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EARTHQUAKE

PREPARED BY: ENGR. CIELITO


V. MALIGALIG

PART II
SEISMOLOGY
Earthquakes
Waves
Science of elastic seismic waves
Origin
Propagation
recording

Cont
Seismologists
Scientist making studies on earthquakes

Seismotectonics
Study of tectonic

Seismoscope
Device which indicate only the occurrence of
relatively strong ground motion.

Resonance
Frequency of excitation equals the frequency
of the building response.

Earthquake Quantification
Intensity of shaking
Rossi-forrel scale
Adopted Rossi-Forrel scale
Modified Mercalli scale

Magnitude of the earthquake source


Charles F. Ritchter
Seismograph
accelograph

Earthquake Magnitude
Richter Magnitude
Surface-Wave magnitude
Body-wave magnitude

Adapted Rossi-Forrel Scale


Hardly perceptible shock
Extremely feeble shock
Very feeble shock
Feeble shock
Shock of moderate intensity
Fairly strong shock
Strong shock
Very strong shock
Extremely strong shock

Modified Mercalli Intensity


Scale
Not felt except by a very few under
especially favorable.
Felt only by a few persons at rest.
Felt quite noticeably indoors.
During the day felt indoors by many,
outdoors by few.
Felt by nearly everyone; many
awakened

Cont
Felt by all; many frightened and run
outdoors.
Everyone runs outdoors.
Damage slight in specially designed
structures; considerable in ordinary
substantial buildings, with partial
collapse.
Damage considerable in specially
designed structures; well designed
structures frame thrown out of

Cont
Some well-built wooden structures
destroyed; most masonry and frame
structures destroyed with
foundations; ground badly cracked.
Few, if any structures remain
standing.
Damage total.

Ground Motions
Ground motion within the region of
damage may assessed depend:
Source mechanism
Underground geological structures at
the observing site.
Soil
Distance from the source

Measurement of elastic
wave
Collection of field reports on
earthquake intensity
Instrumental recording of the
kinematics of the ground by strong
motion seismographs

Characteristics of Earthquake
Ground Motion
With peak ground motion
Duration of strong ground motion
Bracketed duration
Acceleration intensity method
RMS method

Frequency content

Factors Affecting Ground


Motion
Earthquake magnitude
Epicentral distance
Site geology
Earthquake source conditions and
mechanism
Variations in geology and
propagation velocity along the travel
wave.