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# CH1

What are the physical mechanisms associated with heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation?
Conduction- no bulk or macroscopic motion
Convection- random molecular motion, diffusion, bulk, or macroscopic motion
What is the driving potential of heat transfer? Temperature difference (high to low)
What is the difference between a heat flux and a heat rate?
Heat flux- q, W/m^2, heat divided by an area
Heat rate- q, W, Product of heat flux and area
What is a temperature gradient, dt/dx, K/m,
What is thermal conductivity? K, W/m*K, it is a transport property.
What is Fouriers Law? q=-k(dt/dx)
What is the difference between natural convection and forced convection?
Natural- the flow is induced by buoyancy forces, which are due to density differences caused by temperature
variations in the fluid.
Forced- flow is caused by external, like a fan
What conditions are necessary for the development of a hydrodynamic boundary layer?
Hydrodynamic- the velocity varies from zero at the surface to a finite value ambient associated with the flow,
velocity varies to zero in a hydrodynamic layer.
What conditions are necessary for the development of a thermal boundary layer?
Thermal- Ts @ y=0 to T ambient in the outer flow, velocity varies.
What is Newtons Law of cooling? q=h(Ts-T ambient)
What role is played by the convection heat transfer coefficient in Newtons law of cooling? It depends on conditions in the thermal
boundary layer, which are influenced by the surface geometry, the nature of the fluid motion, and an assortment of
fluid thermodynamics and transport properties. h[W/m^2*K]
What effect does convection heat transfer from or to a surface have on the solid bounded by the surface? none
What is predicted by Stefan-Boltzmann law, and what unit of temperature must be used with this law? The upper limit to the
emissive power, the unit of temperature is absolute k, Eb=Ts^4
What is the emissivity, and what role does it play does it play in characterizing radiation transfer at a surface? Emissivity- a
radiation property of the surface; this property provides a measure of how efficiently a surface emits energy relative
to a blackbody or ideal radiator.
What is Irradiation? Irradiation- the rate at which all such radiation is incident on a unit area of the surface. Units are
W/m^2.
What conditions are associated with use of the radiation heat transfer coefficient? Hr, depends strongly on temperature.
What is the inherent difference between application of conservation of energy over a time interval and at an instant of time?
Time interval- all energy terms are measured in joules
Instant of time- all energy terms are balanced and measured in joules/s
What is thermal energy storage? How does it differ from thermal energy generation? What role do the terms play in a surface
energy balance?
Energy generated- Eg at an instant.
Energy storage- over a
CH2
In the general formulation of Fouriers Law what are the vector and scalar quantities? Why is there a minus sign on the right hand
side of the equation?
Fouriers law has scalar temperature field and heat flux vector
The minus sign is necessary because heat is always transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature
What is an isothermal surface? What can be said about the heat flux at any location on this surface?
The direction of heat flow will always be normal to a surface of constant temperature, the direction of q is normal
to the cross sectional area
What form does fouriers law take for each of the orthogonal directions of Cartesian cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems?
In each case what are the units of the temperature gradient? Can you write each equation from memory?
Cartisian
Cylinderical

Spherical
An important property of matter is defined by Fouriers law. What is it? What is its physical significance? What are its units?
k, thermal conductivity, W/ m*K, w/o k all materials that have the same A, T, x would technically be the same
What is isotropic material? A material where thermal conductivity is independent of the coordinate direction.
Why is the thermal conductivity of a solid generally larger than that of a liquid? Why is the thermal conductivity of a liquid
generally larger than that of a gas?
Thermal conductivity is greater in solid than liquid and liquid than gas because the heat fluxes are higher.
Why is the thermal conductivity of an electrically conducting solid generally larger than that of a non conductor? Why are
materials such as beryllium oxide, diamond, and silicon carbide exceptions to this rule?
In pure metals, the electron contribution to conduction heat transfer dominates, while non-conductors and semiconductors, the phonon contribution is dominant because they have high thermal conductivity.
Is the effective thermal conductivity of an insulation system a true manifestation of the efficacy with which heat is transferred
through the system by conduction alone?
No, heat is also transferred due to surface radiation and the nature of the volumetric fraction of the air or void
space.
Why does the thermal conductivity of a gas increase with increasing temperature? Why is it approximately independent of
pressure?
Thermal conductivity of as gas increase w/ increasing temperature because increases with increasing temperature
and decreasing molecular weight. Because and mfp are directly and inversely proportional to the gas pressure.
What is the physical significance of the thermal diffusivity? How is it defined and what are its units?
Thermal diffusivity, , it measures the ability of a material to conduct thermal energy relative to its ability to store
thermal energy. m2/s
For a chemically reacting medium, what kind of reaction provides a source of thermal energy (q .>0)? What kind of reaction
provides a sink for thermal energy (q.<0)?
I q*>0 a source if thermal is being generated in the material at the expense of some other energy form. If q*<0 a
sink if thermal energy is being consumed.
CH 3
Under what conditions may it be said that the heat flux is a constant, independent of the direction of heat flow? For each of these
conditions, use physical considerations to convince yourself that the heat flux would not be independent of direction if the
conditions were not satisfied
Heat flux is constant and independent of the direction of heat flow
For a 1-D SS in a plane wall with no heat generation
For one dimensional steady state conduction in a cylindrical or spherical shell without heat generation, is the radial heat flux
He flux is independent
heat rate is dependant
For one dimensional stead state conduction without heat generation, what is the shape of the temperature distribution in plane
wall? In a cylindrical shell? In a spherical shell?
What is the thermal resistance? How is it defined? What are its units?
Thermal resistance is the ratio of a driving potential to the corresponding transfer rate
K/W
For conduction across a plane wall, can you white the expression for the thermal resistance from memory? Similarly can you write
expressions for the thermal resistance associated with conduction across cylindrical and spherical shells? From memory can you
express the thermal resistances associated with convection from a surface and net radiation exchange between the surface and
large surroundings?
Wall Rtcond = L/kA
Rtconv = 1/hA
Cylinder Rtcond = ln (r2/r1)/2Lk
Sphere
Rt cond = 1/(4k)(1/r1 1/r2)
what is the physical basis for existence of a critical insulation radius? How do the thermal conductivity and the convection
coefficient affect its value?
Maximizes heat transfer that is below which q increases with increasing r and above which q decreases with
increasing r
Rcr = k/h
h does not equal 0

How is the conduction resistance of a solid affected by its thermal conductivity? How is the convection resistance at a surface
affected by the convection coefficient? How is the radiation resistance affected by the surface emissivity?
Rt cond = L/kA so the greater k is the lower Rtcond.
Rtconv + Rtrad is the higher h or hr the lower the resistance
If heat is transferred from a surface by convection and radiation how are the corresponding thermal resistances represented in a
circuit?

## Can a thermal conduction resistance be applied to a solid cylinder or sphere?

No r does not equal 0
What is a contact resistance? How is it defined? What are its units for an interface of prescribed area? What are they for a unit
area?
Rtc the temperature drop across the interface between materials may be appreciable
Rtc = T-To / q
m^2 K/ W
What purpose is served by attaching fins to a surface?
Fins are used to increase the heat transfer from a surface by increasing the effective surface area
What is the fin effectiveness? What is its range of possible values? Under what conditions are fins most effective?
The ratio of find heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate that would exists with out the fin
f >2
thin with close spacing
what is the fin efficiency? What is its range of possible values? Under what conditions will the efficiency be large?
= qf / qmax = qf / hA b
values from 0-1
for a maximum qmax = qf
CH4
What is an isotherm? What is a heat flow line? How are the two lines related geometrically?
When local heat flux in the solid is a vector that is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of constant temperature.
Lines that represent the directions of the heat flux vector. They are perpendicular to each other.
What is an adiabatic? How is it related to a line symmetry? How is it intersected by an isotherm?
A line where no heat can be conducted across. Adiabatic surfaces are heat flow lines. perpendicular
What parameters characterize the effect of geometry on the relationship between the rate and the overall temperature difference
for steady conduction in a 2-D system? How are these parameters related to the conduction resistance?
The average temperature of a certain region.
What is represented by the temperature of a nodal point, and how does the accuracy of a nodal temperature depend on prescription
of the nodal between?
The larger the grid the finer the mesh, the more accurate.
CH 5
Under what conditions may the lumped capacitance method be used to predict the transient response of a solid to a change in its
thermal environment?
Bi < .1
What is the physical interpretation of the Biot Number?
Ratio of internal and eternal thermal resistances
Is the lumped capacitance method of analysis likely to be more applicable for a hot solid being cooled by forced convection in air
or in water? By forced convection in air or natural convection in air?
Air,
Air
Is the lumped capacitance method of analysis likely to be more applicable for cooling of a hot solid made of copper or aluminum?
For silicon nitride or glass?
Copper
What parameters determine the time constant associated with the transient thermal response of a lumped capacitance solid? Is this
response accelerated or decelerated by an increase in the convection coefficient? By an increase in the density or specific heat of
the solid?
cvhA
accelerated
decelerated
CH 6
What is the difference between a local convection heat transfer coefficient and average coefficient? What are their units?
Local at any distance x from the leading edge, average is the entire surface
W/m62*K

What are the forms of Newtons law of cooling for a heat flux and a heat rate
q=hT q=hAT T= Ts-T
What are the velocity and thermal boundary layers? Under what conditions do they develop
A thin layer in which velocity gradients and shear stresses are larger, a thing fluid laying in which temperature
Velocity develops when there is a fluid flow over a surface, thermal develops if the fluid is free stream and the
surface temp differs
What quantities change with location in a velocity boundary layer? A thermal boundary layer?
Velocity boundary layer thickness surface shear stress
Thermal boundary layer thickness magnitude dT/dy!y=0 decreases as x increases q and h decrease when x
increases
Recognizing that convection heat transfer is strongly influenced by conditions associated with fluid flow over a surface, how is it
that we may determine the convection heat flux by applying fouriers law to the fluid at the surface?
hT=-kdT/dy!y=0 h=-k dT/dy!y=0/T
T = Ts-T
Do we expect heat transfer to change with transition from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer? How?
Yes,, Increases
What physical processes are represented by the terms of the x-momentum equation (6.16)? By the energy equation (6.17)?
Represents he net outflow of mass in the x & y directions, the sum of which must be zero for SS
Left side represents the net rate at which x-momentum leaves the CV due to fluid motion across its boundaries.
Right side represents the net pressure force and the net forces due to viscous shear stress
What special approximations may be made for conditions within theis velocity and thermal boundary layers?
u>>v du/dy>>du/dy(v/dx) dt/dy>>dt/dx
How is the Reynolds # defined? What is it physical interpretations? What role is played by the critical?
Re= Vx/ ratio of inertial and viscous forces calculates the boundary layer behavior
What is the Prandtl #? How does its value affect relative growth of the velocity and thermal boundary layers for laminar flow over
a surface? What representative room temperature values of the Prandtl # for a liquid metal a gas water and oil
Pr= / ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusivities
Prandtl # for different fluids is different, for energy and momentum transfer by diffusion rate is as follows; gases
its comparable, liquid metal energy exceeds momentum diffusion rate and oils are opposite of liquid metal
What is the coefficient of friction? The Nusselt #? For flow over a prescribed geometry what are the independent parameters that
determine local and average values of these quantities?
Dimensionless surface shear stress Cf= s/v62/2
The ratio of convection to pure conduction heat transfer rates Nu= hL/k
Under what conditions may velocity and thermal boundary layers be termed analogous? What is the physical basis of analogous
behavior?
If two or more processes are governed by dimensionless equations of the same form
Friction and heat transfer relations for a particular geometry are interchangeable
What important boundary layer parameters are linked by the Reynolds analogy?
Velocity parameter- if known the analogy may be used to obtain the heat transfer parameter and vice versa
What physical features distinguish a turbulent flow from a laminar flow?
Laminar- fluid flow is highly ordered and you could identify streamlines along which fluid particles move
Turbulent- fluid flow highly irregular and is characterized by random, 3-d motion of relatively large parcels
CH7
What is an external flow?
Boundary layers that develop freely without constraints imposed by adjacent surfaces
How does the velocity boundary layer thickness vary with distance from the leading edge for laminar flow over a flat plat? For
turbulent flow? What determines the relative velocity and thermal boundary layer thickness for laminar flow? For turbulent flow?
Increases proportionally to x^1/2
Increases proportionally to x^4/5
Pr- momentum and thermal diffusivity ratio
Boundary layer development is influenced by random fluctuations in fluid in the fluid and not by molecular
diffusion
How does the local convection heat transfer coefficient vary with distance from the leading edge for laminar flow over a flat plat?
For turbulent flow? For flow in which transition to turbulence occurs of the plate
Decrease proportionally to x^-1/2 from
Decrease proportionally to x^4/5

## Decrease in a range from xlam<x<xturb

How does the local heat transfer from the surface of a flat plate affected by the existence of an unheated starting length
There is no heat transfer for 0<x<
What are the manifestations of boundary layer separation from the surface of a circular cylinder in cross flow? How is separation
influenced by whether the upstream flow is laminar or turbulent?
Wake and vortices formation
Separation occurs later if turbulent
How is the variation of the local convection coefficient on the surface of a circular cylinder in cross flow affected by boundary
layer separation? By boundary layer transition? Where do local max and min in the convection coefficient occur on the surface?
Local convection increase with increasing Nu and vice versa
Is a result of part a, from the value at the stagnation point is due to boundary layer development but the sharp
increase that occurs between 80 and 100 degrees is now due to boundary transition to turbulent
Between 80 and 100 degrees
CH 8
What are the salient features of a hydrodynamic entry region? A thermal entry region? Are hydrodynamic and thermal entry
lengths equivalent? If not on what do the relative lengths depend on?
Fluid enters with uniform velocity but coverage to a parabolic fully developed velocity profile
Fluid enters at a uniform temp but converges to a parabolic fully developed thermal boundary layer
No, the hydrodynamic boundary layer develops first
Hydrodynamic Re,
Thermal Pr, and Re
What are the salient hydrodynamic features of fully developed flow? How is the friction factor for fully developed flow affected
by wall roughness?
Radial velocity component and gradient of axial velocity component are zero everywhere, axial velocity component
depends on r, u(x,r) = u( r )
To what important characteristic of an internal flow is the mean or bulk temperature linked?
The rate at which thermal energy is affected
What are the thermal features of fully developed flow?
The local convection coefficient is a constant and T(r ) is a function of x
If fluid enters a tub at a uniform temperature and there heat transfer to or from the surface of the tube, how does the convection
coefficient vary with distance along the tube?
Decreases exponentially until fully developed conditions when it becomes constant
For fluid flow through a tube with a uniform surface heat flux, how does the mean temperature of the fluid vary with distance
from the tube entrance in the entrance region? The fully developed region? How doest he surface temperature vary with distance
in the entrance and fully developed regions
Increases linearly
Exponentially in the entrance and linearly in the fully developed
For heat transfer to or from a fluid flowing through a tube with a uniform surface temperature, how does the mean temperature of
the fluid vary with distance from the entrance? How does the surface heat flux vary with distance from the entrance?
Exponentially ,,,,,,,,,,
the heat flux decreases
Why is a log mean temperature difference rather that an arithmetic mean temperature difference used to calculate the total rate of
heat transfer to or from a fluid flowing through a tube with a constant surface temperature
Because the exponential nature of the temperature decay
What two equations may be used to calculate the total heat rate to a fluid flowing through a tube with a uniform surface heat flux?
Qconv= m(cp)(Tmo-Tmi)
q = hA (T )
Under what conditions is the nusselt number associated with internal flow equal to a constant value independent of the Reynolds
number and Prandtl number?
Laminar fully developed conditions with constant surface temperatures
Is the average nusselt number associated with flow through a tube larger than, equal to, or less than the nusselt number for fully
developed conditions? Why?
Larger than
This is because you are taking values from entire region both entry and exit
How is the characteristic length defined for a non circular tube?
It is termed the hydraulic diameter and is defined as D= 4A/P
CH 9
What is an extensive fluid? Quiescent fluid?
Extensive an infinite fluid

## Quiescent a fluid that is at rest

What conditions are required for a buoyancy driven flow?
Temperature gradient exceeds a critical value conditions are unstable and buoyancy forces take over and overcome
viscous force
How does the velocity profile in the free convection boundary layer on a heated vertical plate differ from the velocity profile in
the boundary layer associated with forced flow over a parallel plate?
Vertical plate has a parabolic velocity profile
What is the general form of the buoyancy term in the x-momentum equation for a free convections boundary layer? How may it
be approximated if the flow is due to temperature variations? What is the name of the approximation?
Grashof Number
What is the physical interpretation of the Grashof Number? What is the Rayleigh number? how does each parameter depend on
the characteristic length?
Ratio of buoyant forces to viscous forces
Ra = Gr(Pr)
Ra = uL/ Gr = g(Ts-T)/
Pr = /
For a heated horizontal plate in quiescent air, do you expect heat transfer to be larger for the top or bottom surface? Why ? for a
cooled horizontal plate in quiescent air, do you expect heat transfer to be larger for the top or bottom surface? Why?
For quiescent flow heat transfer would be greater at the top due to the heat rising and cold falling
For cold it is at the top because flow must go horizontally before passing by the plate
Chapter 10
Pool boiling- liquid is quiescent and its motion near the surface is due to free convection and to mixinig induced by bubble
growth and detachment.
Forced Convection boiling-Fluid motion is induced by external means, as well as by free convection and bubble induced
mixing.
Subcooled boiling- the temperature of the liquid is below the saturation temperature and bubbles at the surface may be
condensed in the liquid.
Saturated- the temperature of the liquid slightly exceeds the saturation temperature.
Excess Temperature- delta Temperature(excess)= T(surface)-T(sat)
Sketch the boiling curve and identify key regimes and feature.GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH
Critical heat flux- maximum heat flux
Leidenfrost- heat flux is a minimum and surface is completely covered by vapor blanket.
How does progression along the boiling curve occur if the surface heat flux is controlled?At the critical point, there is a sharp
departure from the boiling curve where surface conditions change from Temp(E,C) to T(e,E). If T(s,E) exceeds melting
point of solid, system will fail.
Hysteris effectSurface temp controlled-????????????????????????????????????????
How does heat flux depend on the excess temperature in the nucleate boiling regime.
Heat flux is approx. proportional to Delta T(excess)^3
What modes of heat transfer are associated with film boiling? Conduction,radiation
How is the amount of liquid subcooling defined? DeltaT(sub)=T(sat)-T(L)
To what extent is the boiling heat flux influenced by the magnitude of the
Gravitational field- for low gravity effects G^.25. In nucleate boiling heat flux is
Is nearly independent of gravity.
Liquid subcooling- heat flux increases typically as (T(s)-T(L))^1.25. In nucleate
Boiling influence of subcooling is considered to be neglible. For film boiling
Heat flux increases strongly.
Surface Roughness-heat flux is neglible for film boiling. Increased surface roughness can cause large increase in
heat flux for nucleate boiling.

Chapter 11
What are two possible arrangement for a concentric tube heat exchanger? Parallel and counter flow.
What are the restrictions associated with the fluid outlet temperatures? In parallel the final temperatures approach each other.
In counter flow, Temperature cold final can be higher than T(ho)
For cross-flow heat exchanger, what is meant by the terms mixed and unmixed? DRAWING?????????????????????????????
In what sense are they idealizations of actual conditions? The two configurations are typically differentiated by an
idealization that treats fluid motion over the tubes as unmixed or mixed.
Why are baffles used in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger? Baffles are usually installed to increase the convection coefficient of
the shll-side fluid by inducing turbulence and a cross flow velocity component.
Compact heat exchanges- These devices have dense arrays of finned tubes or plates and are typically used when at least one
of the fluids is a gas and is hence characterized by a small convection coefficient.
Fouling Factor-R,f- during normal heat exchanger operation, surfaces are often eubject to FOULING by fluid
impurity,rust, or other reactions b/w the fluid and the wall increase the resistance to heat transfer b/w the fluids. This
effect can be treated by introducing an additional thermal resistance.
Finned surfaces- by increasing the area, they reduce the resistance to convection heat transfer. When surface area is in need
of increase.
When can the overall heat transfer coefficient be expressed as U=(hi^-1 + Ho^-1)^-1?when you have two tubes, that cool one
another.
What is the appropriate form of the mean temp differ. For the two fluids of a parallel or counter-flow heat exchanger?
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What can be said about the change in temp of a saturated fluid undergoing evaporation or condensation in a heat exchanger? If
condensing hot temp stays constant and cold fluid increases. IF evaporating liquid cold temp stays constant and hot fluid
decreases.
Will the fluid have the min or max heat capacity rate experience the largest temp change in a heat exchanger? Min
Why is the maximum possible heat rate for aheat exchanger not equal to Cmax(Thi-Tci)?If a fluid having the larger heat
capacity rate were to experience the maximum possible temperature change, conservation WRITE OUT would require
that the other fluid experience yet a larger temperature change. If Cmax=Cc and one. DOUG I GOT TO ASK YOU
Can the outlet temperature of the cold fluid ever exceed the inlet temperature of the hot fluid? NO
To define the effectiveness of a heat exchanger of a heat transfer, we must first determenin the maximum determine the max
possible heat transfer rat, qmax, for the exchanger. E, the ratio of actual heat transfer rate for a heat exchanger to the maximum
possible heat transfer rate. E=q/qmax.
CHAPTER 12
What is the nature of radiation?
the propagation of a collection of particles termed photons or quanta
What two important features characterize radiation?
frequency/wavelength and directionality
What is the physical origin of radiation emission from a surface?

## thermal equilibrium w/ thermally excited conditions within the matter

How does this emission affect the thermal energy of a material?
if Ts>Tsurr, the net heat transfer rate by radiation qrad,net is from the surface will continue to cool until Ts
reaches Tsurr
What region of the electromagnetic spectrum is thermal radiation concentrated?
10-1 thru 102
What is the spectacle intensity of radiation emitted by a surface?
the rate at which radiant energy is emitted at the wavelength in the (,) direction, per unit area of the emitting
surface normal to its direction per unit solid angle about this direction, and per unit wavelength interval d
What are the depending variables?
- ,,
How can this be used to determine the rate at which matter loses thermal energy due to emission from its surface?
because it is used to find dq in, dq = I,e(,, ) dA1 cos d
the units of a solid angle, analogous to radians for plane angles
How many steradians are associated with the hemisphere?
2
What is the distinction between spectral and total radiation?
the total is the rate at which radiation is emitted per unit area at all possible wavelengths and in all possible
directions
Spectral is the rate at which radiation of wavelength, , is emitted in all directions from a surface per unit
wavelength.
What is the distinction between directional and hemispherical radiation?
In hemisphere, you integrate between =0 to =2
In directional, you integrate between =0 to = /2
What is total emissive power?
E : emission in all directions
What role does it play in the surface energy balance?
it is redundant and is often dropped
What is a diffuse emitter?
surface for which the intensity of the emitted radiation is independent of direction?
How is the intensity related to the total emissive power?
E = Ie
the intensity of the incident radiation may be related to an important radiative flux
How is it related to the intensity of incident radiation?
accounts for all radiation leaving the surface
What role does it play in the surface energy balance?
related to the intensity associated with emission and reflection
What are the characteristics of Blackbody?
it absorbs all incident radiation, regardless of wavelength and direction
for a prescribed temperature and wavelength, no surface can emit more energy than a blackbody
although the radiation emitted by a blackbody is a function of wavelength and temperature, it is independent
of direction. That is, the blackbody is a diffuse emitter
Does such a thing exist in nature?
no, it has to be man made
What is the principle role in blackbody behavior in radiation analysis?
blackbody exists within the cavity irrespective of whether the cavity surface is highly reflective or absorbing
What is Plancks Distribution?
equ. 12.23
What is Wiens Displacement Law?

equ. 12.25

## What is Stefan-Boltzmann Law?

5.67 x 10-8
How would determine the total intensity of radiation emitted by a blackbody at a prescribed temperature?
it enables the calculation of the amount of radiation emitted in all directions and over all wavelengths