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ANTHROPOMETRY AND DESIGN ISSUES IN DESIGNING WOMEN FRIENDLY

AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
S S Meena
Assistant Professor
AICRP on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture
Department of FMPE
College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur
sanwal_meena@yahoo.co.in
Introduction
Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body in terms of the
dimensions of bone, muscle, and adipose (fat) tissue. The word anthropometry is derived
from the Greek word anthropo meaning human and the Greek word metron meaning
measure (Ulajaszek, 1994). The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human
body measurements. Weight, stature (standing height), recumbent length, skinfold thicknesses,
circumferences (head, waist, limb, etc.), limb lengths, and breadths (shoulder, wrist, etc.) are
examples of anthropometric measures.
Types of Anthropometric Dimensions
a. Structural Anthropometric Data: these are measurement of bodily dimensions of
subjects in fixed (static) position. Measurements are made from one clearly identifiable
anatomical landmark to another or to a fixed point in space.
b. Functional anthropometric Data: these data are collected to describe the movement of a
body part with respect to a fixed reference point. Ex. Maximum forward reaches of
standing subject. These data are used to design working envelop at a workspace.
c. Newtonian Anthropometric Data: such data are used in mechanical analysis of the load
on the human body. The body is regarded an assemblage of linked aegments of known
length and mass.
Anthropometric dimensions and strength parameters for designing of agricultural
technologies:
India is still not having any anthropometric database. Indian council of agricultural
research has started working on it and collecting 79 body dimensions and 16 strength
parameters of male and female farm workers. These data is divided in different categories viz.
vertical measurement in standing posture, transverse measurement in standing posture, circular
measurement in sitting/standing posture, vertical measurement in sitting posture, transverse
measurement in sitting posture, measurement of skin folds and measurement of strength
parameters.

A) Vertical measurement in standing posture: these anthropometric dimensions are


measured while the subject is in standing posture. These dimensions are important to
design the workspace, where the subject works in standing position viz. operating
wheel hand hoe, design of door etc. It includes
1
4
7
10
13

Weight
Vertical grip reach
Elbow height
Iliospinal heght
Knee height

16

Wall

2
5
8
11
14

Stature
Eye height
Olccranon height
Trochanteric height
Waist back length

3
6
9
12
15

Vertical reach
Acromial height
Iliocrystate height
Metacarpal III height
Scapula to waist back
length

to

acromion 17 Arm reach from the wall

distance
B) Transverse measurement in standing posture:

The transverse measurement are

needed to design the distance of different controls from the standing position. These
dimensions includes:
18
21
24

Biacrominal breadth
Chest depth
Hip bridth

19 Bideltoid breadth
20
22 Interscye breadth
23
25 Wall to lumbo sacral 26
joint distance

Chest Breadth
Waist breadth
Abdominal extension to
wall

C) Circular measurements in sitting/standing posture: These measurements are


specially useful to design tools which are mounted on the body. The circular
dimensions which are useful to design agricultural hand tools includes:
27
30

Chest circumference
Thigh circumference

28 Wrist circumference
31 Calf circumference

29

Waist circumference

D) Vertical measurement in sitting posture: The vertical measurement in sitting posture


is useful to design the work space where the task is performed in sitting posture.
Example, design of a tractor driver seat. These dimensions includes:
32

Sitting height

35

Sitting

sitting
acromion 36 Sitting popliteal height

38

height
Thigh

clearance 39 Elbow rest height

height sitting

33 Vertical

grip

reach 34
37

Sitting eye height


Knee height sitting

E) Transverse measurement in sitting posture: The transverse dimensions in sitting are


especially useful to design the different transverse dimensions of witting workspace.
These includes:
40

Coronoid

fossa

to 41 Abdominal depth sitting

43

hand length
Buttock
popliteal 44 Hip breadth sitting

46

length
Knee-knee breadth

42

Buttock knee length

45

Elbow-elbow

breadth

sitting
47 Functional leg length

F) Fore limb measurement in standing posture: The fore limb measurement sre use full
to design the distance of different controls from operator seat. These dimensions
include:
48
51

Thumb tip reach


Forearm hand length

49 Shoulder grip length


52 Hand length

54

Hand breadth across 55 Hand

57
60

thumb
metacarpal III
Palm length
58 Grip diameter (inside)
Middle finger palm 61 Grip span

59
62

length
Grip diameter (outside)
Maximum grip length

63

grip diameter
Index
fingure 64 Span

65

Span akimbo

thickness

50
53
at 56

Elbow grip length


Hand
breadth

at

metacarpal III
First phalanx digit III

diameter
G) Measurement of hind limbs in standing/sitting posture: these dimensions include
the dimensions of hind limbs.
66
69
72

Foot length
Heal breadth
Bimalleolar breardth

67 Instep length

68

Foot breadth (ball of the

70 Medial malleous height 71


25 Wall to lumbo sacral 26

foot)
Lateral malleolus height
Abdominal extension to

joint distance

wall

H) Measurement of head dimensions: The dimensions includes:


73

Head length

74 Head bridth

75

Menton to top of the head

I) Measurement of skinfold dimension: these dimension includes:


76
79

Biceps skin fold


Tricep skinfol

77 Subscapular skinfold

J) Measurement of strength parametr

78

Suprialliac skin fold

80

Hand grip strength (right)

81

Hand grip strength (left)

82

Push strength with both hands in 83

Pull strength with both hands in

84

standing posture
Right hand pull strength in sitting 85

standing posture
Left hand pull strength in sitting posture

86

posture
Right hand push strength in sitting 87

Left hand push strength in sitting

88

posture
Maximum right leg strength in 89

posture
Max. left leg strength in sitting posture

90

sitting posture
Max. left foot strength in sitting 91

Maximum right foot strength in sitting

92

posture
Torque strength of preferred hand 93

posture
Torque strength of both hands in

94

in standing posture
Torque strength of both hands in 95

standing posture
Hand grip torque

sitting posture
Description and use of some common anthropometric dimensions
Standing eye height: can be used as maximum allowable dimension to locate visual displays
for standing operators. The display should not be higher than the standing eye height of a short
operator so that short operator does not need to extend the neck to look at display. In this case
the design should be based on 5th percentile of eye height.
Standing shoulder height: used to estimate the height of the centre of rotation of the arm
above the ground and can help specify the maximum allowable height for controls so that short
workers need not elevate the arms above shoulder height to operate a control. Height is decided
based on 5th percentile.
Standing elbow height: used to design maximum allowable bench height for standing workers.
Standing knuckle height: height of knuckle above ground. Used to determine the minimum
height of full grip for a standing operator. Operator with high standing knuckle heights should
not have to stoop when grasping object in the workplace.
Standing fingertip height: used to determine the lowest allowable position for controls such
as switches. 95th percentile
Sitting height: can be used to determine ceiling height in vehicle to provide clearance for user
to tall sitting heights.
Sitting elbow height: used to determine arm rest height and work surface heights for seated
operators.

Popliteal height: 5th percentile height may be used to determine the maximum allowable
height of non adjustable seat. The 95 th percentile may be used to set the highest level of
adjustment of height adjustable seat.
Shoulder width: used to determine the minimum width of narrow doorways, corridors etc. to
provie clearance those with wide shoulders.
Hip breadth: used to determine the space requirement necessary for clearance and for
example, minimum width of seat.
Vertical reach: used to determine maximum allowable height for overhead control so that they
are reachable by the shortest operator.
Grip circumference: used to specify the maximum circumference of tool handles and other
objects to be held in the palm of the hand.
Reach: the dimensions of the reach envelop around an operator can be used to locate controls
so that seated operator can operate them without lean forward away from the backrest or
twisting the trunk and standing operator ca operate them without forward, backward or
sideways inclination of the trunk.
ANALYSIS:
Mean: mean is the total sum divided by total numbers. It explains the average of the data.
5th percentile: it represents the distribution of data population as the 5 percent of the data of
the given sample are having value less than it.
95th Percentile: it represent that the 95 percent data population are having value less than this
value.
Standard deviation: it measures the degree of dispersion in the normal distribution.

PRACTICAL TO TAKE ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR VARIOUS


USES
S S Meena
Assistant Professor
AICRP on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture
Department of FMPE
College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur
sanwal_meena@yahoo.co.in
Example 1: Anthropometric dimensions for Design of a chair
Define the anthropometric dimensions to design a chair. Measure the required dimensions and
also defined which data (5th , mean, 95th percentile) will be used for particular anthropometric
dimensions.
Example 2: Anthropometric dimensions for design of wheel hand hoe
A wheel hoe is a weeding tool which is operated in standing position by push and pull
method. What are the anthropometric dimensions are required to design its height, grip,
distance of soil working tool.
Example 3: anthropometric dimension for designing your office space.