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Overall Math - Standards and Benchmarks

# of Standards

# of Benchmarks

K

5

13

1st

6

20

2nd

7

20

3rd

9

26

4th

8

27

5th

9

27

6th

10

33

7th

11

34

8th

8

34

9th-11th

11

71

This standards document contains the mathematics standards revised in 2007 made law effective September 22, 2008.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

In high school, students take a Math MCA in 11th grade.

Note: The Class of 2013 and 2014 are being assessed using the MCA-II test and standards.

The table below shows the number of standards for the MCA-III

which will be administered in 2014 for the first time to 11th graders in the Class of 2015.

Strand

1 - Numbers &

Operations

2 - Algebra

3 - Geometry &

Measurement

4 - Data Analysis

& Probability

Standard

Number of

Benchmarks

NA

NA

9.2.1

9.2.2

9.2.3

9.2.4

9.3.1

9.3.2

9.3.3

9.3.4

9.4.1

9.4.2

9.4.3

9

6

7

8

5

5

8

7

4

3

9

This standards document contains the mathematics standards revised in 2007 made law effective September 22, 2008.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

low

No.

Benchmark

Document

can be written as the ratio of two

integers or as a terminating or

repeating decimal. Recognize that

7.1.1.1

is not rational, but that it can be

approximated by rational numbers

such as 227 and 3.14.

For example:

Number &Operation

low

Read, write, represent

and compare positive

and negative rational

numbers, expressed

as integers, fractions

and decimals.

integers will always result in a

rational number. Use this

7.1.1.2

information to interpret the

decimal result of a division

problem when using a calculator.

rational numbers on a number

line, understand the concept of

high 7.1.1.3 opposites, and plot pairs of

positive and negative rational

numbers on a coordinate grid.

Compare positive and negative

rational numbers expressed in

medium 7.1.1.4 various forms using the symbols

<,>,=,, .

Recognize and generate

equivalent representations of

positive and negative rational

medium 7.1.1.5

numbers, including equivalent

fractions.

125

30

gives 4.16666667

exact. The exact answer can be

expressed as 4 1 , which is the same

6

does not guarantee that the 6 is

repeated, but that possibility should

be anticipated.

For example:

1

2

For example:

40 120 10 3.3 .

12

36

3

<

0.36

This standards document contains the mathematics standards revised in 2007 made law effective September 22, 2008.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

Number &Operation

high

No.

Benchmark

Document

positive and negative rational

numbers that are integers,

fractions and terminating

7.1.2.1 decimals; use efficient and

generalizable procedures,

including standard algorithms;

raise positive rational numbers to

whole-number exponents.

34 1

2

81

4

inverse relationship between

by -1 can be thought of as

Calculate with positive

addition and subtraction to explain representing that same distance in

and negative rational medium 7.1.2.2 why the procedures of arithmetic the opposite direction. Multiplying by 1 a second time reverses directions

numbers, and rational

with negative rational numbers

again, giving the distance in the

numbers with whole

make sense.

original direction.

number exponents, to

Understand that calculators and For example: A decimal that repeats

solve real-world and

or terminates after a large number of

low 7.1.2.3 other computing technologies

mathematical

digits is truncated or rounded.

often truncate or round numbers.

problems.

Solve problems in various

contexts involving calculations

with positive and negative rational

medium 7.1.2.4

numbers and positive integer

exponents, including computing

simple and compound interest.

For example: A recipe calls for milk,

Use proportional reasoning to

flour and sugar in a ratio of 4:6:3 (this

solve problems involving ratios in is how recipes are often given in large

high 7.1.2.5 various contexts.

institutions, such as hospitals). How

much flour and milk would be needed

with 1 cup of sugar?

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

low

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

distance from 3 to 0 on a number

the relationship between the

line or 3 units; the distance between 3

absolute value of a rational

7.1.2.6

and 9 on the number line is | 3 9 |

2

2

number and distance on a number

line. Use the symbol for absolute or 32 .

value.

No.

Benchmark

Document

Understand that a relationship

between two variables, x and y, is circumference of a circle are

proportional, whereas the length x

proportional if it can be expressed and the width y of a rectangle with

in the form y k or y kx .

x

Algebra

low

Understand the

concept of

proportionality in realworld and

mathematical

situations, and

distinguish between

proportional and other

relationships.

low

relationships from other

relationships, including inversely

proportional relationships

( xy k or y k ).

x

since xy = 12 or equivalently, y 12 .

x

proportional relationship is a line

through the origin whose slope is

the unit rate (constant of

7.2.1.2

proportionality). Know how to use

graphing technology to examine

what happens to a line when the

unit rate is changed.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

Algebra

high

Recognize

proportional

relationships in realworld and

mathematical

situations; represent

these and other

relationships with

tables, verbal

descriptions, symbols

and graphs; solve

problems involving

proportional

relationships and

explain results in the

original context.

high

No.

Benchmark

Document

Represent proportional

relationships with tables, verbal

descriptions, symbols, equations

and graphs; translate from one

7.2.2.1 representation to another.

Determine the unit rate (constant

of proportionality or slope) given

any of these representations.

and uses 5 gallons of gasoline. Sue

drives 300 miles and uses 11.5

gallons of gasoline. Use equations

and graphs to compare fuel efficiency

and to determine the costs of various

trips.

involving proportional

7.2.2.2 relationships in numerous

contexts.

increase or decrease, discounts, tips,

unit pricing, lengths in similar

geometric figures, and unit conversion

when a conversion factor is given,

including conversion between

different measurement systems.

kilometers are there in 26.2 miles?

low

7.2.2.3 assess the reasonableness of

solutions.

Represent real-world or

mathematical situations using

equations and inequalities

medium 7.2.2.4 involving variables and positive

and negative rational numbers.

be unreasonable for a cashier to

request $200 if you purchase a $225

item at 25% off.

For example: "Four-fifths is three

greater than the opposite of a

number" can be represented

as 4 n 3 , and "height no bigger

5

represented as h r .

2

less than 5" can be represented

as 3 x 5 , and also on a number

line.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

Algebra

Apply understanding

of order of operations

and algebraic

properties to generate

equivalent numerical

and algebraic

expressions

containing positive

and negative rational

numbers and

grouping symbols;

evaluate such

expressions.

No.

Benchmark

Document

For example: Combine like terms (use

generate equivalent numerical

the distributive law) to write

and algebraic expressions

3x 7x 1 (3 7)x 1 4x 1 .

containing rational numbers,

medium 7.2.3.1 grouping symbols and whole

number exponents. Properties of

algebra include associative,

commutative and distributive

laws.

Evaluate algebraic expressions

containing rational numbers and For example: Evaluate the expression

1 (2 x 5)2 at x = 5.

high 7.2.3.2 whole number exponents at

3

specified values of their variables.

low

operations and grouping symbols

7.2.3.3

when using calculators and other

technologies.

conventions of using a caret (^ raise

to a power) and asterisk (* multiply);

pay careful attention to the use of

nested parentheses.

Represent relationships in various For example: Solve for w in the

contexts with equations involving equation P = 2w + 2 when P = 3.5

and

variables and positive and

= 0.4.

Represent real-world

and mathematical

negative rational numbers. Use

situations using

high 7.2.4.1 the properties of equality to solve

equations with

for the value of a variable.

variables. Solve

Interpret the solution in the

equations

original context.

symbolically, using

the properties of

equality. Also solve

Solve equations resulting from

equations graphically

proportional relationships in

and numerically.

medium 7.2.4.2 various contexts.

Interpret solutions in

the original context.

website, Mary must pay $300 for

initial set up and a monthly fee of $12.

She has $842 in savings, how long

can she sustain her website?

For example: Given the side lengths

of one triangle and one side length of

a second triangle that is similar to the

first, find the remaining side lengths of

the second triangle.

Another example: Determine the price

of 12 yards of ribbon if 5 yards of

ribbon cost $1.85.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

proportions and ratios

to determine

measurements, justify

formulas and solve

real-world and

mathematical

problems involving

circles and related

geometric figures.

change of scale,

translations and

reflections on the

attributes of twodimensional figures.

high

No.

Benchmark

high

Demonstrate an understanding of

the proportional relationship

between the diameter and

circumference of a circle and that

the unit rate (constant of

7.3.1.1

proportionality) is . Calculate

the circumference and area of

circles and sectors of circles to

solve problems in various

contexts.

area of cylinders and justify the

medium 7.3.1.2 formulas used.

low

Document

the surface area of a cylinder by

decomposing the surface into two

circles and a rectangle.

similarity, compare geometric

7.3.2.1 figures for similarity, and

determine scale factors.

in similar geometric figures have the

same measure.

and area ratios to determine side

7.3.2.2 lengths and areas of similar

geometric figures.

have heights of 3 and 5, and the first

rectangle has a base of length 7, the

base of the second rectangle has

length 35 .

3

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

solve problems involving scale

medium 7.3.2.3 drawings and conversions of

measurement units.

Document

144 square inches.

Another example: In a map where 1

inch represents 50 miles, 1 inch

2

represents 25 miles.

change of scale,

translations and

reflections on the

attributes of twodimensional figures.

to (-1, 2) after reflection about the

y-axis.

low

and reflections of figures on a

coordinate grid and determine the

7.3.2.4

coordinates of the vertices of the

figure after the transformation.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

high

Use mean, median

and range to draw

conclusions about

data and make

predictions.

low

Design simple experiments and the past, Sandy calculated that the

collect data. Determine mean,

mean gas mileage for her car was 28

median and range for quantitative miles per gallon. She expects to travel

data and from data represented in 400 miles during the next week.

Predict the approximate number of

7.4.1.1 a display. Use these quantities to gallons that she will use.

draw conclusions about the data,

compare different data sets, and

make predictions.

Describe the impact that inserting For example: How does dropping the

or deleting a data point has on the lowest test score affect a student's

mean test score?

mean and the median of a data

7.4.1.2 set. Know how to create data

displays using a spreadsheet to

examine this impact.

display and interpret data in circle

Display and interpret

graphs (pie charts) and

data in a variety of

histograms. Choose the

ways, including circle medium 7.4.2.1

appropriate data display and

graphs and

know how to create the display

histograms.

using a spreadsheet or other

graphing technology.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

10

Strand

Standard

Priority

low

No.

Benchmark

by a calculator or a spreadsheet

or taken from a table to simulate

situations involving randomness,

7.4.3.1 make a histogram to display the

results, and compare the results

to known probabilities.

Document

function such as RANDBETWEEN(1,

10) to generate random whole

numbers from 1 to 10, and display the

results in a histogram.

for different outcomes in game

spinners by finding fractions of the

area of the spinner.

Calculate probabilities

and reason about

probabilities using

proportions to solve

real-world and

mathematical

problems.

high

of sample space or as a fraction

7.4.3.2 of area. Express probabilities as

percents, decimals and fractions.

draw conclusions about and

predict relative frequencies of

outcomes based on probabilities.

cube 600 times, one would predict

that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly

200 times, but probably not exactly

200 times

medium 7.4.3.3 .

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

11

Strand

Standard

Priority

low

classify and represent

real numbers, and use

them to solve

problems in various

contexts.

high

No.

Benchmark

Document

numbers as whole numbers, integers,

or irrational. Know that when a

rational numbers, irrational numbers,

square root of a positive integer is recognizing that some numbers

not an integer, then it is irrational. belong in more than one category: 6 ,

3

8.1.1.1 Know that the sum of a rational

3 , 3.6 , , 4 , 10 , 6.7 .

number and an irrational number 6

2

is irrational, and the product of a

non-zero rational number and an

irrational number is irrational.

For example: Put the following

Compare real numbers; locate

real numbers on a number line. numbers in order from smallest to

largest: 2, 3 , 4, 6.8, 37 .

Identify the square root of a

8.1.1.2 positive integer as an integer, or if Another example: 68 is an irrational

it is not an integer, locate it as a number between 8 and 9.

real number between two

consecutive positive integers.

For example: A calculator can be

used to determine that 7 is

approximately 2.65.

Another example: To check that 1 5 is

12

low

Determine rational

slightly bigger than 2 , do the

approximations for solutions to

8.1.1.3 problems involving real numbers. calculation 1 5 2 17 2 289 2 1 .

12

12

144

144

is between 3 and 4, try squaring

numbers like 3.5, 3.3, 3.1 to

determine that 3.1 is a reasonable

rational approximation of 10 .

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

12

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

For example:

positive and negative integer

medium 8.1.1.4 exponents to generate equivalent

numerical expressions.

Read, write, compare,

classify and represent

real numbers, and use

them to solve

problems in various

contexts.

low

large and very small numbers

using scientific notation;

understand how calculators

display numbers in scientific

notation. Multiply and divide

8.1.1.5

numbers expressed in scientific

notation, express the answer in

scientific notation, using the

correct number of significant

digits when physical

measurements are involved.

32 3 5 3 3

1

3

1

27

For example:

(4.2 104 ) (8.25 103) 3.465 108 , but

if these numbers represent physical

measurements, the answer should be

expressed as 3.5 108 because the

first factor, 4.2 104 , only has two

significant digits.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

13

Strand

Standard

Priority

Algebra

high

No.

Benchmark

relationship between an

independent variable and a

dependent variable in which the

8.2.1.1 value of the independent variable

determines the value of the

dependent variable. Use

functional notation, such as f(x),

to represent such relationships.

Document

between the area of a square and the

side length can be expressed as

f ( x) x2 . In this case, f (5) 25 ,

which represents the fact that a

square of side length 5 units has area

25 units squared.

Use linear functions to represent For example: Uncle Jim gave Emily

relationships in which changing $50 on the day she was born and $25

on each birthday after that. The

the input variable by some

function f ( x) 50 25x represents the

medium 8.2.1.2 amount leads to a change in the amount of money Jim has given after

Understand the

output variable that is a constant x years. The rate of change is $25 per

concept of function in

times that amount.

year.

real-world and

mathematical

Understand that a function is

For example: The function f ( x) x2 is

situations, and

linear if it can be expressed in the not a linear function because its graph

distinguish between

high 8.2.1.3 form f (x) mx b or if its graph is a contains the points (1,1), (-1,1) and

linear and nonlinear

(0,0), which are not on a straight line.

straight line.

functions.

For example: The arithmetic

Understand that an arithmetic

sequence is a linear function that sequence 3, 7, 11, 15, , can be

expressed as f(x) = 4x + 3.

low 8.2.1.4 can be expressed in the

form f (x) mx b , where

x

= 0, 1, 2, 3,.

Understand that a geometric

sequence is a non-linear function

that can be expressed in the form For example: The geometric

sequence 6, 12, 24, 48, , can be

low 8.2.1.5 f (x) abx , where

x

expressed in the form f(x) = 6(2 ).

x = 0, 1, 2, 3,.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

14

Algebra

Strand

Standard

Priority

Recognize linear

functions in real-world

and mathematical

situations; represent

linear functions and

other functions with

tables, verbal

descriptions, symbols

and graphs; solve

problems involving

these functions and

explain results in the

original context.

No.

Benchmark

high

tables, verbal descriptions,

8.2.2.1 symbols, equations and graphs;

translate from one representation

to another.

high

linear functions including slopes

and intercepts. Know that the

8.2.2.2 slope equals the rate of change,

and that the y-intercept is zero

when the function represents a

proportional relationship.

Document

in the equation f (x) = mx + b

affect the graphs of linear

medium 8.2.2.3

functions. Know how to use

graphing technology to examine

these effects.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

15

Algebra

Strand

Standard

Priority

Recognize linear

functions in real-world

and mathematical

situations; represent

linear functions and

other functions with

tables, verbal

descriptions, symbols

and graphs; solve

problems involving

these functions and

explain results in the

original context.

low

low

No.

Benchmark

using equations, tables, graphs

8.2.2.4 and verbal descriptions, and use

them to solve problems.

using equations, tables, graphs

8.2.2.5 and verbal descriptions, and use

them to solve problems.

Document

in savings and adds $10 at the end of

each month, she will have 100 + 10x

dollars after x months.

10% annual interest, she will have

x

100(1.1 ) dollars after x years.

high

3 and h = 0.5, and then use an

including expressions containing approximation of to obtain an

8.2.3.1 radicals and absolute values, at approximate answer.

specified values of their variables.

Generate equivalent

numerical and

Justify steps in generating

algebraic expressions

equivalent expressions by

and use algebraic

identifying the properties used,

properties to evaluate

including the properties of

expressions.

medium 8.2.3.2 algebra. Properties include the

associative, commutative and

distributive laws, and the order of

operations, including grouping

symbols.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

16

Strand

Standard

Priority

Algebra

low

Represent real-world

and mathematical

situations using

equations and

inequalities involving

linear expressions.

Solve equations and

inequalities

symbolically and

graphically. Interpret

solutions in the

original context.

high

high

No.

Benchmark

situations involving a constant

8.2.4.1 rate of change, including

proportional and non-proportional

relationships.

Solve multi-step equations in one

variable. Solve for one variable in

a multi-variable equation in terms

8.2.4.2 of the other variables. Justify the

steps by identifying the properties

of equalities used.

standard forms, and convert

8.2.4.3

between these forms. Given

sufficient information, find an

equation of a line.

represent relationships in various

medium 8.2.4.4 contexts.

Document

radius of length 5, the surface area A

2

= 2(5)h + 2(5) = 10h + 50, is a

linear function of the height h, but the

surface area is not proportional to the

height.

For example: The equation 10x + 17

= 3x can be changed to 7x + 17 = 0,

and then to 7x = -17 by

adding/subtracting the same

quantities to both sides. These

changes do not change the solution of

the equation.

Another example: Using the formula

for the perimeter of a rectangle, solve

for the base in terms of the height and

perimeter.

For example: Determine an equation

of the line through the points (-1,6)

and (2/3, -3/4).

$0.10 less per gallon of gasoline if a

customer also gets a car wash.

Without the car wash, gas costs $2.79

per gallon. The car wash is $8.95.

What are the possible amounts (in

gallons) of gasoline that you can buy

if you also get a car wash and can

spend at most $35?

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

17

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Solve linear inequalities using

properties of inequalities. Graph

the solutions on a number line.

medium 8.2.4.5

Algebra

Strand

Standard

Priority

Represent real-world

and mathematical

situations using

equations and

inequalities involving

linear expressions.

Solve equations and

inequalities

symbolically and

graphically. Interpret

solutions in the

original context.

low

high

No.

Benchmark

Document

equivalent to x > -2, which can be

represented on the number line by

shading in the interval to the right of 2.

Document

part is manufactured with a radius of

contexts with equations and

2.1 cm, with a tolerance of 1/100 cm.

inequalities involving the absolute The radius r satisfies the inequality |r

8.2.4.6 value of a linear expression.

2.1| .01.

Solve such equations and

inequalities and graph the

solutions on a number line.

Represent relationships in various For example: Marty's cell phone

contexts using systems of linear company charges $15 per month plus

$0.04 per minute for each call.

equations. Solve systems of

Jeannine's company charges $0.25

8.2.4.7 linear equations in two variables per minute. Use a system of

equations to determine the

symbolically, graphically and

advantages of each plan based on

numerically.

the number of minutes used.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

18

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

linear equations may have no

solution, one solution, or an

infinite number of solutions.

Relate the number of solutions to

pairs of lines that are intersecting,

medium 8.2.4.8

parallel or identical. Check

whether a pair of numbers

satisfies a system of two linear

equations in two unknowns by

substituting the numbers into both

equations.

2

For example: If x = 5, then x 5 ,

low

8.2.4.9 square roots and squares of a

number to solve problems.

or equivalently, x

Geometry &

Measurement

Standard

Priority

Solve problems

involving right

triangles using the

Pythagorean Theorem

and its converse.

No.

Benchmark

or

x 5

. If x

in this example, then the negative

solution should be discarded and

x

Strand

5 .

Document

of a right triangle, given the lengths of

two of its sides.

high

solve problems involving right

triangle with side lengths 4, 5 and 6 is

8.3.1.1 triangles.

not a right triangle.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

19

Strand

Standard

Priority

low

low

No.

Benchmark

Document

two points on a horizontal or

vertical line in a coordinate

8.3.1.2 system. Use the Pythagorean

Theorem to find the distance

between any two points in a

coordinate system.

Informally justify the Pythagorean

Theorem by using

8.3.1.3

measurements, diagrams and

computer software.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

20

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

relationships between the slopes

of parallel lines and between the

slopes of perpendicular lines.

medium 8.3.2.1

Dynamic graphing software may

be used to examine these

relationships.

low

corresponding quadrilateral is a

system by determining the slopes parallelogram.

8.3.2.2 of their sides.

Solve problems

involving parallel and

perpendicular lines on

a coordinate system.

system and the coordinates of a

point not on the line, find lines

medium 8.3.2.3

through that point that are parallel

and perpendicular to the given

line, symbolically and graphically.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

21

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

using scatterplots. Use the shape

of the scatterplot to informally

estimate a line of best fit and

determine an equation for the

medium 8.4.1.1

line. Use appropriate titles, labels

and units. Know how to use

graphing technology to display

scatterplots and corresponding

lines of best fit.

Interpret data using

scatterplots and

approximate lines of

best fit. Use lines of

best fit to draw

conclusions about

data.

high

low

statements about approximate

rate of change and to make

8.4.1.2 predictions about values not in

the original data set.

predictions using scatterplots by

8.4.1.3 interpreting them in the original

context.

relating student heights to shoe sizes,

predict the shoe size of a 5'4" student,

even if the data does not contain

information for a student of that

height.

that the number of women in the U.S.

Senate is growing at a certain rate

each election cycle. Is it reasonable to

use this trend to predict the year in

which the Senate will eventually

include 1000 female Senators?

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Priority

high

No.

Benchmark

Algebra

9,

10,

11

high

For example: If f x 1 , find f (x2 3

function. Use functional notation

4).

9.2.1.1 and evaluate a function at a given

point in its domain.

and other relations defined

medium 9.2.1.2

symbolically, graphically or in

tabular form.

Find the domain of a function

defined symbolically, graphically

low 9.2.1.3 or in a real-world context.

Understand the

concept of function,

and identify important

features of functions

and other relations

using symbolic and

graphical methods

where appropriate.

Document

conclusions from graphs of

9.2.1.4 functions and other relations.

can represent a function whose

domain is all real numbers, but in the

context of the area of a circle, the

domain would be restricted to positive

x.

For example: If a graph shows the

relationship between the elapsed

flight time of a golf ball at a given

moment and its height at that same

moment, identify the time interval

during which the ball is at least 100

feet above the ground.

symmetry and intercepts of the

parabola corresponding to a

quadratic function, using symbolic

9.2.1.5

and graphical methods, when the

high

function is expressed in the form f

(x) = ax2 + bx + c, in the form

f (x) = a(x h)2 + k , or in factored

form.

Identify intercepts, zeros, maxima,

minima and intervals of increase

medium 9.2.1.6

and decrease from the graph of a

function.

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Algebra

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Priority

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asymptote and identify

asymptotes for exponential

low 9.2.1.7

functions and reciprocals of linear

Understand the

functions, using symbolic and

graphical methods.

concept of function,

and identify important

Make qualitative statements

features of functions

about the rate of change of a

low 9.2.1.8

and other relations

function, based on its graph or

using symbolic and

table of values.

graphical methods

Determine how translations affect

where appropriate.

the symbolic and graphical forms

medium 9.2.1.9 of a function. Know how to use

graphing technology to examine

translations.

Recognize linear,

Represent and solve problems in

quadratic, exponential

various contexts using linear and

and other common

9.2.2.1 quadratic functions.

high

functions in real-world

and mathematical

situations; represent

these functions with

Represent and solve problems in

tables, verbal

various contexts using

descriptions, symbols

exponential functions, such as

and graphs; solve

investment growth, depreciation

problems involving

medium 9.2.2.2 and population growth.

these functions, and

explain results in the

original context.

Document

increases for all x, but it increases

faster when x > 2 than it does when x

< 2.

For example: Determine how the

graph of f(x) = |x h| + k changes as

h and k change.

represents the area of a rectangular

garden that can be surrounded with

32 feet of fencing, and use the

function to determine the possible

dimensions of such a garden if the

area must be at least 50 square feet.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

24

Strand

Standard

Priority

9,

10,

11

Algebra

high

Recognize linear,

quadratic, exponential

and other common

functions in real-world

and mathematical

situations; represent

these functions with

tables, verbal

descriptions, symbols

and graphs; solve

problems involving

these functions, and

explain results in the

original context.

low

No.

Benchmark

Document

and exponential functions, and

translate between graphs, tables

9.2.2.3 and symbolic representations.

Know how to use graphing

technology to graph these

functions.

For example: A closed form formula

for the terms tn in the geometric

nsequence 3, 6, 12, 24, ... is tn = 3(2)

1

, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... , and this

sequence can be expressed

recursively by writing t1 = 3 and

tn = 2tn-1, for n

sequence recursively and by

giving an explicit (closed form)

9.2.2.4

formula, and express the partial

Another example: The partial sums sn

sums of a geometric series

of the series 3 + 6 + 12 + 24 + ... can

recursively.

= 3 and

sn = 3 + 2sn-1, for n

low

that can be modeled using finite

geometric sequences and series,

such as home mortgage and

9.2.2.5 other compound interest

examples. Know how to use

spreadsheets and calculators to

explore geometric sequences and

series in various contexts.

Sketch the graphs of common

non-linear functions such as

f x x , f x x , f x 1x , f

medium 9.2.2.6

functions, such as

f x x 2 4 . Know how to use

graphing technology to graph

these functions.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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10,

11

Algebra

Strand

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Priority

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Benchmark

Document

expressions and expressions

medium 9.2.3.1 containing radicals and absolute

values at specified points in their

domains.

Add, subtract and multiply

polynomials; divide a polynomial

high 9.2.3.2 by a polynomial of equal or lower

degree.

6

4

3

2

3

Factor common monomial factors For2 example: 9x x = (3x x )(3x

from polynomials, factor quadratic + x ).

high 9.2.3.3 polynomials, and factor the

Generate equivalent

difference of two squares.

algebraic

expressions involving

Add, subtract, multiply, divide and For example: 1 x is equivalent

polynomials and

1 x 1 x

radicals; use

medium 9.2.3.4 simplify algebraic fractions.

1 2x x 2

to

.

algebraic properties

1 x2

to evaluate

Check whether a given complex For example: The complex number

expressions.

1 i is a solution of 2x2 2x + 1 = 0,

number is a solution of a

2

quadratic equation by substituting since

2

low 9.2.3.5 it for the variable and evaluating

1 i

1 i

the expression, using arithmetic 2 2 2 2 1 i 1 i 1 0 .

Apply the properties of positive

and negative rational exponents

to generate equivalent algebraic

medium 9.2.3.6 expressions, including those

involving nth roots.

For example:

2 7 2 2 7 2 14 2 14 . Rules

for computing directly with radicals

1

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

26

Strand

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Priority

9,

10,

11

Algebra

Generate equivalent

algebraic

expressions involving

polynomials and

radicals; use

algebraic properties

to evaluate

expressions.

Represent real-world

and mathematical

situations using

equations and

inequalities involving

linear, quadratic,

exponential and nth

root functions. Solve

equations and

inequalities

symbolically and

graphically. Interpret

solutions in the

original context.

low

high

high

No.

Benchmark

Document

equivalent expressions by

identifying the properties used.

Use substitution to check the

equality of expressions for some

9.2.3.7

particular values of the variables;

recognize that checking with

substitution does not guarantee

equality of expressions for all

values of the variables.

Represent relationships in various For example: A diver jumps from a 20

meter platform with an upward

contexts using quadratic

velocity of 3 meters per second. In

equations and inequalities. Solve finding the time at which the diver hits

quadratic equations and

the surface of the water, the resulting

quadratic equation has a positive and

inequalities by appropriate

a negative solution. The negative

methods including factoring,

should be discarded because

completing the square, graphing solution

of the context.

and the quadratic formula. Find

9.2.4.1

non-real complex roots when they

exist. Recognize that a particular

solution may not be applicable in

the original context. Know how to

use calculators, graphing utilities

or other technology to solve

quadratic equations and

inequalities.

Represent relationships in various

contexts using equations involving

exponential functions; solve these

equations graphically or

9.2.4.2

numerically. Know how to use

calculators, graphing utilities or

other technology to solve these

equations.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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9,

10,

11

Algebra

Strand

Standard

Priority

Represent real-world

and mathematical

situations using

equations and

inequalities involving

linear, quadratic,

exponential and nth

root functions. Solve

equations and

inequalities

symbolically and

graphically. Interpret

solutions in the

original context

No.

Benchmark

Document

equations, number systems need

to be extended from whole

numbers to integers, from integers

to rational numbers, from rational

low 9.2.4.3 numbers to real numbers, and

from real numbers to complex

numbers. In particular, non-real

complex numbers are needed to

solve some quadratic equations

with real coefficients.

Represent relationships in various

contexts using systems of linear

inequalities; solve them

medium 9.2.4.4 graphically. Indicate which parts

of the boundary are included in

and excluded from the solution set

using solid and dotted lines.

Solve linear programming

high 9.2.4.5 problems in two variables using

graphical methods.

Represent relationships in various For example: If a pipe is to be cut to a

length of 5 meters accurate to within a

contexts using absolute value

tenth of its diameter, the relationship

low 9.2.4.6 inequalities in two variables; solve between the length x of the pipe and

them graphically.

its diameter y satisfies the inequality |

x 5| 0.1y.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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9,

10,

11

Algebra

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Represent real-world

and mathematical

Solve equations that contain

situations using

radical expressions. Recognize

equations and

medium 9.2.4.7 that extraneous solutions may

inequalities involving

arise when using symbolic

linear, quadratic,

methods.

exponential and nth

root functions. Solve

equations and

inequalities

Assess the reasonableness of a

symbolically and

solution in its given context and

graphically. Interpret

compare the solution to

solutions in the

high 9.2.4.8 appropriate graphical or

original context

numerical estimates; interpret a

solution in the original context.

Document

x 9 9 x may be solved by

squaring both sides to obtain x 9 =

81x, which has the solution x

9

80

original equation, so it is an

extraneous solution that should be

discarded. The original equation has

no solution in this case.

Another example: Solve

3

x 1 5 .

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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10,

11

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Priority

No.

Benchmark

volume of pyramids, cones and

high 9.3.1.1 spheres. Use measuring devices

or formulas as appropriate.

Compose and decompose twoand three-dimensional figures;

9.3.1.2

use decomposition to determine

high

the perimeter, area, surface area

and volume of various figures.

Understand that quantities

associated with physical

measurements must be assigned

units; apply such units correctly in

medium 9.3.1.3 expressions, equations and

problem solutions that involve

measurements; and convert

between measurement systems.

Document

radius of a cone and then use a

formula to find its volume.

regular hexagonal prism by

decomposing it into six equal

triangular prisms.

miles/hour 5280 feet/mile

1 hour/3600 seconds = 88

feet/second.

Calculate

measurements of

plane and solid

geometric figures;

know that physical

measurements

depend on the

Understand and apply the fact

choice of a unit and

that the effect of a scale factor k

that they are

medium

9.3.1.4

on length, area and volume is to

approximations.

multiply each by k, k2 and k3,

respectively.

low

judgments about the accuracy of

9.3.1.5 values resulting from calculations

involving measurements.

rectangle are measured to the

nearest tenth of a centimeter at 2.6

cm and 9.8 cm. Because of

measurement errors, the width could

be as small as 2.55 cm or as large as

2.65 cm, with similar errors for the

height. These errors affect

calculations. For instance, the actual

area of the rectangle could be smaller

2

than 25 cm or larger than

2

26 cm , even though 2.6 9.8 =

25.48.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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9,

10,

11

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

low

9.3.2.1 definitions, undefined terms and

theorems in logical arguments.

Accurately interpret and use

words and phrases such as

"ifthen," "if and only if," "all,"

and "not." Recognize the logical

low

9.3.2.2

relationships between an

"ifthen" statement and its

inverse, converse and

contrapositive.

Assess the validity of a logical

argument and give

medium 9.3.2.3

counterexamples to disprove a

Construct logical

statement.

arguments, based

Construct logical arguments and

on axioms,

write proofs of theorems and

definitions and

other results in geometry,

theorems, to prove

including proofs by contradiction.

theorems and other

results in geometry. high 9.3.2.4 Express proofs in a form that

clearly justifies the reasoning,

such as two-column proofs,

paragraph proofs, flow charts or

illustrations.

Use technology tools to examine

theorems, make and test

conjectures, perform

constructions and develop

mathematical reasoning skills in

low

9.3.2.5

multi-step problems. The tools

may include compass and

straight edge, dynamic geometry

software, design software or

Internet applets.

Document

don't do your homework, you can't go

to the dance" is not logically

equivalent to its inverse "If you do

your homework, you can go to the

dance."

the interior angles of a pentagon is

540 using the fact that the sum of the

interior angles of a triangle is 180.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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Priority

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Benchmark

9,

10,

11

parallel and perpendicular lines,

including properties of angles

medium 9.3.3.1 formed by a transversal, to solve

problems and logically justify

results.

high

Know and apply

properties of

geometric figures to

solve real-world and

mathematical

problems and to

logically justify

results in geometry.

.

low

angles, including corresponding,

exterior, interior, vertical,

9.3.3.2 complementary and

supplementary angles, to solve

problems and logically justify

results.

Document

perpendicular bisector of a line

segment is the set of all points

equidistant from the two endpoints,

and use this fact to solve problems

and justify other results.

formed by a pair of intersecting lines

and a pair of parallel lines (an "X"

trapped between two parallel lines)

are similar.

Know and apply properties of

equilateral, isosceles and scalene inequality to prove that the perimeter

a quadrilateral is larger than the

9.3.3.3 triangles to solve problems and of

sum of the lengths of its diagonals.

logically justify results.

and its converse to solve

medium 9.3.3.4 problems and logically justify

results.

wooden frame that is supposed to

have a square corner, ensure that the

corner is square by measuring

lengths near the corner and applying

the Pythagorean Theorem.

For example: Use 30-60-90 triangles

to analyze geometric figures involving

equilateral triangles and hexagons.

right triangles, including

Another example: Determine exact

medium 9.3.3.5 properties of 45-45-90 and 30-60- values of the trigonometric ratios in

90 triangles, to solve problems

these special triangles using

and logically justify results.

relationships among the side lengths.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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Priority

No.

Benchmark

Document

areas in a figure formed by drawing a

line segment from one side of a

triangle to a second side, parallel to

the third side.

9,

10,

11

high

congruent and similar figures to

9.3.3.6 solve problems and logically

justify results.

height of a pine tree by comparing the

length of its shadow to the length of

the shadow of a person of known

height.

Another example: When attempting to

Know and apply

person measured the lengths of

properties of

corresponding sides and found that

geometric figures to

they matched. Can the person

solve real-world and

conclude that the shapes of the

frames are congruent?

mathematical

For example: Recognize that a

problems and to

Use properties of polygons

rectangle is a special case of a

logically justify

including quadrilaterals and

trapezoid.

results in geometry.

regular polygonsto define them,

medium 9.3.3.7 classify them, solve problems and Another example: Give a concise and

.

clear definition of a kite.

logically justify results.

high

circle to solve problems and

9.3.3.8 logically justify results.

angles of a quadrilateral inscribed in a

circle are supplementary.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

33

Strand

Standard

Priority

9,

10,

11

low

high

Solve real-world and

mathematical

geometric problems

using algebraic

methods.

low

high

low

No.

Benchmark

Examples from MN

Standards Document

similar right triangles allow the

trigonometric ratios to be defined,

9.3.4.1

and determine the sine, cosine

and tangent of an acute angle in a

right triangle.

For example: Find the area of a

Apply the trigonometric ratios

sine, cosine and tangent to solve triangle, given the measure of one of

its acute angles and the lengths of the

problems, such as determining

two sides that form that angle.

lengths and areas in right

triangles and in figures that can

9.3.4.2 be decomposed into right

triangles. Know how to use

calculators, tables or other

technology to evaluate

trigonometric ratios.

Use calculators, tables or other

technologies in connection with

9.3.4.3 the trigonometric ratios to find

angle measures in right triangles

in various contexts.

Use coordinate geometry to

represent and analyze line

9.3.4.4 segments and polygons, including

determining lengths, midpoints

and slopes of line segments.

Know the equation for the graph

of a circle with radius r and center

(h, k), (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2, and

9.3.4.5

justify this equation using the

Pythagorean Theorem and

properties of translations.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

34

9,

10,

11

Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

Examples from MN

Standards Document

Use numeric, graphic and

rotated 90 counterclockwise about

symbolic representations of

the origin, it becomes the point (2, 3).

transformations in two

dimensions, such as reflections,

low 9.3.4.6 translations, scale changes and

rotations about the origin by

multiples of 90, to solve

Solve real-world and

problems involving figures on a

mathematical

coordinate grid.

geometric problems

using algebraic

Use algebra to solve geometric

methods.

problems unrelated to coordinate

geometry, such as solving for an

unknown length in a figure

medium 9.3.4.7

involving similar triangles, or

using the Pythagorean Theorem

to obtain a quadratic equation for

a length in a geometric figure.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

35

9,

10,

11

Strand

Standard

Priority

Display and

analyze data; use

various measures

associated with

data to draw

conclusions,

identify trends and

describe

relationships.

high

low

No.

Benchmark

Document

displays, including box-and-whisker

plots; describe and compare data

sets using summary statistics,

including measures of center,

location and spread. Measures of

center and location include mean,

9.4.1.1

median, quartile and percentile.

Measures of spread include

standard deviation, range and interquartile range. Know how to use

calculators, spreadsheets or other

technology to display data and

calculate summary statistics.

9.4.1.2 statistics of changes in data sets.

or deleting a data point may affect the

mean and standard deviation.

Another example: Understand how the

median and interquartile range are

affected when the entire data set is

transformed by adding a constant to each

data value or multiplying each data value

by a constant.

patterns and describe relationships

between two variables. Using

technology, determine regression

medium 9.4.1.3 lines (line of best fit) and correlation

coefficients; use regression lines to

make predictions and correlation

coefficients to assess the reliability

of those predictions.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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Strand

Standard

Priority

No.

Benchmark

9,

10,

11

deviation of a data set to fit it to a

Display and

normal distribution (bell-shaped

analyze data; use

curve) and to estimate population

various measures

percentages. Recognize that there

associated with

medium 9.4.1.4 are data sets for which such a

data to draw

procedure is not appropriate. Use

conclusions,

calculators, spreadsheets and

identify trends and

tables to estimate areas under the

describe

normal curve.

relationships.

high

Explain the uses of

data and statistical

thinking to draw

inferences, make

predictions and

justify conclusions.

low

low

Document

measurements of some attribute of an

irregular physical object, it is appropriate

to fit the data to a normal distribution and

draw conclusions about measurement

error.

Another example: When data involving

two very different populations is

combined, the resulting histogram may

show two distinct peaks, and fitting the

data to a normal distribution is not

appropriate.

Evaluate reports based on data

vertical axis can make differences in data

published in the media by

appear deceptively large.

identifying the source of the data,

the design of the study, and the

way the data are analyzed and

displayed. Show how graphs and

9.4.2.1

data can be distorted to support

different points of view. Know how

to use spreadsheet tables and

graphs or graphing technology to

recognize and analyze distortions

in data displays.

Identify and explain misleading

uses of data; recognize when

9.4.2.2

arguments based on data confuse

correlation and causation.

Design simple experiments and

explain the impact of sampling

9.4.2.3 methods, bias and the phrasing of

questions asked during data

collection.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

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9,

10,

11

Strand

Standard

Calculate

probabilities and

apply probability

concepts to solve

real-world and

mathematical

problems.

Priority

No.

high

9.4.3.1

high

9.4.3.2

low

9.4.3.3

low

9.4.3.4

high

Benchmark

Document

Select and apply counting

picked at random from a class with 20

procedures, such as the

girls and 15 boys, there are 20 15 =

multiplication and addition

300 different possibilities, so the

principles and tree diagrams, to

probability that a particular girl is chosen

1

determine the size of a sample

together with a particular boy is

.

300

space (the number of possible

outcomes) and to calculate

probabilities.

Calculate experimental probabilities

by performing simulations or

experiments involving a probability

model and using relative

frequencies of outcomes.

Understand that the Law of Large

Numbers expresses a relationship

between the probabilities in a

probability model and the

experimental probabilities found by

performing simulations or

experiments involving the model.

Use random numbers generated by For example: If a group of students

needs to fairly select one of its members

a calculator or a spreadsheet, or

to lead a discussion, they can use a

taken from a table, to perform

random number to determine the

probability simulations and to

selection.

introduce fairness into decision

making.

intersections, unions and

complements of events, and

9.4.3.5

conditional probability and

independence, to calculate

probabilities and solve problems.

least one head when flipping a fair coin

three times can be calculated by looking

at the complement of this event (flipping

three tails in a row).

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

38

Strand

Standard

Priority

9,

10,

11

low

Calculate

probabilities and

apply probability

concepts to solve

real-world and

mathematical

problems.

No.

Benchmark

Document

intersections, unions and

complements using Venn

diagrams. Understand the

9.4.3.6

relationships between these

concepts and the words AND, OR,

NOT, as used in computerized

searches and spreadsheets.

probability formulas involving

medium 9.4.3.7 intersections, unions and

complements of events.

medium 9.4.3.8 decisions.

conditional probabilities and

medium 9.4.3.9 relative frequencies in contingency

tables.

is p, then the probability of the

complement of an event is 1 p; the

probability of the intersection of two

independent events is the product of their

probabilities.

Another example: The probability of the

union of two events equals the sum of

the probabilities of the two individual

events minus the probability of the

intersection of the events.

For example: Explain why a hockey

coach might decide near the end of the

game to pull the goalie to add another

forward position player if the team is

behind.

Another example: Consider the role that

probabilities play in health care

decisions, such as deciding between

having eye surgery and wearing glasses.

For example: A table that displays

percentages relating gender (male or

female) and handedness (right-handed or

left-handed) can be used to determine

the conditional probability of being lefthanded, given that the gender is male.

First tested on the MCA-III in April 2011for 7th & 8th graders

39

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