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_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure

Lesson Plan

1 Basic Word Structure


TEACHING FOCUS
Students will have the opportunity to learn how to analyze words by dividing them into their component
parts. Students will be exposed to terms such as root, suffix, and prefix, and they will be shown how to
combine them into medical terms. Students will be given the opportunity to learn how to relate medical
terms to the structure and function of the human body, and they will be introduced to spelling and
pronunciation problems.

MATERIALS AND RESOURCES

Index cards (Lesson 1.1)


Overhead projector (all Lessons)

LESSON CHECKLIST

Preparations for this lesson include:


Lecture
Demonstration
Student performance evaluation of all entry-level skills required for student comprehension and
application of basic word structure including:
o applying medical terminology
o knowing basic structure of medical words
o understanding word building and definitions
o dividing medical words into their component parts
o finding the meaning of basic combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes of the medical language
o using correct pronunciation of terms

KEY TERMS

Vocabulary (p. 6)
combining form
combining vowel
prefix
root
suffix
Combining Forms
(pp. 8-11)
aden/o
arthr/o
bi/o
carcin/o
cardi/o
cephal/o
cerebr/o
cis/o
crin/o
cyst/o
cyt/o
derm/o
dermat/o
electr/o
encephal/o

enter/o
erythr/o
gastr/o
glyc/o
gnos/o
gynec/o
hemat/o
hem/o
hepat/o
iatr/o
leuk/o
log/o
nephr/o
neur/o
onc/o
ophthalm/o
oste/o
path/o
ped/o
psych/o
radi/o
ren/o
rhin/o

sarc/o
sect/o
thromb/o
ur/o
Suffixes (pp. 11-12)
-ac
-al
-algia
-cyte
-ectomy
-emia
-genic
-globin
-gram
-ic, -ical
-ion
-ist
-itis
-logy
-oma
-opsy
-osis
-pathy

-scope
-scopy
-sis
-tomy
-y
Prefixes (pp. 1314)
a-, anaut-, autodiaend-, endoepiex-, exohyperhypoinperiproreretrosubtrans-

_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure

REFERENCE LIST
PowerPoint slides (CD, Evolve): 1-58

Legend

CD
Companion
CD

iTerms

IRM
Instructors
Resource Manual
available on CD
and Evolve

Evolve
Evolve
Resources

PPT
PowerPoint
Slides

MTO
Medical
Terminology
Online

Class Activities are indicated in bold italic.

_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure

LESSON 1.1
PRETEST
IRM Exercise Quiz A

BACKGROUND ASSESSMENT
Question: How can you use word components to relate medical terms to the structure and function of the
human body?
Answer: Once you know the meaning of the root components, it will be easier to remember medical terms
explained in their proper context. For example, when you encounter the term hepatitis, you will know the
term means inflammation of the liver if you know that hepat means liver and -itis means inflammation.
You do not need previous knowledge of biology, anatomy, or physiology to be able to understand medical
terms.
Question: Why is it important to be able to break down medical terms into component parts? Why not just
memorize each term?
Answer: The goal of understanding the components of medical terms is to make understanding complex
terminology easier. Because you are able to separate both complicated and simple terms into understandable
word elements, you will be able to decipher virtually all medical terms. As you become familiar with the
word parts and learn what each one means, you will be able to recognize those word parts in totally new
combinations in other terms.

CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION


Carol wants to become a medical assistant. She is wondering why it is necessary to spend the time
learning the roots, suffixes, and prefixes of medical terms when it is faster to simply memorize the
actual medical terms. She has commented to you that she is studying to be a medical assistant, not an
English teacher, and that learning all the word components seems like a waste of time. How would you
respond?
Guidelines: To begin with, by learning the tools of medical word analysis, it is easier to understand complex
medical terminology. Medical terms are like jigsaw puzzles. They are constructed of small pieces that make
each word unique, but the pieces can also be used in different combinations in other words. This
understanding can also help avoid medical mistakes. If Carol only memorizes whole terms, she might
confuse hyperglycemia with hypoglycemia. But if she knows that hypo means less than normal and hyper
means more than normal, she will immediately understand the patients condition and be able to take the
appropriate action.

OBJECTIVES
Learn basic
objectives to
guide your study
of the medical
language.

CONTENT

Objectives in studying the


medical language (p. 2)

Analyze words by dividing


them into component parts
(p. 2)
Relate the medical terms to the
structure and function of the
human body (p. 2)
Be aware of spelling and
pronunciation problems (p. 2)

TEACHING RESOURCES
MTO Module 1, Section I, Lesson 1
Exercise A (p. 15)
Present students with the terms for
specialties that they may be familiar with:
biology, cardiology, dermatology, and
psychology. Ask them what they see that the
terms have in common (-logy). Explain that
this is a suffix that means the process of
study. Ask if they have an idea of what is
being studied in each of the terms. Explain
that these are word parts that mean life,
heart, skin, and mind. Demonstrate how, by
using the word parts, a definition can be
made. Note that some of these -logies relate
to parts of the body (cardiology, dermatology,

aCslyActiv

and psychology). Ask students if they can


hear which syllable is stressed in each of the
terms.
Read the sentence: Dr. Knowledge is a

_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure

OBJECTIVES

CONTENT

TEACHING RESOURCES
psychologist in Philadelphia who has
pneumonia. Ask students to identify the
words that begin with silent letters.
Have small groups study the three objectives
on pp. 1-2 and compile a list of words they
know that function the same way as medical
words ( words that can be defined by looking
at their prefixes, suffixes, and combining
forms, and words that have the same
pronunciations but different spellings).

aCslyActiv

Examples: pretest/posttest, appear/reappear


Have students present their lists to the class
and discuss how they relate to understanding
medical terminology.
Divide medical
words into their
component parts.

Word analysis (p. 3)

PPT 4-20
MTO Module 1, Section I, Lesson 2
Exercise D (p. 16)
Divide the class into groups of two. Have
each student copy five medical terms on an
index card. After trading cards with the
partner, each student divides each word into
its components. Ask students to label the
component parts (prefix/suffix/
word root/combining vowel) and define the
term.

aCslyActiv

Find the meaning


of basic
combining forms,
prefixes, and
suffixes of the
medical language.

Combining forms, suffixes, and


prefixes (p. 6)

Combining forms (p. 6)

Suffixes (p. 11)

Prefixes (p. 13)

PPT 21-22, 24-27, 29-56


MTO Module 1, Section I, Lessons 3-5
Combining Forms Exercise (pp. 6-11)
Exercises B, C, E, G, H, K, L (pp. 16-18, 20)
Review Sheet (pp. 30-31)
Copy each of the combining forms, suffixes,
and prefixes on pp. 8-13 on an index card.
Have each student take a turn randomly
selecting a term. Each student will read the
term and discuss a way to remember that
term. Alternately, use an online bingo card
generator to construct cards to review student
knowledge of word components.

aCslyActiv

_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure

OBJECTIVES
Use these
combining forms,
prefixes, and
suffixes to build
medical words.

CONTENT

TEACHING RESOURCES

Practical applications (p. 14)

PPT 23, 28, 42


Exercises F, J, M-P (pp. 16, 18, 20-21)
MTO Module 1, Section I, Lesson 6
Write each of the combining forms, prefixes,
and suffixes on small slips of paper and place
them in a hat. Go around the room and
have each student take a slip and use it to
make a medical word. Continue until all slips
are used. Ask them to use their terms in
sentences so that pronunciation and context
can be checked.

aCslyActiv

Divide the class into small groups and assign


each group a combining form. Have them
create as many medical terms as possible by
adding prefixes, suffixes, and combining
vowels. Ask one of the students in each of the
groups to use a medical dictionary to confirm
the terms.

aCslyActiv

Use these
combining forms,
prefixes, and
suffixes to build
medical words.

Pronunciation of terms (p. 25)

PPT 57-58
Pronunciation Exercise (pp. 25-27)
iTerms Chapter 01
Read Spotlight 1-1 to the class. Ask them to
spell and analyze polyuria, glycosuria,
neuropathy, nephropathy, and ophthalmic.
Have them underline the stressed syllables.

aCslyActiv

Read Spotlight 1-2 and ask the students to


spell and analyze hyperthyroidism,
tachycardia, exophthalmos, antithyroid,
thyroidectomy, and cardiac. Have them
underline the stressed syllables.
Alternatively, ask students to take turns
reading the sentences in Exercise O at the
end of the chapter, correcting their
pronunciation as necessary.
Performance
Evaluation

ESLR Student Quiz Chapter 01


MTO Module 1, Section I quiz
MTO Module 1, Exam

_______________________________________________________Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure


1.1 Homework/Assignments:

1.1 Teachers Notes: