Mastering Physics Chapter 9
Rotation of Ridgid Bodies
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Mastering Physics Chapter 9
Rotation of Ridgid Bodies
Answers to my homework.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Chapter 9 Homework

Chapter 9 Homework

Due: 10:00pm on Wednesday, April 9, 2014

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Exercise 9.1

Part A

What angle in radians is subtended by an arc of 1.56m in length on the circumference of a circle of radius 2.56m ?

ANSWER:

= 0.609

rad

Correct

Part B

What is this angle in degrees?

ANSWER:

= 34.9

Correct

Part C

An arc of length 14.2cm on the circumference of a circle subtends an angle of 124 . What is the radius of the

circle?

ANSWER:

r

= 6.56

cm

Correct

Part D

The angle between two radii of a circle with radius 1.47m is 0.660rad . What length of arc is intercepted on the

circumference of the circle by the two radii?

ANSWER:

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Chapter 9 Homework

= 0.970

Correct

Learning Goal:

Understand how to find the equation of motion of a particle undergoing uniform circular motion.

Consider a particle--the small red block in the figure--that is constrained to move in a circle of radius R. We can specify

its position solely by (t), the angle that the vector from the origin to the block makes with our chosen reference axis at

time t. Following the standard conventions we measure (t) in the counterclockwise direction from the positive x axis.

Part A

as a function of angle (t). For later remember that

i and

(t)

^

j

(t)

the figure.

Hint 1. x coordinate

What is the x coordinate of the particle?

Your answer should be in terms of R and

(t)

ANSWER:

x

Rcos((t))

Hint 2. y coordinate

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Chapter 9 Homework

Your answer should be in terms of R and

(t)

ANSWER:

y

Rsin((t))

ANSWER:

r (t)

^

^

Rcos((t)) i + Rsin((t))j

Correct

Uniform Circular Motion

A frequently encountered kind of circular motion is uniform circular motion, where (t) changes at a constant rate . In

other words,

=

Usually,

d(t)

dt

(t = 0) = 0

Part B

For uniform circular motion, find (t) at an arbitrary time t.

Give your answer in terms of and t.

ANSWER:

(t)

Correct

Part C

What does

r (t)

become now?

^

, t, and unit vectors ^

i and j .

ANSWER:

r (t)

Rcos(t)^

i + Rsin(t)^

j

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Chapter 9 Homework

Correct

Part D

Find r , a position vector at time t

= 0

i and/or ^

j.

Hint 1. Finding

Simply plug t

= 0

ANSWER:

r

^

Ri

Correct

Part E

Determine an expression for the position vector of a particle that starts on the positive y axis at

, (x0 , y 0 ) = (0, R) ) and subsequently moves with constant .

Express your answer in terms of R,

t = 0

(i.e., at

t = 0

^

, t, and unit vectors ^

i and j .

You can think of changing the initial position as adding a phase angle to the equation for (t). That is,

(t) = t +

From previous parts you found that

x = R cos((t))

and y

= R sin((t))

Express your answer as a fraction of the number , for example

(3/4)

or

(1/4)

ANSWER:

= 1.57

ANSWER:

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Chapter 9 Homework

ryaxis (t)

^

^

Rcos(t + 1.57) i + Rsin(t + 1.57)j

Correct

From this excersice you have learned that even though the motion takes place in the plane there is only one

degree of freedom, angle , and that changing the initial coordinates introduces a phase angle in the equation.

Pushing a Merry-Go-Round

A child is pushing a playground merry-go-round. The angle through which the merry-go-round has turned varies with time

according to (t) = t + t3 , where = 0.400 rad/s and = 0.0120 rad/s3 .

Part A

Calculate the angular velocity of the merry-go-round as a function of time.

Express your answer in radians per second in terms of ,

, and t.

Recall that the angular velocity of an object is just the time derivative of its angular position.

ANSWER:

(t)

+ 3t

rad/sec

Correct

Part B

What is the initial value 0 of the angular velocity?

Express your answer in radians per second.

Recall that the angular velocity of an object is just the time derivative of its angular position. The initial value

is just the value at t = 0 s.

ANSWER:

0

= 0.4

rad/s

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Correct

Part C

Calculate the instantaneous value of the angular velocity

(t)

at time t

= 5.00 s

ANSWER:

(5.00)

= 1.3

rad/s

Correct

Part D

Calculate the average angular velocity

av

t = 0

to t

= 5.00

seconds.

In order to find the average angular velocity, just take the total angular displacement and divide by the total

time. You can find the total angular displacement from the formula in the introduction for angular

displacement (t).

ANSWER:

av

= 0.7

rad/s

Correct

Dario, a prep cook at an Italian restaurant, spins a salad spinner and observes that it rotates 20.0 times in 5.00 seconds

and then stops spinning it. The salad spinner rotates 6.00 more times before it comes to rest. Assume that the spinner

slows down with constant angular acceleration.

Part A

What is the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the salad spinner as it slows down?

Express your answer numerically in radians per second per second.

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Chapter 9 Homework

Recall from your study of kinematics the three equations of motion derived for systems undergoing constant

linear acceleration. You are now studying systems undergoing constant angular acceleration and will need

to work with the three analogous equations of motion. Collect your known quantities and then determine

which of the angular kinematic equations is appropriate to find the angular acceleration .

Hint 2. Find the angular velocity of the salad spinner while Dario is spinning it

What is the angular velocity of the salad spinner as Dario is spinning it?

Express your answer numerically in radians per second.

When the salad spinner spins through one revolution, it turns through 2 radians.

ANSWER:

0

= 25.1

radians/s

Hint 3. Find the angular distance the salad spinner travels as it comes to rest

Through how many radians

= 0

One revolution is equivalent to 2 radians.

ANSWER:

= 37.7

radians

You know the initial and final velocities of the system and the angular distance through which the spinner

rotates as it comes to a stop. Which equation should be used to solve for the unknown constant angular

acceleration ?

ANSWER:

= 0 + 0 t +

1

2

= 0 + t

2

0

+ 2( 0 )

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ANSWER:

= 8.38

radians/s

Correct

Part B

How long does it take for the salad spinner to come to rest?

Express your answer numerically in seconds.

Again, you will need the equations of rotational kinematics that apply to situations of constant angular

acceleration. Collect your known quantities and then determine which of the angular kinematic equations is

appropriate to find t.

You have the initial and final velocities of the system and the angular acceleration, which you found in the

previous part. Which is the best equation to use to solve for the unknown time t?

ANSWER:

= 0 + 0 t +

1

2

= 0 + t

= 0 + 2( 0 )

ANSWER:

t

= 3.00

Correct

Marching Band

A marching band consists of rows of musicians walking in straight, even lines. When a marching band performs in an

event, such as a parade, and must round a curve in the road, the musician on the outside of the curve must walk around

the curve in the same amount of time as the musician on the inside of the curve. This motion can be approximated by a

disk rotating at a constant rate about an axis perpendicular to its plane. In this case, the axis of rotation is at the inside

of the curve.

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Chapter 9 Homework

Consider two musicians, Alf and Beth. Beth is four times the distance from the inside of the curve as Alf.

Part A

If Beth travels a distance s during time t, how far does Alf travel during the same amount of time?

If Beth rotates through an angle of during time t, through what angle does Alf rotate during the same

amount of time?

At any given instant, every part of a rigid body has the same angular velocity

the relationship

=

, where is given by

ANSWER:

4

2

1

2

1

4

the figure, then

s = r

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Chapter 9 Homework

Use this formula to compare the lengths of the arcs that Alf and Beth trace out during equal time intervals.

ANSWER:

4s

2s

1

2

1

4

s

s

Correct

The musician on the outside of the curve must travel farther than the musician on the inside of the curve in

order to maintain the marching band's straight, even rows.

Part B

If Alf moves with speed v, what is Beth's speed? Speed in this case means the magnitude of the linear velocity, not

the magnitude of the angular velocity.

ANSWER:

4v

v

1

4

Correct

The musician on the outside of the curve must travel faster than the musician on the inside of the curve. This is

why most of the musicians on the outside of a curve appear to be jogging while their colleagues on the inside

of the curve march in place.

Learning Goal:

To understand that contact between rolling objects and what they roll against imposes constraints on the change in

position(velocity) and angle (angular velocity).

The way in which a body makes contact with the world often imposes a constraint relationship between its possible

rotation and translational motion. A ball rolling on a road, a yo-yo unwinding as it falls, and a baseball leaving the

pitcher's hand are all examples of constrained rotation and translation. In a similar manner, the rotation of one body and

the translation of another may be constrained, as happens when a fireman unrolls a hose from its storage drum.

Situations like these can be modeled by constraint equations, relating the coupled angular and linear motions. Although

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Chapter 9 Homework

these equations fundamentally involve position (the angle of the wheel at a particular distance down the road), it is

usually the relationship of velocities and accelerations that are relevant in solving a problem involving such constraints.

The velocities are needed in the conservation equations for momentum and angular momentum, and the accelerations

are needed for the dynamical equations.

It is important to use the standard sign conventions: positive for counterclockwise rotation and positive for motion toward

the right. Otherwise, your dynamical equations will have to be modified. Unfortunately, a frequent result will be the

appearance of negative signs in the constraint equations.

Consider a measuring tape unwinding from a drum of radius r.

The center of the drum is not moving; the tape unwinds as its

free end is pulled away from the drum. Neglect the thickness

of the tape, so that the radius of the drum can be assumed

not to change as the tape unwinds. In this case, the standard

conventions for the angular velocity and for the

(translational) velocity v of the end of the tape result in a

constraint equation with a positive sign (e.g., if v > 0, that is,

the tape is unwinding, then > 0 also).

Part A

Assume that the function x(t) represents the length of tape that has unwound as a function of time. Find (t), the

angle through which the drum will have rotated, as a function of time.

Express your answer (in radians) in terms of x(t) and any other given quantities.

Hint 1. Find the amount of tape that unrolls in one complete revolution of the drum

If the measuring tape unwinds one complete revolution (

= 2

x2

ANSWER:

x2

2r

ANSWER:

(t)

x(t)

radians

Correct

Part B

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Chapter 9 Homework

The tape is now wound back into the drum at angular rate (t). With what velocity will the end of the tape move?

(Note that our drawing specifies that a positive derivative of x(t) implies motion away from the drum. Be careful with

your signs! The fact that the tape is being wound back into the drum implies that

tape to move closer to the drum, it must be the case that

(t) < 0

v(t) < 0

Answer in terms of (t) and other given quantities from the problem introduction.

The function (t) is given by the derivative of (t) with respect to time. Compute this derivative using the

expression for (t) found in Part A and the fact that

dx(t)

dt

= v(t).

ANSWER:

(t)

v(t)

r

ANSWER:

v(t)

r(t)

Correct

Part C

Since r is a positive quanitity, the answer you just obtained implies that

v(t)

. If the tape is unwinding, both quanitites will be positive. If the tape is being wound back up, both quantities

(t)

will be negative. Now find a(t), the linear acceleration of the end of the tape.

Express your answer in terms of (t), the angular acceleration of the drum: (t) =

d(t)

dt

ANSWER:

a(t)

r(t)

Correct

Part D

Perhaps the trickiest aspect of working with constraint equations for rotational motion is determining the correct

sign for the kinematic quantities. Consider a tire of radius r rolling to the right, without slipping, with constant x

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Chapter 9 Homework

velocity

vx

positive angular velocity corresponds to rotation in the

counterclockwise direction.

Express your answer in terms of vx and r.

ANSWER:

vx

r

Correct

This is an example of the appearance of negative signs in constraint equations--a tire rolling in the positive

direction translationally exhibits negative angular velocity, since rotation is clockwise.

Part E

Assume now that the angular velocity of the tire, which continues to roll without slipping, is not constant, but rather

that the tire accelerates with constant angular acceleration . Find ax , the linear acceleration of the tire.

Express your answer in terms of and r.

ANSWER:

ax

Correct

A merry-go-round is rotating at constant angular speed. Two children are riding the merry-go-round: Ana is riding at point

A and Bobby is riding at point B.

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Chapter 9 Homework

Part A

Which child moves with greater magnitude of velocity?

Anas (or Bobbys) velocity is determined by the actual distance traveled (typically in meters) in a given time

interval. The angular velocity is determined by the angle through which he rotates (typically in radians) in a

given time interval.

ANSWER:

Ana has the greater magnitude of velocity.

Bobby has the greater magnitude of velocity.

Both Ana and Bobby have the same magnitude of velocity.

Correct

Part B

Who moves with greater magnitude of angular velocity?

Anas (or Bobbys) velocity is determined by the actual distance he travels (typically in meters) in a given

time interval. His angular velocity is determined by the angle through which he rotates (typically in radians) in

a given time interval.

ANSWER:

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Chapter 9 Homework

Bobby has the greater magnitude of angular velocity.

Both Ana and Bobby have the same magnitude of angular velocity.

Correct

Part C

Who moves with greater magnitude of tangential acceleration?

Anas tangential and centripetal acceleration are components of his acceleration vector. During circular

motion, if Anas speed is changing (meaning the merry-go-round is speeding up or slowing down) he will

have a nonzero tangential acceleration. However, even if the merry-go-round is turning at constant angular

speed, he will experience a centripetal acceleration, because the direction of his velocity vector is changing

(you cant move along a circular path unless your direction of travel is changing!).

Both tangential and centripetal accelerations have units of m/s2 , since they are the two-dimensional

components of linear acceleration. Angular acceleration, on the other hand, is a measure of the change in

Anas angular velocity. If his rate of rotation is changing, he will have a nonzero angular acceleration. Thus,

angular acceleration has units of rad/s2 .

ANSWER:

Ana has the greater magnitude of tangential acceleration.

Bobby has the greater magnitude of tangential acceleration.

Both Ana and Bobby have the same magnitude of tangential acceleration.

Correct

Both Ana and Bobby are maintaining a constant speed, so they both have a tangential acceleration of zero

(thus they are equal)!

Part D

Who has the greater magnitude of centripetal acceleration?

Anas tangential and centripetal acceleration are components of his acceleration vector. For circular motion,

if Anas speed is changing (meaning the merry-go-round is speeding up or slowing down) he will have a

nonzero tangential acceleration. However, even if the merry-go-round is turning at constant angular speed, he

will experience a centripetal acceleration, because the direction of his velocity vector is changing (you cant

move along a circular path unless your direction of travel is changing!).

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Chapter 9 Homework

Both tangential and centripetal accelerations have units of m/s2 , since they are the two-dimensional

components of linear acceleration. Angular acceleration, on the other hand, is a measure of the change in

Anas angular velocity. If his rate of rotation is changing, he will have a nonzero angular acceleration. Thus,

angular acceleration has units of rad/s2 .

ANSWER:

Ana has the greater magnitude of centripetal acceleration.

Bobby has the greater magnitude of centripetal acceleration.

Both Ana and Bobby have the same magnitude of centripetal acceleration.

Correct

Part E

Who moves with greater magnitude of angular acceleration?

Anas tangential and centripetal acceleration are components of his acceleration vector. For circular motion,

if Anas speed is changing (meaning the merry-go-round is speeding up or slowing down) he will have a

nonzero tangential acceleration. However, even if the merry-go-round is turning at constant angular speed, he

will experience a centripetal acceleration, because the direction of his velocity vector is changing (you cant

move along a circular path unless your direction of travel is changing!).

Both tangential and centripetal accelerations have units of m/s2 , since they are the two-dimensional

components of linear acceleration. Angular acceleration, on the other hand, is a measure of the change in

Anas angular velocity. If his rate of rotation is changing, he will have a nonzero angular acceleration. Thus,

angular acceleration has units of rad/s2 .

ANSWER:

Ana has the greater magnitude of angular acceleration.

Bobby has the greater magnitude of angular acceleration.

Both Ana and Bobby have the same magnitude of angular acceleration.

Correct

Both Ana and Bobby are maintaining a constant angular velocity, so they both have an angular acceleration of

zero (thus they are equal)!

Exercise 9.20

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Chapter 9 Homework

A compact disc (CD) stores music in a coded pattern of tiny pits 107 m deep. The pits are arranged in a track that

spirals outward toward the rim of the disc; the inner and outer radii of this spiral are 25.0 mm and 58.0 mm,

respectively. As the disc spins inside a CD player, the track is scanned at a constant linear speed of 1.25 m/s.

Part A

What is the angular speed of the CD when scanning the innermost part of the track?

ANSWER:

= 50.0

rad/s

Correct

Part B

What is the angular speed of the CD when scanning the outermost part of the track?

ANSWER:

= 21.6

rad/s

Correct

Part C

The maximum playing time of a CD is 74.0 min. What would be the length of the track on such a maximumduration CD if it were stretched out in a straight line?

ANSWER:

L

= 5.55

km

Correct

Part D

What is the average angular acceleration of a maximum-duration CD during its 74.0-min playing time? Take the

direction of rotation of the disc to be positive.

ANSWER:

av

= 6.41103

rad/s

Correct

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Chapter 9 Homework

Exercise 9.26

Part A

Derive an equation for the radial acceleration that includes

ANSWER:

arad

Correct

Part B

You are designing a merry-go-round for which a point on the rim will have a radial acceleration of 0.500 m/s2 when

the tangential velocity of that point has magnitude 2.00 m/s. What angular velocity is required to achieve these

values?

ANSWER:

= 0.250

rad/s

Correct

Consider a bicycle wheel that initially is not rotating. A block of mass m is attached to the wheel and is allowed to fall a

distance h. Assume that the wheel has a moment of inertia I about its rotation axis.

Part A

Consider the case that the string tied to the block is attached to the outside of the wheel, at a radius

rA

. Find A , the angular speed of the wheel after the block has fallen a distance h, for this case.

Express A in terms of m, g,

h rA

, and I .

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Chapter 9 Homework

The most straighforward way to solve this problem is to use conservation of mechanical energy. The total

initial energy of the system is equal to the total final energy of the system (where the system consists of the

wheel and the block). In other words,

E i = Ebf + Ewf .

Where Ei is the initial energy of the system,

Ebf

is the final energy of the block and Ewf is the final energy

of the wheel.

Initially, the wheel is not rotating. The initial energy of the system consists of the gravitational potential

energy stored in the block, since it is not moving either. Supposing that the gravitiational potential energy of

the block is zero at "ground level," find the initial energy of the system.

ANSWER:

Ei

mgh

Find the final energy of the block.

Express the final energy of the block in terms of given quantities (excluding

final angular velocity of the wheel, A .

Find vf , the magnitude of the final velocity of the block.

Express the velocity in terms of rA and the final angular velocity of the wheel,

ANSWER:

vf

rA A

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ANSWER:

E bf

1

2

m ( r A A )

Find the final kinetic energy of the wheel.

Express your answer in terms of I (the wheel's moment of inertia) and

ANSWER:

E wf

1

2

I A

ANSWER:

2mgh

mrA 2 +I

Correct

Part B

Now consider the case that the string tied to the block is wrapped around a smaller inside axle of the wheel of

radius rB . Find B , the angular speed of the wheel after

the block has fallen a distance h, for this case.

Express B in terms of m, g,

h rB

, and I .

The derivation of B is exactly the same as the derivation for A , using rB instead of rA .

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Chapter 9 Homework

ANSWER:

2mgh

mrB 2 +I

Correct

Part C

Which of the following describes the relationship between A and B ?

To figure out which angular velocity is greater ( A or B ), you only need to consider the radius dependence

of the expression for . Ignoring all of the other parameters, you should have found that goes as 1/radius

(where "radius" refers to where the string is attached, which is not necessarily the outer radius of the wheel).

The problem then reduces to figuring out which is greater, 1/rA or 1/rB .

ANSWER:

A > B

B > A

A = B

Correct

This is related to why gears are found on the inside rather than the outside of a wheel.

Exercise 9.30

Four small spheres, each of which you can regard as a point of mass 0.200 kg, are arranged in a square 0.400 m on a

side and connected by light rods .

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Chapter 9 Homework

Part A

Find the moment of inertia of the system about an axis through the center of the square, perpendicular to its plane

(an axis through point O in the figure).

ANSWER:

I

= 6.40102

kg m

Correct

Part B

Find the moment of inertia of the system about an axis bisecting two opposite sides of the square (an axis along

the line AB in the figure).

ANSWER:

I

= 3.20102

kg m

Correct

Part C

Find the moment of inertia of the system about an axis that passes through the centers of the upper left and lower

right spheres and through point O.

ANSWER:

I

= 3.20102

kg m

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Chapter 9 Homework

Correct

Exercise 9.31

Calculate the moment of inertia of each of the following uniform objects about the axes indicated. Consult Table

Moments of Inertia of Various Bodies in the Textbook as needed.

Part A

A thin 2.50-kg rod of length 90.0cm , about an axis perpendicular to it and passing through one end.

ANSWER:

I

= 0.675

kg m

Correct

Part B

A thin 2.50-kg rod of length 90.0cm , about an axis perpendicular to it and passing through its center.

ANSWER:

I

= 0.169

kg m

Correct

Part C

A thin 2.50-kg rod of length 90.0cm , about an axis parallel to the rod and passing through it.

ANSWER:

I

= 0

kg m

Correct

Part D

A 4.50-kg sphere 30.0cm in diameter, about an axis through its center, if the sphere is solid.

ANSWER:

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Chapter 9 Homework

= 4.05102

kg m

Correct

Part E

A 4.50-kg sphere 30.0cm in diameter, about an axis through its center, if the sphere is a thin-walled hollow shell.

ANSWER:

I

= 6.75102

kg m

Correct

Part F

An 7.50-kg cylinder, of length 14.0cm and diameter 10.0cm , about the central axis of the cylinder, if the cylinder

is thin-walled and hollow.

ANSWER:

I

= 1.88102

kg m

Correct

Part G

An 7.50-kg cylinder, of length 14.0cm and diameter 10.0cm , about the central axis of the cylinder, if the cylinder

is solid.

ANSWER:

I

= 9.38103

kg m

Correct

Exercise 9.35

A wagon wheel is constructed as shown in the figure . The radius of the wheel is 0.300 m, and the rim has mass 1.45

kg . Each of the eight spokes, that lie along a diameter and are 0.300 m long, has mass 0.200kg .

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Chapter 9 Homework

Part A

What is the moment of inertia of the wheel about an axis through its center and perpendicular to the plane of the

wheel?

ANSWER:

I

= 0.179

kg m

Correct

Exercise 9.44

A light, flexible rope is wrapped several times around a hollow cylinder with a weight of 40.0 N and a radius of 0.25 m,

that rotates without friction about a fixed horizontal axis. The cylinder is attached to the axle by spokes of a negligible

moment of inertia. The cylinder is initially at rest. The free end of the rope is pulled with a constant force P for a distance

of 5.00 m, at which point the end of the rope is moving at 6.00 m/s.

Part A

If the rope does not slip on the cylinder, what is the value of P?

ANSWER:

P

= 14.7

Correct

Icm

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Chapter 9 Homework

The parallel axis theorem relates Icm , the moment of inertia of an object about an axis passing through its center of

mass, to Ip , the moment of inertia of the same object about a parallel axis passing through point p. The mathematical

2

statement of the theorem is Ip = Icm + M d , where d is the perpendicular distance from the center of mass to the

axis that passes through point p, and M is the mass of the object.

Part A

Suppose a uniform slender rod has length L and mass

that is perpendicular to the rod and that passes through its center of mass is given by

Iend

I cm =

1

12

mL

. Find

, the moment of inertia of the rod with respect to a parallel axis through one end of the rod.

Hint 1. Find the distance from the axis to the center of mass

Find the distance d appropriate to this problem. That is, find the perpendicular distance from the center of

mass of the rod to the axis passing through one end of the rod.

ANSWER:

d

L

2

ANSWER:

Iend

mL

Correct

Part B

Now consider a cube of mass

with edges of length a. The moment of inertia Icm of the cube about an axis

through its center of mass and perpendicular to one of its faces is given by

I cm =

1

6

ma

moment of inertia about an axis p through one of the edges of the cube

Express Iedge in terms of m and a. Use fractions rather than decimal numbers in your answer.

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Chapter 9 Homework

axis to the

axis

Find the perpendicular distance d from the center of mass axis to the new edge axis (axis labeled p in the

figure).

ANSWER:

d

a

2

ANSWER:

Iedge

2ma

Correct

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 99.8%.

You received 14.97 out of a possible total of 15 points.

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