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Capstone Project

Megan Jacobson M.S., R.R.T

EDTECH 503 Instructional Design


Professor Dr. Ross A. Perkins, Ph.D.
11/15/2013

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Table of Contents
Reflective Synthesis ................................................................................................................ 3
Part 1. Topic ........................................................................................................................... 5
a) Rationale ............................................................................................................................ 5
b) Learning Goal(s) ................................................................................................................ 5
c) Learning Objective(s) and Sub-Objectives ........................................................................ 5
a)
b)
c)
d)

Part 2. Analyses ...................................................................................................................... 6


Needs Analysis ................................................................................................................... 6
Learner Analysis ................................................................................................................ 7
Context Analysis ................................................................................................................ 9
Content Analysis.............................................................................................................. 11

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Part 3. Instructional Content .............................................................................................. 12


Strategy Narrative ............................................................................................................ 12
Learning Materials........................................................................................................... 12
Motivation Plan ................................................................................................................ 16
Delivery Mechanism(s) .................................................................................................... 17
Assessment Materials ....................................................................................................... 17

a)
b)
c)
d)

Part 4. Formative Evaluation Plan...................................................................................... 18


Expert Review .................................................................................................................. 18
One-to-One Evaluation .................................................................................................... 19
Small Group Evaluation ................................................................................................... 19
Field Trial (Implementation)............................................................................................ 19

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Reflective Synthesis
During my exploration of outcomes and assessments, the thought occurred to me that the
instructional design process is like pumpkin carving. I am going to continue reflecting on my
understanding of instructional design by using this metaphor. I use this metaphor because the
takeaway message I interpreted from Streamlined ID by Larson and Lockee is "beginning with
the end in mind" (p.10, 2014). This seems to be an important concept to carry throughout the
instructional design process as long as you remember that the process is iterative, and more than
just envisioning the end.
Why is the instructional design process like pumpkin carving? Think about it. You
envision this captivating apparition gleaming through your candlelit pumpkin. You picture the
faces of all the trick-or-treaters totally engrossed in the product of your talent as they stroll by.
You're excited to get started and begin carving your pumpkin hoping to bask in its creepy glow
and proudly have it displayed on your doorstep. But wait, the end result is not what you
envisioned. In fact, you can't even decipher the shapes hacked into your poor pumpkin. What
went wrong? You planned it out perfectly! Or so you thought.
The aforementioned scenario relates perfectly to the mindset I had prior to learning about
instructional design. I would envision the instruction that I would deliver as being this creative
display of content with engaging activities that couldn't possibly fail. But like pumpkin carving,
envisioning the end result is only the beginning of the instructional design process. So while you
begin with the end in mind, there's a long road of preparation, planning, and analysis to achieve
that ultimate end result you desire. Larson and Lockee promote a continuous evaluation (both
formative and summative) throughout the process to compare your instruction with the end you
had in mind (p.10).
It's slightly amusing that I proclaimed myself as a teacher that strives for a learnercentered approach, but have never considered performing a learner analysis prior to taking this
course. Not because I didn't want to, but because I didn't know there was such a thing. I believed
that I knew what was best for my learners and that being a good listener throughout the course
would be enough to personalize their learning experiences. By performing a learner analysis for
this course, I realized that I can obtain some vital information that can improve the success of my
instruction. For example, determining the prior knowledge of learners have can greatly affect the
way the instruction can be delivered and how much I can expect from the learners. Expectations
are important and should never overload the learners. Determining prior knowledge can help
create expectations (outcomes) that are achievable. The learner analysis can also help in
determining outcomes that are challenging, but not impossible or too easy for the learner to
accomplish.
My initial project in this course, which included a learner analysis, made me realize that
most of the learners had extensive prior knowledge in the topic I chose, and yet mistakes were
still being observed. This caused me to take a step back in the design process and look into the

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possibility that the solution for the problem may not be an instructional solution. In fact,
everything I have done in this course has led to rethinking of another area. I believe this is why
Larson and Lockee emphasize the iterative nature of instructional design. Each part can have a
significant impact on other areas, whether you realize that or not determines whether it will be a
negative impact or a positive one.
The iterative nature of instructional design has not been as clear to me as it is now.
Working on separate parts and analyses was a valuable learning experience, but combining these
processes into this project has given me a new understanding of this iterative nature. This project
allowed me to experience the reality of instructional design where everything you do changes
something you already did. The end I had in mind slowly began changing throughout this
project. I began with a heavy focus on the decision making skills that coincide with blood gas
interpretation only to realize (through my learner analysis) that the learners would not be ready
for this advanced skill at this stage of their program and that the focus of the lesson should be on
the foundational knowledge that they will apply towards this skill later on in the program.
Having a better understanding of this process is likely to change the way I approach my
lessons in the future. I may or may not be involved in the instructional design process for others,
but I will definitely take what I have learned and apply it towards my own teaching. I have
dreamed of improving the education of health professionals. I believe the skills that have been
introduced in this course will bring me closer to that dream.

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Part 1. Topic
A. Rationale
Health care education has many challenges for learners. As an instructor for an
undergraduate Respiratory Therapy program, I see the need to improve this instruction to provide
learning experiences that include the higher order thinking skills (HOTS) necessary to provide
optimal patient care. Clinical experiences are included in these programs to accomplish HOTS.
These clinical experiences may lack what it takes to align the program with the performance
context of a practicing Respiratory Therapist (RT) in the clinical setting (patient care setting).
Clinical instructors are often random staff RTs at the chosen clinical site that are not employed
by the college, and they may not receive compensation for this service. They may have a
checklist of tasks that the student needs to perform, but they are not necessarily aware nor
motivated to meet the goals of the program. While I strongly believe that clinical education is an
area that needs improvement, I foresee this being a difficult area to address with too many
project constraints.
For this project, I have chosen to concentrate on the classroom instruction that is meant to
complement the clinical experiences in preparation for the performance context of practicing as
an RT in the clinical setting. The classroom instruction I will focus on is a lesson in Acid-Base
Balance and Regulation which is included in a Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology
course. This lesson is intended to provide the foundational knowledge that will be applied
towards the evaluation of blood gas results, and the identification of patient care solutions.
Respiratory Therapists frequently utilize these results and evaluate them as part of the whole
clinical picture (patient history, presenting signs and symptoms, lung mechanics, patient wishes
or goals, laboratory and physiologic data, and other clinical findings) to create a plan of care and
identify solutions for their patients. This lesson addresses the need to prepare future RTs with the
knowledge and skills necessary to accomplish this vital component of patient care.
B. Learning Goals
After completing this lesson, learners will be able to describe the acid-base balance and
regulation in the human body, identify how acid-base disturbances cause abnormal blood gas
findings, interpret blood gas results, and create effective patient care solutions based on blood
gas results and other clinical findings.
C. Learning Objectives and Sub-Objectives

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a)
b)
c)
2)
a)
3)
4)
5)

Course Objectives: Upon successful completion of this course, students will demonstrate the
respective knowledge and skills noted in the National Board of Respiratory Cares Content
Outline Matrix for the CRT, WRRT, & CSE board exams.
Specific areas of the content matrix relating to this lesson include:
reviewing blood gas results in the patient record;
interpreting procedure results including blood gas analysis; and
initiation and modification of therapeutic procedures based on the interpretation of blood
gas results.
Lesson Objectives:
Following a face-to-face lecture, and reading Chapter 7 (Des Jardins Text), the learner will be
able to:
identify the influence of acids and bases on the pH through summative assessment with a
multiple choice/true false/matching exam.
describe the three buffer systems that regulate the acid-base balance in the human body through a
summative assessment with a multiple choice/true false/matching exam.
identify common acid-base balance disturbance classifications through a summative assessment
with a multiple choice/true false/matching exam.
Given a blood gas result, the learner will correctly interpret the result.
Given a set of 20 blood gas results, the learner will correctly interpret 15 out of 20 results.
Given a case scenario, the learner will interpret the blood gas results taking other clinical
findings into consideration.
Given a case scenario, the learner will identify potential acid-base disturbances and justify their
answer based on prior knowledge of acid-base disturbances.
Given a case scenario, the learner will create patient care solutions based on blood gas results
and other clinical findings.

Part 2. Analyses
A. Needs Analysis
1) Stakeholder(s): Who are the primary stakeholders? As in, who are the people most
directly impacted when the instruction is carried off?
a) Respiratory Therapy Students: The learners.
b) Instructors of Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology: The instructors
of this lesson. Acid-base balance and regulation is part of this course.
c) Respiratory Therapy Program Directors: Responsible for all educational
activities, and all classes within the respiratory program. Responsible for adherence to

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applicable accreditation commission standards, school policy and procedure, and the
department's curricula.
d) Clinical Education Directors: They manage the student's clinical
experiences and expect at certain points in the program that students have a certain
knowledge level and skill to perform certain clinical tasks including blood gas
interpretation.
2) Data: Describe the data that has helped inform your design plan.
a) Peer feedback: Advice from peers for my design plan.
b) Past experiences: I have personally taken this course and completed this
lesson as a learner. Also, my experiences working as an RT provided guidance for the
knowledge and skills learners will require in the performance context.
3) Constraints and Resources: Describe any constraints that might impact addressing the
need, or resources that can help meet it.
a) Time constraints: Lesson delivery is expected within the 3 hour class time.
Utilizing student time outside of the classroom may help address this constraint.
b) Difficulty level: This tends to be a difficult concept for learners. Learner
pace may further aggravate the time constraint.
B. Learner Analysis
This lesson will be piloted at Kent State University in Ohio.
1)
To the greatest extent possible, describe the group of learners who will participate
in any instructional intervention. Be sure to provide as much relevant detail as possible.
a)
From my personal experiences, learners that would participate in this
lesson are various ages from 18 to approximately 50 years of age. The majority of
learners have chosen Respiratory Therapy (RT) as a career change, some coming from
other allied health careers and others from unrelated careers. Prior knowledge is likely to
vary among learning groups. Those with previous work in allied health fields having
more prior knowledge relating to RT. The majority of learners will have other work/life
responsibilities, e.g., family, full-time employment, etc.
2)
What data source(s) have informed your knowledge about the learners (or what
are the planned instruments for learning more about them)?
a. Currently, my prior experiences are my source of data about the learners. I
was part of a group completing an RT program, I have seen many sets of students through
clinical rotations at my current hospital, I have worked with several new graduate RTs,
and I have taught in KSU's RT program. These experiences have given me an overview
of the similarities and differences among RT students.

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b. To learn more about the specific group of learners for this lesson, a learner
analysis including demographics, characteristics, prior knowledge, and learner motivation
will be obtained at the beginning of the course.
c. Course syllabi have been obtained from prerequisite courses to assess the
expected level of knowledge in other areas at the time this lesson will occur during the
semester. The learners will be taking two other core courses during this time, Introduction
to Respiratory Care and Introduction to Clinical Respiratory Care. This lesson will take
place during week 8 of the semester.
After reviewing the following expected knowledge and skills, it is obvious that
patient care solutions based on blood gas results will be limited due to the lack of
knowledge and skills in advanced therapies. This implies that the focus of this lesson
should be on the foundational knowledge of acid-base balance and regulation and basic
blood gas interpretation (identifying the classification for a result) and have a limited
focus on clinical decisions making skills for patient care solutions based on blood gas
results and scenarios. Learners will have the opportunity to focus on this advanced form
of interpretation later in the program during a full course dedicated to blood gas analysis.
By week 8 of the semester, according to the syllabi from these other courses, the
learners are expected to have knowledge of the following:
History and Scope of Respiratory Care
Legal Professional and Ethical Practice
Protecting the patient and health care provider
Protocols and Quality control
Evidence Based Medicine
Management of Respiratory Care Services
Physical Principles of Respiratory Care
Managing Disasters
Radiology for the Respiratory Therapist
By week 8 of the semester, according to the syllabi from these other courses, the
learners are expected to have the following clinical skills:
Reviewing medical records
Documentation
Obtaining a patient history
Infection control procedures: Hand washing and isolation
Perform vital signs including auscultation
Physical assessment of the chest

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Noninvasive monitoring: Pulse Oximetry


Oxygen Therapy Device use
C. Context Analysis
1)

Describe and analyze the performance context


a. The performance context varies in different clinical settings. Many RTs
care for a large number of critical care patients requiring assisted ventilation (therapeutic
procedures that assist the patient's ability to breathe) or have the potential need for
assisted ventilation. This patient population is frequently assessed with blood gas
analysis. The RT should be evaluating and interpreting blood gas results and creating
recommendations for patient care based on these and other clinical findings. The RT
initiates and modifies therapeutic procedures, and should follow-up by assessing further
blood gas results and/or clinical findings. Caring for this population makes this lesson a
crucial component of an RT education program.
2)
Define the learning context and compare it to the performance context
a. Many RT students learn these concepts within one lecture and will build
upon the knowledge and skills learned throughout the rest of the program and during their
clinical experiences. They often learn blood gas interpretation through a number of given
results and the challenge of giving their interpretation. This method does not align well
with the performance context since interpretation is only the beginning of the process.
RTs are expected to make recommendations for patient care based on their findings. This
must be done in light of the whole clinical picture presented by each case. For example,
the same numbers obtained in two different patients may call for completely different
recommendations depending on other clinical findings and patient history. While making
clinical decisions will not be the focus of this lesson, giving an example to show the
importance of looking at the whole clinical picture versus just one component may
provide a sense of motivation and application of the material in their future performance
context as an RT in the clinical setting.
b. Example: Patient A: 7.08/92 Patient B: 7.08/92. If a student is given these
results in the learning context and they are instructed that this represents an
uncompensated respiratory acidosis, the student may recommend that both of these
patients require assisted ventilation. In the performance context, the RT would know
more about patient A and patient B. Perhaps patient A recently received too much
morphine and simply requires a drug that can reverse the effects of morphine without
requiring assisted ventilation. Patient B might be arriving in the emergency department
with other signs of impending respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation. Another
twist may be that patient A requires a large amount of morphine for pain management

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after a procedure and should be sedated and receive assisted ventilation to be able to
receive adequate pain management. This example shows the importance of incorporating
case scenarios into the learning context to increase alignment with the performance
context.
3)

Analyze the culture and climate of both the performance and learning contexts
a. The main variance between the performance and learning contexts in
regards to culture and climate is the behavior in the performance context relies heavily on
teamwork versus an individual focus in the learning context. While individual knowledge
is essential to becoming a valued member of a team, the learning context should align
with this team approach by incorporating team building activities into the lessons.
4)

Determine the assumptions about learning held by all key stakeholders


a. Results from a survey completed by the current Program Director:
"Learning occurs in a supportive environment that respects individuals, incorporates
methods and techniques of andragogy and fosters self-directed learning. Adults benefit
from the opportunity to participate in discussions and to practice or apply knowledge."
Learning is a change in behavior;
Learning is a change in knowledge;
The mind processes information like a computer, building upon prior knowledge and
creating mental structures;
Learning involves relating new knowledge to prior knowledge;
Knowledge is not absolute but is individually and socially constructed through
discovery and interactions with society, others, events, and objects;
Learning is an active social process;
Knowledge is not absolute but subjective and interpreted;
Learning is facilitated when information can be directly and practically applied to
solving a problem or filling an identified gap;
Individuals learn best when allowed to determine what and how they will learn, and
when actively exploring and solving authentic complex problems.
The results of this survey show a mixture of assumptions primarily associated with
Cognitivism, Constructivism, and Social theories of learning.
5)

Analyze the contextual relationships and compile recommendations

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a. As stated in section 2 of the context analysis, it is recommended that case


scenarios are incorporated into the learning context to improve alignment with the
performance context.
b. Beyond the initial recommendation, it may further align contexts to
incorporate branching scenarios that will allow immediate feedback on the
recommendations the learners make.
D. Content Analysis
Resources include the textbook for the course, Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology
Essentials of Respiratory Care, by Terry Des Jardins. This text has been used for several years to
teach this course and this particular lesson. It is, however, a new edition with several useful
clinical connections that assist in aligning content with the performance context. While this is
helpful, it also adds to the amount of content which is a problem considering the time constraint.
There should be a careful consideration of need to know content versus nice to know.
I have learned this topic as an RT student, and currently have 7 years of experience as an
RT interpreting blood gas results and making recommendations. Most of my experience lies
within the performance context. I do not have any experience personally teaching this content
and may seek advice from educators that have this experience to gain some insight.
The following flowchart provides a simple view of the content from acid-base balance
seen on the bottom of the chart to the regulation seen on the top of the chart.
CONTENT ANALYSIS FLOWCHART

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Part 3. Instructional Content


A. Strategy Narrative
Given the low level of prior knowledge for these learners, an instructivist approach for
some of this lesson is the most fitting. Organization of content should be presented from simple
to more complex. Content that provides the foundational knowledge necessary to begin
interpretation of blood gas results can be presented with traditional lecture utilizing PowerPoint
presentations for visuals. Foundational content includes the basics of acid-base balance,
regulation (including chemical buffer systems, respiratory, and renal systems), and the types of
acid-base disturbances. Assessment of this knowledge will also follow an instructivist approach
with traditional assessment using multiple choice, true false, and matching questions that are
either recall, application, or analysis questions. The NBRC exams utilize these three types of
questions for assessment so this aligns well with future performance contexts.
A constructivist approach will also be utilized to provide real-world practice of blood gas
interpretation skills. A group, in-class around-the-room ongoing scenario will be used to
simulate real-world blood gas interpretation and decision making skills. This constructivist and
social approach encourages learners to become actively involved and motivated them with real
world application. The group activity also assists in aligning the learning context with the
performance context to create a climate of teamwork.
B. Learning Materials
Acid-Base Balance and Regulation PowerPoint
PowerPoint created for face-to-face lecture using material directly from the textbook learners
will use in this course:
Des Jardins, T. R. (2013). Cardiopulmonary anatomy & physiology: essentials of respiratory
care. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0RlzOoSztdqeGg5RXNsc2hNdlE/edit?usp=sharing
Blood Gas Interpretation PowerPoint
Given the large amount of information presented to learners of health care professions, it is often
helpful to utilize mnemonics to assist learners in remembering key processes and concepts. The
blood gas interpretation PowerPoint introduces the VACR mnemonic for blood gas
interpretation. Example ABG's at the end of the presentation are used with permission from

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another instructor's PowerPoint used in this course. To be presented after the Acid-Base Balance
and Regulation PowerPoint and prior to the "Around-the-Room Ongoing Scenario" exercise.
VACR: Ventilated Alveoli Can Respirate

Values: know the normal values for arterial, venous, and capillary blood.
Acidosis or Alkalosis: determine if the pH is acidotic or alkalotic
Cause: determine if the cause of the disturbance is primarily respiratory or metabolic.
Regulation: is it compensated, partially compensated, or uncompensated
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B0RlzOoSztdqX1drXzZaLVJWa0E/edit?usp=sharing
Acid-Base Disturbances and Common causes Notebook
Handbook created in articulate storyline. Quick easy guide to common acid-base disturbances.
This online resource was created to offer learners a simplified compilation of common acid-base
disturbances and their common causes. This reference for learners can be accessed from any
computer with Internet access.
http://respiratory.articulate-online.com/1377355942 (No longer available)
Comparison scenario to show relevance of blood gas interpretation:
WITHOUT BLOOD GAS RESULTS: Incomplete clinical picture
Patient A

Patient B

Hx: Unknown

Hx: Unknown

Lethargic, Oriented X3

Lethargic, Oriented X3

RR 36

RR 36

Labored breathing

Labored breathing

Which one requires respiratory assistance? With the limited information available, it is difficult
to determine which patient is experiencing a respiratory problem.

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WITH BLOOD GAS RESULTS: More complete clinical picture


Patient A

Patient B

Hx: Unknown

Hx: Unknown

Lethargic, Oriented X3

Lethargic, Oriented X3

RR 38

RR 38

Labored breathing

Labored breathing

vbg 7.20/69/38/25

vbg 7.15/14/57/4.9

Even without a patient history, it is easy to identify the patient that requires respiratory assistance
just by interpreting blood gas results. You attend to Patient A first and successfully prevent
intubation by placing the patient on BiPAP to assist ventilation. You then assess Patient B and
determine that his/her glucose is elevated and they are in Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Around-the-Room Ongoing Scenario
Providing the ability to assess all learners within the limited time available. Every learner
will be able to participate without having to provide a separate scenario to each individual
student (which would be too time consuming for this lesson). Participating as a class also aligns
with the performance context where they will be working on a team to make patient care
decisions.
This in-class activity will encourage active learning. An instructor led scenario will be
given in parts to one learner at a time. Immediate feedback will be given by the instructor via
consequences of their decisions. Scenario should be tailored to the learners prior knowledge. For
example, if the learners have not started learning about managing patients on mechanical
ventilation, then the instructor should not expect that they will be able to participate in decision
making for changes in mechanical ventilation based on blood gas results. Patients on mechanical
ventilation can be incorporated into the scenario with simplified expectations (e.g., student may
respond with increase ventilation, versus increase the minute volume by increasing the
frequency on the ventilator.)
RTphrase Mobile App
A mobile app was created for the course and includes a section for this lesson. Learners
will split up into teams and utilize this app to review the content covered in the lesson. Modeled
from a popular game called "Catchphrase," RTphrase is a simple app that shows a word or phrase
and the one holding the device must get their team member to guess the word or phrase before
being able to hand it off to the other team. A timer will be running during this game play. The

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team holding the device when the timer goes off earns a point to the opposite team. The QR code
for this app is provided below and can be scanned with a bar code scanner and played on any
Android device.
Terms and phrases to use for this review:

Weak acid
Strong acid
Weak base
Strong base
Anion gap
chemical buffering systems
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
Hydrogen ions
Renal system (buffer)
Normal bicarbonate to carbonic acid ratio
Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis
Compensation

QR Code RTphrase

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C. Motivation Plan (Keller's ARCS Motivational Strategies)


AREA

STRATEGY DETAIL

Attention
Strategy 1

Conflict: Give result, Ask for interpretation and


recommendation, Give other pertinent clinical
findings. Shows importance of looking at the whole
clinical picture.

Strategy 2

Inquiry Arousal: Use scenarios to promote


problem-solving activities.

Strategy 3

Participation: Use a review game adapted from


"catchphrase." Use branching scenarios as
simulations of clinical decision making.

Relevance
Strategy 1

Experience: Explain how the learners will use this


new knowledge and skill set.

Strategy 2

Present Worth: Explain the value of these skills and


knowledge.

Confidence
Strategy 1

Difficulty: Sequence content presentation and


scenarios in increasing difficulty.

Strategy 2

Self-Confidence: Provide ungraded feedback to


build confidence.

Satisfaction
Strategy 1

Positive Outcomes: Provide immediate feedback.

Strategy 2

Natural Consequences: Use branching scenarios to


show realistic consequences of decisions made.

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D. Delivery Mechanism(s)
Instructional delivery will begin with a face-to-face lecture of foundational content. The
Acid-Base Balance and Regulation PowerPoint will be used as a visual during the presentation of
this content. This PPT adds visual aids to the lecture. This visual is important to emphasize the
pH scale and the required balance the body must maintain. Learners will also have a printed copy
of the PPT for note taking and to review the material outside of the classroom.
The blood gas interpretation PPT will follow to deliver instruction on the VACR
mnemonic. This also provides a visual aid during the lecture and offers learners a printed copy
for notes and study material outside of the classroom.
The learners will be presented with the common cause notebook link prior to the lesson,
along with the textbook to read the Acid-Base Balance and Regulation chapter prior to the
lesson. Having this link along with the text prior to the lesson will prepare learners with the
knowledge necessary to comprehend lecture material covered in class.
Depending on the time frame available, the instructor can choose to incorporate both or
one of the group activities (around the room ongoing scenario, or RTphrase review game).
Advantages of using the instructor led around the room scenario include immediate feedback and
input from the instructor and real world application of blood gas interpretation skills. Given the
results of the learner analysis, this activity may be too advanced for learners at this stage and
should be delivered at the instructor's discretion at the time of delivery. The RTphrase review
game is beneficial by providing fun, competition, and rewards for learners. It also acts to help
prepare learners for the upcoming assessment exam.
E. Assessment Materials
Summative multiple choice, true false, and matching exam to meet the following objectives:
identify the influence of acids and bases on the pH through summative assessment with a
multiple choice/short answer exam.
describe the three buffer systems that regulate the acid-base balance in the human body
through a summative assessment with a multiple choice/short answer exam.
identify common acid-base balance disturbance classifications through a summative
assessment with a multiple choice/short answer exam.
This exam has already been created by the previous instructor of this course and it is expected
that this exam is used as the assessment method for this lesson. Exam content has been reviewed
and it does align with the objectives mentioned above.
Blood Gas Interpretation Quiz
Objective: Given a blood gas result, the learner will correctly interpret the result

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20 blood gas results. The learner must correctly interpret 15/20 results as one of the following:
Uncompensated respiratory acidosis
Partially compensated respiratory acidosis
Compensated respiratory acidosis
Uncompensated respiratory alkalosis
Partially compensated respiratory alkalosis
Compensated respiratory alkalosis
Uncompensated metabolic acidosis
Partially compensated metabolic acidosis
Compensated metabolic acidosis
Combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis
Uncompensated metabolic alkalosis
Partially compensated metabolic alkalosis
Compensated metabolic alkalosis
Combined metabolic and respiratory alkalosis
*(multiple attempts allowed until 75% achieved)*

Formative assessment of basic interpretation and decision making skills:


Around-the-room ongoing instructor led scenario

Part 4. Formative Evaluation Plan


A. Expert Review
The previous instructor for the course will be used as the subject matter expert. He has
experience teaching the course and has provided the exam to be used for assessment of the
learning objectives for this lesson. This course begins in one month, but the lesson will not be
implemented until week 8 of the semester. I will utilize the break between semesters to obtain his
review. I would create a PowerPoint presentation noting key points of the design and a
questionnaire following the presentation to obtain the evaluation. The presentation will cover the
learning goals, objectives, assessments, delivery methods, and the proposed learning materials.
The blood gas interpretation and acid-base balance PowerPoints will also be presented to the
SME.
Questionnaire for the SME will include:
1. Is content presented adequate for the goals of this lesson?
2. Are adequate examples provided in the learning material?
3. Is the presentation of the content presented in a logical order?
4. Do you agree with grouping the material into foundational knowledge and
interpretation/decision making skills?

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5. Are there any topics or examples missing that would help meet the goals?
6. What are your suggestions for improving this lesson?
B. One-to-One Evaluation
Targeted learners for this evaluation include first and second year students in the respiratory therapy
program. Preferably first year students. The lesson will be presented to these learners individually and an
evaluator will take notes during the lesson on the learners interaction. Evaluator will note any confusing
information presented by observing the learner. Evaluators will also rate the degree of attention and
interactivity the learner exhibits.

C. Small Group Evaluation


Instruction will be delivered to a small group of respiratory therapy students or new graduate respiratory
therapists. I will evaluate the group response to the instruction by evaluating their performance and by
having them rate the following from strongly agree to strongly disagree:
1. Material was user-friendly.
2. Instruction was clear.
3. Directions given were clear.
4. Objective were clear.
5. Content was easy to understand.
6. Content was well organized.
7. Direction for review game was clear and easy to understand.
8. RTphrase review game was fun and motivational.
9. Lesson was adequate preparation for the exam.
10. Presentations are aesthetically appealing.
11. The lesson attracts and maintains attention

D. Field Trial (Implementation)


Implementation will be conducted during the actual Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology
course to be offered this Spring. The instruction will be delivered to the targeted learner
population of first year respiratory therapy students currently in their first semester of the
program. In addition to the same evaluation used for the small group evaluation, the field trial
will also include an evaluation from the instructor delivering the material and from the program
director who will observe the field trial of this instruction.

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