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Dr. S.S.

Rajput
Professor, Directorate of Extension Education
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur
PRA is :
Process of Involvement with rural people for indigenous Knowledge Building Exercise. or Way of
Learning from & with Villagers to investigate, analyze and evaluate constraints & Opportunities, Need
Assessment & Priorities in area of agriculture, social & economic development programmes
addressed to village development .
PRA believes :

Participation

Empowerment

Sense of Responsibility
Need of PRA :

Sustained Change

Need for accurate and timely information

It advocates that people themselves are solution agents

It cut down the normal professional bias

Reduces down the normal time


Purpose of PRA :

To Use Farmers Criteria and Choice

To understand the Local Environment with clear local priorities.

To learn farmers indigenous technology

To Check findings by triangulation

To develop self critical analysis and direct contact with local leaders and community

Identification of local persons.

To empower both farmers and farm women to analyze problems and to plan accordingly for
their solutions.

To initiate and facilitate participation, discussion for solution of identified problems

TERM PRA DESCRIBES


A GROWING FAMILY OF APPROACHES & METHODS

PRA IS A METHODOLOGY

FOR INTERACTING
WITH VILLAGERS

UNDERSTANDING
THEM
1

LEARNING
FROM THEM

PRA MEANS

Identifying & Mobilizing


Intended Groups

To Enable Rural People


to Share, Enhance, to
analyse their knowledge
of life, to plan & act

Opening Ways in which


intended groups can
participate in decision
making project design
implementation &
Monitoring

Evoking Their
Participation

Collecting Data

PRA IN PRACTICE

Has Three Foundations

Behaviour & Attitudes

Methods

Emphasize Group Discussion


Diagramming by Rural people
methods are enabling villagers
capabilities

Approach Depend on
Attitude and Behaviour of
outsiders & needed good
rapport

Sharing

Sharing among villagers, Govt.


Organizations & NGOs to get
informations experiences & method,
for rural development. Sharing in
mapping, triangulation for cross
checking

INCLUDES
Participation of outsiders
Respect for Villagers
Patient
No rushing
Not interrupting
Method that Empower Villages, to Express & Analyse
their Knowledge

PRACTICAL UTILITY :
EXPLORATORY - OUTSIDER LEARN ABOUT A. Natural Resources

Watershed, Soil water conservation


Forestry
Wild life
Soil
Rural Energy etc.

B. Socio - Economic

Social Structure and Stratification


Housing Pattern
Family structure
Marriage System
Roads & Other Infrastructure

C. Resources

Enterprise Status
Topography & Agro-ecological System
Live Stock Status
Farm Implements
Population

D. Historical Events of Village


(i) Land mark events in crop husbandry (Use of Inputs)
(ii) Use of improved plough
Use of HYV
Use of NPK
Use of Pesticides
Major Pest out Break
Use of Sprayer
Use of improved varieties seed
Introduction of Tractor
(iii) Land Mark events in Animal Husbandry
Introduction of A.I.
Introduction of Jersey cows
(iv) Land Mark events in Fisheries
(v) Other Events
E. Time Trends in Events
F. Linkages with different departments
Need Assessment

Facility
Studies

Identifying Needs and


Prioritizing Problems
Participatory Plan sharing
Project design

Operational Instruction on village interactions Before :


Meet the villagers with an open and frank mind

DIY
Build up personal rapport with villagers
Identify villagers who are willing to share their experience
Show full interest and enthusiasm
Select suitable place
Set the climate for discussion

During :

Listen carefully
Show empathy
Be patient
Intense and careful observation is most important
Try to understand villagers way of reasoning
Do not interrupt, suggest or prescribe
Be polite, gentle
Try to adjust with villagers convenience
Do not lecture
Respect villagers as human beings
Try to follow existing social customs i.e. remove shoes at door step before entering the house
Listen carefully
Show empathy
Be patient
Intense and careful observation is most important
Try to understand villagers way of reasoning
Do not interrupt, suggest or prescribe
Be polite, gentle
Try to adjust with villagers convenience
Do not lecture
Respect villagers as human beings
Try to follow existing social customs i.e. remove shoes at door step before entering the house
Participate whole heartedly
Lead toward sensitive and important issues using open end questions
Asking too many questions at a time should be avoided
Take detail note of the discussion
Individuals trying to dominate the discussion should be prevented carefully
Change of topic should be smooth
Avoid gatekeepers carefully
Involve persons who are not participating
Separate discussion be organize for women group

PARTICIPATORY MAPPING :
Maps can be prepared by using colour powder, stones, small sticks, leaves, plants or any other local
materials available in the village itself.
Purpose :
To get an impression of the social and physical layout of village as perceived by villagers
themselves.
To get an impression of natural resources, environment of the village as perceived by villages.
To understand Globally the social structure of the village, who live where, which facilities,
where thy are located.

A . TYPES OF MAPPING
Social Map - Showing Following Information
Location and number of houses
Distribution of Caste
Population - Male, Female, Children
Small, Marginal and Landless Families
Live stock per Household
B . Village Resource Map
This Involves Land Use Pattern
Size of Different land use units (Forest, Crops, Fallow, etc.)
Natural Resources (Rivers, Nalas, Khad, etc.)
Orchard, Pastures Land, etc.
Location of Soil Erosion
Irrigation facilities (Tanks, Wells, etc.)
Mapping on Ground :
Advantages :
It is quick and easy
It is visible to several people
It can contain a lot of information on population, health, land use, soil type, etc.
It can be altered or corrected easily
It can be developed further if required
It can be expended as usually the space (ground) is unlimited
It can generate a good deal of discussion
It is highly Participate.
Disadvantages :
It can not be carried away unless it is copied on paper or photographed
SUGGESTION FOR DOING PARTICIPANT MAPPING :
Before :

Select the suitable place for discussion

Decide the purpose of map

Decide the type of map

Discuss about land use, type of land, soil erosion area, crop land, homestead land, etc.

Try to involve a good number of villagers to prepare the map.

Arrange the Material in advance (coloured powder, seed, colour chalk, etc.)
During :

Initiate discussion and ask the villagers to draw a map.

Allow them to draw the map in their own way.

Dont suggest or interrupt from outside.

Facilitators may even leave the site for few time after initiate the work.

If you find some villagers very eager to participate yet feel hesitate, go to them and encourage
them.

After preparing map allow other group who stand around to see and change/ addition

Triangulate Information
After :

Transfer the Map on paper

Write the Names of villages on Map

If possible take the Photograph

Thanks to all villagers for sharing information

Transect walk :
It a kind of Exploratory walk which is undertaken by the team along with the villagers to observe and
find minute details and the differences of a particular area.
Purpose:

To get an idea about farming practices, cropping pattern, the physical layout (existing or
planned) of irrigation facilities etc.

To get the cross sectional view of the village


Situations where applicable :

Used as support for mapping, joining of different areas into ecological zones, land use
mapping, productivity zoning.

Locating indigenous technologies etc.

Used to locate areas in the village, which need to be treated/developed.

MATRIX RANKING Villagers preferences and attitude towards a particular topic of interest is
revealed to us by this techniques. It helps us to understand farmer's priorities in crop varieties,
vegetables, tree species, livestock categories, irrigation methods etc
Purpose :

To gain better understanding of farmer's decision making processes.


To identify criteria used to prioritize and select certain items or activities over others.

EXAMPLE PADDY VARIETIES :


Criteria/Varieties

Ratna

BK-79

Kuhshboo

Kamod

Yield

Fragrance

Tolerance to pest

Least cost of cultivation

Storing qualities

III

II

III

Situation where applicable :


Used to study a range of subjects life soil types, crops, varieties, fodder, trees etc.
SEASONALITY :
Useful exercise to determine seasonal patterns in rural areas as related to rainfall, farming practices,
employment etc. Separate graphs/bar diagrams may be prepared for different items (i.e. rainfall,
incidence of diseases, Agril. Labour, demand etc.).
Situations where applicable
Has a wide range of application viz,, to indicate rainfall, Agril.. Operations, employment, credit and
fodder availability, milk yields, breeding periods, animal and human health diseases etc.

EXAMPLE

Time Line :

Time Line Refers to a calendar of Historical events from as far back as one can remember up
to the present, in the life of person, community, village and area.

Such a calendar of historical events are used to discuss both significant events and identify

major changes.
Purpose :
To find out the sequence o Historical events/ changes that occurred in the villages. And their
impact on the Social & Agro-ecological base.
Monitoring the impact of these identified changes.
Understanding past events
Provide reference points for trend/ change analysis.

SUGGESTIONS FOR DOING EXERCISE


Before :
Meet the people and set the climate for discussion
Encourage elderly & knowledgeable villagers to join the discussion as far as possible.
Carry sheets of paper & sketch pens.
During :
Initiate Discussion
Ask questions to the older person about the history of village. When it was established?
Ask about event & changes e.g.
How big was forest ? How deep was pond ?
How much production of wheat/ha village.
Ask some of them to write these events on Paper
Dont insist too much on specific year or date, if they dont remember the exact year help them
to relate it with some major events that every body is aware of.
Cross check continuously and prove into the information provided.
Once the exercise is over, present it in a large group of villagers by those who prepared it.
Triangulate the information.
After :
Thanks all the villagers for sharing their experiences.

Venn Diagram/ Chapati Programme :


Before :

Cut Round Papers of Different

Carry large paper sheet & sketch pens

Select suitable place.

Build Rapport with Villagers

Invite People from all section of the villagers to participate in discussion

During :

Set climate for frank discussion

Initiate the discussion on decided topic

Ask the villagers to make a list of all institutions including Govt. Non-Govt. and village
organization functioning in the area.

Ash the villagers to choose the larger disc for an important and smaller for less important
institutions and ask the name of institution

Ask the villagers to place paper disc on the ground denoting their village and than ask to place
other disces around villagers disc distance will denote intensity of involvement of that
organization with the village.

Make sure that all the villagers get a chance to express their views.

Careful control the gate keeper

Dont interrupt from outside.

Allow the villagers to change the position of disc.

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