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Chapter 9: FLUENCY ORIENTED

SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING

Presenters: Hoa Nguyen & Phuong Nguyen


Intructor: Kellie Smith Herrod

FLUENCY-ORIENTED SECOND
LANGUAGE TEACHING
I. Experience
II. What is fluency?
III. Conceptual underpinning
1. What happens when we speak?
2. Developing fluency

IV. Classroom application


1. Information gap activities
2. Jigsaw activities
3.Consensus-building activities
4.Fluency circle
5.Board games
6. Projects
V. Future trend
VI. Conclusion

Key Points of the chapter


- Fluency = best communicating meaning
- Degree of fluency based on cognitive, affective,
performance factors
- Teachers fostering fluency by providing language,
knowledge, and strategy support
- Criteria for choosing effective tasks: interactivity,
productivity, challenge, safety, purposefulness,
authenticity
- Activities and Games

What do you do to improve


your English fluency?

Ways to improve your fluency


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Improve fluency with chunks


Learn enough basic vocabulary
Increase listening input
Increase reading input
Practice speaking
Learn speaking strategies

Improving fluency with chunks


1. What are chunks?
Chunks are fixed set of words :
- the thing is
- all sorts of things
- Theres no such thing

What kinds of chunks to look for?


1. Collocation and idioms
EX: - Driving under the influence of alcohol is a
serious offence. (Collocational phrase)
- You're not old and you really should not think
that you're over the hill at 60. (idiom)
- The thief made off with valuable personal
possessions and a great deal of money.
(phrasal verb)

What kinds of chunks to look for?


2. Common polite expressions
EX: 'All the best'
'See you soon'
'Mind how you go'
'Have a nice day'
'How do you do?'
'You're welcome'

What kinds of chunks to look for?


3. Discourse markers
- used in both written and spoken English to link
what has come before to what comes next.
EX: - on the one hand, turning now to, or in
conclusion. (written)
- now, so, actually and well (spoken)
- I see what you mean but
- By the way, Sort of, Mind you, You know
Let's see

How can I learn chunks?


-

Read interviews in English magazines


Make a note of anything you come across
Try grouping new chunks into categories
For example, the following can all be used to
indicate that you have something else to say:
'By the way'
'While I remember'
'And another thing is'
'Before I forget'

How can I learn chunks?


- Using new chunks > same phrases
Exercise:
- Work with a partner, come up with a list of
10-12 chunks and challenge each other to
use the phrases during a discussion.

Vocabulary
-

Enough basic vocabulary


Vocabulary of everyday conversations
Use picture dictionary
Flash cards
Carry them with you,
review in spare time

Listening Input
- Listen to spoken English
+ Watch 1 movie a day
+ Watch TV shows
+ Listen to music
Help remember vocabulary and
how theyre pronounced

Reading Input
- Read books, magazines, essays, news in
English
Improve both vocabulary and speaking
Help you think in English

Practice Speaking
- Give your mouth and vocal apparatusn
practice
- Mimic native speakers
- Read out loud
- Speak everyday

Speaking Strategies
- Reduce anxiety: positive visualiation,
deep-breathing exercises...
- Smooth vocal fillers: try to reduce uh,
um, and
- Impove speech structure: apply
presentation skills
- Create vocal interest: no monotone
deliveries
- Slow down: dont speak to fast

Activities and Games


in speaking class

Games
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Zip zap zop


Four corners
Art
Goalie
Objects
Board games
Memory games

Activities
1. Information- gap activities
+ Complete the missing information
+ Find the differences
+ Role play
2. Jigsaw activities
+ Jigsaw reading
+ Jigsaw listening

Activities
3. Consensus-building activities
- Problem solving
- Ranking
4. Fluency circle

Activities
5. Projects
- Create a class newspaper
- Design a health poster
- Compile a recipe book
- Create a webpage
- Design an info. brochure
- Create an advertising campaign

Activities
6. Everyone has something to say
7. What if everybody did that?
8. Exercise body and the mind follow
9. Did you read the news?
10. Four corners
11. Talking journals

Homework
Look at the rating systems of 2 or
more exams that assess oral
language such as TOEFL or IELTS.
Create a rating system for assessing
gifted studentss speaking (20 mark
scale).
Due: 26 February, 2015