1 below the horizontal?
ANSWER:
v2

= 24.0

m/s

Correct

Part C
If the effects of air resistance are included, will part (A) or (B) give the higher speed?
ANSWER:
The part (A) will give the higher speed.
The part (B) will give the higher speed.

Correct

Bungee Jumping
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Chapter 7 Homework

Kate, a bungee jumper, wants to jump off the edge of a bridge that spans a river below. Kate has a mass m, and the
surface of the bridge is a height h above the water. The bungee cord, which has length L when unstretched, will first
straighten and then stretch as Kate falls.
Assume the following:
The bungee cord behaves as an ideal spring once it begins to stretch, with spring constant k.
Kate doesn't actually jump but simply steps off the edge of the bridge and falls straight downward.
Kate's height is negligible compared to the length of the bungee cord. Hence, she can be treated as a
point particle.
Use g for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.

Part A
How far below the bridge will Kate eventually be hanging, once she stops oscillating and comes finally to rest?
Assume that she doesn't touch the water.
Express the distance in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.

Hint 1. Decide how to approach the problem


Here are three possible methods for solving this problem:
1. No nonconservative forces are acting, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's
gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the
bungee cord (which depends on the cord's final length d) and solve for d.
2. Since nonconservative forces are acting, mechanical energy is not conserved. Set the spring
potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on d) equal to Kate's gravitational potential
energy plus the work done by dissipative forces. Eliminate the unknown work, and solve for d.
3. When Kate comes to rest she has zero acceleration, so the net force acting on her must be
zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on d) equal to the force of
gravity and solve for d.

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find d given the information available?
ANSWER:
a
b
c

Correct
Hint 2. Compute the force due to the bungee cord
When Kate is at rest, what is the magnitude Fb of the upward force the bungee cord exerts on her?
Express your answer in terms of the cord's final stretched length d and quantities given in the
problem introduction. Your answer should not depend on Kate's mass m.
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Chapter 7 Homework

Hint 1. Find the extension of the bungee cord


The upward force on Kate is due to the extension of the bungee cord. What is this extension?
Express your answer in terms of the cord's final (stretched) length

and

ANSWER:
Extension =

dL

Hint 2. Formula for the force due to a stretched cord


The formula for the force due to a stretched cord is
,
where k is the spring constant of the cord and x is the extension of the cord.
F = kx

ANSWER:
Fb

k(d L)

Incorrect; Try Again; 5 attempts remaining

ANSWER:
d

L+

mg
k

Correct

Part B
If Kate just touches the surface of the river on her first downward trip (i.e., before the first bounce), what is the spring
constant k? Ignore all dissipative forces.
Express k in terms of L,

, and g.

h m

Hint 1. Decide how to approach the problem


Here are three possible methods for solving this problem:
1. Since nonconservative forces are ignored, mechanical energy is conserved. Set Kate's
gravitational potential energy at the top of the bridge equal to the spring potential energy in the
bungee cord at the lowest point (which depends on k) and solve for k.
2. Nonconservative forces can be ignored, so mechanical energy is conserved. Set the spring
potential energy in the bungee cord (which depends on k) equal to Kate's gravitational potential
energy at the top of the bridge plus the work done by gravity as Kate falls. Compute the work
done by gravity, then solve for k.
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Chapter 7 Homework

3. When Kate is being held just above the water she has zero acceleration, so the net force
acting on her must be zero. Set the spring force due to the bungee cord (which depends on k)
equal to the force of gravity and solve for k.

Which of these options is the simplest, most accurate way to find k given the information available?
ANSWER:
a
b
c

Hint 2. Find the initial gravitational potential energy


What is Kate's gravitational potential energy

Ug

at the moment she steps off the bridge? (Define the zero of

gravitational potential to be at the surface of the water.)


Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.
ANSWER:
Ug

mgh

Hint 3. Find the elastic potential energy in the bungee cord


What is the elastic potential energy

Uel

stored in the bungee cord when Kate is at the lowest point of her

first downward trip?


Express your answer in terms of quantities given in the problem introduction.

Hint 1. Formula for elastic potential energy


The elastic potential energy of the bungee cord (which we are treating as an ideal spring) is
Uel =

1
2

k(x)

where x is the amount by which the cord is stretched beyond its unstretched length.

Hint 2. How much is the bungee cord stretched?


By how much is the bungee cord stretched when Kate is at a depth d1 below the bridge?
Express your answer in terms of d1 and

ANSWER:
x

d1 L

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Chapter 7 Homework

ANSWER:
U el

1
2

k ( h L)

ANSWER:

2mgh
(hL)

Correct

Dancing Balls
Four balls, each of mass m, are connected by four identical relaxed springs with spring constant k. The balls are
simultaneously given equal initial speeds v directed away from the center of symmetry of the system.

Part A
As the balls reach their maximum displacement, their kinetic energy reaches __________.
ANSWER:
a maximum
zero
neither a maximum nor zero

Correct

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Part B
Use geometry to find x, the distance each of the springs has stretched from its equilibrium position. (It may help to
draw the initial and the final states of the system.)
Express your answer in terms of d, the maximum displacement of each ball from its initial position.
ANSWER:
x

d2

Correct

Part C
Find the maximum displacement

of any one of the balls from its initial position.

Express d in terms of some or all of the given quantities k, v, and

Hint 1. A useful equation


The equation
1
2

mv

1
2

kx

could be useful. If you are familiar with this equation, you most likely have seen the expression applied to a
single mass on a single spring. For the situation with four balls and four masses, you will need to consider
carefully which quantities to use in this expression.
ANSWER:

2k

Correct

Spring Gun
A spring-loaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball straight up in the air. The ball reaches a maximum height
from the equilibrium position of the spring.

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Chapter 7 Homework

Part A
The same ball is shot straight up a second time from the same gun, but this time the spring is compressed only
half as far before firing. How far up does the ball go this time? Neglect friction. Assume that the spring is ideal and
that the distance by which the spring is compressed is negligible compared to H .

Hint 1. Potential energy of the spring


The potential energy of a spring is proportional to the square of the distance the spring is compressed. The
spring was compressed half the distance, so the mass, when launched, has one quarter of the energy as in
the first trial.

Hint 2. Potential energy of the ball


At the highest point in the ball's trajectory, all of the spring's potential energy has been converted into
gravitational potential energy of the ball.
ANSWER:
height =

1
4

Correct

Stretching a Spring
As illustrated in the figure, a spring with spring constant
equilibrium position of the spring.

is stretched from

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x = 0

to x = 3d, where x = 0 is the

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Chapter 7 Homework

Part A
During which interval is the largest amount of energy required to stretch the spring?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


The force exerted on a spring to stretch or compress it from equilibrium is given by Hooke's law:
Fon

spring

= kx

where x is the displacement of the spring from equilibrium. Notice that this force varies in magnitude: as x
increases so does the magnitude of the force. On a graph of force as a function of position, the total work
done by the force is represented by the area under the curve between the initial and final positions. Plot a
graph of force versus displacement and compare the areas under the curve from x = 0 to x = d, x = d to
x = 2d, and x = 2d to x = 3d.

ANSWER:
From

x = 0

to x = d

From

x = d

to x = 2d

From

x = 2d

to x = 3d

The energy required is the same in all three intervals.

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Chapter 7 Homework

Correct
A graph of the force exerted on the spring versus the displacement of the spring is shown in the figure.

Recall that on a graph of force as a function of


position, the work done by the force is represented by the area under the curve. The work done by the hand in
the first segment to pull the spring from x = 0 to x = d is represented by a single triangle. The area under the
second segment from x = dto x = 2d is three times larger than the first segment, and the area under the
third segment from x = 2d to x = 3d is five times larger than in the first segment. So more energy is required
to pull the spring through the third segment.

Part B
A spring is stretched from x = 0 to x = d, where x = 0 is the equilibrium position of the spring. It is then
compressed from x = 0 to x = d. What can be said about the energy required to stretch or compress the
spring?

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


Recall that on a graph of force as a function of position, the work done by the force is represented by the
area "under" the curve, or more accurately, the area between the curve and the horizontal axis. Plot a graph
of force versus displacement and compare the areas "under" the curve from x = 0 to x = d and x = 0 to
x = d.

ANSWER:
More energy is required to stretch the spring than to compress it.
The same amount of energy is required to either stretch or compress the spring.
Less energy is required to stretch the spring than to compress it.

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Chapter 7 Homework

Correct
The work done to stretch or compress a spring from equilibrium is given by
1
2
Won spring =
kx ,
2
where x is the distance away from equilibrium that the spring moves. Since x is squared in the equation for
work, stretching (x > 0) or compressing (x < 0) a spring by the same distance requires the same positive
amount of work.

Part C
Now consider two springs A and B that are attached to a wall. Spring A has a spring constant that is four times that
of the spring constant of spring B. If the same amount of energy is required to stretch both springs, what can be
said about the distance each spring is stretched?

Hint 1. How to approach this problem


The work done to stretch or compress a spring is given by
Won

spring

1
2

kx

where x is the distance away from equilibrium that the spring is displaced.
Use this expression to relate the information provided about the work done on each spring and the spring
constants to the distance each spring stretches.

Hint 2. Use proportional reasoning to find a relationship between the springs


From the problem statement you know that
WA = WB

where
W =

1
2

kx

and
kA = 4kB

Use this information to find an expression for

(xA )

(xB )

ANSWER:
2

(xA )

= 0.25

(xB )

ANSWER:

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Spring A must stretch 4 times as far as spring B


Spring A must stretch 2 times as far as spring B.
Spring A must stretch the same distance as spring B.
Spring A must stretch half the distance spring B stretches.
Spring A must stretch one-quarter of the distance spring B stretches.

Correct
The energy required to stretch a spring is proportional to k and to x2 . If kA is four times

kB

xA

must be half

that of xB , so the energy required is the same for both springs.

Part D
Two identical springs are attached to two different masses,

MA

and M B , where M A is greater than M B . The

masses lie on a frictionless surface. Both springs are compressed the same distance, d, as shown in the figure.
Which of the following statements descibes the energy required to compress spring A and spring B?

ANSWER:
Spring A requires more energy than spring B.
Spring A requires the same amount of energy as spring B.
Spring A requires less energy than spring B.
Not enough information is provided to answer the question.

Correct
Good job; you have realized an important fact. The work done on a spring to compress it a distance d is given
by

1
2

kd

. The amount of mass attached to the spring does not affect the work required to stretch or

compress the spring.


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Exercise 7.15
A force of 700N stretches a certain spring a distance of 0.400m .

Part A
What is the potential energy of the spring when it is stretched a distance of 0.400m ?
ANSWER:
U1

= 140

Correct

Part B
What is its potential energy when it is compressed a distance of 5.00cm ?
ANSWER:
U2

= 2.19

Correct

Exercise 7.25
You are asked to design a spring that will give a 1300kg satellite a speed of 3.45m/s relative to an orbiting space
shuttle. Your spring is to give the satellite a maximum acceleration of 5.00g. The spring's mass, the recoil kinetic
energy of the shuttle, and changes in gravitational potential energy will all be negligible.

Part A
What must the force constant of the spring be?
Take the free fall acceleration to be

= 9.80m/s2 .

ANSWER:
k

= 2.62105

N/m

Correct

Part B
What distance must the spring be compressed?
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Chapter 7 Homework

ANSWER:
x

= 0.243

Correct

Sliding In Socks
Suppose that the coefficient of kinetic friction between Zak's feet and the floor, while wearing socks, is 0.250. Knowing
this, Zak decides to get a running start and then slide across the floor.

Part A
If Zak's speed is 3.00 m/s when he starts to slide, what distance d will he slide before stopping?
Express your answer in meters.
ANSWER:
1.84

Correct

Part B
Now, suppose that Zak's younger cousin, Greta, sees him sliding and takes off her shoes so that she can slide as
well (assume her socks have the same coefficient of kinetic friction as Zak's). Instead of getting a running start, she
asks Zak to give her a push. So, Zak pushes her with a force of 125 N over a distance of 1.00 m. If her mass is
20.0 kg, what distance d2 does she slide after Zak's push ends?
Remember that the frictional force acts on Greta during Zak's push and while she is sliding after the push.
Express your answer in meters.

Hint 1. How to approach the problem


This problem can be solved using work and energy. Pick the moment just before the push starts as the
initial time, and pick the point at which she stops sliding as the final time. What is the change E in
energy between these two times?
Express your answer in joules.
ANSWER:
E

= 0

ANSWER:
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Chapter 7 Homework

d2

= 1.55

Correct

Exercise 7.32
While a roofer is working on a roof that slants at 40.0 above the horizontal, he accidentally nudges his 90.0N toolbox,
causing it to start sliding downward, starting from rest.

Part A
If it starts 4.25m from the lower edge of the roof, how fast will the toolbox be moving just as it reaches the edge of
the roof if the kinetic friction force on it is 18.0N ?
ANSWER:
v

= 6.07

m/s

Correct

Exercise 7.36
An object moving in the xy -plane is acted on by a conservative force described by the potential-energy function
2
2
U (x, y) = (1/x + 1/ y ), where is a positive constant.

Part A
Derive an expression for the force F expressed in terms of the unit vectors

^
i

and ^
j.

Express your answer in terms of the given quantities.


ANSWER:

2 ^
x3

i +

2 ^
y3

Correct

Potential Energy Graphs and Motion


Learning Goal:
To be able to interpret potential energy diagrams and predict the corresponding motion of a particle.
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Chapter 7 Homework

Potential energy diagrams for a particle are useful in predicting the motion of that particle. These diagrams allow one to
determine the direction of the force acting on the particle at any point, the points of stable and unstable equilibrium, the
particle's kinetic energy, etc.
Consider the potential energy diagram shown. The curve
represents the value of potential energy U as a function of the
particle's coordinate x. The horizontal line above the curve
represents the constant value of the total energy of the
particle E . The total energy E is the sum of kinetic ( K ) and
potential ( U ) energies of the particle.
The key idea in interpreting the graph can be expressed in the
equation
Fx (x) =

dU (x)
dx

where Fx (x) is the x component of the net force as function


of the particle's coordinate x. Note the negative sign: It means
that the x component of the net force is negative when the
derivative is positive and vice versa. For instance, if the
particle is moving to the right, and its potential energy is
increasing, the net force would be pulling the particle to the
left.
If you are still having trouble visualizing this, consider the following: If a massive particle is increasing its gravitational
potential energy (that is, moving upward), the force of gravity is pulling in the opposite direction (that is, downward).
If the x component of the net force is zero, the particle is said to be in equilibrium. There are two kinds of equilibrium:
Stable equilibrium means that small deviations from the equilibrium point create a net force that
accelerates the particle back toward the equilibrium point (think of a ball rolling between two hills).
Unstable equilibrium means that small deviations from the equilibrium point create a net force that
accelerates the particle further away from the equilibrium point (think of a ball on top of a hill).

In answering the following questions, we will assume that there is a single varying force F acting on the particle along
the x axis. Therefore, we will use the term force instead of the cumbersome x component of the net force.

Part A
The force acting on the particle at point A is __________.

Hint 1. Sign of the derivative


If a function increases (as
positive.

increases) in a certain region, then the derivative of the function in that region is

Hint 2. Sign of the component


If x increases to the right, as in the graph shown, then a (one-dimensional) vector with a positive x
component points to the right, and vice versa.
ANSWER:

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Chapter 7 Homework

directed to the right


directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct
Consider the graph in the region of point A. If the particle is moving to the right, it would be "climbing the hill,"
and the force would "pull it down," that is, pull the particle back to the left. Another, more abstract way of
thinking about this is to say that the slope of the graph at point A is positive; therefore, the direction of F is
negative.

Part B
The force acting on the particle at point C is __________.

Hint 1. Sign of the derivative


If a function increases (as
positive, and vice versa.

increases) in a certain region, then the derivative of the function in that region is

Hint 2. Sign of the component


If x increases to the right, as in the graph shown, then a (one-dimensional) vector with a positive x
component points to the right, and vice versa.
ANSWER:
directed to the right
directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct

Part C
The force acting on the particle at point B is __________.

Hint 1. Derivative of a function at a local maximum


At a local maximum, the derivative of a function is equal to zero.
ANSWER:

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Chapter 7 Homework

directed to the right


directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct
The slope of the graph is zero; therefore, the derivative dU /dx = 0 , and |F | = 0 .

Part D
The acceleration of the particle at point B is __________.

Hint 1. Relation between acceleration and force


The relation between acceleration and force is given by Newton's 2nd law,
F = ma.

ANSWER:
directed to the right
directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct
If the net force is zero, so is the acceleration. The particle is said to be in a state of equilibrium.

Part E
If the particle is located slightly to the left of point B, its acceleration is __________.

Hint 1. The force on such a particle


To the left of B,

U (x)

is an increasing function and so its derivative is positive. This implies that the x

component of the force on a particle at this location is negative, or that the force is directed to the left, just
like at A. What can you say now about the acceleration?
ANSWER:

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Chapter 7 Homework

directed to the right


directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct

Part F
If the particle is located slightly to the right of point B, its acceleration is __________.

Hint 1. The force on such a particle


To the right of B,

U (x)

is a decreasing function and so its derivative is negative. This implies that the x

component of the force on a particle at this location is positive, or that the force is directed to the right, just
like at C. What can you now say about the acceleration?
ANSWER:
directed to the right
directed to the left
equal to zero

Correct
As you can see, small deviations from equilibrium at point B cause a force that accelerates the particle further
away; hence the particle is in unstable equilibrium.

Part G
Name all labeled points on the graph corresponding to unstable equilibrium.
List your choices alphabetically, with no commas or spaces; for instance, if you choose points B, D, and
E, type your answer as BDE.

Hint 1. Definition of unstable equilibrium


Unstable equilibrium means that small deviations from the equilibrium point create a net force that
accelerates the particle further away from the equilibrium point (think of a ball on top of a hill).
ANSWER:
BF

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Chapter 7 Homework

Correct

Part H
Name all labeled points on the graph corresponding to stable equilibrium.
List your choices alphabetically, with no commas or spaces; for instance, if you choose points B, D, and
E, type your answer as BDE.

Hint 1. Definition of stable equilibrium


Stable equilibrium means that small deviations from the equilibrium point create a net force that accelerates
the particle back toward the equilibrium point. (Think of a ball rolling between two hills.)
ANSWER:
DH

Correct

Part I
Name all labeled points on the graph where the acceleration of the particle is zero.
List your choices alphabetically, with no commas or spaces; for instance, if you choose points B, D, and
E, type your answer as BDE.

Hint 1. Relation between acceleration and force


The relation between acceleration and force is given by Newton's 2nd law,
F = ma.

ANSWER:
BDFH

Correct
Your answer, of course, includes the locations of both stable and unstable equilibrium.

Part J
Name all labeled points such that when a particle is released from rest there, it would accelerate to the left.
List your choices alphabetically, with no commas or spaces; for instance, if you choose points B, D, and
E, type your answer as BDE.
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Chapter 7 Homework

Hint 1. Determine the sign of the x component of force


If the acceleration is to the left, so is the force. This means that the x component of the force is __________.
ANSWER:
positive
negative

Hint 2. What is the behavior of U (x) ?


If the x component of the force at a point is negative, then the derivative of U (x) at that point is positive. This
means that in the region around the point

U (x)

is __________.

ANSWER:
increasing
decreasing

ANSWER:
AE

Correct

Part K
Consider points A, E, and G. Of these three points, which one corresponds to the greatest magnitude of
acceleration of the particle?

Hint 1. Acceleration and force


The greatest acceleration corresponds to the greatest magnitude of the net force, represented on the graph
by the magnitude of the slope.
ANSWER:
A
E
G

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Chapter 7 Homework

Correct

Kinetic energy
If the total energy E of the particle is known, one can also use the graph of U (t) to draw conclusions about the kinetic
energy of the particle since
K = E U

As a reminder, on this graph, the total energy

is shown by the horizontal line.

Part L
What point on the graph corresponds to the maximum kinetic energy of the moving particle?

Hint 1. K , U , and

Since the total energy does not change, the maximum kinetic energy corresponds to the minimum potential
energy.
ANSWER:
D

Correct
It makes sense that the kinetic energy of the particle is maximum at one of the (force) equilibrium points. For
example, think of a pendulum (which has only one force equilibrium point--at the very bottom).

Part M
At what point on the graph does the particle have the lowest speed?
ANSWER:
B

Correct
As you can see, many different conclusions can be made about the particle's motion merely by looking at the
graph. It is helpful to understand the character of motion qualitatively before you attempt quantitative problems.
This problem should prove useful in improving such an understanding.

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 101%.
You received 14.07 out of a possible total of 14 points.

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