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Chapter 1 American Roots Beginnings to 1732

Section 1: Roots of Democratic Government

California Content Standards:
8.1.4 Describe the nations blend of civil
republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English
parliamentary traditions.
8.2.1 Discuss the significance of the Magna Carta, the
English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact.
Framework: This years study of American history
begins with a selective review of significant
developments of the colonial era with emphasis on the
development of democratic institutions founded in
Judeo-Christian religious thinking.

The Judeo-Christian Tradition

Judaism and Christianity
helped shape many basic
moral and spiritual values.


Many American ideas and values are rooted in

Judaism and Christianity.

It is the faith of the ancient Hebrews;

Hebrews believed in one god; and
They are governed by a set of moral and
religious rules called the Ten

Moses receives the

Ten Commandments

The Judeo-Christian Tradition


It emerged from the Jewish tradition about 2,000 years ago;

It was inspired by the life and teachings of a Jew named Jesus;
Roman officials had Jesus crucified;
His followers spread Christianity; and
Eventually, after years of persecution, Christianity became the
official religion of the Roman Empire.

Jesus of Nazareth

The Judeo-Christian Tradition


Judaism and Christianity eventually spread to the Americas;

Judeo-Christian ideas about justice, morality, and equality
proved to be influential;
The Hebrew Bible comprises the Old Testament of the
Christian Bible
The Hebrews taught that rulers are subject to Gods law; and
Christians believe that, in the eyes of God, all people are equal.

The Gutenberg Bible was

the first major book to be
widely printed in the West.

The Greco-Roman Tradition

Athenian Democracy:

Athens was the first Greek city-state to adopt direct

Much of our judicial system is similar to that of Ancient
One important duty of Athenians was to serve on juries; and
They believed that democracy depended on educated

The Greco-Roman Tradition

Roman Government
and Law:

In 509 B.C. Romans established a republic;

An elected senate and assembly made the laws;
The system of checks and balances derives
from Roman representative democracy; and
Eventually, the Roman Empire spread its ideas
about law across western Europe.

English Parliamentary Traditions

Magna Carta:

It was signed in 1215 by King John;

It was the first document to place restrictions on an
English kings power, limiting taxation without
consultation, protecting the right to own private property,
and ensuring the right to trial by jury; and
It established the principle that the king must obey the law.

English Parliamentary Traditions


Nobles formed a Great Council to advise the king;

The council developed into the English Parliament;
Parliament had the right to approve new taxes, which gave
them some control over the king; and
By the 1600s, Parliament had developed into a two-house
legislature (the House of Lords and the House of Commons).

English Parliamentary Traditions

English Bill of Rights:

It was approved the year after King James II was removed by

Parliament in 1688;
It restated many of the rights granted by the Magna Carta;
It upheld habeas corpus, the principle that a person cannot
be held in prison without being charged with a specific
crime; and
It prevented a monarch from raising taxes or an army without
the consent of Parliament.

Section 2: An Age of Exploration

California Content Standards:
7.11.11 Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and
the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview.
7.11.2 Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and
ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.

The World in the 1400s

The Americas

Iroquois League

The Incan Empire dominated South America

The Aztecs built a great empire in what is now Mexico.
Small groups lived by hunting and collecting wild foods on the West Coast of
North America.
In the Great Plains, hunters followed herds of wandering buffalo.
In the Northeast, the Iroquois farmed and developed a complex form of

The World in the 1400s

Trade Networks

Silk Road

A vast trade network, dominated by Muslims,

stretched from Africa to China.
In West Africa, the Muslim empire of Songhai
dominated trade in the Sahara region.
Muslims traded with China along the Silk Road.

Europe Begins to Explore

Looking Outward

Leonardo da Vinci

Trade increased between Europe and the Middle East between 1100
and 1300.
Muslim sailors passed on the magnetic compass and astrolabe to
Europeans. Europeans could now make longer sea voyages.
In the 1300s, the Renaissance began in Europe. Discoveries in art,
medicine, and science led to inventions like the printing press which
helped to spread Greek and Roman ideas.

Columbus Reaches the Americas


Cortes conquered
the Aztecs

On October 12, 1492 Columbus landed with part of his crew on an

island in the Bahamas. There he met people known as the Tainos.
Columbus returned to Spain and told Spanish rulers Ferdinand and
Isabella that he had found the fringes of Asia.
Within a few decades, Spain toppled the empires of the Incas and
They set up colonies from Mexico through most of South America.

John locked believed that humans should have 3 basic
rights. Name and describe those rights.
Do you agree with those rights why or why not?

The Columbian Exchange

New Products
and Ideas

Spanish Missionary

The voyages of Columbus started a worldwide exchange of products and

Products from America, such as potatoes, corn, tomatoes, beans, squash,
peanuts, and pineapples were brought to the rest of the world.
Europeans brought chickens, pigs, cattle, and horses to America. They also
introduced bananas and citrus fruits.
Europeans introduced new religions and new ways of organizing governments.

The Columbian Exchange


Disease was part of the Columbian Exchange. Native

Americans were exposed to smallpox and influenza for
the first time.
Within 75 years of Columbuss arrival, almost 90 percent
of the people in the Caribbean islands and Mexico had
died of European diseases.

The Columbian Exchange

Growth of Slavery

The Spanish enslaved Native Americans to work in gold and silver mines and on
The Spanish soon began bringing in slaves from Africa, believing they were less prone to
European diseases.
In the Americas, a harsh system of slavery developed over time.
A complex slave trade network arose.
Over three centuries, an estimated 10 million captive Africans were carried into slavery in
the Americas. About 500,000 ended up in British colonies in North America.

Section 3: Commerce and Colonies

California Content Standards:
7.11.3 Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and
cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in seventeenthcentury Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns, including their
locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and map makers.
8.2.1 Discuss the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the
Mayflower Compact.

Economic Changes in Europe

Rise of Capitalism

Spanish Doubloons

As trade grew, money became increasingly

Europeans developed modern capitalism, which is
now the economic system of most of the world.
Banking became important as investors began to
borrow money from wealthy bankers.

Economic Changes in Europe


European monarchs supported mercantilism as their

nations began to benefit from a rise in wealth and trade.
The best way to increase a nations wealth was to increase
exports and decrease imports.
Colonies were vital to mercantilism as they were a cheap
source of raw materials and provided a place to sell goods.

Colonizing North America

European Powers
Seek Colonies in the

As Spain and Portugal grew rich on American gold and silver, France,
England, and the Netherlands desired colonies in the Americas.
European powers sought a water passage through or around North
America to Asia, called the northwest passage.
France set up its first American colony in 1605 at Nova Scotia,
By 1700, New France stretched from Quebec to Louisiana.

Colonizing North America

European Powers
Seek Colonies in the

The Dutch established a colony on Manhattan Island

called New Netherland in 1626. This later became New
York City.
The English settled a colony on Roanoke Island, North
Carolina in 1585, but it vanished after a few years.

Early Struggles


King James I granted the Virginia Company a charter to establish a colony

in 1606.
The Jamestown Colony struggled to survive as settlers sought gold
instead of growing crops.
John Smith took command and required colonists to grow crops.
The colony began making a profit by growing and exporting tobacco.
Jamestown had the first representative government in the colonies.
In 1619, the House of Burgesses was established.

Plymouth Colony
The Mayflower

The Pilgrims, a group of Protestants who wanted to separate

from the Church of England, sailed for Virginia in 1620.
The ship went off course and the landed in Massachusetts in
November, 1620.
The 41 male passengers established a set of rules for the
colony called the Mayflower Compact.

Plymouth Colony
Struggle and Survival

Religious Freedom

The Pilgrims struggled to survive their first winter and about half of them died.
The colony survived with the help of Native Americans who introduced the
settlers to maize (corn).
The right of all individuals to follow their own religious beliefs.
The Pilgrims were the first of many English settlers who came to North
America in order to worship as they pleased.
Over the next 150 years, people gradually came to believe government
should not interfere with peoples religious or moral beliefs.

Sketch a picture to represent the information learned during
class today.

In your own words write a summary about todays lesson.

Section 4: The 13 English Colonies

California Content Standards:
Framework: This years study of American history begins with a
selective review of significant developments of the colonial era with
emphasis on the development of an economy based on agriculture,
commerce, and handicraft manufacturing; and the emergence of major
regional differences in the colonies.

Exit ticket
On your bellwork paper write 5 key words to summarize
todays lesson.

The New England Colonies


Rhode Island

New Hampshire

Plymouth Colony founded in 1620

Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded by the Puritans in 1630
(Both religious freedom)
Founded in 1636 by Roger
Williams (religious freedom)
Founded by Thomas Hooker in
1636 (religious/political freedom)
Founded in 1622 by Ferdinando
Gorges and John Mason (profit
from trade and fishing)

The New England Colonies


New England had land that was

difficult to farm, so people lived on
what they grew themselves.
New Englanders benefited from sea
products and forest products.
It became a center of shipbuilding
and trade.

The Middle Colonies

New York

New Jersey


Renamed New York in 1664 after

England took it over from the Dutch.
Originally founded in 1624 (expand
Founded in 1638 by Swedish
settlers (expand trade)
Founded in 1664 by John Berkeley
and George Carteret (expand
trade/religious and political freedom)
Founded in 1682 by William Penn, a
Quaker (profit from land
sales/religious and political

The Middle Colonies


The Middle Colonies had land and

weather that were suitable for largescale farming on plantations.
The people developed a wide variety
of industries and crafts.

The Southern Colonies


The Carolinas


Founded in 1607, at Jamestown, by

John Smith (expand trade/farming)
Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore
(profit from land sales/religious and
political freedom)
Founded in 1663 by a group of
eight proprietors. They were later
divided into 2 states in 1712 and
1719 (expand trade/farming)
Founded in 1733 by James
Oglethorpe (profit/home for
debtors/buffer against Spanish

The Southern Colonies


Tobacco Plantation

The Southern Colonies had rich

farmland near the coast where they
produced rice and tobacco on huge
Farther inland people cleared their
own land and existed by growing their
own crops.
Plantation owners became dependent
on slave labor.

Colonial Trade
Trade Routes

Navigation Acts

A major route went up and down the Atlantic coast.

Another route carried goods across the Atlantic to England.
A third route, the triangular trade, linked the colonies to the
Caribbean and Africa. Slaves were traded for sugar and molasses.
The English Parliament began to pass Navigation Acts to regulate
colonial trade.
The acts benefited English manufacturers but not the colonies.