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Quadratics Unit Objectives

Students will be able to identify independent and dependent variables in quadratic


situations, as well as model them with tables, graph, and rules and identify the
domain and range of the function/situation.
Students will be able to identify the vertex from the table, graph, rule, and
situations, as well as explain what they mean in the context.
Students will be able to find the constant second difference in a quadratic table,
and relate it to the leading coefficient in the rule.
Students will be able to relate characteristics of the table, graph, and rule of
quadratic situations to each other, and to the situation they come from.
Students will be able to simplify quadratic rules, as well as convert between
standard and vertex forms.
Concept Map

Title of Unit
Curriculum Area

Quadratic Functions
Algebra

Developed By

Grade Level
Time Frame

10th Grade
Approximately 12 assignments,
Approximately 4-5 weeks

Isaac Frank

Identify Desired Results (Stage 1)


Content Standards
High School: Algebra
SSE.A.2: Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it.
SSE.B.3: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.
APR.B.3: Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.
CED.A.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems.
High School: Functions
IF.C.7: Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
IF.C.7.A: Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
IF.C.8: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
BF.A.1: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.
Standards for Mathematical Practice
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP3: Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP4: Model with mathematics.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP6: Attend to precision.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP7: Look for and make use of structure.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP8: Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Understandings
Overarching Understanding
Students will be able to recognize when a situation is quadratic, as opposed
to linear.
Students will understand the coefficients in a quadratic rule (in both vertex
and simplified form).
Students will be able to explain how the coefficients in a quadratic rule
relate to a situation (in both vertex and simplified form).
Students will be able to explain how the coefficients affect the table and
graph of the rule (in both vertex and simplified form).

Essential Questions
Overarching
How can I identify a quadratic
function?
What is the vertex, and what
does it represent in this
situation?
What is the maximum, and
how do you know?
Why is the graph symmetrical?
How does squaring make it
this way?

Topical
What does it mean to multiply
two lines (or a line by x)?
Why isnt there a constant rate
of change in quadratic
functions?
How can I find the vertex of
this quadratic?
How can I simplify/change the
form of this quadratic rule?
What does the (leading)
coefficient mean and how
does it affect the graph and

table?
Is there an easy way for
finding the
minimum/maximum of a
function?

Related Misconceptions
Students may have difficulty understanding what our introduction of
quadratic equations (multiplying a linear function ax+b by x) means and
how and why we would do it. They may also have trouble understanding
how to find the vertex of a quadratic, since we do not want to emphasize
the formulaic procedures (primarily, -b/2a).

Objectives
Skills

Knowledge

Students will know


When to use a quadratic function to model a situation
How the characteristics of a graph or table relate to the situation
How the coefficients/constants affect the functions ax2+bx+c and a(xh)2+k (a, b, and c; or a, h, and k, respectively)
Why quadratic functions have symmetry in their tables and graphs

Students will be able to


Model a quadratic situation
Identify the vertex on a (quadratic) table or graph, or from the
situation
Find the min/max/vertex in a given situation or from a quadratic
rule (in simplified form)
Find the constant second difference on a table to identify a
quadratic function
Simplify a quadratic rule
Convert between simplified and vertex forms of a quadratic rule

Assessment Evidence (Stage 2)


Performance Task Description
Goal
Role
Audience
Situation
Product/Performance
Standards

Assess the students: understanding of the coefficients/constants in a quadratic rule, and how they affect the
graph and table of the rule; ability to find the vertex of a quadratic rule; ability to to convert a rule between
simplified and vertex forms; ability to model a quadratic situation; ability to simplify a rule into simplified
and/or vertex forms; understanding of a quadratic functions symmetry; understanding of the properties of
quadratic funcitons
End of unit test
Myself, Craig Huhn (mentor teacher)
Summative unit exam (taken during regular class period)
Test
SSE.A.2: Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it.
SSE.B.3: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.
CED.A.1: Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems.
IF.C.8: Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
BF.A.1: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

Other Evidence
Both Craig and I will assess much of the evidence of student learning in day-to-day interactions and conversations with students, as well as
class discussions. We will also use warm-ups to quickly check where students are at with their understanding of learning targets, as well as
possible giving one or two quizzes. At the end of the unit, students will also get credit for the day-to-day work they have been doing on the
tasks we have handed out by handing in their unit packet.

Learning Plan (Stage 3)


Concept in
Unit
Properties of
Squaring

Lesson Topic
Introducing
quadratics by
multiplying
ax+b by x

Lesson Learning
Objective
SWBAT model a linear
situation (sales vs. price)
and use it to create a
quadratic model (revenue
vs. price).

Properties of
x2

SWBAT describe patterns,


relationships, and
characteristics of the table
and graph of x2.

Comparing x2
to (x-h)2

SWBAT describe patterns,


relationships, and
characteristics of the table
and graph of (x-h)2
(specifically, (x-5)2), and
relate them to properties,
relationships, and
characteristics of x2.
SWBAT describe patterns,
relationships, and
characteristics of the table
and graph of a(x-h)2 (for
this task, -2(x-5)2), and
relate them to properties,
relationships, and

Comparing
a(x-h)2 to (xh)2

Description of how lesson


contributes to unit-level objectives
This lesson has students modeling a
linear situation in the form of
sales=a(price)+b, and then using it to
create a quadratic function,
revenue=(sales)(price)=[a(price)+b]
(price).
This lesson has students starting to
recognize general patterns,
relationships, and characteristics of
the tables and graphs of quadratic
functions, as well as making a table
and graph for f(x)=x2.
This lesson has students building on
the understandings of patterns,
relationships, and characteristics of
the tables and graphs of quadratic
functions, while also realizing that
the center is at h (in this case, 5)
instead of at 0, but the function still
has the same 2nd rate of change.
This lesson has students building on
the understandings of patterns,
relationships, and characteristics of
the tables and graphs of quadratic
functions, while also realizing that
the a value changes the 2nd rate of
change, affecting the narrowness

Assessment activities
Assignment (iPod Market Research),
small group work, class discussion on
assignment
Table, graph, descriptions of patterns in
both
Writing a rule
Assignment (Properties of Squaring),
small group work, class discussion on
assignment
Table, graph, descriptions of patterns in
both
Assignment (Properties of Squaring II),
small group work, class discussion on
assignment
Table, graph, descriptions of patterns in
both

Assignment (Properties of Squaring


Continued), small group work, class
discussion on assignment
Table, graph, descriptions of patterns in
both

Comparing
a(x-h)2+k to
a(x-h)2

Vertex Form

Introduction
to vertex form
Understandin
g vertex form

Simplifying
rules/convertin
g to vertex
form

characteristics of x2 and
(x-h)2.

of the graph, and determines if the


numbers are made negative, flipping
the graph upside down.

SWBAT describe patterns,


relationships, and
characteristics of the table
and graph of a(x-h)2+k
(for this task, -2(x5)2+15), and relate them
to properties,
relationships, and
characteristics of x2, (xh)2, and a(x-h)2.
SWBAT find the vertex
for a quadratic from a rule
in vertex form.

This lesson has students building on


the understandings of patterns,
relationships, and characteristics of
the tables and graphs of quadratic
functions, while also realizing that
the outputs (and graphs) are shifted
up or down by k.

Assignment (Properties of Squaring


Continued), small group work, class
discussion on assignment
Table, graph, descriptions of patterns in
both

This lesson has students finding the


vertex of a parabola from a rule in
vertex form without graphing the
function or creating a table.
This lesson has students finding the
vertex of a parabola from a rule in
vertex form without graphing the
function or creating a table, as well
as making generalizations about the
how coefficients affect the graphs.
These lessons have students
simplifying quadratics and critiquing
the (made up) work of others to find
errors in their simplification
processes.
This lesson has students simplifying
quadratic rules and then finding the
vertex from the rules in standard
form.
This lesson has students either
simplifying the vertex form into

Assignment (Vertex Form), small group


work, class discussion on assignment

Finding the
vertex in
standard form

SWBAT find the vertex


for a quadratic from a rule
in vertex form, as well as
explain how the
coefficients (a, h, k) affect
the graph.
SWBAT simplify
quadratic rules to standard
form, as well as critique
others reasoning and
work.
SWBAT find the vertex
from quadratic rules in
standard form.

Switching
forms

SWBAT convert between


standard and vertex forms

Standard form

Assignment (Perfecting Vertex Form),


small group work, class discussion on
assignment

Assignments (Simplifying Quadratics;


Simplifying Practice), small group work,
class discussion on assignment
Assignment (Finding Vertices), small
group work, class discussion on
assignment
Assignment (Switching Forms Practice),
small group work, class discussion on

Real world
examples

Applying
understanding

Properties of
squaring

Range

Test

of quadratic rules.

standard form, or unsimplifying


the standard form into vertex form.

assignment

SWBAT model real world


quadratic situations using
their understandings of
quadratics that they have
developed throughout the
unit.
SWBAT describe the
range of quadratics based
on the rules

This lesson has students using their


knowledge about quadratics to
examine real world quadratic
situations and draw conclusions and
make predictions about them.

Assignment (Parabolas in the World),


small group work, class discussion on
assignment

This lesson has students using their


Assignment (Limited Range), small
experiences working with quadratics group work, class discussion on
(and a linears) to determine the range assignment
of the functions

Quadratics Unit Test


Name_______________________
Make sure to show all of your work and explain completely. Answer every question, and be sure not to
spend too much time on one problem. Feel free to skip around, but make sure you attempt all problems.
If you get done before the time is up, use your calculator to verify or check your answers.
1)

2
Given the function f ( x) 4 x 15 x 10 , answer the following questions:
a. Does the graph of the function open up or open down? How do you know based on the
coefficients (numbers in the rule)?

b. What is the pattern in the table? How do you know based on the coefficients (in other
words, without having to make the table)? {Specific numerical detail of pattern(s) will earn full
credit. General descriptions will receive partial credit.}

c.

Give the coordinates for the vertex, and show how you found it.

d. Convert the rule for the function to vertex form.

2)

2
Given the function g ( x) 4( x 15) 10 , answer the following questions:
a. Does the graph of the function open up or open down? How do you know based on the
coefficients (numbers in the rule)?

b. What is the table pattern? How do you know based on the coefficients?

c. Give the coordinates for the vertex, and explain how you found them.

d. Convert the rule for the function to simplified form.

3)

Student government gathered data over several years to see how much they should charge for
prom tickets. The first year they start keeping track the price of prom was $10 and 76 students
attended. They found that as the price of the tickets increased by $5, the number of people willing
to buy a ticket decreased by 7.
a. Fill in the table below:
Ticket Price
Number that
attended
$10
76
$15
$20
$25
$30
b. Write a rule that calculates the number that attended given the ticket price.

c. Student government wants to bring in as much money as they can from ticket sales so they
are most concerned with the highest possible revenue. Fill in the total revenue column for
the table below. Show how you found at least two of the values.
Ticket Price
$10
$15
$20
$25
$30

Total
Revenue

d. Write a rule for the total income as a function of the price, and simplify it to get it into
simplified form.

e. Use your rule to find what price they should set to make the most income. Show your
work.

4)

2
Consider f ( x) 2( x 5) k . Name at least two things that are true about the graph of all
parabolas whose rule is this form.

5)

Weve seen that quadratic functions have symmetry in the table and the graph. Explain why and
use an example to illustrate your explanation.

6)

Simplify (5x 3)(7x + 9).

7)

A classmate says, Parabolas always have either one or two x-intercepts. Do you agree with
him/her? Justify your response.

8)

Extra Credit: Write a rule whose graph is a parabola with a y-intercept at (0, -6) and opens up.

9)

Extra Credit: Find the vertex for f(x) = (3x 8)(x 2) + 3(x 1) 13x2 and explain how you
got it without searching on the table.