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DO NOT WRITE ON EXAM

1. On which two dates could all locations on Earth have


equal hours of day and night?
A)
B)
C)
D)

4. The data table below compares the percentage of


sunlight reflected from various types of Earth surfaces.

September 23 and December 21


December 21 and March 21
March 21 and June 21
March 21 and September 23

2. If Earths axis were tilted less than 23.5, which seasonal


average temperature change would occur in New York
State?
A)
B)
C)
D)

Spring and fall would be cooler.


Spring and fall would be warmer.
Winter would be cooler.
Summer would be cooler.

3. The diagram below shows a classroom demonstration.


Two identical flashlights were placed in the positions
shown and they illuminated areas of varying size, A and
B, on a classroom globe. Thermometers were then placed
at the center of each illuminated area to measure the rate
of temperature increase. Readings were taken over a
period of 30 minutes.

Which statement is best supported by the table?


A) Light-colored surfaces reflect more sunlight
than dark-colored surfaces.
B) Rough surfaces reflect more sunlight than smooth
surfaces.
C) Soil surfaces reflect more sunlight than cloud
surfaces.
D) Vegetative surfaces reflect more sunlight than ice
surfaces.
5. The diagram below shows the noontime shadow cast by
a vertical post located in New York State.

Students most likely observed that the temperature of


area A increased at a
A) slower rate than the temperature of area B because
area A received rays that were less concentrated
B) slower rate than the temperature of area B because
area A received rays that were more slanted
C) faster rate than the temperature of area B
because area A received rays that were more
perpendicular to the surface
D) faster rate than the temperature of area B because
area A received rays with less total energy
Which letter indicates a location west of the post?
A) A

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B) B

C) C

D) D

6. Which graph best represents the relationship between


the angle of insolation and the intensity of insolation?
A)

B)

C)

D)

8. The diagram below shows the apparent path of the Sun


as viewed by an observer at a certain Earth location on
March 21.

7. The diagram below indicates the amount of solar


radiation that is reflected by equal areas of various
materials on Earth's surface.
At which latitude is the observer located?
A) the Equator (0)
C) 66 N

B) 23 N
D) 90 N

9. Which angle of the Sun above the horizon produces the


greatest intensity of sunlight?
A) 70

Which material absorbs the most solar radiation?


A) grassy field
C) sand

B) fresh snow
D) forest

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B) 60

C) 40

D) 25

10. At what time of day is the Sun at position S?


A) 6 a.m.

B) 9 a.m.

C) 3 p.m.

D) 6 p.m.

Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science.
The diagram represents four apparent paths of the Sun, labeled A, B, C, and D, observed in Jamestown,
New York. The June 21 and December 21 sunrise and sunset positions are indicated. Letter S identifies the
Sun's position on path C at a specific time of day. Compass directions are indicated along the horizon.

11. The greatest duration of insolation in Jamestown occurs when the Sun appears to travel along path
A) A

B) B

C) C

D) D

12.What happens to the angle of insolation on June 21


between solar noon and 6 p.m. in New York State?
A)
B)
C)
D)

It decreases steadily.
It increases steadily.
It remains the same.
It first increases and then decreases.

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13. Base your answer to the following question on the map below, which shows the location of the Heat
Equator for July and January. A Heat Equator is a line connecting the locations of the highest average
monthly temperatures.

What would be the effect on the positions of the Heat Equators in July and January if the tilt of Earth's axis
increased to 33.5?
A)
B)
C)
D)

The Heat Equator would move farther north in July and farther south in January.
The Heat Equator would move farther south in July and farther north in January.
Both Heat Equators would be identical to the geographic Equator at 0 latitude.
The positions of both Heat Equators would remain in the locations shown.

14. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below which represents the duration of insolation
at four different latitudes on Earth on four different dates.

Buenos Aires, located at 41 S, receives the shortest duration of insolation on


A) March 21

B) June 22

C) September 23

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D) December 22

15. Most insolation striking a smooth, light-colored, solid


surface is
A) refracted
C) reflected

B) transmitted
D) absorbed

16. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram and table below. The diagram shows a cross
section of a solar-energy collecting system constructed as a portion of a wall of a house. It consists of an
energy-absorbing surface, a clear glass covering, and air ducts through the wall into the house. The table
gives the house temperatures during a spring day. No other heat source is available for the house.

In Connecticut, on which exterior wall should the solar collector be placed to receive the most insolation?
A) a north-facing wall
C) an east-facing wall

B) a south-facing wall
D) a west-facing wall

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17. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the amount of insolation
during one year at four different latitudes on Earths surface.

Why is insolation 0 cal/cm 2/min from October through February at 90 N?


A)
B)
C)
D)

Snowfields reflect sunlight during that time.


Dust in the atmosphere blocks sunlight during that time.
The Sun is continually below the horizon during that time.
Intense cold prevents insolation from being absorbed during that time.

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18.The diagram below shows the position of the Earth in


relation to rays of light from the Sun. A, B, and C are
three positions on the Earth's surface.

21. Which two factors determine the number of hours of


daylight at a particular location?
A)
B)
C)
D)

longitude and season


longitude and the Earth's average diameter
latitude and season
latitude and the Earth's average diameter

22. Which diagram shows the position of the Earth relative


to the Suns rays during a winter day in the Northern
Hemisphere?
A)
Which graph best shows the relationship between
intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's
surface?
A)

B)

C)

D)

B)

C)

D)

19. In New York State, summer is warmer than winter


because in summer New York State has
A) fewer hours of daylight and receives low-angle
insolation
B) fewer hours of daylight and receives high-angle
insolation
C) more hours of daylight and receives low-angle
insolation
D) more hours of daylight and receives high-angle
insolation
20.The amount of insolation reflected from the Earth's
surface at a particular time is most dependent on the
A)
B)
C)
D)

23.The hottest climates on Earth are located near the


Equator because this region
A)
B)
C)
D)

angle of the Sun's rays


temperature of the Earth's surface
amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere
distance from the Earth to the Sun

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is usually closest to the Sun


reflects the greatest amount of insolation
receives the most hours of daylight
receives the most nearly perpendicular
insolation

24. In which diagram is the observer experiencing the


greatest intensity of insolation?
A)

B)

C)

D)

25. To an observer in Pennsylvania, the Sun appears to rise


each day somewhere along the
A) northern horizon
C) eastern horizon

B) southern horizon
D) western horizon

26.Very cold climates occur at Earths North and South


Poles because the polar regions
A)
B)
C)
D)

are usually farthest from the Sun


absorb the greatest amount of insolation
receive the most hours of daylight
receive low-angle insolation

27. On which date does maximum insolation usually occur


in New Jersey?
A) June 21
C) August 21

B) July 10
D) August 31

28. The metal plate at a 90 angle of incidence represents a location on Earth at solar noon on March 21. What
is the latitude of this location?

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Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the experiment description and diagram below.
A student was interested in how the angle of insolation affects absorption of radiation. The student
took three black metal plates, each containing a built-in thermometer, and placed them at the same
distance from three identical lamps. The plates were tilted so that the light from the lamps created three
different angles of incidence with the center of the plates, as shown in the diagram. The starting
temperatures of the plates were recorded. The lamps were turned on for 10 minutes. Then the final
temperatures were recorded.

29. Explain why the metal plate at a 90 angle of incidence had a final temperature higher than the other two
plates.
30. Base your answer to the following question on
the diagram below. The diagram represents daytime and nighttime on Earth. Point X is a location on Earth's
surface. Earth's rotational surface velocity is shown in miles per hour (mi/h) at specific latitudes.

Identify the Northern Hemisphere season that is just beginning when Earth is at the position represented in
this diagram.

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Answer Key
Insolation Exam
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

0 latitude or the
equator.

29.

The 90- angle


plate received more
intense radiation. It
received the most
concentrated/more
direct rays. It
absorbed the most
light. It reflected
the least amount of
light.

30.

summer

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