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Motivational Factors to Adoption of New Technologies

Technology adoption is one of the most extensively studied topics in agricultural


economics, including literature investigating factors affecting adoption and diffusion of
agricultural technology. On one end of the spectrum, a wide range of socioeconomic
and environmental factors have been identified to influence farmers adoption behavior.
At the other end of the spectrum, receiving much
less attention in the empirical literature is postadoption behavior of farmers;
agricultural economists know far less about factors
influencing technology retention or abandonment, compared to the onetime
discrete decision of whether or not to adopt a technology.
Getting a new idea adopted , even when it has obvious advantages , is difficult. Many
innovations require a lengthy period of many years from the time when they become
available to the time when they are widely adopted. Therefore a common problem for
many individuals & organization is how to speed up the rate of adoption of an innovation.
Unlike the invention of a new technology, which often appears to occur as a
single event or jump, the diffusion of that technology usually appears as a continuous and
rather slow process. Yet it is diffusion rather than invention or innovation that ultimately
determines the pace of economic growth and the rate of change of productivity. Until
many users adopt a new technology, it may contribute little to our well-being.
In the history of diffusion of many innovations, one cannot help being
struck by two characteristics of the diffusion process: its apparent overall
slowness on the one hand, and the wide variations in the rates of
acceptance of different inventions, on the other.
Thus understanding the workings of the diffusion process is essential to
understanding how technological change actually comes about and why it may be slow at
times.

Diffusion Process
Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain
channels over time among the members of a social system. Diffusion is a special type of
communication concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new ideas.
Diffusion has a special character because of the newness of the idea in the message
content. Thus some degree of uncertainty & perceived risk is involved in the diffusion
process. An individual can reduce this degree of uncertainty by obtaining information.
The main elements of diffusion of new ideas are :
1.
An Innovation is an idea, practice , or object perceived as new by an individual
or other unit of adoption . Most of the new ideas are technological innovations. A
Technology is a design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause &
effect relationships involved in achieving desired outcome. Most technologies have two
components : 1. Hardware , consisting of tool that embodies the technology as material or
physical object, & 2. Software , consisting of knowledge base for the tool.

The characteristics of an innovation , as perceived by the members of a social system ,


determine its rate of adoption. Five perceived Attributes of Innovations are :
1.Relative advantage - How improved an innovation is over the previous generation.
2.Compatability - The level of compatibility an innovation has to an individuals life.
3.Complexity - If the innovation is too difficult to use an individual will not likely
adopt it.
4.Trailability- How easily an innovation may be experimented with as is being adopted.
5.Observability - The extent an innovation is visible to others.
Re-invention is the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in
the process of its adoption & implementation.
2.
Communication Channels
A Communication Channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to
another .
Mass media channels are more effective in creating knowledge of innovations , where as
Interpersonal channels are more effective in forming & changing attitudes towards a
new idea , & thus in influencing the decision to adopt or reject a new idea.
3.Time
Time is involved in diffusion in
1.
Innovation diffusion process (five steps in process- Knowledge, persuasion ,
decision , implementation & confirmation),
2.
Innovativeness (Innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, &
laggards), and
3.
An innovations rate of adoption (relative speed with which an innovation is
adopted )
4.

Social System

A set of interrelated units engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common


goal. A system have structure giving stability & regularity to individual behavior . Social
& communication structure affects the diffusion of innovations.
Opinion leadership is the informal influence on other individuals attitude or overt
behavior .
A change agent attempts to influence innovation decision as desired by a change
agency.
Three main types of Innovation decision are:
1.
Optional Innovation- decision (An individuals independent decision),
2.
Collective Innovation- decision (decision based on consensus among members
of social system),
3.
Authority Innovation- decision (decision by few people with power , status, or
technical expertise ).
A fourth category Contingent Innovation decisions made after a prior
innovation decision generally by sequential combination of two or more decisions.

Consequences Changes in individual or social system due to decision of adoption or


rejection. These may be desirable / undesirable , direct / indirect, anticipated /
unanticipated.
These are the variables determining the rate of adoption of innovation / new technology.
Thus diffusion & then adoption of technology can be seen as the cumulative or aggregate
result of a series of individual calculations that weigh the incremental benefits of adopting
a new technology against the costs of change, often in an environment characterized by
uncertainty (as to the future evolution of the technology and its benefits) and by limited
information (about both the benefits and costs and even about the very existence of the
technology). Although the ultimate decision is made on the demand side, the benefits and
costs can be influenced by decisions made by suppliers of the new technology. The
resulting diffusion rate is then determined by summing over these individual decisions.
The most important thing to observe about this kind of decision is that at any
point in time the choice being made is not a choice between adopting and not adopting
but a choice between adopting now or deferring the decision until later. The reason it
is important to look at the decision in this way is because of the nature of the benefits and
costs. Two stylized facts about the adoption of new technologies :
First, adoption is usually an absorbing state, in the sense that we rarely observe a new
technology being abandoned in favor of an old one. This is because the decision to adopt
faces a large benefit minus cost hurdle; once this hurdle is passed, the costs are sunk and
the decision to abandon requires giving up the benefit without regaining the cost. Second,
under uncertainty about the benefits of the new technology, there is an option value to
waiting before sinking the costs of adoption, which may tend to delay adoption.
It seems natural to imagine adoption proceeding slowly at first, accelerating as it spreads
throughout the potential adopters, and then slowing down as the relevant population
becomes saturated. The obvious determinants of new technology adoption are the benefits
received by the user and the costs of adoption. The benefits are the increased utility from
the new good, but may also include such non-economic factors as the enjoyment of
being the first on the block with a new good. As a technology develops and improves more
people become familiar with it and comfortable about using it, and this accelerates the
speed of adoption.

Technology adoption lifecycle


The technology adoption lifecycle model describes the adoption or acceptance of a new
product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of
defined adopter groups. The process of adoption over time is typically illustrated as a
classical normal distribution or "bell curve." The model indicates that the first group of
people to use a new product is called "innovators," followed by "early adopters." Next
come the early and late majority, and the last group to eventually adopt a product are
called "laggards".

1. Innovators had larger farms, were more educated, more prosperous and more
risk-oriented
2. Early adopters younger, more educated, tended to be community leaders, less
prosperous
3. Early majority more conservative but open to new ideas, active in community
and influence to neighbors
4. Late majority older, less educated, fairly conservative and less socially active
5. Laggards very conservative, had small farms and capital, oldest and least
educated
Adoption is directly dependent or responsive to
Socio economic status ( age, education ,social status, social mobility, big units),
Personality variables (empathy, belief system, ability to deal abstract things, means use ,
intelligence, attitude, risk bearing, belief in faith, aspirations) Communication
Behaviour (social participation, connectedness, cosmopoliteness, contact with change
agents, opinion leadership).

Significance of Motivation
Motive means that which induces a person to act in a particular way, just as power causes
a machine to move and electricity causes a lamp to give light .In the same way , motive
also includes a person to act in different ways. The motives are drives or urges or
promptings that are responsible for human behavior . Accordingly, hunger is a motive
urging a man to look out for food. Love of self preservation is a motive causing him to
build a house for living safely and comfortably . Similarly buying motives are motives
which urge persons to buy products or services. For example affection for children may be
responsible for buying goods made in the country ,etc .These motives are in the minds of
the person and not in the product.

Motivation is the consequence of an interaction between the individual and


the situation. People who are motivated exert a greater effort to perform than
those who are not motivated.

Motivation is the willingness to do something. It is conditioned by this


actions ability to satisfy some need for the individual

Motivational process
Motivation is a process which begins with a physiological or psychological need or
deficiency which triggers behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or an incentive.

Theories of Motivation
Psychologists have offered various theories of human motivation . The most popular and
widely accepted theory has been given by Maslow, known as Hierarchy of need.
Maslows theory of motivation is based on the following premises
1 A person will have many needs .
2 These needs will vary in importance and, therefore , can be ranked in a hierarchy.

3. The person will seek to satisfy the most important need first.
4 When the person succeeds in satisfying an important need, it will cease being motivator
for the time being ,and
5 The person will then turn his or her attention to the next important need.
According to Maslow , the need in order of their importance, are physiological needs ,
safety needs , social needs , esteem and status needs, and self actualization needs.

Physiological : Basic needs of hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other body needs.

Safety: security and protection from physical and emotional harm

Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship

Esteem: Need for both self esteem(self respect, autonomy and achievement)
and external esteem (status, recognition and attention)

Self-actualization the drive to become what one is capable of becoming:


includes growth, achieving ones potential, self fulfillment.
Other important theories:
Mcclellands Achievement Motivation Theory

Based on recognition of three needs in work-place situations:


Need for achievement
Need for affiliation
Need for power
Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene theory

Based on the conclusion that people have two different categories of needs:

Hygiene factors - (environmental factors- working conditions, policies &


practices etc. in job)

Motivating factors Achievement , Recognition, technology itself,


advancement, responsibility, physiological growth.

Factors influencing buyer behavior.


Four major groups of factors are directly related to buyer behavior i.e. those
associated with the buyer, with the product , with the seller and with the situation.
1.
Buyer characteristics
Buyer characteristics include cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. cultural
factors include the cultural from which he/she comes , his sub culture identifications and
his social class. Social factors include the influence of other people in his life, particularly
his reference groups, family, and roles and status . Personal characteristics include his
age, occupation, economic, circumstances lifestyle and personality . Psychological
characteristics include his age, occupation, economic , circumstances , lifestyle and
personality. Psychological characteristics include his motivation, perception , attitudes,
beliefs and learning.

2.

Product characteristics
Product features ,style, quality , price and after sales services influence the buying
decision. These are controllable variables .The company has control over these product
attributes and can design them so as to maximize the products appeal to the target market.
3.
Seller characteristics
Characteristics of the seller also influence the buying outcome. The consumer forms his
opinion about the manufacturing company and the middleman(retailer to dealer) .A
particular consumer will have a certain image of the sellers reliability and service as a
manufacturer and also an impression of the retailers knowledge ability friendliness , trust
and service. Thus the manufacturing company and the retailer will want to consider the
seller characteristics that effect the buyers decision to buy the product.
4.
Situation characteristics
Various situational factors also influence the buying decision. one such factor is
the time pressure felt by the consumer to make a decision under great time pressure , he
might makes a decision with less information, relaying more on the sales person. Other
factors include the time of the year, weather, chance meetings with friends who have
opinions about the product and the current economic outlook.

Buying Motives of Consumer - feelings, emotions,


instincts & thoughts create desire to purchase a product

In the words of Stanton, it becomes a buying motive when the individual seeks
satisfaction through the purchase of something.

The buying motives are fear, desire for money, vanity, pride, fashion,
possession, sex or romance, love or affection for others, health or physical well being &
comfort & convenience. The buying motives are often known as the influences or
considerations helping the buyers in getting satisfaction.

Motivational factors to adoption of New Technologies


can be

Characteristics of new technologies, significance of technologies, simplicity,


convenience, quality
Improvement in work efficiency
Improves status- social prestige
Improves health
Increases production
Increases income/ monitory gain
Characteristics of individuals - age , education, caste, family , culture,
communication pattern(cosmopolite)
Individual personality
Superiority

Risk bearing capacity


Peer pressure
Appropriateness
Saves resource- Time , energy, money
Satisfaction received
Easy availability
Cheap/ cost
Available incentives
Opinion leaders / Change agents efforts
Better supervision
Proper follow up
Only adoption of technology will not be enough
if consideration for
sustainability are lacking therefore take care of the follows :

DIMENSION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE


Dr. M.S. Swaminathan , identifies 14 major dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture
covering social, economical, technological, political and environmental facets of
sustainability.
1. Technological Appropriability : refers to how far a technology suits the social and
infrastructural situational of the end users.
2. Economic Feasibility: Refers to capacity of farmers to afford and to incorporate technology
in his farm within his realm of financial end position.
3. Economic Viability: Refers to the realms to investment of every rupee counts.
4. Temporal Feasibility: Refers to the stability of the technology over long run.
5. Resource Use Efficiency: Refers to how effectively the technology can utilize the inputs to
convert them into useful, productive and ecofriendly outputs.
6. Local Adoptability: Refers to the extent to which the technology is adaptable to existing
local conditions of farmers.
7. Social Acceptability: Refers to the extent to which the technology is accepted by the
different sectors of the society.
8. Social Sustainability: Refers to the extent to which the technology fulfills the personal
needs of the farmers.
9. Political Tacitness: Refer to whether the technology can be used unhampered in the existing
intricacies and implications of the political setup.
10. Administrative Manageability: Refers to the extent to which the technology can be
practically implemented under the existing bureaucratic structure.
11. Cultural Desirability: Refers to the extent to which the technology fits with the cultural
patterns and values of the society.
12. Renewability: Refers to the extent to which the technology can be used or reused without
much additional efforts and inputs.
13. Equity: is a measure of how evenly the products of agro ecosystem are distributed among
the local products and consumers.

14. Productivity : is a quantitative measure of the rate & amount of production per unit of
input.

Strategies for Motivation

Encourage competition
Give Reward
Celebrate Success
Give Recognition
Monitory Incentives
Spend time
Provide adequate guidance & advice
Derive satisfaction
Healthy climate for learning
Stimulate feelings, emotions, instincts & thoughts as done by the
Commercial advertisers.

Lastly I would like to say


1. Generate a psychological environment suiting to new technology & also
enhance its acceptability.
2. Allows for immediate utilization of new technology.
3. Avoid the frustrating experience a layman may have with the new technology.
4. The technology must function as an instrument in the service of humanity &
not in the reverse.

Be a good motivator to enhance adoption of new technology along


with sustainability for development.

Thank you

Expectancy Theory
This theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends
on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on
the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. It includes three variables:
Expectancy Theory

1.
Attractiveness: the importance that the individual places on the potential
outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. This considers the unsatisfied needs of
the individual.

2.
Performance-reward linkage: the degree to which the individual believes
that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of each job outcome
Expectancy Theory

3.
Effort performance linkage: the perceived probability by the individual
that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.
Technology can be most broadly understood as the entities, both material and immaterial,
created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In
this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world
problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools or more complex
machines. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer
software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology. W. Brian
Arthur defines technology in a similarly broad way as "a means to fulfill a human
purpose".

The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this
context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to
produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes
technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials.
Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally,
technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is
known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened
barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise
of cyber culture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer.
Adoption of New Technology
Motivation for Technology Adoption and Its Impact on Abandonment:
A Case Study of U.S. Cotton Farmers
Three variables that represent farmers motivation for technology adoption are:
Profit, environmental benefits, and being at the forefront of agricultural technology.
Factors positively associated with technology
retention were age, longer experience with soil sampling technology, and the use of
variablerate input application.
Stages in Buying / adoption process
In the act of purchases, the customers mind goes throughout a number of mental stages
and types of such mental stages vary according to the prospect concerned. For example
some of the mental stages through which the customers mind normally passes would be1 need recognition
2 Attention /product awareness
3 Evaluation and intention, and
$ output purchase decision and post-purchase behavior
Consumer buying motives
Hatturick has differenciated motives as primary & secondary motives . Primary motives
are those fundamental drives with which people are born & secondary motives are those
primarily learned. These motives are universal.
Factors Influencing Adoption of Extension Technology
a)
b)
c)

Product cost,
Ease of use,
Availability of alternative products, and

d)

Product quality.

The four other factors listed in the survey addressed organizational attitudes toward
adoption of technology. The developers of the software speculated that large organizations
like Extension were influenced by other issues beyond general product quality. For
example:
e)
f)
g)
h)

Would a state Extension service be less likely to use a software product from another
university than one developed in-house?
Would the ability to personalize printouts from the software with the local institution's
name make it more likely to be adopted?
How important is the relevance of the software to institutional goals and objectives?
In large organizations, how influential is the attitude of supervisors or administrators
on technology adoption?

Factors that Influence Tech Adoption Rates


You may be asking yourself, This is all fine and interesting but how does it apply to
digital marketing?
Great question. Lets walk through it with a real-world example from Apple.
Rogers outlined five characteristics that influence a persons decision to adopt or reject an
innovation.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The 5 Factors that Influence Adoption Rogers findings and how Apple plays off this
brilliantly. (From Diffusion of Innovations)
Relative Advantage How improved an innovation is over the previous
generation.
For example, is the new iPad that much better than the previous? Over a laptop? Over a
Microsoft or Amazon product?
Compatibility The level of compatibility that an innovation has to be
assimilated
into
an
individuals
life.
In short, how hard is it to integrate this into my daily life? An iPod is very easy to integrate
as Steve Jobs famously said, All your songs in your pocket.
Complexity If the innovation is too difficult to use an individual will not likely
adopt
it.
Touchscreen interface: Were in a hurry. Were lazy. We dont want to think. An iPhone is
intuitive.
Trialability How easily an innovation may be experimented with as it is being
adopted. If a user has a hard time using and trying an innovation this individual will be
less
likely
to
adopt
it.
Is there a sandbox to try it out in first? Think of the Apple store experience.
Observability The extent that an innovation is visible to others. An innovation
that is more visible will drive communication among that persons peers and personal
networks and will in turn create more positive or negative reactions.
Think of the ubiquitous white headphones that drove the original print campaign for Apple
and showed off to the world how that person was listening to an iPod.
Attributes of Innovations & their rate of adoption