Sie sind auf Seite 1von 37

LNG Carriers with ME-GI Engine and

High Pressure Gas Supply System


Contents:

Introduction .........................................................................

Propulsion Requirements for LNG Carriers with


Dual-Fuel Gas Injection ......................................................

Fuel Gas Supply System Design Concept ......................

Fuel Gas Supply System Key Components ....................

Capacity Control Valve Unloading ..................................

Compressor System Engineering 6LP250-5S ................. 10


ME-GI Gas System Engineering .......................................... 11
ME-GI Injection System ....................................................... 12
High-Pressure Double-Wall Piping ..................................... 13
Fuel Gas System - Control Requirements ......................... 15
Machinery Room installation 6LP250-5S ....................... 18
Requirements for Cargo Machinery
Room Support Structure ..................................................... 19
Requirements for Classication ......................................... 20
Actual Test and Analysis of
Safety when Operating on Gas .......................................... 20
Main Engine Room Safety

................................................. 20

Simulation Results .............................................................. 21


Engine Operating Modes ................................................... 22
Launching the ME-GI .......................................................... 23
Machinery Concepts Comparion ........................................ 24
Concluding Remarks ................................................................... 28
References ................................................................................... 28
Appendices: I, II,III, IV, V, VI,VII ................................................... 28

MAN Diesel A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark

LNG Carriers with ME-GI Engine and


High Pressure Gas Supply System
Introduction
The latest introduction to the marine
market of ship designs with the dualfuel low speed ME-GI engine has been
very much supported by the Korean
shipyards and engine builders, Doosan,
Hyundai, Samsung and Daewoo.
Thanks to this cooperation it has been
possible to introduce the ME-GI engines into the latest design of LNG carriers and get full acceptance from the
Classication Societies involved.
This paper describes the innovative design and installation features of the fuel
gas supply system for an LNG carrier,
comprising multi-stage low temperature
boil-off fuel gas compressor with driver
and auxiliary systems, high-pressure
piping system and safety features,
controls and instrumentation. The
paper also extensively describes the
operational control system required to
provide full engine availability over the
entire transport cycle.
The demand for larger and more energy
efcient LNG carriers has resulted in
rapidly increasing use of the diesel engine as the prime mover, replacing traditional steam turbine propulsion plants.
Two alternative propulsion solutions
have established themselves to date on
the market:

low speed, heavy fuel oil burning diesel engine combined with a reliquefaction system for BOG recovery
medium speed, dual-fuel engines
with electric propulsion.
A further low speed direct propulsion
alternative, using a dual-fuel two-stroke
engine, is now also available:
high thermal efciency, exible fuel/
gas ratio, low operational and installation costs are the major benets of
this alternative engine version
the engine utilises a high-pressure
gas system to supply boil-off gas at
pressures of 250-300 bar for injection
into the cylinders.
Apart from the description of the fuel
gas supply system, this paper also
discusses related issues such as requirements for classication, hazardous
identication procedures, main engine
room safety, maintenance requirements
and availability.
It will be demonstrated that the ME-GI
based solution has operational and
economic benets over other low
speed based solutions, irrespective of
vessel size, when the predicted criteria
for relative energy prices prevail.

Propulsion Requirements
for LNG Carriers with
Dual-Fuel Gas Injection
In 2004, the rst diesel engine order
was placed for an LNG carrier, equipped with two MAN B&W low speed
6S70ME-C engines. Today, the order
backlog comprises more than 90 engines for various owners, mainly oil
companies, all for Qatar gas distribution
projects.
While the HFO burning engine is a well
known and recognised prime mover,
the low speed dual-fuel electronically
controlled ME-GI (gas injection) engine
has not yet been ordered by the market.
Although the GI engine, as a mechanically operated engine, has been available for many years, it is not until now
that there is real potential. Cost, fuel
exibility and efciency are the driving
factors.
The task of implementing the twostroke ME-GI engine in the market has
focused on the gas supply system,
from the LNG storage tanks to the highpressure gas compressor and further
to the engine. A cooperation between
the shipyard HHI, the compressor

manufacturer Burckhardt Compression,


AG (BCA), the classication society
and MAN Diesel has been mandatory
to ensure a proper and safe design of
the complete gas distribution system,
including the engine. This has been
achieved through a common Hazid /
Hazop study.

Conguration of LNG carriers


utilising the boil-off gas
The superior efciency of the twostroke diesel engines, especially with a
directly coupled propeller, has gained
increasing attention. On LNG carriers,
the desired power for propulsion can
be generated by a single engine with a
single propeller combined with a power
take home system, or a double engine
installation with direct drive on two propellers. This paper concentrates on the
double engine installations
2 x 50 %, which is the most attractive
solution for an LNG carrier of the size
145 kcum and larger. By selecting a
twin propeller solution for this LNG carrier, which normally has a high Beam/
draft ratio, a substantial gain in propeller
efciency of some 5 % for 145 kcum
and larger, and up to 9 % or even more
for larger carriers is possible.

Redundancy in terms of propulsion is


not required by the classication societies, but it is required by all operators on
the LNG market. The selection of the
double engine ME-GI solution results
not only in redundancy of propulsion,
but also of redundancy in the choice of
fuel supply. If the fuel gas supply fails, it
is possible to operate the ME-GI as an
ME engine, fuelled solely with HFO.
For many years, the LNG market has
not really valued the boil-off gas, as this
has been considered a natural loss not
accounted for.
Today, the fuel oil price has been at a
high level, which again has led to considerations by operators on whether to
burn the boil-off gas instead of utilising 100 % HFO, DO or gas oil. Various factors determine the rate of the
boil-off gas evaporation, however, it is
estimated that boil-off gas equals about
80-90 % in laden voyage, and in ballast
voyage 40-50 % of the energy needed
for the LNG vessel at full power. Therefore, some additional fuel oil is required
or alternative forced boil-off gas must
be generated. Full power is dened as
a voyage speed of 19-21 knots. This
speed has been accepted in the market
as the most optimal speed for LNG car-

Table I: Two-stroke propulsion recommendations for LNG carriers in the range from 145-270 kcum

LNG carrier size


(cum)

Recommended
two-stroke solution

Propulsion power
(kW)

Propulsion
speed (knots)

Beam/
draft ratio

Estimated gain in efciency


compared to a single propeller

145,000150,000

2 x 6S60ME-GI
2 x 5S65ME-GI

2 x 14,280
2 x 14,350

19-21

3.8

5%

160,000170,000

2 x 5S70ME-GI
2 x 7S60ME-GI

2 x 16,350
2 x 16,660

19-21

4.0

> 5%

200,000220,000

2 x 6S65ME-GI
2 x 6S70ME-GI

2 x 17,220
2 x 19,620

19-21

4.2

9%

240,000270,000

2 x 7S65ME-GI
2 x 7S70ME-GI

2 x 20,090
2 x 21,770

19-21

4.5

> 9%

riers when both rst cost investment


and loss of cargo is considered.
To achieve this service speed, a twostroke solution for the power requirement for different LNG carrier sizes is
suggested in Table I.
With the high-pressure gas injection
ME-GI engine, the virtues of the twostroke diesel principle are prevailing.
The thermal efciency and output remain equivalent to that obtained when
burning conventional heavy fuel oil.
The high-pressure gas injection system
offers the advantage of being almost
independent of gas/oil fuel mixture, as
long as a small amount of pilot oil fuel is
injected for ignition.

LNG Tank

Compressor

In order for the ME-GI to achieve this


superior efciency of 50 % (+/ 5 %fuel
tolerances) during gas running, the gas
fuel requires a boost to a pressure of
maximum 250 bars at 100 % load.
At lower loads the pressure required
decreases linearly to 30 % load, where
a boost pressure of 150 bars is required. To boost this pressure, a highpressure compressor solution has been
developed by BCA, which is presented
in this paper.
Fig. 1 shows an example of an LNG
carrier with the recommended ME-GI
application.

Fuel Gas Supply System


Design Concept
The basic design concept of the fuel gas
supply system presented in this paper
considers the installation of two 100 %
fuel gas compressors. Full redundancy
of the fuel gas compressor has been
considered as a priority to satisfy classication requirements (see Fig. 2).
Each compressor is designed to deliver
the boil-off gas at a variable discharge
pressure in the range of 150 to 265
bar g (1526.5 MPa g), according to
required engine load to two 50 % installed ME-GI engines A and B. The
selected compressor runs continuously,
and the standby compressor is started
manually only in the event of malfunction of the compressor selected.
The amount of boil-off gas (BOG), and
hence the tank pressure, varies considerably during the ship operating cycle.
The design concept therefore requires
that the compressors be able to operate under a number of demanding conditions, i.e. with:

Oxidiser

ME-GI

a wide variation of BOG ow, as experienced during loaded and ballast


voyage,

Compressor
High pressure gas
FPP
ME-GI
ME-GI

PSC Clutch

a variation in suction pressure according to storage tank pressure,


a very wide range of suction temperatures, as experienced between warm
start-up and ultra cold loaded operation, and

Fig. 1: LNG carrier with the recommended ME-GI application.

a variable gas composition.


The compressor is therefore tted with
a capacity control system to ensure gas
delivery at the required pressure to the
ME-GI engine, and tank pressure control within strictly dened limits. These
duty variables are to be handled both
simply and efciently without compromising overall plant reliability and safety.
5

The compressor is designed to efciently deliver both natural boil-off gas


(nBOG) and, if required, forced (fBOG)
during the ballast voyage.
Finally, the basic design concept also
considers compressor operation in
alternative running mode to deliver low
pressure gas to the gas combustion
unit (GCU). Operation with gas delivery
simultaneously to both GCU and ME-GI
is also possible.
Alternative fuel gas supply system
concepts, employing either 2 x 50 %
installed compressors and a separate
supply line for the GCU, or 1 x 100 %
compressor in combination with a BOG
reliquefaction plant, are currently being
considered by the market.
These alternative concepts are not described further in this paper.

Fuel Gas Supply System


Key Components
Fuel gas compressor
6LP250-5S_1
The compression of cryogenic LNG
boil-off gas up to discharge pressures
in the range of 10-50 barg (1.0 to 5.0
MPa g) is now common practice in
many LNG production and receiving
terminals installed world wide today.
Compressor designs employing the
highly reliable labyrinth sealing principle have been extensively used for
such applications. The challenge for
the compressor designer of the ME-GI
application is to extend the delivery
pressure reliably and efciently by adding additional compression stages to
achieve the required engine injection
pressure. In doing so, the compressors
physical dimensions must consider the
restricted space available within the
deck-mounted machinery room.

The fuel gas compressor with the designation 6LP250-5S_1 is designed


to deliver low-temperature natural or
forced boil-off gas from atmospheric
tank pressure at an inlet temperature
as low as 160C, up to a gas injection
pressure in the range of 150 to 265 bar.
A total of ve compression stages are
provided and arranged in a single vertical compressor casing directly driven
by a conventional electric motor. The
guiding principles of the compressor
design are similar to those of API 618
for continuous operating process compression applications.
The compressor designation is as follows:
6LP250-5S_1
6
number of cranks
L
labyrinth sealing piston,
stages 1 to 3
P ring sealing piston,
stages 4 to 5
250 stroke in mm
5
number of stages
S cylinder size reference
1
valve design
A unique compressor construction allows the selection of the best applicable
cylinder sealing system according to
the individual stage operating temperature and pressure. In this way, a very
high reliability and availability, with low
maintenance, can be achieved.
Oil-free compression, required for the
very cold low pressure stages 1 to 3,
employs the labyrinth sealing principle,
which is well proven over many years
on LPG carriers and at LNG receiving
terminals. The avoidance of mechanical
friction in the contactless labyrinth cylinder results in extremely long lifetimes of
sealing components (see Appendix 1).
The high-pressure stages 4 and 5 employ a conventional API 618 lubricated
cylinder ring sealed compressor technology (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 2: Basic design concept for two compressor units 100 %, type 6LP250-5S_1

Labyrinth piston
oil-free compression

Ring piston lubricated design

Fig. 3: Highly reliable cylinder sealing applied for each compression stage

Stage 4/5 Stage 4/5


cooled
cooled
lube
lube

Six cylinders are mounted on top of a


vertical arranged crankcase. The double
acting labyrinth compression stages 1
to 3 are typical of those employed at an
LNG receiving terminal.
The single acting stages 4 and 5 are a
design commonly used for compression of high-pressure hydrocarbon
process gases in a renery application
(Fig. 4).

Pa= 265 bar a

Stage 3 Stage 2
Stage 1
not cooled cooled cooled

Pa= 265 bar a

Stage 1
not cooled

Ps= 1.03 bar a

The two rst-stage labyrinth cylinders,


which are exposed to very low temperatures, are cast in the material
GGGNi35 (Fig. 5). This is a nodular cast
iron material containing 35 % nickel,
also known under the trade name of NiResist D5.

Ps= 1.03 bar

Heat barrier
stage 1 only

This alloy simultaneously exhibits remarkable ductility at low temperatures


and one of the lowest thermal expansion coefcients known in metals.
The corresponding pistons are made
of nickel alloyed cast iron with laminar
graphite. Careful selection of cylinder
materials allows the compressor to be

Fig. 4: Main constructional features of the 6LP250-5S compressor

Cylinder gas nozzie


Valve ports

Fig. 5: Cylinder block

started at ambient temperature condition and cooled down to BOG temperature without any special procedures.
Second and third stage labyrinth cylinders operate over a higher temperature
range and are therefore provided with
a cooling jacket. Cylinder materials are
nodular cast iron and grey cast iron respectively.
The oil lubricated high-pressure 4th
and 5th stage cylinders are made from
forged steel and are provided with a
coolant jacket to remove heat of compression.
In view of the smaller compression
volumes and high pressure, the piston
and piston rod for stages 4 and 5 are
integral and manufactured from a single
forged steel material stock. Compression is single acting with the 4th stage
arranged at the upper end and the 5th
stage at the lower end and arranged in
step design. Piston rod gas leakage of
the 5th stage is recovered to the suction of the 4th stage (see Fig. 6).
8

Fig. 6: Sectional view of the lubricated cylinder 4th and 5th stage

Piston rod guiding


Piston rod guidance is provided
at the lower crank end by a heavy
nodular cast iron crosshead an
at the upper end by an additional
guide bearing . Both these
components are oil lubricated and
water cooled.

Double-acting
labyrinth or ring
Cylinder
Compression
section, oil-free
or lubricated

Distance piece provides separation

These key guiding elements are


therefore subjected to very little
wear.
Heat barrier
The cold rst-stage cylinders
are separated from the warm
compressor motion work by
means of a special water jacket
situated at the lower end of
the cylinder block. This jaket
is supplied with a water/glycol
coolant mixture and acts as a
thermal heat barrier.

Capacity Control Valve


Unloading

Packing oil-free
or lubricated
Heat barrier
Oil shield
Gulde bearing

Piston guide
system lubricated

Crosshead
Gas-tight casing

Additional stepless regulation, required


to control a compressor capacity corresponding to the rate of boil-off and
the demand of the engine, is provided
by returning gas from the discharge
to compressor suction by the use of
bypass valves. The compressor control
system is described in detail later in this
paper.

Fig. 7: Design principle of vertical gas-tight compressor casing

Motion work 6LP250-5S


The 6-crank, 250 mm stoke compressor frame is a conventional low speed,
crosshead design typically employed
for continuous operating process duties. The industry design standard for
this compressor type is the American
Petroleum Industry Standard API 618
for renery process application.
The forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods are supported by heavy
tri-metal, force lubricated main bearings. Oil is supplied by a crankshaft
driven main oil pump. A single distance
piece arranged in the upper frame section provides separation between the
lubricated motion work and the nonlubricated compressor cylinders.
The passage of the crankshaft through
the wall of the crankcase is sealed off
by a rotating double-sided ring seal
immersed in oil. Thus, the entire inside
of the frame is integrated into the gas
containing system with no gas leakage
to the environment (see Fig. 7).

Valve disc

Capacity control by valve unloading is


extensively employed at LNG terminals
where very large variations in BOG
ows are experienced during LNG
transfer from ship to storage tank.
The capacity of the compressor may
be simply and efciently reduced to
50 % in one step by the use of valve
unloaders. The nitrogen actuated unloaders (see Fig. 8) are installed on the
lower cylinder suction valves and act
to unload one half of the double-acting
cylinders.

Cylinder
gas nozzle

Compressed gas
Suction gas

Diaphragm
actuator
Valve seat

N2 control
gas inlet/outlet
Fig. 8: Cylinder mounted suction valve unloader

Compressor System
Engineering 6LP250-5S

The P&I diagram for the compressor


gas system is shown in Appendix III.

A compressor cannot function correctly


and reliably without a well-designed
and engineered external gas system.
Static and dynamic mechanical analysis, thermal stress analysis, pulsation
analysis of the compressor and auxiliary
system consisting of gas piping, pulsation vessels, gas intercoolers, etc., are
standard parts of the compressor suppliers responsibility.

Bypass valves are provided over stage


1, stages 2 to 3, and stages 4 to 5.
These valves function to regulate the
ow of the compressor according to
the engine set pressure within dened
system limits. Non-return valves are
provided on the suction, side to prevent
gas back-ow to the storage tanks,
between stages 3 and 4, to maintain
adequate separation between the
oil-free and the oil lubrication compressor stages, and at the nal discharge
from the compressor.

A pulsation analysis considers upstream


and downstream piping components in
order to determine the correct sizing of
pulsation dampening devices and their
adequate supporting structure.

Compressor safety

The compressor plant is designed to


operate over a wide range of gas suction temperatures from ambient startup at +30C down to 160C without
any special intervention.

Safety relief valves are provided at the


discharge of each compression stage
to protect the cylinders and gas system
against overpressure. Stage differential relief valves, where applicable, are
installed to prevent compressor excessive loading.

Each compressor stage is provided


with an intercooler to control the gas
inlet temperature into the following
stage. The intercooler design is of the
conventional shell and tube type. The
rst-stage intercooler is bypassed when
the suction temperature falls below set
limits (approx 80C).

Pressure and temperature instrumentation for each stage is provided to ensure adequate system monitoring alarm
and shutdown. Emergency procedures
allow a safe shutdown, isolation and
venting of the compressor gas system.

Table II: Rated process design data for a 210 kcum carrier
Volume LNG tanker
Max. BOG rate LNG tanker
Density of methane liquid at 1.06 bar a

cum

210,000

0.15

per day and liquid volume


assumed basis for design

kg/m3

427

BOG mass ow

kg/h

5,600

LNG tank pressure low / high

bar a

1.06/1.20

Temperature BOG low

140

during loaded voyage

Temperature BOG high

40

during ballast voyage

Temperature BOG start up

+30

bar a

150/265

+45

Delivery P to ME-GI pressure low / high


Temperature NG delivery to ME-GI
Compressor shaft power
Delivery P to GCU

10

kW

1,600

bar a

4.0 to 6.5

The design of the gas system comprising piping, pulsation vessels, gas
intercoolers, safety relief valves and accessory components follows industry
practices for hydrocarbon process
oil and gas installations.

Process duty compressor


rating
The sizing of the fuel gas compressor is
directly related to the design amount
of nBOG and, therefore, to the capacity
of the LNG carrier.
The fuel gas system design concept
considers compressor operation not
only for supplying gas to the ME-GI engine, but also to deliver gas to the gas
combustion unit (GCU) in the event that
the engine cannot accept any gas.
The compressors are therefore rated to
handle the maximum amount of natural
BOG dened by the tank system supplier and consistent with the design rating of GCU.
Design nBOG rates are typically in the
range of 0.135 to 0.15 % per day of
tanker liquid capacity. During steadystate loaded voyage, a BOG rate of
0.10 to 0.12 % may be expected.
Carrier capacities in the range 145 to
260 kcum have been considered, resulting in the denition of 3 alternative
compressor designs which differ according to frame rating and compressor
speed.
Rated process design data for a carrier
capacity of 210 kcum are as shown in
Table II.
The rating for the electric motor driver
is determined by the maximum compressor power required when considering the full operating range of suction
temperatures from + 30 to 140C and
suction pressures from 1.03 to 1.2 bar a.

ME-GI Gas System


Engineering
The ME-GI engine series, in terms of
engine performance (output, speed,
thermal efciency, exhaust gas amount
and temperature, etc.) is identical to the
well-established, type approved ME engine series. The application potential for
the ME engine series therefore also applies to the ME-GI engine, provided that
gas is available as a main fuel. All ME engines can be offered as ME-GI engines.
Since the ME system is well known,
the following description of the ME-GI
engine design only deals with new or
modied engine components.
Fig. 9 shows one cylinder unit of a
S70ME-GI, with detail of the new modied parts. These comprise gas supply
double-wall piping, gas valve control
block with internal accumulator on the
(slightly modied) cylinder cover, gas injection valves and ELGI valve for control
of the injected gas amount. In addition,
there are small modications to the exhaust gas receiver, and the control and
manoeuvring system.
Apart from these systems on the engine, the engine and auxiliaries will
comprise some new units. The most
important ones, apart from the gas
supply system, are listed below, and
the full system is shown in schematic
form in Appendix IV
The new units are:
Ventilation system, for venting the
space between the inner and outer
pipe of the double-wall piping.
Sealing oil system, delivering sealing
oil to the gas valves separating the
control oil and the gas.
Inert gas system, which enables
purging of the gas system on the
engine with inert gas.

Exhaust reciever

Large volume
accumelator
Gas valves
ELGI valve

Cylinder cover with


gas valves and PMI

High pressure
double wall
gas pipes

Fig. 9: Two-stroke MAN B&W S70ME-GI

The GI system also includes:


Control and safety system, comprising a hydrocarbon analyser for checking the hydrocarbon content of the air
in the double-wall gas pipes.
The GI control and safety system is designed to fail to safe condition. All failures
detected during gas fuel running including failures of the control system itself,
will result in a gas fuel Stop/Shut Down,
and a change-over to HFO fuel operation.
Blow-out and gas-freeing purging of the
high-pressure gas pipes and the complete
gas supply system follows. The changeover to fuel oil mode is always done without any power loss on the engine.
The high-pressure gas from the compressor-unit ows through the main
pipe via narrow and exible branch
pipes to each cylinders gas valve block
and accumulator. These branch pipes
perform two important tasks:
They separate each cylinder unit from
the rest in terms of gas dynamics, utilising the well-proven design philosophy of the ME engines fuel oil system.

They act as exible connections between the stiff main pipe system and
the engine structure, safeguarding
against extra-stresses in the main and
branch pipes caused by the inevitable
differences in thermal expansion of
the gas pipe system and the engine
structure.
The buffer tank, containing about 20
times the injection amount per stroke
at MCR, also performs two important
tasks:
It supplies the gas amount for injection at a slight, but predetermined,
pressure drop.
It forms an important part of the
safety system.
Since the gas supply piping is of common rail design, the gas injection valve
must be controlled by an auxiliary control
oil system. This, in principle, consists of
the ME hydraulic control (system) oil system and an ELGI valve, supplying highpressure control oil to the gas injection
valve, thereby controlling the timing and
opening of the gas valve.
11

ME-GI Injection System

Sealing oil
Sealing
oilinlet
inlet

Dual fuel operation requires the injection


of both pilot fuel and gas fuel into the
combustion chamber.
Different types of valves are used for
this purpose. Two are tted for gas
injection and two for pilot fuel. The auxiliary media required for both fuel and
gas operation are as follows:

Cylinder
cover
Cylinder cover
Connection totothe
Connection
the
ventilated pipe
ventilated
pipesystem
system
Control oil
Control
oil
Sealing
Sealingoiloil

High-pressure gas supply


Gasinlet
inlet
Gas

Fuel oil supply (pilot oil)


Gas spindle
spindle
gas

Control oil supply for activation


of gas injection valves
Sealing oil supply.
The gas injection valve design is shown
in Fig. 10. This valve complies with
traditional design principles of compact design. Gas is admitted to the
gas injection valve through bores in the
cylinder cover. To prevent gas leakage
between cylinder cover/gas injection
valve and valve housing/spindle guide,
sealing rings made of temperature and
gas resistant material are installed. Any
gas leakage through the gas sealing
rings will be led through bores in the
gas injection valve and further to space
between the inner and the outer shield
pipe of the double-wall gas piping system. This leakage will be detected by
HC sensors.
The gas acts continuously on the valve
spindle at a max. pressure of about
250 bar. To prevent gas from entering
the control oil activating system via the
clearance around the spindle, the
spindle is sealed by sealing oil at a
pressure higher than the gas pressure
(25-50 bar higher).
The pilot oil valve is a standard ME fuel
oil valve without any changes, except
for the nozzle. The fuel oil pressure is
constantly monitored by the GI safety
12

Fig. 10: Gas injection valve ME-GI engine

system, in order to detect any malfunctioning of the valve.


The designs of oil valve will allow operation solely on fuel oil up to MCR. lf
the customers demand is for the gas
engine to run at any time at 100 % load

on fuel oil, without stopping the engine,


this can be done. If the demand is prolonged operation on fuel oil, it is recommended to change the nozzles and
gain an increase in efciency of around
1% when running at full engine load.

Gas

Low pressure fuel supply


Fuel return
Injection
Measuring and
limiting device
Pressure booster
(800 - 900 bar)
Position sensor

Bar abs
800

ELFI valve
200 bar hydraulic oil.
Common with
exhaust valve actuator
The system provides:
Pressure, timing, rate shaping,
main, pre- & post-injection

600
ELGI valve 400

Control oil pressure


200
0

Fig. 11: ME-GI system

Pilotoil pressure

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Deg. CA

As can be seen in Fig. 11 (GI injection


system), the ME-GI injection system
consists of two fuel oil valves, two fuel
gas valves, ELGI for opening and closing of the fuel gas valves, and a FIVA
valve to control (via the fuel oil valve)
the injected fuel oil prole. Furthermore,
it consists of the conventional fuel oil
pressure booster, which supplies pilot
oil in the dual fuel operation mode. This
fuel oil pressure booster is equipped
with a pressure sensor to measure the
pilot oil on the high pressure side. As
mentioned earlier, this sensor monitors
the functioning of the fuel oil valve. If
any deviation from a normal injection
is found, the GI safety system will not
allow opening for the control oil via the
ELGI valve. In this event no gas injection will take place.
Under normal operation where no malfunctioning of the fuel oil valve is found,
the fuel gas valve is opened at the correct crank angle position, and gas is
injected. The gas is supplied directly
into an ongoing combustion. Consequently the chance of having unburnt
gas eventually slipping past the piston
rings and into the scavenge air receiver
is considered to be very low. Monitoring
the scavenge air receiver pressure safeguards against such a situation. In the
event of high pressure, the gas mode
is stopped and the engine returns to
burning fuel oil only.
The gas ow to each cylinder during
one cycle will be detected by measuring the pressure drop in the accumulator. By this system, any abnormal
gas ow, whether due to seized gas
injection valves or blocked gas valves,
will be detected immediately. The gas
supply will be discontinued and the gas
lines purged with inert gas. Also in this
event, the engine will continue running
on fuel oil only without any power loss.

High-Pressure DoubleWall Piping

supply pipes to the main supply pipe,


and via the suction blower into the atmosphere.

A common rail (constant pressure) gas


supply system is to be tted for highpressure gas distribution to each valve
block. Gas pipes are designed with
double-walls, with the outer shielding
pipe designed so as to prevent gas
outow to the machinery spaces in the
event of rupture of the inner gas pipe.
The intervening space, including also
the space around valves, anges, etc.,
is equipped with separate mech-anical
ventilation with a capacity of approx. 30
air changes per hour. The pressure in
the intervening space is below that of
the engine room with the (extractor) fan
motors placed outside the ventilation
ducts. The ventilation inlet air is taken
from a non-hazardous area.
Gas pipes are arranged in such a way,
see Fig. 12 and Fig 13, that air is sucked into the double-wall piping system
from around the pipe inlet, from there
into the branch pipes to the individual
gas valve control blocks, via the branch

Ventilation air is exhausted to a re-safe


place. The double-wall piping system
is designed so that every part is ventilated. All joints connected with sealings to a high-pressure gas volume are
being ventilated. Any gas leakage will
therefore be led to the ventilated part of
the double-wall piping system and be
detected by the HC sensors.
The gas pipes on the engine are designed for 50% higher pressure than
the normal working pressure, and are
supported so as to avoid mechanical
vibrations. The gas pipes are furthermore shielded against heavy items falling down, and on the engine side they
are placed below the top-gallery. The
pipes are pressure tested at 1.5 times
the working pressure. The design is to
be all-welded, as far as it is practicable,
using ange connections only to the extent necessary for servicing purposes.

Protective hose

Soldered

Bonded seal
Ventilation
Ventilationair
air
Fuel
FuelGas
Gasow
flow

Ventilationair
air
Ventilation

High pressure gas


Outer pipe
Ventilation air
High pressure gas pipe

Fig. 12: Branching of gas piping system

13

Ventilation air
Control air
Control Oil

Fuel gas
Nitrogen

Gas stop
valve
Cylinder
cover

Purge
valves
Fuel gas
accumulator
volume

One way valve

Fig. 13: Gas valve control block

The branch piping to the individual


cylinders is designed with adequate
exibility to cope with the thermal expansion of the engine from cold to hot
condition. The gas pipe system is also
designed so as to avoid excessive gas
pressure uctuations during operation.
For the purpose of purging the system
after gas use, the gas pipes are connected to an inert gas system with an
inert gas pressure of 4-8 bar. In the
event of a gas failure, the high-pressure
pipe system is depressurised before
automatic purging. During a normal
gas stop, the automatic purging will be
started after a period of 30 min. Time is
therefore available for a quick re-start in
gas mode.

14

Fuel gas inlet

Control oil buffer


volume

The primary function of the compressor control system is to ensure that the
required discharge pressure is always
available to match the demand of the
main propulsion diesel engines. In doing so, the control system must adequately handle the gas supply variables
such as tank pressure, BOG rate (laden
and ballast voyage), gas composition
and gas suction temperature.
If the amount of nBOG decreases, the
compressor must be operated on part
load to ensure a stable tank pressure,
or forced boil-off gas (fBOG) added to
the gas supply. If the amount of nBOG
increases, resulting in a higher than
acceptable tank pressure, the control
system must act to send excess gas to
the gas combustion unit (GCU).
Tank pressure changes take place over
a relatively long period of time due to
the large storage volumes involved.
A fast reaction time of the control system is therefore not required for this
control variable.
The main control variable for compressor operation is the feed pressure to the
ME-GI engine, which may be subject to
controlled or instantaneous change. An
adequate control system must be able
to handle such events as part of the
normal operating procedure.
The required gas delivery pressure varies between 150-265 bar, depending
on the engine load (see Fig. 14 below).
The compressor must also be able
to operate continuously in full recycle
mode with 100 % of delivered gas
returned to the suction side of the
compressor. In addition, simultaneous
delivery of gas to the ME-GI engine and
GCU must be possible.

When considering compressor control,


an important difference between centrifugal and reciprocating compressors
should be understood. A reciprocating
compressor will always deliver the pressure demanded by the down-stream
user, independent of any suction conditions such as temperature, pressure,
gas composition, etc. Centrifugal compressors are designed to deliver a certain head of gas for a given ow. The
discharge pressure of these compressors will therefore vary according to the
gas suction condition.
This aspect is very important when
considering transient starting conditions
such as suction temperature and pressure. The 6LP250-5S_1 reciprocating
compressor has a simple and fast startup procedure.

Compressor control
6LP250-5S_1

The main control input for compressor


control is the feed pressure Pset required by the ME-GI engine. The feed
pressure may be set in the range of 150
to 265 bar according to the desired engine load. If the two ME-GI engines are
operating at different loads, the higher
set pressure is valid for the compressor
control unit.
If the amount of nBOG is insufcient to
satisfy the engine load requirement, and
make-up with fBOG is not foreseen, the
compressor will operate on part load to
ensure that the tank pressure remains
within specied limits. The ME-GI engine will act independently to increase
the supply of HFO to the engine. Primary regulation of the compressor capacity is made with the 1st stage bypass
valve, followed by cylinder valve unloading and if required bypass over stages 2
to 5. With this sequence, the compressor is able to operate exibly over the
full capacity range from 100 to 0 %.

Overall control concept


Fig. 15 shows a simplied view of the
compressor process ow sheet. The
system may be effectively divided into
a low-pressure section (LP) consisting
of the cold compression stage 1, and a
high-pressure section (HP) consisting of
stages 2 to 5.

If the amount of nBOG is higher than


can be burnt in the engine (for example
during early part of the laden voyage)
resulting in higher than acceptable
suction pressure (tank pressure), the
control system will send excess gas to
the GCU via the side stream of the 1st
compression stage.

Control of gas delivery pressure

General Data for


Gas Delivery Condition:
Pressure:
Nominal
Max. value
Pulsation limit
Set point tolerance

Gas pressure Set point (bar)

Fuel Gas System Control Requirements

250 bar
300 bar
2 bar
5%

Temperature :
Approx. 45 oC
Quality:
Condensate free, without oil/water
droplets or mist, similar to the
PNEUROP recommendation 6611
Air Turbines
Engine Load ( % of MCR )

Fig. 14: Gas supply station, guiding specication

15

Fig. 15: Simplied ow sheet

In the event of engine shutdown or sudden change in engine load, the compressor delivery line must be protected
against overpressure by opening bypass valves over the HP section of the
compressor.
During start-up of the compressor with
warm nBOG, the temperature control valves will operate to direct a ow
through an additional gas intercooler
after the 1st compression stage.
The control concept for the compressor is based on one main control mode
which is called power saving mode.
This mode of running, which minimises
the use of gas bypass as the primary
method of regulation, operates within
various well dened control limits.
The system pressure control limits are
as follows:

16

Pmin suction Prevents under-pressure


in compressor inlet manifold - tank vacuum.

Pmax suction Initiates action to reduce


inlet manifold pressure.

1st stage bypass valve, which will open


or close until the actual compressor
discharge pressure is equal to the Pset.
With this method of control, BOG delivery to the ME-GI is regulated without
any direct measurement and control of
the delivered mass ow. If none of the
above control limits are active, the controller is able to regulate the mass ow
in the range from 0 to 100 %.

Pmax
Prevents overpressure of
ME-GI feed compressor discharge
manifold.

The following control limits act to overrule the ME-GI controller setting and
initiate bypass valve operation:

A detailed description of operation within these control limits is given below.

Pmin suction

Power saving mode

The control scenario is falling suction


pressure. If the Pmin limit is active, the 1st
stage recycle valve will not be permitted
to close further, thereby preventing further reduction in suction pressure. If the
pressure in the suction line continues
to decrease, the recycle valve will open
governed by the Pmin limiter.

Phigh suction Suction manifold highpressure - system safety


(GCU) on standby.

Economical regulation of a multi-stage


compressor is most efciently executed
using gas recycle around the 1st stage
of compression. The ME-GI required
set pressure Pset is therefore taken as
control input directly to the compressor

(tank pressure below


set level)

Action of
Pressure will fall at the
ME-GI control compressor discharge
system:
requiring the HFO
injection rate to be
increased.

burned simultaneously in the GCU.


No action is taken in the ME-GI control
system.

fBOG:

If a spray cooling or
forced vaporizer is
installed, it may be
used for stabilising the
suction pressure and
thereby increase the
gas mass ow to the
engine. Such a system could be activated
by the Pmin suction
pressure limit.

The control scenario is a reduction of


the engine load or closure of the ME-GI
supply line downstream of the compressor. The pressure will rise in the
delivery line. Line overpressure is prevented by a limiter, which acts to directly open the bypass control valve around
stages 2 to 5. As a consequence, the
controller will also open the 1st stage
recycle valve.

Phigh suction

(tank pressure above


set level)

Pmax ME-GI feed

The control range of the compressor is


0 to 100 % mass ow.
GCU-only operating mode

The control scenario is increasing suction pressure due to either reduced


engine load (e.g. approaching port,
manoeuvring) or excess nBOG due to
liquid impurities (e.g. N2).
The control limiter initiates a manual
start of the GCU (the GCU is assumed
not to be on standby mode during normal voyage).

The control scenario considers a situation where gas injection to the ME-GI is
not required and tank gas pressure is at
the level of Phigh.
The nBOG is compressed and delivered
to the GCU by means of a gas take-off
after the 1st stage.
The following actions are initiated:

There is no action on the compressor


control or the ME-GI control system.
Pmax suction

(tank pressure
too high)

The control scenario is the same as described above, however, it has resulted
in even higher suction pressure. Action
must now be taken to reduce suction
pressure by sending gas to the GCU.
The high pressure alarm initiates a
manual sequence whereby the 1st
stage bypass valve PCV01 is closed
and the bypass valve PCV02 to the
GCU is opened. When the changeover
is completed, automatic Pset control
is transferred to the GCU control valve
PCV02. The gas amount which cannot be accepted by the ME-GI will be

manual start of the GCU


closing of the bypass valve
around 1st stage
fully opening of the bypass
valves around stages 2-5.
In this mode, the compressor is operating with stages 2-5 in full recycle at a
reduced discharge pressure of approximately 80 bar. The pressure setting of
the GCU feed valve is set directly by the
GCU in the range 3 to 6 bar a.
There is no action on the ME-GI
controller.

17

Machinery Room Installation 6LP250-5S


The layout of the cargo handling equipment and the design of their supporting
structure presents quite a challenge to
the shipbuilder where space on deck
is always at a premium. In conjunction
with HHI and the compressor maker, an
optimised layout of the fuel gas compressor has been developed.
There are many factors which inuence
the compressor plant layout apart from
limited space availability. (See Fig. 16.)
External piping connections, adequate
access for operation and maintenance,
equipment design and manufacturing
codes, plant lifting and installation are
just a few.
The compressor together with accessory items comprising motor drive,
auxiliary oil system, vessels, gas coolers, interconnecting piping, etc., are
manufactured as modules requiring
minimum assembly work on the ship
deck. Separate auxiliary systems provide coolant for the compressor frame
and gas coolers.

15m
27m
34m

Fig. 16: Typical layout of cargo machinery room

Compensator
Discharge
line

If required, a dividing bulkhead may


separate the main motor drive from
the hazardous area in the compressor
room. A compact driveshaft arrangement without bulkhead, using a suitably
designed ex motor, is however preferred. Platforms and stairways provide
access to the compressor cylinders for
valve maintenance. Piston assemblies
are withdrawn vertically through manholes in the roof of the machinery house
(see Fig. 17).
Oil System
Suction line

Fig. 17: Fuel gas compressor with accessories

18

E. mortor

Requirements for Cargo


Machinery Room Support
Structure
Fig. 18 shows details of the compressor
base frame footprint and requirement
for support by the ship structure.
Reciprocating compressors, by nature
of movement of their rotating parts,
exhibit out-of-balance forces and moments which must be considered in the
design of the supporting structure for
acceptable machinery vibration levels.
As a boundary condition, the structure
underneath the cargo machinery room
must have adequate weight and stiffness to provide a topside vibration level
of (approximately) 1.2 - 1.5 mm/s. Satisfactory vibration levels for compressor
frame and cylinders are 8 and 15 mm/s
respectively (values given are rms root
mean square).

Foundation deection due to ship


movement must, furthermore, be considered in the design of the compressor
plant to ensure stress-free piping terminations.

Maintenance requirements
- availability/reliability
The low speed, crosshead type compressor design 6LP250-5S, like the
ME-GI diesel engine, is designed for
the life time of the LNG carrier (25 to 30
years or longer). Routine maintenance
is limited purely to periodic checking in
the machinery room.
Maintenance intervention for dismantling, checking and eventual part
replacement is recommended after
each 8,000 hours of operation. Annual
maintenance interventions will normally
require 50-70 hours work for checking
and possible replacing of wearing parts.

Major intervention for dismantling and


bearing inspection is recommended
every 2-3 years.
Average availability per compressor
unit is estimated to be 98.5 % with best
availability approximately 99.5 %. With
an installed redundant unit, the compressor plant availability will be in the
region of 99.25 %.
Any unscheduled stoppage of the
6LP250-5S compressor will most likely
be attributable to a mal-function of a
cylinder valve. With the correct valve
design and material selection (Burckhardt uses its own design and manufacture plate valves) these events will be
very seldom, however a valve failure in
operation cannot be entirely ruled out.
LNG boil-off gas is an ideal gas to compress. The gas is relatively pure and
uncontaminated, the gas components
are well dened, and the operating temperatures are stable once cool-down
is completed.
These conditions are excellent for long
lifetime of the compressor valves where
an average lifetime expectancy for valve
plates is 16,000 hours. Therefore, we
do not expect any unscheduled intervention per year for valve maintenance.
Such a maintenance intervention will
take approx. 7-9 hours for compressor
shutdown, isolation and valve replacement.
A total unscheduled maintenance intervention time of 25 hours, assuming
8,000 operating hours per year, may be
used for statistical comparison. On this
basis compressor reliability is estimated
at 99.7 %.

Fig. 18: Compressor base frame footprint

Our experience in many installations


shows that no hours are lost for unscheduled maintenance. The reliability
of these compressors is therefore comparable to that of centrifugal compressor types.
19

Requirements for
Classication
When entering the LNG market with the
combined two-stroke and reliquefaction
solution, it was discovered that there
is a big difference in the requirements
from operators and classication societies.
Being used to cooperating with the
classication societies on other commercial ships, the rules and design recommendations for the various applications in the LNG market are new when
it comes to diesel engine propulsion.
In regard to safety, the high availability
and reliability offered when using the
two-stroke engines generally full the
requirements, but as the delivery and
pick up of gas in the terminals is carried
out within a very narrow time window,
redundancy is therefore essential to the
operators.
As such, a two-engine ME-GI solution
is the new choice, with its high efciency, availability and reliability, as the
traditional HFO burning engines.
Compared with traditional diesel
operated ships, the operators and shipowners in the LNG industry generally
have different goals and demands to
their LNG tankers, and they often apply
more strict design criteria than applied
so far by the classication societies.
A Hazid investigation was therefore
found to be the only way to secure that
all situations are taken into account
when using gas for propulsion, and that
all necessary precautions have been
taken to minimize any risk involved.
In 2005, HHI shipyard, HHI engine
builder, BCA and MAN Diesel therefore
worked out a hazard identication study
that was conducted by Det Norske Veritas (DNV), see Appendix V.

20

Actual Test and Analysis Main Engine Room


of Safety when Operating Safety
on Gas
The use of gas on a diesel engine calls
for careful attention with regard to
safety. For this reason, ventilated double-walled piping is a minimum requirement to the transportation of gas to the
engine.
In addition to hazard considerations
and calculations, it has been necessary
to carry out tests, two of which were
carried out some years ago before the
installation and operation of the Chiba
power plant 12K80MC-GI engine in
1994.

A crack in the double-wall


inner pipe
The rst test was performed by introducing a crack in the inner pipe to see
if the outer pipe would stay intact. The
test showed no penetration of the outer
pipe, thus it could be concluded that
the double-wall concept lived up to the
expectations.

Pressure uctuation
The second test was carried out to
investigate the pressure uctuations in
the relatively long piping from the gas
compressor to the engine.
By estimation of the necessary buffer
volume in the piping system, the stroke
and injection of gas was calculated to
see when safe pressure uctuations are
achieved within given limits for optimal
performance of the engines. The piping
system has been designed on the basis
of these calculations.

The latest investigation, which was


recently nished, was initiated by a
number of players in the LNG market
questioning the use of 250 bar gas in
the engine room, which is also located
under the wheel house where the crew
is working and living.
Even though the risk of full breakage
happening is considered close to negligible and, in spite of the precautions
introduced in the system design, MAN
Diesel found it necessary to investigate the effect of such an accident,
as the question still remains in part of
the industry: what if a double-wall pipe
breaks in two and gas is released from
a full opening and is ignited?
As specialists in the offshore industry,
DNV were commissioned to simulate
such a worst case situation, study the
consequences, and point to the appropriate countermeasures. DNVs work
comprised a CFD (computational uid
dynamics) simulation of the hazard of
an explosion and subsequent re, and
an investigation of the risk of this situation ever occurring and at what scale.
As input for the simulation, the volume
of the engine room space, the position
of major components, the air ventilation
rate, and the location of the gas pipe
and control room were the key input
parameters.
Realistic gas leakage scenarios were
dened, assuming a full breakage of
the outer pipe and a large or small hole
in the inner fuel pipe. Actions from the
closure of the gas shutdown valves, the
ventilation system and the ventilation
conditions prior to and after detection are included in the analysis. The
amount of gas in the fuel pipe limits the
duration of the leak. Ignition of a leak
causing an explosion or a re is furthermore factored in, due to possible hot

spots or electrical equipment that can


give sparks in the engine room.
Calculations of the leak rate as a function of time, and the ventilation ow
rates were performed and applied as
input to the explosion and re analyses.

Simulation Results
The probability of this hazard happening is based on experience from the
offshore industry.
Even calculated in the worst case, no
structural damage will occur in the HHI
LNG engine room if designed for 1.1
bar over pressure.
No areas outside the engine room
will be affected by an explosion.
If this situation is considered to represent too high a risk, unattended machinery space during gas operation can be
introduced. Today, most engines and
equipment are already approved by the
classication societies for this type of
operation.
By insulation, the switchboard room
oor can be protected against heat
from any jet res.
No failure of the fuel oil tank structure,
consequently no escalation of re.
The above conclusion is made on the
assumption that the GI safety system
is fully working.
In addition, DNV has arrived at a different result based on the assumption that
the safety system is not working. On
the basic in these results DNV have put
up failure frequencies and developed
a set of requirements to be followed in
case a higher level of safety is required.
After these conclusion made by DNV,
HHI has developed a level for their
engine room safety that satises the
requirements from the classication societies, and also the requirements that
are expected from the shipowners.

This new engine room design is based


on the experience achieved by HHI
with their rst orders for LNG carriers
equipped with 2 x 6S70ME-C and reliquefaction plant. The extra safety that
will be included is listed below:
Double-wall piping is located as
far away as possible from critical
walls such as the fuel tank walls and
switchboard room walls.
In case of an engine room re alarm,
a gas shutdown signal is sent out, the
engine room ventilation fans stops,
and the air inlet canals are blocked.
During gas running it is not possible
to perform any heavy lifting with the
engine room crane.
A failure of the engine room ventilation
will result in a gas shutdown.
HC sensors are placed in the engine
room, and their position will be based
on a dispersion analysis made for the
purpose of nding the best location
for the sensors.
The double-wall piping is designed
with lyres, so that variation in temperatures from pipes to surroundings
can be absorbed in the piping.
In fact, any level of safety can be
achieved on request of the shipowner.
The safety level request will be achieved
in a co-operation between the yard
HHI, the engine builder HHI, the classication society and MAN Diesel A/S.
The report Dual fuel Concept: Analysis
of res and explosions in engine room
was made by DNV consulting and can
be ordered by contacting MAN Diesel
A/S, in Copenhagen.

21

Engine Operating Modes


One of the advantages of the ME-GI
engine is its fuel exibility, from which
an LNG carrier can certainly benet.
Burning the boil-off gas with a variation in the heat value is perfect for the
diesel working principle. At the start of
a laden voyage, the natural boil-off gas
holds a large amount of nitrogen and
the heat value is low. If the boil-off gas
is being forced, it can consist of both
ethane and propane, and the heat value
could be high. A two-stroke, high-pressure gas injection engine is able to burn
those different fuels and also without
a drop in the thermal efciency of the
engine. The control concept comprises
two different fuel modes, see also
Fig. 19.
fuel-oil-only mode
minimum-fuel mode
The fuel-oil-only mode is well known
from the ME engine. Operating the
engine in this mode can only be done
on fuel oil. In this mode, the engine is
considered gas safe. If a failure in the
gas system occurs it will result in a gas
shutdown and a return to the fuel-oilonly mode and the engine is gas safe.
The minimum-fuel mode is developed
for gas operation, and it can only be
started manually by an operator on the

Fuel 100%

Gas Main Operating Panel in the control


room. In this mode, the control system
will allow any ratio between fuel oil and
gas fuel, with a minimum preset amount
of fuel oil to be used.
The preset minimum amount of fuel oil,
hereafter named pilot oil, to be used
is in between 5-8% depending on the
fuel oil quality. Both heavy fuel oil and
marine diesel oil can be used as pilot
oil. The min. pilot oil percentage is calculated from 100% engine load, and
is constant in the load range from 30100%. Below 30% load MAN Diesel is
not able to guarantee a stable gas and
pilot oil combustion, when the engine
reach this lower limit the engine returns
to Fuel-oil-only mode.
Gas fuels correspond to low-sulphur
fuels, and for this type of fuel we recommend the cylinder lube oil TBN40 to
be used. Very good cylinder condition
with this lube oil was achieved from the
gas engine on the Chiba power plant.
A heavy fuel oil with a high sulphur content requires the cylinder lube oil TBN
70. Shipowners intending to run their
engine on high-sulphur fuels for longer
periods of time are recommended to install two lube oil tanks. When changing
to minimum-fuel mode, the change of
lube oil should be carried out as well.
Players in the market have been focussed on reducing the exhaust emissions during harbour manoeuvring.
When testing the ME-GI at the MAN
Diesel research centre in Copenhagen,

Fuel 100%

Fuel-oil-only mode

"Minimum fuel" mode

Fuel gas
Fuel oil
Fuel oil
100% load

30% load
Min load for Min. fuel mode

Fig. 19: Fuel type modes for the ME-GI engines for LNG carriers

22

Min. Pilot
oil 5-8%
100% load

the 30% limit for minimum-fuel mode


will be challenged taking advantage of
the increased possibilities of the ME fuel
valves system to change its injection
prole, MAN Diesel expects to lower
this 30% load limit for gas use, but for
now no guaranties can be given.

Launching the ME-GI


As a licensor, MAN Diesel expects a
time frame of two years from order to
delivery of the rst ME-GI on the testbed.
In the course of this time, depending
on the ME-GI engine size chosen, the
engine builder will make the detailed
designs and a nal commissioning test
on a research engine. This type approval test (TAT) is to be presented to the
classication society and ship owner in
question to show that the compressor
and the ME-GI engine is working in all
the operation modes and conditions.
In cooperation with the classication society and engine builder, the
most optimum solution, i.e. to test the
compressor and ME-GI engine before
delivery to the operator has been considered and discussed. One solution is

to test the gas engine on the testbed,


but this is a costly method. Alternatively,
and recommended by MAN Diesel, the
compressor and ME-GI operation test
could be made in continuation of the
gas trial. Today, there are different opinions among the classication societies,
and both solutions are possible depending on the choice of classication
society and arrangement between ship
owners, yard and engine builder.

gas compressor system for the specic


LNG carrier. Only in this combination it
will be possible to get a valid test.
Prior to the gas trial test, the GI system
has been tested to ensure that everything is working satisfactory.

MAN Diesel A/S has developed a test


philosophy especially for approval of the
ME-GI application to LNG carriers, this
philosophy has so far been approved
by DNV, GL, LR and ABS, see Table III.
The idea is that the FAT (Factory Acceptance Test) is being performed for
the ME system like normal, and for the
GI system it is performed on board the
LNG carrier as a part of the Gas Trial
Test. Thereby, the GI system is tested
in combination with the tailor-made

Table III: MAN B&W ME-GI engines test and class approval philosophy
MAN Diesel
Copenhagen
MAN B&W research
engine 4T50MX
or similar suitable
location

Yard
Quay trial

Yard
Sea trial

Gas trial

TAT of ME-GI control system and of


gas components.
Test according to
MBD test program.
Subject to Class approval.

First ME-GI
production engine

Test according to:


IACS UR M51
MBD Factory
Acceptance Test
program (FAT) for
ME engines.

Second and following ME-GI engines


Engine is tested on:

Engine builder
testbed

- do Gas and marine


diesel oil

Marine diesel oil

Test according to:


Yard and Engine
Builder test program approved
by Class

- do -

Test according to:


Yard and Engine
Builder test program approved
by Class

- do -

Marine diesel oil


Marine diesel oil
and/or heavy fuel oil and/or heavy fuel oil

After loading gas, the


following tests are to
be carried out:
Acceptance test
of the complete
gas system including the main engine.
Test of the ME-GI
control system according to MBD test
program approved
by Class
- do Marine diesel Heavy
fuel oil and gas

23

Machinery Concepts
Comparison

ME + DG
1 x FPP

In this chapter, the ME-C and ME-GI


engines in the various conguations
will be compared. The comparison will
show the most suitable propulsion solution for a modern LNG carrier.

ME + TES + DG
HFO + reliq.
ME-C

ME + PTO + DG

LNG
Carrier

The study is made as objective as possible, however, only MAN Diesel supported systems are compared.

2 x FPP

2 x CPP
Dual Fuel
ME-GI

ME + TES + PTO + DG

Fig. 20: Alternative two-stroke propulsion and power generation machinery systems

Both the ME-C engine with reliquefaction and the ME-GI engine with gas
compressor can be used either in twin
engine arrangements, coupled to two
xed pitch (FPP) or two controllable
pitch propellers (CPP), or as a single
main engine coupled to one FPP.
For LNG carriers, the total electricity
consumption of the machinery on
board is higher than usual compared
with most other merchant ship types.
Therefore, the electrical power generation is included in the comparison.
Thus, the various main propulsion machinery solutions may be coupled with
various electricity producers, such as
diesel generators (DG), the MAN Diesel
waste heat recovery system, called the
Thermo Efciency System (TES), or a
shaft generator system (PTO).
Applying the propulsion data listed in
Tables IV and V, the estimated data for
the electrical power consumption in
Tables VI and VII, MAN Diesel has calculated the investment and operational
costs of all the alternative congurations illustrated in Fig. 20.
The investment and operational costs
have been analysed and the results
have been compared using the Net
Present Value (NPV) method, see
Fig. 21.

In order to quantify the effect of the


machinery chosen on the total exhaust
gas emissions, and thereby bring it
directly into the comparison, costs for
the various emission pollutants have
been assumed and used in some of
the calculations, thereby visualising a
possible future economic impact of the
emissions.
The following emission fees have been
used in the calculations:
CO2:
NOx:
SO2:

17.3 USD/tonne
2,000 USD/tonne
2,000 USD/tonne

It has been assumed that the CO2 fee is


to be paid for the complete CO2 emission, whereas the NOx and SO2 fees
are to be paid for only 20% of the total
NOx and SO2 emissions, since the two
latter pollutants are mostly a problem
when the ship operates close to the
coast line.

Finally, the Net Present Value results,


for each LNG carrier size, have been
scaled towards each other in such a
way that the highest Net Present Value,
which represents the alternative with
the highest cost for each combination
of fuel prices, time horizon and emission scenario has been nominated to
equal 100% cost, whereas the remaining Net Present Values within the same
category have been listed in percentages of the above most expensive
conguration.
NPV formula
Each cash inow/outow is
discounted back to its Present Value.
Then they are summed. Therefore:

Where
tthe time of the cash ow

Calculations have been made, taking


different HFO and LNG prices and different time horizons (10, 20 and 30
years) into account, and with and without the incorporation of the estimated
emission fees.

n-

the total time of the project

r-

the discount rate

The calculations have been made for


three different sizes of LNG carriers;
150,000, 210,000 and 250,000 m3.

C0 - the capitial outlay at the begining


of the investment time ( t = 0 )

Ct - the net cash ow (the amount of


cash) at that point in time.

Fig. 21: NPV denition

24

Table V: Average ship particulars used for propulsion


power prediction calculations for LNG carriers of the
membrane type

Table IV: Results of propulsion power


prediction calculations for LNG carriers
of the membrane type
Case

Unit

Ship capacity

m3

150,000

210,000

250,000

Design draught

11.6

12.0

12.0

Propeller
diameter

1 x 8.60

1 x 8.80

1 x 9.00

SMCR power

kW

1 x 31,361

1 x 39,268

1 x 45,152

SMCR speed

rpm

92.8

91.8

93.8

1 x 7K90ME
Mk 6

1 x 7K98ME
Mk 7

1 x 8K98ME
Mk 6

1. Single propeller

Main engine
(without PTO)

2. Twin-skeg and Twin-propulsion.

Case

Unit
3

Ship capacity

150,000 210,000

250,000

Scantling
deadweight

dwt

80,000

108,000

129,000

12.3

12.7

12.7

Average design
ship speed

knot

20.0

20.0

20.0

Design
deadweight

dwt

74,000

98,500

118,000

Light weight
of ship

30,000

40,000

48,000

104,000 138,500

166,000

Scantling
draught

Propeller
diameter

2 x 8.10

2 x 8.40

2 x 8.70

Design displacement of ship

SMCR power

kW

2 x 14,898

2 x 18,301

2 x 20,780

Design draught

11.6

12.0

12.0

SMCR speed

rpm

88.1

90.5

88.0

Length overall

288

315

345

Length between
perpendiculars

275

303

332

Breadth

44.2

50.0

54.0

Breadth/design
draught ratio

3.81

4.17

4.50

Block coefcient,
perpendicular

0.720

0.743

0.753

Main engine
(without PTO)
Ballast draught
Average
engine load
in ballast

2 x 5S70ME-C 2 x 6S70ME-C 2 x 7S70ME-C


Mk 7
Mk 7
Mk 7
m

9.7

9.9

10.3

%
SMCR

68

68

68

Sea margin

15

15

15

Engine margin

10

10

10

Light running
margin

25

Table VI: Electrical power consumption for reliquefaction


150,000 m3
Reliquefaction

210,000 m3
Reliquefaction

250,000 m3
Reliquefaction

26

Table VII: Electrical power consumption for ME-GI

Load
scenario

Reliquefaction
(kW)

Other
consumers
(kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

Laden
voyage

3370

2100

Ballast
voyage

800

Loading
at terminal

150,000 m3
Dual fuel

Load
scenario

Gas compressor
(kW)

Other
consumers
(kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

5470

Laden
voyage

1630

2100

3730

2100

3065

Ballast
voyage

1630

2100

3730

800

4500

5300

Loading
at terminal

(0)

4500

4500

Unloading
at terminal

800

6400

7200

Unloading
at terminal

(0)

6400

6400

Manoeuvring
laden

3370

3200

6570

Manoeuvring
laden

(0)

3200

3200

Manoeuvring
ballast

965

3200

4165

Manoeuvring
ballast

(0)

3200

3200

Load
scenario

Reliquefaction
(kW)

Other consumers (kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

Load
scenario

Gas compressor
(kW)

Other
consumers
(kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

Laden
voyage

4565

2150

6715

Laden
voyage

1630

2150

3780

Ballast voyage

1365

2150

3515

Ballast voyage

1630

2150

3780

Loading at
terminal

1000

4500

5500

Loading at
terminal

(0)

4500

4500

Unloading at
terminal

1000

7000

8000

Unloading at
terminal

(0)

7000

7000

Manoeuvring
laden

4565

3400

7965

Manoeuvring
laden

(0)

3400

3400

Manoeuvring
ballast

1365

3400

4765

Manoeuvring
ballast

(0)

3400

3400

Load
scenario

Reliquefaction
(kW)

Other consumers (kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

Load
scenario

Gas compressor
(kW)

Other
consumers
(kW)

Total electricity
consumption
(kW)

Laden
voyage

5595

2200

7795

Laden
voyage

1630

2200

3830

Ballast
voyage

1595

2200

3795

Ballast
voyage

1630

2200

3830

Loading at
terminal

1240

4500

5740

Loading at
terminal

(0)

4500

4500

Unloading at
terminal

1240

7400

8640

Unloading at
terminal

(0)

7400

7400

Manoeuvring
laden

5595

3600

9195

Manoeuvring
laden

(0)

3600

3600

Manoeuvring
ballast

1595

3600

5195

Manoeuvring
ballast

(0)

3600

3600

210,000 m3
Dual fuel

250,000 m3
Dual fuel

An example of the results is illustrated


below in Table VIII. Fuel Price 1 corresponds to the price level of 2006. The
following colour codes apply to Table VII.
The analysis shows that, economically,
good predictions of the future development of the HFO and LNG prices relative
to each other are absolutely essential for
choosing the optimal main propulsion
two-stroke engines for the vessel, i.e.
the choice whether to use HFO burning
main engines or gas burning main engines is the single most important decision to make.
However, the result in regard to the fuel
price relationship may also be inuenced
by some factors in the business model
used, e.g. whether a xed amount of
LNG is to be shipped by the vessel or a
xed amount of LNG is to be delivered
by the vessel.
After that, the total economy of the LNG
carrier purchase and operation can also
be inuenced by choosing the most optimal machinery conguration. This goes
for the main propulsion plant, but also
includes the electricity production plant
for the vessel in question which, however, is of smaller signicance to the total
economy considerations than the main
engine fuel type.
Single-propeller machinery arrangements do not seem to be attractive because of the lower propulsion efciency.
The most favourable machinery arrangement generally appears to be the twin
main engine solution, coupled to two
xed pitch propellers, and incorporating
TES systems for utilisation of the waste
heat and supplementary production of
electrical power.

TES = Thermo Efciency System, PTO = Power Take Off, DG = Diesel Gas,
NPV = Net Present Valve (see Fig. 21)

For the machinery arrangements based


on the dual fuel ME-GI main engines, the
selection of two main engines coupled
to two xed pitch propellers and incorporating either TES systems alone or a
combination of TES systems and PTO
27

systems is found to be the most optimal


choices, with the latter arrangement being about equal to the rst mentioned,
or in some cases even better if emission
fees are incorporated in the analysis.
Generally, emission considerations favour the selection of the dual fuel ME-GI
engine over the HFO engine and, with
todays fuel prices, the dual fuel ME-GI
engine is found to be the most optimal
choice. However, as already mentioned,
project specic factors, such as a requirement for a xed amount of LNG to
be delivered, need to be addressed in
specic cases, and may inuence the
balance between the ME-GI engine alternative and the HFO engine alternative.
In the ME-GI engine for LNG carriers,
any ratio of gas and heavy fuel, from 0%
gas and 100% fuel to 95% gas and 5%
fuel, can be used at any load above 30%
below it is fuel only. Hence, full fuel/
gas exibility is ensured, while accepting a wide range of variation in sulphur
throughput.
Using twin-engine propulsion in a twin
skeg arrangement has proven to provide propulsion power savings of 5-8%,
compared with the single screw propulsion alternative for large LNG carriers of
150,000-270,000 m3 capacity, due to
their large breadth/draught ratio.
The most optimal and exible choice of
machinery for the LNG carrier appears
to be a twin-engine ME-GI installation
in combination with a double Thermo
Efciency System (one for each main engine), a 100% capacity gas compressor
plant and a 100% capacity reliquefaction
plant.
This propulsion system in combination
with sufcient HFO storage tank arrangements would allow a fully exible
operation of the vessel, optimised for
any future business environment.

28

Concluding Remarks

Appendices

To enter the market for a demanding application such as LNG vessels calls for a
high level of know-how and careful studies by the shipyard, the engine builder,
the compressor maker as well as the
engine designer.

Lifetime of compressor parts

II

Reference list for LNG boil-off gas


installation

III

Gas system P&I diagram for fuel


gas compressor

IV

ME-GI schematic, showing the GI


assessment to an ME engine

LNG carrier voyage illustration

VI

Safety aspects

A tailor-made ME-GI propulsion solution


together with a fuel gas supply system
is now available, which optimises the
key application issues such as efciency,
economy, redundancy and safety. This
system is based on conventional, proven
technology and can be applied with considerable benet on to LNG carriers in
the range of 150 kcum up to 260 kcum.

References
-

High reliability of the Laby LNG


BOG compressor with the unique
sealing system, (P. Ernst, Burckhardt Compression AG)

Dual-fuel concept analyses of res


and explosions in engine room,
(Asmund Huser, DNV Consulting).

Alternative Propulsion for LNG ships


by Low Speed ME-C and ME-GI
Engines, (Niels B. Clausen,
MAN Diesel A/S)

LNG Gas Carrier with High-pressure


Gas Engine Propulsion Application,
GasTech 2006, Abu Dhabi, United
Arab Emirates, (John Linwood,
Burckhardt Compression AG,
Switzerland, Jong-Pil Ha, Hyundai
Heavy Industries Co., Ltd, Korea,
Kjeld Aabo, MAN Diesel A/S,
Copenhagen, Denmark),
Rene S Laursen, MAN Diesel A/S,
Copenhagen, Denmark

VII Hydrodynamics and vibrations on


LNG carriers

Appendix I

Average lifetime of compressor parts 6LP250B-5S_1


Year
Quantity

Description
1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

56*

64*

72*

80*

Hours* ( x 1,000)
8*

16*

24*

32*

40*

48*

Crank gear
Shaft seal

Main bearings

Guide bearings (crankshaft)

Connecting rod bearings

Crosshead pin bearings

Crossheads

Guide bearings (piston rod)

Oil scrapers

Piston
Piston rod 1st to 3rd stage

Piston rod 4th to 5th stage

Piston skirt 1st to 3rd stage

Piston 4th to 5th stage

Piston rings 4th stage

10

Piston rings 5th stage

10

Piston guide rings 4th stage

Piston guide rings 5th stage

Packing
Packing 1st to 3rd stage

Packing 4th to 5th stage

Valves
Suction valves

Discharge valves

20

Controlled suction valves


1st to 3rd stage

4th to 5th stage

Note: The average lifetime is based on a compressor running 8,000 hours per year

29

Appendix II

Reference List of LNG Boil-off Gas Installations


with Burckhardt Compression labyrinth-piston compressors
No.

Type

Commissioned

Installation

Operator

4D300-3E

1986

Adnoc LNG
Terminal Abud Dhabi

ADGAS

4D300-2C

1990

CPC LNG
Terminal Taiwan

Chinese
Petroleum Corp.

4D300-2D

1993

Pyeong Taek
Terminal Korea

Korea Gas
Corperation

2D250B-2C_1

2003

BILBAO LNG
Terminal Spain

Bhaia de
Bikaia Gas

2D250B-2C_1

2003

SINES LNG
erminal Portugal

TransgasAtlantico

2K90-1A_1

2004

BIJLSMA LNG H705


LNG Carrier

Knutsen Os
Shipping

4D300B-2K

2005

Barcelona
LNG Spain

Enagas

4D250B-2N_1

2005

SAGGAS Terminal
GNL Sagunto, Spain

Regasagunto
UTE, Madrid

2D250B-2C_1

(2007)

Reganosa,
Murgados Spain

Regasicadora del
Noroeste S.A.

30

Appendix III

Gas system for fuel gas compressor

31

Appendix IV

ME-GI schematic

32

Appendix V

Fig. App. V: LNG carrier voyage illustration: Top: ME-GI engine load diagram;
Middle: 6LP250 compressor; Bottom: BOG tank pressure
33

LNG carrier voyage illustration


During an LNG carrier voyage, gas is
available both on laden and on ballast
voyage. It is therefore expected that
the fuel-oil-only mode will be used
during manoeuvring, canal voyage and,
possisly, during a period with an engine
failure. At any other voyage situation
gas will be used as fuel. BCA and MAN
Diesel have worked out a simulation for
such a voyage, an example is shown in
Fig. App. V.
Below is a summary of the main
conclusions from the illustrations:
On low engine load, e.g. 30%, and
laden voyage - only HFO is being
burned in the engine - BOG gas tank
pressure increases until it reaches its
max. level, then compressor starts
sending the BOG to the GCU.
at 50% engine load and laden voyage
- BOG tank pressure high - the compressor sends BOG to the engine and
to the GCU at the same time.
at 90% engine laden voyage - the engine is burning all BOG generated
- BOG tank pressure operates within
determined limits. If the tank pressure
reaches its min. level, the amount of
pilot oil is increased.
at 90% load ballast voyage and with
the engine running in fuel-oil-only
mode, a very slow pressure increase
takes place due to the huge BOG
buffer volume.
at 90% load ballast voyage - minimum fuel mode - a large BOG gas
amount is being burned before the
BOG tank pressure reaches the tank
pressure min. value. At min. pressure, add up with pilot oil starts.

34

In this example, a boil-off rate of 0.12%


is used in laden voyage, and a 0.06%
boil-off rate in ballast condition. The tank
pressure phigh = 1.17 and plow = 1.03,
they may differ from laden to ballast, in
this example the pressure range is the
same.

Appendix V

Safety Aspects
Hazard identication (Hazid)
process for ME-GI engines
for LNG carriers
LNG operators are seriously conside
ring the ME-GI propulsion solution
for use on LNG carriers and, as
described previously, they require hazid
considerations in connection with
the use of gas in the engine room. A
Hazid investigation of the complete gas
system, from the gas storage tanks
to the engine inlet, has therefore been
carried out and completed.
The Hazid study was carried out in
cooperation between the Hyundai
shipbuilding and engine building
divisions, Burckhardt Compression,
and MAN Diesel. Det Norske Veritas
(DNV) participated as consultant at the
meetings as well as being responsible
for granting their acceptance of the
procedures and, ultimately, nal
approval for use on board LNG carriers.

Scope of the Hazid study

re and gas detection, and air ventilation systems for enclosures.


For each of the components or
subsystems, the Hazid considered
possible malfunction of instruments,
control systems or equipment
failures. To study the worst case
consequences, the assessment was
initially made without consideration for
any planned limiting measures.
Once the worst case consequences
had been identied, the planned limiting
measures were considered, and a
judgment was made as to whether
they were adequate with respect to
the identied hazards or to operational
problems.
The outcome of the above was
a report that was sent to each of
the participating companies, and
special attention was paid to the
recommendations made in the report.
Consequently, each of the participating
companies had the opportunity to
follow the recommendations and
upgrade their design to a higher safety
standard.

The scope of the study was minimised


to cover only those components and
systems relating to gas running operation, i.e.:

A total of 20 main system items were


reviewed in the Hazid workshop,
resulting in 22 recommendations.

LNG storage tanks, producing boil-off


gas

Failure Mode and Effect


Analysis (FMEA)

forced LNG vaporiser

Prior to performing a Hazid study


of a projected 210,000 cum LNG
carrier equipped with two 6S70MEGI engines and a gas supply system,
layout drawings, system diagrams
and an FMEA study were prepared
in cooperation between MAN Diesel,
Burckhardt, the engine builder and
the shipyard. FMEA is a method
designed to identify potential failure
modes for a product or process before
the problems actually occur. The
method was developed in the 1950s to
identify problems that could arise from

three 50%, 5-stage reciprocating


compressors, fed with BOG and
force-vaporised LNG (Burckhardt
Compression)
diesel fuel storage and supply system
two MAN B&W ME-GI engines adapted for dual fuel operation (natural gas
/diesel)
oxidiser (GCU)

malfunctions of military systems. Over


time, this method has been applied on
other business areas as well, because
the method has proved to be well
suited for reviews of mechanical and
electrical hardware systems, like for
instance the ME-GI engine.
The FMEA can be described as a
method of evaluating and documenting
the causes and effect of component
failures. The FMEA rst considers
how a failure mode of each system
component can result in performance
problems for the overall system,
secondly it ensures that appropriate
safeguards are available to handle
these situations.
Only known failure problems can be
handled in the study and, therefore,
the study gradually expands as more
knowledge of the system is achieved
in the course of the development of
the system. To perform a full study,
detailed knowledge of each component
is required, both with respect to
design and to operational behaviour.
Accordingly, the system covered in the
FMEA must be well dened before a
useful FMEA can be nalised.
Normally, the FMEA only examines the
effect of a single point failure on the
overall performance of a system, but in
some cases, where the consequences
of two following failures can lead to a
catastrophic result, it may be necessary
to include double failures.

Risk evaluation methods


The FMEA incorporates a method to
evaluate the risk associated with the
potential problems identied in the
analysis. The method used is called
risk priority numbers (RPN), and is described below.

35

To assess risks by using the RPN


method, the analysers must:
rate the hazard of each effect of
failure
rate the likelihood of occurrence for
each cause of failure
rate the likelihood of prior detection
for each cause of failure (i.e. the likelihood of detecting the problem before
it reaches the end user or customer).
calculate the RPN by obtaining the
product of the three ratings:
RPN = hazard (B) x occurrence (A) x
detection (E) = B x A x E
The RPN can then be used to compare
issues within the analysis and to
prioritise problems for corrective action,
see the Table.
The FMEA study is a part of the
requirements for approval from
the classication societies. The
FMEA therefore formed part of the
documentation that was delivered
to DNV before the type approval
documentation for the ME-GI engine
was issued to MAN Diesel. With this
approval, the electronically controlled
gas injection system is approved for
use on MAN B&W ME engines.
The compressor system from BCA
reached the system approval from DNV
in autumn 2006. Thesteps to reach this
level are equal as described above.

36

Factor A
Degree

Risk

Occurrence

A-Factor

very often

less than 500h OH (operating hours)

10

often

500h to 1000h OH

occasional

1000h to 8000h OH

seldom

8000 to 24000h OH

very
seldom

more than 24000h OH

Factor B
Degree

Risk

Hazard

B-Factor

Danger to life. Failure can effect


death of person

10

hazardous

Operation will fail. Injuries of person possible

major A

Operation will fail. No harm to person

major A

Limited operation possible.


No harm to person

minor

No or minor effect on operation

Factor E
Degree

Risk

Detection

E-factor

very rarely

The detection of the hazard or failure is almost


not possible. Feasibility 30%

10

reasonable

The detection of the hazard or failure unlikely.


Feasibility 60%

high

It is feasible that the hazard or failure will be


detected. Feasibility 99%

very high

It is certain that the hazard or failure will be


detected. Feasibility 99,9%

Table: Rating of hazards

Appendix VII

Hydrodynamics and vibrations on LNG carriers


One question raised by the operators
of LNG tankers is dealing with the
vibration level initiated by the use of
two-stroke engines and the inuence,
if any, on the structure of the insulated
LNG storage tanks.
In this connection, investigations
have been carried out in cooperation
with Det Norske Veritas and various
shipyards.
There are various kinds of excitation
sources in a ship. The most dominant
sources in a general cargo ship are
the propeller and the two-stroke diesel
engine.
In a traditional LNG carrier with steam
turbines, the propeller is the only
dominant excitation source, because
the turbine rotor or gears are no source
of excitation.
Application of two-stroke diesel engines
on large LNG carriers with a twin skeg
hull design and twin propellers results
in reduced propeller loads. Compared
with existing single propeller designs,
signicantly reduced pressure pulses
and vibrations are obtained, partly
thanks to the reduced cavitations.
The application of twin propeller and
two-stroke diesel engines on an LNG
carrier may need the below additional
anti-vibration and anti-noise analysis
and countermeasures. However, owing
to the high number of two-stroke diesel
engine installations built, a number of
standard countermeasures against
vibrations have been developed.
Furthermore, expertise and various
countermeasures have been developed
to cope with extraordinary vibrations.

Hull girder vibration analysis inuencing


cargo containment system due to the
2nd order external moment of main
engine. The most effective way to
minimise such an external moment
of the diesel engine is an application
of the well proven 2nd order moment
compensator, which neutralize the 2nd
order moment.
Fatigue assessment of cargo containment system due to excitation by the
guide force moment of the main engine.
Analysis needed. Countermeasure: top
bracing or electrically driven moment
compensator.
Local vibration and noise analyses for
engine room. Two-stroke diesel engines
and corresponding auxiliary machinery
are dominant noise sources in an
engine room and, therefore, anti-noise
activities considering the optimum
arrangement of working spaces and
proper insulation should be performed
more rigorously than usual for LNG
carriers. For this purpose, an extensive
noise analysis is required to evaluate
the noise levels in accommodation,
ECR and working areas. Furthermore,
a detailed analysis of the local vibration
behaviour is necessary to achieve
a good vibration status of large
machinery and local structures in the
engine room area.
Deckhouse vibration analysis coupled
with double-bottom mode. The
double-bottom structure between
two diesel engines is more exible
and easy to vibrate with diesel engine
excitations. This is checked by analyses
of deckhouse coupled with doublebottom, and if necessary structural
countermeasures are introduced.

37