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Educational Technology
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Assignments. These Sample Answers/Solutions are prepared by Private Teacher/Tutors/Auhtors for the help and Guidance
of the student to get an idea of how he/she can answer the Questions of the Assignments. We do not claim 100% Accuracy
of these sample Answers as these are based on the knowledge and cabability of Private Teacher/Tutor. Sample answers
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these solutions and answers are prepared by the private teacher/tutor so the chances of error or mistake cannot be denied.
Any Omission or Error is highly regretted though every care has been taken while preparing these Sample Answers/
Solutions. Please consult your own Teacher/Tutor before you prepare a Particular Answer & for uptodate and exact
information, data and solution. Student should must read and refer the official study material provided by the university.

Answer the following questions

(i) Explain how, National Institute of Open Schooling (Formerly known as National Open School), impart
education to learners at secondary and secondary level.
Ans. The following shortcomings of the tradictional system of education led to the open school system.
1. In the traditional system of education the admissions are made on the basis of merit for a fixed number of
seats cousequently many are unable to enter the formal fold.
2. In geographically remote areas, the population is widely scattered and the schools are not within the reach of
the masses. A great number of learners have to drop out of the formal system due to economic, social and
certain other reasons.
3. The drop-outs of the formal system who at a later stage become interested in pursuing their education are
unable to do so.
Evidently, due to its rigidities and limited infrastructural facilities the formal system of education was unable to
accmmodate all those learners who were desirous of pursuing their education. This situation led to the emergence of
open schooling system in India. The merits of the open Schooling system lies in the fact that there is flexibility in it,
in the following terms:
(i) Institutional clalender.
(ii) Examinations.
(iii) Entry regulation.
(iv) Time limits for comptetion of the course.
Introduction: The curricular frame work and examinations of the NOS are at par with the formal school system.
Though the NOS learners have their poorer entry qualifications yet they perform as well as their formal school
counterparts. In this way the following is to be analysed.
The issue particularly with respect to the institutional processes such as course design, instructional inputs,
course delivery and evaluation process.
The considerations Influencing the Pedagogy: The considerations that influence the pedagogy of the open
schools are as follows:
Difference in Age: Open school students vary widely in age from school age children to senior citizens who
differ in their experience and life skills (Age range from 14 + to 60 +).
Difference in Learning and Reading skillsOpen school students differ widely in their learning skills and, in
particular in their reading skills.
Factors Contributing to the Making of Products at ParMain factors are as under:



Self-Independent Learners: Open school students are independent learners, they are self-propelled and selfmotivated.
Multi-Media Instruction: Open schools-often depend on multi-media instruction.
With the above considerations in mind, the NOS makes use of the following:
(i) Available educational, telecommunication,
(ii) Infromation technologies.
Its done to make its instructional design and delivery system more effective and accessible. One of the unique
features of the NOS is extensive use of modern communication technology for educational purposes.
Multi Channel Learning Strategy: The National Open School follows a multi channel learning strategy in its
delivery mechanism. The courses are delivered through the instructional inputs. There are constituted by the printed
materials supported by audio and video programmes. As the learners are new to the open schooling system, the NOS
gives importance to face-to-face instruction. The is given through the face to face interaction organised at the study
centers. It is evident from the above that, the courses are delivered through the following:
(i) Instructional inputs.
(ii) Various personal contcat programmes organised at the study centres.
These are discussed as under:
Instructional Inputs: It is found that combination of different media is too useful. Some reasons are as under:
(i) It is very effective in the teaching-learning process.
(ii) This allows relatively quicker feedback to the learner.
(iii) This helps to minimise the loneliness or isolation of the learner.
Hence the NOS adopts multi-media approach in its instructional inputs. It offers multi-channel learning which
comprises the following:
(i) The printed material.
(ii) Video and audio inputs.
(iii) Telecasts.
(iv) Assignments.
(v) Face to face interaction.
(vi) Interactive support matrial.
NOS designs and prepares course materials in the form of print as well as audiovideo programmes. It is done to
suit the needs of learners. It facilitates of their learning.
In traditional classroom teaching situation too, various media are utilised. This contributes at lot to the face-toface teaching situation. The instructional inputs are designed and produced in such a way so that they may facilitate
learning NOS tapes. The measures to make its instuctional input-wise as under:
(i) Printed materials.
(ii) Audio-video programmes and
(iii) Internet.
These are discussed in detail as under:
(a) Printed Materials: The NOS use prints materials as the main mode of instruction. The NOS knows it well
that its learners are away from the tecaher during most of their study-time. Hence the study materials are designed in
such a way that they act like a live-teacher. In other words, they are self-instructional. Hence they are also called selfstudy print materials. Efforts are made to make the learning materials life-related quoting examples from everyday
life.The learning materials are in tune with the level of comprehension of an average student and his background.
They are usually prepared in modular formats with a view to maintain its flexibility. Each module is a self-contained
learing unit.
The learning materials are developed by course teams. The members thereof are drawn from national and regional
institutions like
(i) National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT).



(ii) Technical Teacher Training Institutes (TTTI),

(iii) Colleges.
(iv) Universities.
(v) Conventional schools.
The practitioners are included from the study centres as they have first-hand experience of working with the
students. The team includes the following:
(i) Graphic artists,
(ii) Educational technologists,
(iii) Language experts.
The vocational courses are prepared by experts who are drawn from institutes of technical education and
practitioners. They determine the difficulty level and the skill component of each subject. The process of course
development at the NOS is as under:
1. Course Formulation: It is as under
(i) Assessment of need,
(ii) Defining Target Group,
(iii) Identification of course,
(iv) Course outline,
(v) Formulation of objective.
2. Course Designing: Meeting of special groups for the following purposes:
(i) To detail content area and
(ii) To formulate learning outcomes for each area.
(iii) To identify media components.
(iv) To integrate media components.
(v) To finalise modul ewise course outline.
(vi) To decide themes for audio/video programmes.
3. Print Material Development:
(i) Meeting of course terms to assign task,
(ii) Module writing,
(iii) Developing illustrations and graphics,
(iv) Review of the draft by the course team,
(v) Editing content,
(vi) Editing language,
(vii) Preparing the final manuscript.
4. Adudio/Video Production
(i) To prepare academic note
(ii) To develop academic script by
(a) NOS faculty,
(b)Experts from other institutions,
(c) Script writers.
(iii) Production of programme and post production activites.
The fact is that efficiency of human learning is as under:
(i) It is the function of intelligence and motivation.
(ii) It depends on the learning skills and approaches that facilitate the learning.
The work of Skinner, Bruner, Piaget, Ausubel and others make it clear that a given scientific instructional design
is of great importance. In it a learner learns as under:
(i) Much faster,
(ii) Much better,



(iii) More efficiently on her/his own.

The stucture of self-study print material is derived from the contributions of psychologists like Skinner, Ausubel,
Bloom Knowles and many others. If we compare it to a textbook, we will find that self-study print material is
carefully structured, it is designed to make learning easy and effective. Efforts are made to make the text selfsufficient. As a result a learner has not hunt for the additional sources, or even a teacher. For this the scope of the
content of the module is visualised in detail. The non-essential are avoided. The essential details are presented. It is
done so that every information required by the learners is covered.
The content is presented in an appropriate manner. It enables the learner to go through the material without much
external support. The content is self explanatory and conceptually clear. For this puspose, the content is analysed
logically. This logical analysis suggests the best order in which the content may be presented.
In the lessons there are access devices as under:
(i) Clear introduction,
(ii) Statements of the objectives,
(iii) Section heading,
(iv) Presentation of the information is small sections,
(v) Illustrations, etc.
These are the basic parameters that facilitate learning.
The materials are designed and developed in a proper manner. The purposes are as under:
(i) To arouse curiosity
(ii) To raise problems,
(iii) To relate knowledge to familiar situations and
(iv) To make the entire learning meaningful for them.
It provides the following necessary ones to facilitate their independent learning.
(i) Guidance,
(ii) Hints
(iii) References, etc.
To make the content comprehensible the following support it:
(i) Simple explanations,
(ii) Examples,
(iii) Illustrations,
(iv) Activities etc.
It performs the role of a teacher who can do as under in a classroom situation.
(i) To guide,
(ii) To Instruct,
(iii) To moderate, and
(iv) To regulate the learning process.
In this way the print material is self-directed i.e. it is able to direct the entire process of learning.
It is a well known fact that the optimum learning can be ensured of the learners are able to know that they are on
the right track.
In the formal classroom situation, the teacher strengthens reinforcement at every stage of learning and retention.
He does so by asking the students questions and getting their feedback.
In the open learning situation, the learners are not in regular contact with the teachers. Instead the NOS learning
material provide for feedback also.
In the NOS learning material there is a built-in- evaluation system.
Self-evaluation is in the form of:
(i) Intext questions
(ii) Terminal exercises, etc.



It does as under:
(i) It provides a learner with the much needed feedback about his/her progress.
(ii) Reinforces learning, and
(iii) Motivates him/her for learning.
The learner can check up his/her retention by going through the What have you learnt section given at the end
of each lesson.
In this way, on the basis of the above discussion we can summarise the structure of a lesson in the NOS module
as under:
Introduction ObjectivesPresentation of content in section and Sub-sectionsIntext questions in sections.What
have you learntTerminal exercisesAnswers to intext questions.
Besides the instructional material for the various programmes offered, the NOS provides a whole range of
support material to its learners. The materials are as under:
1. The study guide,
2. How to make best use of open schooling?
3. Glossaries,
4. Practical Manual,
5. Sample question papers etc.
6. The feedback is given high priority.
It is from the students as well as from the faculty at headquarters with a view to facilitate regular interaction of
the faculty at the head quarters with the learners the NOS reaches out to its learners through a quarterly magazine
called Open Learning. The magazine promotes further interaction. It includes articles of general interest, as well
as questions from the students answered by the acmademic experts.
A newsletter Open Schooling provides information on the various activites of the NOS.
Computers are being used for course writing. Attention is given to the layout and production as these also
facilitate learning.
Evidently, the learning material is carefully planned and produced by the NOS. As a result, it enables the learners
to comprehend the lesson.
Audio-Video Programmes: The students are provided all that what a good classroom teacher could do for them
by an effective combination of the media and the self-instructional nature of the course materials. For this purpose
the NOS follows the supplementary media approach. In this approach main medium of instruction is the printed
(i) The audio-video programmes support this.
(ii) The print materials give the basic and the necessary information.
There may be certain portions in the course that may need the following:
(i) Further information,
(ii) Elaboration,
(iii) Demonstration etc.
All this can enrich the experiences of learners who have already got the basic material in prints
Audio-Video programme on such areas can give the learners a better understanding of the problems. For this
purpose the following steps are taken:
(i) Such areas in the NOS curriculum are identified and
(ii) The NOS produces audio-video programmes on such areas.
These programmes explain or illustrate the difficult points and compex concepts and thus give additional help to
the students.
The NOS does not have studio. The entire audio-video production is done by freelance producers for the production
of audio and video programmes. The NOS utilises all available facilities in other institutions such as
(i) Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET).



(ii) Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)

The audio and video programmes are made available to the study centres. In the study centres the students can
view and use the above programmes during the contact classes. The NOS study centres provide the electronic
equipment suches VCR and tape recorders to play audio-video cassettes. Audio-Video cassettes to individual students
on normial payments. Besides, the educational programmes are teleast on the national network.
(c) Internet: In the open learning methodology the learner does not go to the educational/institution. It is through
the internet that a huge amount of information is provided to the people across the world. In this way the Internet
serves for delivering instructional inputs or providing information to the open school learners.
Further, the NOS offers a one-year course on Certificate Course in Computer Applications (C.C.C.A.) on-line.
The course is offered with the help of partnership with those schools/institutions which have basic facilities to offer
this course. This enables those who have access to internet, to continue their education even at their home or office.
In near future, it is hoped to offer all its courses and programmes on-line.
(ii) Illustrate, with examples, how two-dimensional and three-dimensional non-projected media can
contribute to classroom learning at secondary level.
Ans. The non-projected two-dimensional visuals, also called graphics, are the most used as teaching-learning
aids. The Graphics materials are created by a teacher for the following purposes:
(i) To simplify.
(ii) To illustrate.
(iii) To concretise learning experiences which are otherwise abstract. The student creation of the graphic material
is the most productive use of graphics in an active learning situation.
Varieties of Non-projected two Dimensional visuals:
The category of non-projected two dimensional visuals consists of flat picture,cut-out poster, chart graph, map,
cartoon and comic. Among these chart, poster, diagram, graph and map are most used in teaching-learning.
I. Diagram: A diagram has the following characteristics:
(i) It is a drawing showing arrangements and relations, as of parts to the whole.
(ii) It is a visual symbol, made up of lines, curves and geometrical forms.
(iii) A diagram explains rather than represents.
(iv) It contains both pictorial and verbal parts.
(v) The verbal part is often the title and the labelling of parts.
II. Chart: A chart is also considered a diagrammatic representation. A chart is a visual symbol for the
(i) Summarising.
(ii) Comparing.
(iii) Contrasting.
(iv) Performing other helpful services in explaining subject matter.
Through charts we can present virtually anything except statistical or geographical data.
Types: Charts are of different types as under:
1. Time Chart: It represents material in their chronological sequence of happening with suitable indication of
time occurrence. With its help students can compare and contrast happenings or events in relation to time. We can
also present a time chart in a tabular from such as the railway time table.
2. Tabular Chart: It presents information and data in a classified or categorised form which is arranged in
tabular columns.
(i) Financial statements,
(ii) Balance sheets,
(iii) Profit and loss figures are best represented as tabular charts.
3. Tree Chart: Tree chart is a depiction of development, growth and change. It begins with a single source and
then spreads out into many branches as in the case of a tree. For example, genealogical tree as under:



Tree Chart

Stream Chart

4. Stream Chart: It depicts development, growth and change it begins with the many tributaries which later on
converage into a single channel the stream. As such the stream chart is the opposite of the tree chart. Through a stream
chart we may show all the raw material necessary for the manufacture of a finished product, such as on automobile.
5. Organisational Chart: It represents the functional relations within an organisation. The rectangles, lines,
arrows and circles are used for doing so.
The following can be represented in the form of an organisational chart:
(i) Administrative heirarchy in an institution or
(ii) The legal system in a state.
6. Process Chart: It represents the stages of steps in a process. It is usually in a cyclical arrangement suches in
the case of the following:
(i) Life cycles,
(ii) Energy cycles, and
(iii) Conservation cycles.
7. Sequence Charts: They normally consists of more than one segment or chart. They are more concerned with
representation than content. Strip Chart and Flip chart are two types of sequence charts. These are as under:
(i) The strip chart is constructed as a single chart with various sequential parts covered with strips of paper. The
paper strips are removed sequentially to reveal the content in stages.
(ii) The flip chart is like a calender with a sheet each for twelve months. As the month changes, the sheet is
flipped over. In fact, in flip chart there are several charts arranged in a sequential order and fastened together
at one end with thin spiral, metal or wooden strip.
III. Graph: A graph is a diagrammatic treatment. It represents numeric or quantitative data. Groups are of three
fundamental forms as under:
(i) Line,
(ii) Bar, and
(iii) Circle.
Utility: Graphs are of great utility as under:
(a) To the Teacher: The graphs provide a teacher with the possibility of concretising number and their
(b) To the Learner: The graphs provide the learner with a scope to do as under:
(i) To compare,
(ii) To contrast, and
(iii) To analyse figures and trends.

IV. Map: A map is a visual representation of the whole or part of the earth. It is drawn to a scale and maintains
the directional relationship of the parts. As a teaching, learning aid, maps are used for teaching fundamental concepts
such as size, distance, space, location and diretion.



V. Poster: A poster can be defined as a bold and symbolic representation of a single idea.
Among the two dimensional visuals, posters are the most eye-catching. The reason is their function is to attract
the attention and pass on a single message posters have both visual and verbal components. The verbal component is
often called the caption.
General Principles: There are several types of two dimensional visuals. As such there are different considerations
and guidelines to prepare them. As they fall under one category of teaching-learning aids, we may think of some
general principles and procedures of preparing them. These are as under:
Analysis of Content: A visual would centre around one or the other content. In fact, the visual is to aid learning
by making the content concrete. It is otherwise an idea or infromation and hence a bstract. The content is to be a
nalysed to know its component parts and their relationships. It is also necessary to know the exact mesage to be
communicated. For this, it may be necessary to reorganise the content or collect more informaion we have to decide
about the particular type which is suitable for the purpose.
However aften, a two-demensional visual is merely an enlargement of material available elsewhere, like in the
text book. A teachers needs the same in a large size for classroom teaching purposes.
2. Teahniques of Enlarging Visual Material: Various techniques are as under:
1. Grid Method: In this method a grid is drawn with a pencil on the original material which is small. The grid
is a matrix or horizontal and vertical lines which are equidistant. Another grid is drawn with a large scale on the chart
paper. Maintaining the proportions and direction the figure is hand drawn on the chart paper while referring to the
original. Here the grid acts as a guideline for enlargement.
2. Projection Method: The original materials projected on to a blank chart paper is fixed on a board/wall using
episcope, in case it is on a trans-parency. Taking the help of the image, which is adjusted for its size, pencil sketch is
made. The sketch is subsequently made paermanent by working on the pencil sketch over a table.
3. Pantograph Method: A pantograph is a machanical device. In this device a lead-point traces out the enlargement
of a figure which is over by a pin-paint tracer, while one point is held stationary. Adjustable pantographs are available
in the market. These can enlarge the original figure upto five times.
4. Layout: A visual should be accurate in content as well as be appealing to the eye. Unoarganised, imbalance
materials do not appeal to the human eye. We should think about the organisation of the matter or the visual so that
it is balanced and not crowded or imbalanced. To balance means distribution of component over space in such a way
that there is comparability between the two-parts, in case the visual is cut as under:
(i) Vertically,
(ii) Hoarizontaly, or
(iii) Diagonally,
One must prepare a rough sketch of the layout before finalising.
5. Lettering: Lettering on a two dimensional visual is done in any of three ways as under.
(i) By free-hand, or
(ii) By using tolls, or
(iii) By using readymade letters.
These days readymade letters in different sizes, shapes and colours are available. These letters could be stuck or
printed by rubbinhg over the chart paper. Free hand lettering can be done in any of two ways as under:
(i) By first having the pencil sketch, or
(ii) By writing diretly,
We should use pencil sketch and guidelines unless we are sure about the consistency in size and shape of letters
in free-writing.
Secondly, a bold style of wriring should be preferred against italics or stylished writings unless under special
circumstances. There are a number of tools for writing. The main among them are stencils and templates.
Stencils for different size letters and so slso for capital and small type are available in the market.
Even while using with stencils, one should use pencil first. There are different types of pens, colours and ink



available besides there are erasable and non-erasable varieties. Poster colours are best among the available colours.
Indian ink can be used with pen or cartographic pen set.
(iii) Suppose you have to develop and implement a Computer Assisted Learning programme in your
school for classes IX and X. Prepare a detailed plan for developing, executing and studying the effectiveness
of the programme.
Ans. Main problems related to the use of CAL approach are as under:
1. A Challenging Task: It is a challenging task to motivate and train teachers for using Computers in
education as under:
(i) The teachers may entertain fear of this new device.
(ii) The teachers may not be willing to spend extra time for preparation, selection and use of CAL packages.
(iii) They may perceiveiat as at hreat to their job.
2. Expectations Not Fulfilled: CAL packages may be unable to fulfil the expectations of the teachers.
3. Difference of Opinion: There may be difference of opinion between the CAL authors and teachers regarding
the objectives and methods decided by them.
4. Administrative Problems: Various adminis-trative problems are associated with computer installation. Some
are as under:
(i) The physical location of the computer resources.
(ii) The cost of the hardware maintenance.
(iii) Insurance and time-tabling.
5. Difficulty in Having a Team Approach: A team Approach is essential for quality courseware. Now, the
expertise needed for developmental process is from various fields such as:
(i) Teaching,
(ii) Programming,
(iii) Hardware Engineering,
(iv) Subject Expertise.
It is but natural that problems would be faced in their coming together for a long time.
6. The Problem Created by Rapid Development: There are rapid development in hardware. Hence it is
difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete.
When a new system is installed by the greatest number of institutions. They may not be able to get courseware
needed for the system. The courseware which have been developed so far may become useless.
Solution of the Problems: To solve many of the problems that are being faced by CAL, it is suggested to
develop a lot of educational software. At present a number of such software are being prepared by experts in different
fields. They should be validated with a view to their wider use.
The various phases involved in the development of CAL Package are as under:
(i) Analysis Phase,
(ii) Design Phase,
(iii) Programming Phase,
(iv) Validation Phase.
Main steps in the Analyses Phase are as under:
1. Selection of Unit: Computer demands more money resource than any other media while writing a programme
for CAL. The teacher should bear in his/her mind that there should be a rational for the use of a computer.
Before starting to develop a CAL package the following questions should be considered:
(i) If the learner will gain something more than he/she would have gained by using other media/innovative
(ii) If the topic involves such objectives that can be achieved fully only if he uses CAL.
(iii) If the package will provide individual learning experience to the learner.
(iv) If the package provides interactivity with the learner user control and scope for self evaluation.



2. Content Analysis: Content analysis means the process of dividing the topic into sub-topics or subpoints.
Content analysis helps the teacher in the identification of the all the concepts related to the contents as under:
(i) Definitions,
(ii) Information points,
(iii) Rules,
(iv) Examples,
(v) Formulae,
(vi) Diagrams,
(vii) Illustrative Graphics etc.
3. Entry Behaviour: Before developing any educational software it is necessary to analyse the following:
(i) Vocabulary,
(ii) Learning Style,
(iii) Needs,
(iv) Conceptual level,
(v) Comprehension level of the learners,
After making the above analysis the teacher can sequence the concepts. Thus, they will be logically arranged.
The teacher can identify the pre-requisities to learn the topic. In case some basic concepts are not clear to the learner.
The learner will fail to use the learning material of the topic.
4. Specification of Objectives: At this stage the teacher can determine the instructional objectives keeping in
mind the earlier learnt capabilties of the learner group. Their previous knowledge and other competencies will be
kept in mind. The statements of learning objectives for a programme is prepared.
5. Development of Evaluation Measures: A statement of objectives has the description of the capability to be
developed. This description should be clear. Only then it will help in designing test to assess how well the learner has
acquired that capability.
Self learning material also demands a pre-test in order to decide as under:
(i) If there is a need on the part of the learner to go through the material or a sub-unit, or
(ii) If the learner can skip it.
In Design Phase are the following steps:
1. To Develop Modular Structure: It is essential to keep in mind the individual differences. The learners are
able to learn those clearly defined areas of activity which they find suitable. As such a learner will concerntrate his
attention only on the topic which he/she wants to master.
While developing a modular structure it is necessary for the course designer to identify. The title of each module,
objectives and the combination of the most suitable presentation methods.
In this way the whole package would be a set of various interrelated modules. Yet one can select modules to be
Besides the pretest may help the learner in the process of selecting the appropriate or proper modules.
2. To Develop a Flowchart: A flow Chart is defined by Dr. Vibase as a chart that shows the flow-the relationships
between events, activites and concepts. These should be certain sequential order, no matter the relationship is temporal
or non-temporal.
Before developing flow chart the following task should be completed.
(i) Identification of all the information required to be included in the course.
(ii) Construction of the rule set.
The flowchart becomes the link between the above information and the screen presentation.
The utility of the flow chart can be described as under:
(i) CAL enables proper feedback to be given to the learners. It is in response to their answers. These anticipated
wrong answers could lead to remedial loops containing material. The latter is designed for clearing up
serious misunderstanding. The programme flowchart is necessary to avoid confusions in the branching.



(ii) The flow chart shows the quickest route through the course.
(iii) The flow-chart shows the frame numbers and the count loops.
(iv) The flow chart helps in preventing the course muddled.
(v) The flow chart clearly shows the branching.
(vi) The flow chart can be used by the later authore for amending and editing the course.
3. Designing Frames: The information can be problem down into small package. A module consists of a series
of frames. Some frames are as under:
(a) Criterion Frames: The criterion frames should be written first before the teaching frames.
(i) The criterion frames act as a check that the teaching frames achieve their objectives.
(ii) The criterion frames tests a teaching point. The test is of the learners knowledge.
(iii) The criterion flow chart should be free from the loops guiding the student to get correct answers to the
questions which are raised in the frame.
(b) Teaching Frames: The teaching Frames contain all the information that is required for completing the
(c) Testing Frames: The testing frames can have help and hint frames with them. These may be in either of two
forms-a-prompt or a clue.
When the frames are designed, they should be changed in a manner which is useful for screen display.
4. Preparation of Screens with Reference to Actual Programming: At the programming stage the role to be
played by the computer is to be appreciated.
In this connection the folloiwng points are to be kept in view:
(i) Screen layouts
(ii) Text
(iii) Graphics
(iv) Timing
(v) Animation
(vi) Sound
(vii) User Control.