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# 12/01/2015

## DATAFLOW & STRUCTURAL MODELING

module ha (input a, b, output sum, carry);
xor g1 (sum, a, b);
and g2 (carry, a, b);
endmodule

## a. Using only Half Adders (Position / Ordered Association)

module fa_ha (input a, b, cin, output sum, carry);
wire w1,w2,w3;
ha HA1 (a, b, w1, w3),
HA2(cin, w1, sum, w2),
HA3(w2, w3, carry,);
endmodule

## b. Using only Half Adders (Named Association)

module fa_ha (input a, b, cin, output sum, carry);
wire w1,w2,w3;
ha HA1 (.a(a), .b(b), .sum(w1), .carry(w3)),
HA2 (.a(cin), .b(w1), .sum(sum), .carry(w2)),
HA3 (.a(w2), .b(w3), .sum(carry), .carry());
endmodule

Test Bench
module fa_tb;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
fa f1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
begin
a=0;b=0;cin=0;
\$monitor("a=%b,b=%b,cin=%b,sum=%b,carry=%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
#5 cin = 1;

#5 b = 1;
#5 cin = 0;
#5 a = 1;
#5 cin = 1;
#5 b = 0;
#5 cin = 0;
end
endmodule

2. Full Subtractor
module hs (input a,b, output d, bo);
wire w1;
not g1 (w1, a);
xor g2 (d, a ,b);
and g3 (bo, w1 ,b);
endmodule

## a. Using only Half Subtractor (Position / Ordered Association)

module fs_hs (input a, b, c, output diff, borrow);
wire w1,w2,w3;
hs HS1(a, b, w1, w3),
HS2(w1, c, diff, w2),
HS3(w2, w3, borrow, );
endmodule

## b. Using only Half Subtractor (Named Association)

module fs_hs (input a, b, c, output diff, borrow);
wire w1,w2,w3;
hs HS1(.a(a), .b(b), .d(w1), .bo(w3)),
HS2(.a(w1), .b(c), .d(diff), .bo(w2)),
HS3(.a(w2),.b(w3),.d(borrow),.bo());
endmodule

## 3. 8 : 1 Multiplexer using only 2 : 1 Multiplexers

a. Using only vectors
module mux_2_1(input [1:0]i, input s, output y);
assign y = s ? i[1] : i[0];
endmodule
module mux_8_1 (input [7:0]i, input [2:0]s, output y);
wire [5:0]w;
mux_2_1 m1 (.i(i[1:0]), .s(s[0]), .y(w[0])),
m2 (.i(i[3:2]), .s(s[0]), .y(w[1])),
m3 (.i(i[5:4]), .s(s[0]), .y(w[2])),
m4 (.i(i[7:6]), .s(s[0]), .y(w[3])),
m5 (.i(w[1:0]), .s(s[1]), .y(w[4])),
m6 (.i(w[3:2]), .s(s[1]), .y(w[5])),
m7 (.i(w[5:4]), .s(s[2]), .y(y));
endmodule

## b. Using scalars & Vectors

module mux_2 (input a, b, s, output y);
assign y=s ? b : a;
endmodule
module mux_8 (input[7:0]i, input[2:0]s, output y);
wire y1,y2,y3,y4,y5,y6;
mux_2 m1 (.a(i[0]), .b(i[1]), .s(s[0]), .y(y1)),
m2 (.a(i[2]), .b(i[3]), .s(s[0]), .y(y2)),
m3 (.a(i[4]), .b(i[5]), .s(s[0]), .y(y3)),
m4 (.a(i[6]), .b(i[7]), .s(s[0]), .y(y4)),
m5 (.a(y1), .b(y2), .s(s[1]), .y(y5)),
m6 (.a(y3), .b(y4), .s(s[1]), .y(y6)),
m7 (.a(y5), .b(y6), .s(s[2]), .y(y));
endmodule
Test Bench

## 4. 4 : 16 Decoder using 3 : 8 Decoder

3 : 8 Decoder
module dec_3_8 (input a, b, c, en, output [7:0]y);
wire w1,w2,w3;
not g9 (w1, a),
g10 (w2, b),
g11 (w3 ,c);
and g1 (y[0], w1, w2, w3, en),
g2 (y[1], w1, w2, c, en),
g3 (y[2], w1, b, w3, en),
g4 (y[3], w1, b, c, en),
g5 (y[4], a, w2, w3, en),
g6 (y[5], a, w2, c, en),
g7 (y[6], a, b, w3, en),
g8 (y[7], a, b, c, en);
endmodule

4 : 16 Decoder
module dec_4_16 (input a, b, c, d, output [15:0]y);
wire w1;
not g1(w1,a);
dec_3_8 d1 (.a(b), .b(c), .c(d), .en(w1), .y(y[7:0])),
d2 (.a(b), .b(c), .c(d), .en(a), .y(y[15:8]));
endmodule

## module bcd_adder(input [3:0]a,b, input cin, output [3:0]s, output co);

wire w0,w1,w2,w3,w4,w5,w6,w7;
assign cin = 0;
fa_4bit fa1 (.a(a), .b(b), .cin(cin), .s({w3,w2,w1,w0}), .co(w4));
and g1(w5, w1, w3),
g2(w6, w2, w3);
or g3(w7, w4, w5, w6);
fa_4bit fa2 (.a({w3,w2,w1,w0}), .b({cin,w7,w7,cin}), .cin(cin), .s(s), .co());
assign co = w7;
endmodule

Test bench

reg [3:0]a,b;
reg cin;
wire [3:0]s;
wire co;
initial
begin
a = 4'b0000;b = 4'b0000;cin = 0;
\$monitor("a=%b, b=%b, cin=%b, sum=%b, carry=%b",a,b,cin,s,co);
#5 b = 4'b0001; a = 4'b1001;
#5 b = 4'b0010;
#5 b = 4'b0011;
#5 b = 4'b1001;
#5 b = 4'b0010;
#5 b = 4'b0110;
#5 b = 4'b0011; a = 4'b0111;
#5 a = 4'b0111;
#5 b = 4'b0110;
#5 b = 4'b1000;
#5 b = 4'b0010;
#5 b = 4'b1001;
end
endmodule

## module mult4bit (input [3:0]x, y, output [7:0]m);

wire [3:0]p1,p2,p3,p4,s1,s2;
wire c1,c2;
assign p1 = x & {4{y[0]}},

p2 = x & {4{y[1]}};
fa_4bit fa1(.a({1'b0,p1[3:1]}), .b(p2), .cin(1'b0), .s(s1), .co(c1));
assign p3 = x & {4{y[2]}};
fa_4bit fa2(.a({c1,s1[3:1]}), .b(p3), .cin(1'b0), .s(s2), .co(c2));
assign p4 = x & {4{y[3]}};
fa_4bit fa3(.a({c2,s2[3:1]}),.b(p4),.cin(1'b0),.s(m[6:3]),.co(m[7]));
assign m[0] = p1[0],
m[1] = s1[0],
m[2] = s2[0];
endmodule

Test bench
module mult4bit_tb;
reg [3:0]x,y;
wire [7:0]m;
mult4bit mul1(.x(x), .y(y), .m(m));
initial
begin
x = 4'b0000;y = 4'b0000;
\$monitor("x=%b, y=%b, m=%b",x,y,m);
#5 x = 4'b1001; y = 4'b1001;
#5 x = 4'b0010;
#5 x = 4'b0011;
#5 x = 4'b1001;
#5 x = 4'b0010;
#5 x = 4'b1110;
#5 x = 4'b0011; y = 4'b0111;
#5 x = 4'b0111;
#5 x = 4'b0110;
#5 x = 4'b1011;
#5 x = 4'b0010;
#5 x = 4'b1001;
#5 x = 4'b0011; y = 4'b1111;
#5 x = 4'b0111;

#5 x = 4'b0110;
#5 x = 4'b1011;
#5 x = 4'b1010;
#5 x = 4'b1001;
end

13/01/2015

BEHAVIORAL MODELING
1. Examples to understand the execution of statements in procedural
blocks
a. Test 3
module test3;

module test3;

initial

initial

begin

begin

#0 \$display("Block 1 St 1");

#1 \$display("Block 1 St 1");

#0 \$display("Block 1 St 2");

#0 \$display("Block 1 St 2");

#2 \$display("Block 1 St 3");

#2 \$display("Block 1 St 3");

end

end

initial

initial

begin

begin

\$display("Block 2 St 1");

#0 \$display("Block 2 St 1");

#0 \$display("Block 2 St 2");

#2 \$display("Block 2 St 2");

#4 \$display("Block 2 St 3");

#4 \$display("Block 2 St 3");

end

end

endmodule

endmodule

Output

Output

Block 2 St 1

Block 2 St 1

Block 1 St 1

Block 1 St 1

Block 2 St 2

Block 1 St 2

Block 1 St 2

Block 2 St 2

Block 1 St 3

Block 1 St 3

Block 2 St 3

Block 2 St 3

b. Test 4
module test4;

module test4;

integer a,b,c,d,e,f;

integer a,b,c,d,e,f;

initial

initial

begin
a = 20;
\$display("%d", a);

begin
a = 20;
\$display("%d", a);

#5 b = 50;

#5 b = 50;

\$display("%d",b);

\$display("%d",b);

end

end

initial

initial

begin

begin

#10 c = 55;

#10 c = 55;

\$display("%d",c);

\$display("%d",c);

#15 d = 70;

#15 d = 70;

\$display("%d",d);

\$display("%d",d);

end

end

initial

initial

begin

begin

#20 e = 75;

e = 75;

\$display("%d",e);

\$display("%d",e);

#45 f = 80;

#5 f = 80;

\$display("%d",f);

\$display("%d",f);

end

end

endmodule

endmodule

Output

Output

a = 20

a = 20

b = 50

e = 75

c = 55

b = 50

e = 75

f = 80

d = 70

c = 55

f = 80

d = 70

14 / 01 / 2015
2. 2:1 Multiplexer
module mux2to1_bh(input a,b,sel, output reg y);
always@(a,b,sel)
begin
if(sel)
y = b;
else

y = a;
end
endmodule
testbench
module mux_2_tb;
reg a,b,s;
wire y;
mux_2 m1(.a(a),.b(b),.s(s),.y(y));
initial
begin
a=0;b=0;s=0;
\$monitor("a=%b,b=%b,s=%b,y=%b",a,b,s,y);
#5 s = 1;
#5 a = 1;
#5 s = 0;
#5 b = 1;
#5 s = 1;
#5 a = 0;
#5 s = 0;
end
endmodule

a. Using if else ladder ( Blocking Assignment Statements )
module fa_bh4(input a,b,cin, output reg sum,carry);
always@(a,b,cin)
begin
if(a==0 && b==0 && cin==0)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 0;
end
else if(a==0 && b==0 && cin==1)
begin
sum = 1;

carry = 0;
end
else if(a==0 && b==1 && cin==0)
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 0;
end
else if(a==0 && b==1 && cin==1)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else if(a==1 && b==0 && cin==0)
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 0;
end
else if(a==1 && b==0 && cin==1)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else if(a==1 && b==1 && cin==0)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 1;
end
end
endmodule

## b. Using case statement ( Blocking Assignment Statements )

module fa_bh5(input a,b,cin, output reg sum,carry);
always@(a,b,cin)
begin
case({a,b,cin})
3'b000:begin
sum = 0; carry = 0;
end
3'b001:begin
sum = 1; carry = 0;
end
3'b010:begin
sum = 1; carry = 0;
end
3'b011:begin
sum = 0; carry = 1;
end
3'b100:begin
sum = 1; carry = 0;
end
3'b101:begin
sum = 0; carry = 1;
end
3'b110:begin
sum = 0; carry = 1;
end
3'b111:begin
sum = 1; carry = 1;
end
endcase
end
endmodule
c. Using if else ladder and operators ( Blocking Assignment Statements )
module fa_bh6(input a,b,cin, output reg sum,carry);

always@(a,b,cin)
begin
if(!a & !b & !cin)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 0;
end
else if(!a & !b & cin)
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 0;
end
else if(!a & b & !cin)
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 0;
end
else if(!a & b & cin)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else if(a & !b & !cin)
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 0;
end
else if(a & !b & cin)
begin
sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else if(a & b & !cin)
begin

sum = 0;
carry = 1;
end
else
begin
sum = 1;
carry = 1;
end
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module fa_tb;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
fa f1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
begin
a=0;b=0;cin=0;
\$monitor("a=%b,b=%b,cin=%b,sum=%b,carry=%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
#5 cin = 1;
#5 b = 1;
#5 cin = 0;
#5 a = 1;
#5 cin = 1;
#5 b = 0;
#5 cin = 0;
end
endmodule

4. 4 : 1 Multiplexer
a. Using case statement
module mux4to1_bh_case(input a,b,c,d, input [1:0]s, output reg y);
always @(a,b,c,d,s)
begin

case(s)
2'b00:y=a;
2'b01:y=b;
2'b10:y=c;
default:y=d;
endcase
end
endmodule
Testbench
module mux4to1_bh_tb;
reg a,b,c,d;
reg [1:0]s;
wire y;
mux4to1_bh_case m1(.a(a),.b(b),.c(c),.d(d),.s(s),.y(y));
initial
begin
a=0;b=0;c=0;d=0;s=2'b00;
\$monitor("a=%b, b=%b, c=%d, d=%d, s=%b, y=%b",a,b,c,d,s,y);
#5 a = 1;
#5 s = 2'b01;
#5 b = 1;a = 0; d = 1;
#5 s = 2'b10;
#5 b = 0;
#5 c = 1;
#5 c = 0;b = 1;
#5 s = 2'b11;
#5 a = 1;
#5 b = 0;d = 0;
end
endmodule

5. 3 : 8 Decoder
a. Using if else statement
module dec3to8_if(input [2:0]a, output reg [7:0]y);
always@(a)

begin
if(a==3'b000)
y = {7'b0,1'b1};
else if(a==3'b001)
y = {6'b0,1'b1,1'b0};
else if(a==3'b010)
y = {5'b0,1'b1,2'b0};
else if(a==3'b011)
y = {4'b0,1'b1,3'b0};
else if(a==3'b100)
y = {3'b0,1'b1,4'b0};
else if(a==3'b101)
y = {2'b0,1'b1,5'b0};
else if(a==3'b110)
y = {1'b0,1'b1,6'b0};
else
y = {1'b1,7'b0};
end
endmodule
b. Using case statement
module dec3to8_case(input [2:0]a, output reg [7:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
case(a)
3'b000:y=8'b00000001;
3'b001:y=8'b00000010;
3'b010:y=8'b00000100;
3'b011:y=8'b00001000;
3'b100:y=8'b00010000;
3'b101:y=8'b00100000;
3'b110:y=8'b01000000;
3'b111:y=8'b10000000;
default:y=8'b00000000;
endcase

end
endmodule
Test Bench
module dec3to8_bh_tb;
reg [2:0]a;
wire [7:0]y;
dec3to8_if dec(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 3'b000;
\$monitor("a = %b, y = %b",a,y);
#5 a = 3'b001;
#5 a = 3'b010;
#5 a = 3'b011;
#5 a = 3'b100;
#5 a = 3'b101;
#5 a = 3'b110;
#5 a = 3'b111;
end
endmodule

6. 8 : 3 Encoder
a. Using if else statement
module enc8to3_if(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
if(a==8'b00000001)

y = 3'b000;
else if(a==8'b00000010)
y = 3'b001;
else if(a==8'b00000100)
y = 3'b010;
else if(a==8'b00001000)
y = 3'b011;
else if(a==8'b00010000)
y = 3'b100;
else if(a==8'b00100000)
y = 3'b101;
else if(a==8'b01000000)
y = 3'b110;
else if(a==8'b10000000)
y = 3'b111;
else
y = 3'bx;
end
endmodule
b. Using Case statement
module enc8to3_case(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
case(a)
8'b00000001:y = 3'b000;
8'b00000010:y = 3'b001;
8'b00000100:y = 3'b010;
8'b00001000:y = 3'b011;
8'b00010000:y = 3'b100;
8'b00100000:y = 3'b101;
8'b01000000:y = 3'b110;
8'b10000000:y = 3'b111;
default:y = 3'bxxx;
endcase

end
endmodule
Test Bench
module enc8to3_bh_tb;
reg [7:0]a;
wire [2:0]y;
enc8to3_if enc(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 8'b00000000;
\$monitor("a = %b, y = %b",a,y);
#5 a = 8'b00000001;
#5 a = 8'b00000010;
#5 a = 8'b00000100;
#5 a = 8'b00001000;
#5 a = 8'b00010000;
#5 a = 8'b00100000;
#5 a = 8'b01000000;
#5 a = 8'b10000000;
end
endmodule

## 7. BCD to 7 Segment display Decoder

a. Using if else statement
module bcdto7seg_if(input [3:0]a, output reg [6:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
if(a == 4'b0000)
y = 7'b1111110;
else if(a == 4'b0001)
y = 7'b0110000;
else if(a == 4'b0010)
y = 7'b1101101;
else if(a == 4'b0011)
y = 7'b1111001;

## else if(a == 4'b0100)

y = 7'b0110011;
else if(a == 4'b0101)
y = 7'b1011010;
else if(a == 4'b0110)
y = 7'b1011111;
else if(a == 4'b0111)
y = 7'b1110000;
else if(a == 4'b1000)
y = 7'b1111111;
else if(a == 4'b1001)
y = 7'b1111011;
else
y = 7'b0;
end
endmodule
b. Using case Statement
module bcdto7seg_case(input [3:0]a, output reg [6:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
case(a)
4'b0000:y = 7'b1111110;
4'b0001:y = 7'b0110000;
4'b0010:y = 7'b1101101;
4'b0011:y = 7'b1111001;
4'b0100:y = 7'b0110011;
4'b0101:y = 7'b1011010;
4'b0110:y = 7'b1011111;
4'b0111:y = 7'b1110000;
4'b1000:y = 7'b1111111;
4'b1001:y = 7'b1111011;
default:y = 7'b0;
endcase
end

endmodule
Test Bench
module bcdto7seg_tb;
reg [3:0]a;
wire [6:0]y;
bcdto7seg_case bcddec(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 4'b0000;
\$monitor("a = %b, y = %b",a,y);
#5 a=4'b0001;
#5 a=4'b0010;
#5 a=4'b0011;
#5 a=4'b0100;
#5 a=4'b1111;
#5 a=4'b0101;
#5 a=4'b0110;
#5 a=4'b0111;
#5 a=4'b1010;
#5 a=4'b1011;
#5 a=4'b1000;
#5 a=4'b1101;
#5 a=4'b1001;
end
endmodule

19 / 01 / 2015
8. 4 Bit Asynchronous Counter starting from latch

## SR Latch using NAND gates

module srlatch(input s,r,en, output q,qbar);
wire w1,w2,w3,w4;
nand g1(w1,s,en),
g2(w2,r,en),
g3(w3,w1,w4),
g4(w4,w2,w3);
assign q = w3,
qbar = w4;
endmodule

## D Latch from SR Latch

module dlatch(input d,en, output q,qbar);
wire w5;
not g5(w5,d);
srlatch d_latch(.s(d),.r(w5),.en(en),.q(q),.qbar(qbar));
endmodule

## D Flipflop using 2 D latches

module dff_ms(input d,clk, output q,qbar);

wire w1,w2;
not g1(w1,clk);
dlatch d1(.d(d),.en(clk),.q(w2),.qbar()),
d2(.d(w2),.en(w1),.q(q),.qbar(qbar));
endmodule

## 4 bit Asynchronous Up counter using D flipflop

module cntr_dff_struct(input clk,d,rst, output[3:0]q);
dff_arst d1(.d(~q[0]),.clk(clk),.q(q[0]),.rst(rst)),
d2(.d(~q[1]),.clk(~q[0]),.q(q[1]),.rst(rst)),
d3(.d(~q[2]),.clk(~q[1]),.q(q[2]),.rst(rst)),
d4(.d(~q[3]),.clk(~q[2]),.q(q[3]),.rst(rst));
endmodule
Testbench
module cntr_dff_struct_tb;
reg d,clk,rst;
wire [3:0]q;
cntr_dff_struct d1(.d(d),.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, d=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,d,q);
#20 rst = 1;

#200 rst = 0;
#30 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

20 / 01 / 2015
9. Race Around Condition
Blocking Statements

Blocking statements

## module test_race(input clk);

reg [3:0]a,b;

reg [3:0]a,b;

initial

initial

begin

begin

a = 4'b1101;

a = 4'b1101;

b = 4'b1110;

b = 4'b1110;

end

end

always@(posedge clk)

always@(posedge clk)

begin
a = b;
b = a;
end

a = b;
always@(posedge clk)
b = a;
end

endmodule

endmodule

Output

Output

a = 4b1110

a = 4b1110

b = 4b1110

b = 4b1110

## module test_race(input clk);

reg [3:0]a,b;

reg [3:0]a,b;

initial
begin

initial
begin

a = 4'b1101;

a = 4'b1101;

b = 4'b1110;

b = 4'b1110;

end

end

always@(posedge clk)

always@(posedge clk)

a <= b;
b <= a;
end
endmodule

a <= b;
always@(posedge clk)
b <= a;
end

Output

endmodule

a = 4b1110

Output

b = 4b1101

a = 4b1110
b = 4b1101

10. COUNTERS
a. 4 bit synchronous counter with synchronous reset
module cntr4bit_syn_srst(input clk,rst, output reg [3:0]q);
always@(posedge clk)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= 4'b0000;
else
q <= q+1;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntr4bit_syn_tb;
reg clk,rst;
wire [3:0]q;
cntr4bit_syn_srst cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;

initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
//#54 rst = 0;
//#80 rst = 0;
//#5 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

## b. n bit synchronous counter with synchronous reset

module cntrnbit_syn_srst #(parameter n = 8)
(input clk,rst, output reg [n-1:0]q);
always@(posedge clk)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= {n{1'b0}};
else
q <= q+1;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_syn_tb #(parameter n = 8);
reg clk,rst;
wire [n-1:0]q;
cntrnbit_syn_srst cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));

initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#13 rst = 1;
#180 rst = 0;
#45 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

## c. n bit synchronous UPDOWN counter with asynchronous reset

module cntrnbit_ud_syn_arst #(parameter n = 8)
(input clk,rst,updown, output reg [n-1:0]q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= {n{1'b0}};
else if(updown)
q <= q+1;
else
q <= q-1;

end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_ud_syn_tb #(parameter n = 8);
reg clk,rst,updown;
wire [n-1:0]q;
cntrnbit_ud_syn_arst cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.updown(updown),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;updown = 1;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, updown=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,updown,q);
#32 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#25 rst = 1;
#17 updown = 0;
#80 rst = 0;
#5 rst = 1;
#18 updown = 1;
#170 rst = 0;
#17 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

## d. 4 bit synchronous UPDOWN counter with synchronous reset

module cntr4bit_ud_syn_srst(input clk,rst,updown, output reg [3:0]q);
always@(posedge clk)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= 4'b0000;
else if(updown)
q <= q+1;
else
q <= q-1;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntr4bit_ud_syn_tb;
reg clk,rst,updown;
wire [3:0]q;
cntr4bit_ud_syn_srst cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.updown(updown),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;updown = 1;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, updown=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,updown,q);
#32 rst = 1;
#54 rst = 0;
#5 rst = 1;
#17 updown = 0;
#80 rst = 0;
#5 rst = 1;
#18 updown = 1;
#70 rst = 0;
#17 rst = 1;

end
endmodule

## e. n bit synchronous UPDOWN counter with synchronous reset

module cntrnbit_ud_syn_srst #(parameter n = 8)
(input clk,rst,updown, output reg [n-1:0]q);
always@(posedge clk)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= {n{1'b0}};
else if(updown)
q <= q+1;
else
q <= q-1;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_ud_syn_tb #(parameter n = 8);
reg clk,rst,updown;
wire [n-1:0]q;
cntrnbit_ud_syn_srst cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.updown(updown),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;updown = 1;

## \$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, updown=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,updown,q);

#32 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#25 rst = 1;
#17 updown = 0;
#80 rst = 0;
#5 rst = 1;
#18 updown = 1;
#170 rst = 0;
#17 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

21 / 01 / 2015
11. TYPES OF TESTBENCHES
a. File I / O Based Test Bench
module fa_tb_file;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
integer f1;
fa_bh1 fa1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
//f1 = \$fopen("fa_lin.xls");
f1 = \$fopen("fa_lin.txt");
initial
begin

a=0;b=0;cin=0;
\$fmonitor(f1,\$time,"a=%b,b=%b,cin=%b,sum=%b,carry=%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
#5 cin = 1;
#5 b = 1;
#5 cin = 0;
#5 a = 1;
#5 cin = 1;
#5 b = 0;
#5 cin = 0;
end
endmodule
b. Iterative Loop Based Test Bench
module fa_tb_loop;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
integer f1;
fa_bh1 fa1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
f1 = \$fopen("fa_loop.txt");
initial
begin
{a,b,cin} = 3'b000;
repeat(7)
begin
{a,b,cin} = {a,b,cin} + 3'b001;
#10 \$fdisplay(f1,\$time,"a=%b, b=%b, cin=%b, sum=%b, carry=
%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
end
end
endmodule
c. Test Bench using Randomization
module fa_tb_rand;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
fa_bh1 fa1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
begin
repeat(10)
begin
a = \$random();

b = \$random();
cin = \$random();
#5 \$display("a=%b, b=%b, cin=%b, sum=%b, carry=%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
end
end
endmodule
d. Self Checking Test Bench
module fa_tb_self;
reg a,b,cin;
wire sum,carry;
integer f1;
fa_bh1 fa1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.sum(sum),.carry(carry));
initial
f1 = \$fopen("fa_self1.txt");
initial
begin
{a,b,cin} = 3'b000;
repeat(7)
begin
{a,b,cin} = {a,b,cin} + 3'b001;
#10 \$fdisplay(f1,\$time,"a=%b, b=%b, cin=%b, sum=%b, carry=
%b",a,b,cin,sum,carry);
if((a+b+cin)!={carry,sum})
\$fdisplay(f1,\$time,"error");
else
\$fdisplay(f1,\$time,"success");
end
end
endmodule

## 12. PRIORITY ENCODER

i ) Without Default conditions
a. Using Conditional Statement
module prienc_df(input [7:0]a, output [2:0]y);
assign y = (a[0]==1'b1)? 3'b000:
(a[1]==1'b1)? 3'b001:
(a[2]==1'b1)? 3'b010:
(a[3]==1'b1)? 3'b011:
(a[4]==1'b1)? 3'b100:

(a[5]==1'b1)? 3'b101:
(a[6]==1'b1)? 3'b110:
3'b111;
endmodule

## b. Using if else statement

module prienc_if(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
if(a[0] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b000;
else if(a[1] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b001;
else if(a[2] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b010;
else if(a[3] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b011;
else if(a[4] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b100;
else if(a[5] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b101;
else if(a[6] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b110;
else
y = 3'b111;
end
endmodule

## c. Using Casex Statement

module prienc_case(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
casex (a)
8'bxxxxxxx1: y = 3'b000;
8'bxxxxxx10: y = 3'b001;
8'bxxxxx100: y = 3'b010;
8'bxxxx1000: y = 3'b011;
8'bxxx10000: y = 3'b100;
8'bxx100000: y = 3'b101;
8'bx1000000: y = 3'b110;
8'b10000000: y = 3'b111;
endcase
end
endmodule

## ii ) with Default Case

d. Using Conditional operator
module prienc_df1(input [7:0]a, output [2:0]y);
assign y = (a[0]==1'b1)? 3'b000:
(a[1]==1'b1)? 3'b001:
(a[2]==1'b1)? 3'b010:
(a[3]==1'b1)? 3'b011:
(a[4]==1'b1)? 3'b100:

(a[5]==1'b1)? 3'b101:
(a[6]==1'b1)? 3'b110:
(a[7]==1'b1)? 3'b111:
3'bx;
endmodule

## e. Using if else statement

module prienc_if1(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
if(a[0] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b000;
else if(a[1] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b001;
else if(a[2] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b010;
else if(a[3] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b011;
else if(a[4] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b100;
else if(a[5] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b101;
else if(a[6] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b110;
else if(a[7] == 1'b1)
y = 3'b111;
else
y = 3'bx;
end
endmodule

## f. Using casex statement

module prienc_case1(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);
always@(a)
begin
casex (a)
8'bxxxxxxx1: y = 3'b000;
8'bxxxxxx10: y = 3'b001;
8'bxxxxx100: y = 3'b010;
8'bxxxx1000: y = 3'b011;
8'bxxx10000: y = 3'b100;
8'bxx100000: y = 3'b101;
8'bx1000000: y = 3'b110;
8'b10000000: y = 3'b111;
default: y = 3'bx;
endcase
end
endmodule

Test Bench
module prienc_tb;
reg [7:0]a;
wire [2:0]y;

integer f1;
//prienc_df e(.a(a),.y(y)); // for dataflow
//prienc_if e(.a(a),.y(y)); // for if else
prienc_case e(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
//f1 = \$fopen("prienc_df.txt");
//f1 = \$fopen("prienc_if.txt");
f1 = \$fopen("prienc_case.txt");
initial
begin
a = 8'b1;
\$fmonitor(f1,\$time,"a=%b,y=%b",a,y);
#10 a = 8'b0;
#10 a = 8'bxxxxxxxx;
#10 a = 8'bzzzzzzzz;
#10 a = 8'b11110000;
#10 a = 8'bxxxxxx1x;
#10 a = 8'bzzz1zzzx;
#10 a = 8'bzzz1zzzz;
#10 a = 8'bzzz1z10x;
#10 a = 8'b111100xx;
#10 a = 8'b00000010;
#10 a = 8'bzzz1x00z;
#10 a = 8'b1z1x0zx0;
#10 a = 8'b1z1x0xx0;
#10 a = 8'b1z1x00x0;
#10 a = 8'b1z1x01x0;
#10 a = 8'b1z100xx0;
#10 a = 8'b1z10000x;
#10 a = 8'b1z1z000x;
#10 a = 8'b000000x0;
#10 a = 8'b100000x0;
#10 a = 8'b000001x0;
end
endmodule

22 / 01 / 2015
13. n bit Asynchronous Up counter using Generate For loop statement
Asynchronous D FF
module dff_arst(input clk,rst,d, output reg q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)

begin
if(!rst)
q <= 1'b0;
else
q <= d;
end
endmodule
Asynchronous Up Counter
module cntrnbit_asyn_gen #(parameter n = 4)
(input clk,rst, output [n-1:0]q);
genvar i;
generate
for(i=0;i<n;i=i+1)
begin:f1
if(i==0)
dff_arst c1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.d(~q[i]),.q(q[i]));
else
dff_arst c2(.clk(~q[i-1]),.rst(rst),.d(~q[i]),.q(q[i]));
end
endgenerate
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_async_tb #(parameter n = 4);
reg clk,rst;
wire [n-1:0]q;
cntrnbit_asyn_gen cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q)); //for asynchronous counter
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);

#5 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#13 rst = 1;
#180 rst = 0;
#45 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

14.

## n - bit Full Adder Using Behavioral For loop statement

module fa_nbit_for #(parameter n=8)(input [n-1:0]a,b, input cin, output reg [n-1:0]s, output
reg co);
reg [n:0]c;
integer i;
always@(a,b,cin)
begin
c[0] = cin;
for(i=0;i<n;i=i+1)
begin
{c[i+1],s[i]} = a[i]+b[i]+c[i];
end
co = c[n];
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module nbitfa_tb #(parameter n=8);
reg [n-1:0]a,b;
reg cin;

wire [n-1:0]s;
wire co;
integer f2;
fa_nbit_for f1(.a(a),.b(b),.cin(cin),.s(s),.co(co));
initial
f2 = \$fopen("nbit_fa1.txt");
initial
begin
repeat(20)
begin
cin = \$random();
a = \$random(); b = \$random();
#5 \$fdisplay(f2,\$time,"a=%d,b=%d,cin=%d,s=%d,co=%d",a,b,cin,s,co);
end
end
endmodule

15.

## module mux8to1_for(input [7:0]a, input [2:0]sel, output reg y);

integer i;
always@(a,sel)
begin
for(i=0;i<8;i=i+1)
begin
if(i==sel)
y = a[i];

end
end
endmodule
Testbench
module mux8to1_for_tb;
reg [7:0]a;
reg [2:0]sel;
wire y;
mux8to1_for f1(.a(a),.sel(sel),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 8'b11110000; sel = 3'b000;
\$monitor("a=%b,sel=%d,y=%b",a,sel,y);
#10 sel = 3'b001;
#10 sel = 3'b00x;
#10 sel = 3'b110;
#10 sel = 3'b00x;
#10 sel = 3'b100;
#10 sel = 3'b010;
#10 sel = 3'b111;
#10 sel = 3'b101;
#10 sel = 3'b011;
#10 sel = 3'bx01;
#10 sel = 3'bxxz;
#10 sel = 3'bz01;
#10 sel = 3'b10z;
#10 sel = 3'b01x;
end
endmodule

16.

## module decnbit_for #(parameter n = 3)(input [n-1:0]a,output reg [(2**n-1):0]y);

integer i;
always@(a)
begin
for(i=0; i<2**n ;i=i+1)
begin
if(i == a)
begin
if(i == 0)
y = 2'b10>>1;
else
y = 2'b10<<(i-1);
end
end
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module dec3bit_for_tb #(parameter n = 3);
reg [n-1:0]a;
wire [(2**n-1):0]y;
decnbit_for dec(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 3'b000;
\$monitor("a = %b, y = %b",a,y);

#5 a = 3'b001;
#5 a = 3'b010;
#5 a = 3'b011;
#5 a = 3'bzzz;
#5 a = 3'b100;
#5 a = 3'b101;
#5 a = 3'b1x1;
#5 a = 3'bxxx;
#5 a = 3'b110;
#5 a = 3'b1z1;
#5 a = 3'b111;
end
endmodule

17.

## module enc8to3_for(input [7:0]a, output reg [2:0]y);

integer i;
always@(a)
begin
for(i=0;i<8;i=i+1)
begin
if(a[i] == 1'b1)
y = i;
end
end
endmodule
Test Bench

module enc8to3_bh_tb;
reg [7:0]a;
wire [2:0]y;
enc8to3_for enc(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 8'b00000000;
\$monitor("a = %b, y = %b",a,y);
#5 a = 8'b00000001;
#5 a = 8'b00000010;
#5 a = 8'b00000100;
#5 a = 8'b00001000;
#5 a = 8'b00010000;
#5 a = 8'b00100000;
#5 a = 8'b01000000;
#5 a = 8'b10000000;
end
endmodule

18.

## 4 bit Johnson Counter

a. Using Generate For loop statement

## module jc_4bit_gen (input clk,rst, output [3:0]q);

wire [4:0]w;
assign w[4] = ~w[0];
genvar i;
generate
for(i=4;i>0;i=i-1)
begin:f1

dff_arst d1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.d(w[i]),.q(w[i-1]));
end
endgenerate
assign q = w[3:0];
endmodule
b. Using Behavioral Modeling
module jc_4bit_for(input clk,rst, output reg [3:0]q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= {4{1'b0}};
else
q <= {~q[0],q[3:1]};
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntr4bit_syn_tb;
reg clk,rst;
wire [3:0]q;
jc_4bit_gen cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

## 19. n bit Johnson Counter

a. Using Generate For loop statement
module jc_nbit_gen #(parameter n = 8)(input clk,rst, output [n-1:0]q);
wire [n:0]w;
assign w[n] = ~w[0];
genvar i;
generate
for(i=n;i>0;i=i-1)
begin:f1
dff_arst d1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.d(w[i]),.q(w[i-1]));
end
endgenerate
assign q = w[n-1:0];
endmodule

## b. Using Behavioral Modeling

module jc_nbit_for #(parameter n=8)(input clk,rst, output reg [n-1:0]q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= {n{1'b0}};
else
q <= {~q[0],q[n-1:1]};
end
endmodule
Test Bench

## module cntrnbit_syn_tb #(parameter n = 8);

reg clk,rst;
wire [n-1:0]q;
jc_nbit_gen cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#13 rst = 1;
#180 rst = 0;
#45 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

## 20. 4 bit Ring Counter

module rc_4bit_for(input clk,rst, output reg [3:0]q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)

q <= {1'b1,3'b0};
else
q <= {q[0],q[3:1]};
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntr4bit_syn_tb;
reg clk,rst;
wire [3:0]q;
jc_4bit_gen cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

21.

## module rc_nbit_for #(parameter n=8)(input clk,rst, output reg [n-1:0]q);

always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)

begin
if(!rst)
q <= {1'b1,{n-1{1'b0}}};
else
q <= {q[0],q[n-1:1]};
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_syn_tb #(parameter n = 8);
reg clk,rst;
wire [n-1:0]q;
rc_nbit_for cntr(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 0;
\$monitor("clk=%b, rst=%b, q=%b", clk,rst,q);
#32 rst = 1;
#154 rst = 0;
#13 rst = 1;
#180 rst = 0;
#45 rst = 1;
end
endmodule

23 / 01 / 2015
22. T Flip flop in Behavioral Model
module tff(input t,clk,rst, output reg q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= 1'b0;
else if(t==0)
q <= q;
else
q <= ~q;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module tff_tb;
reg clk,rst,t;
wire q;
tff j1(.clk(clk),.t(t),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 1'b0; t=1'b0;
\$monitor("clk=%b,rst=%b,t=%b,q=%b",clk,rst,t,q);
#12 rst = 1'b1;
#14 t=1'b1;
#27 t=1'b0;
#24 t=1'b1;
end
endmodule

## 23. J FF with asynchronous reset using Behavioral Model

module jkff(input j,k,clk,rst, output reg q);
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
q <= 1'b0;
else if(j==0&&k==0)
q <= q;
else if(j==0&&k==1)
q <= 1'b0;
else if(j==1&&k==0)
q <= 1'b1;
else if(j==1&&k==1)
q <= ~q;
else
q <= q;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module jkff_tb;
reg clk,rst,j,k;
wire q;
jkff j1(.clk(clk),.j(j),.k(k),.rst(rst),.q(q));
initial
clk = 1'b0;

always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
rst = 1'b0; j=1'b0; k=1'b0;
\$monitor("clk=%b,rst=%b,j=%b,k=%b,q=%b",clk,rst,j,k,q);
#12 rst = 1'b1;
#14 j=1'b1;
#17 k=1'b1;
#24 j=1'b0;
#27 k=1'b0;
#14 j=1'b0;
#17 k=1'b1;
end
endmodule

## 24. 4 : 1 MUX using only Conditional Operator

module mux4to1_cond (input [3:0]i, input [1:0]s, output y);
assign y = s[1] ? (s[0] ? i[3] : i[2]) : (s[0] ? i[1] : i[0]) ;
endmodule
Test Bench
module mux4to1_cond_tb;
reg [3:0]i;
reg [1:0]s;
wire y;
mux4to1_cond m1(.i(i),.s(s),.y(y));
initial
begin

i = 4b1010; s = 2b00;
\$monitor(i = %b, sel = %b, y = %b,i,s,y);
#7 s = 2b01;
#5 s = 2b10;
#5 s = 2b11;
#5 i = 4b0101; s = 2b00;
#7 s = 2b01;
#5 s = 2b10;
#5 s = 2b11;
end
endmodule

## 25. n bit Loadable, clk enabled, UpDown Counter

module cntrnbit_load #(parameter n = 4)
(input [n-1:0]d, input clk,ce,load,updown, output reg [n-1:0]q);
always@(posedge clk)
begin
if(!ce)
q <= q;
q <= d;
else if(updown)
q <= q+1;
else
q <= q-1;
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module cntrnbit_load_tb #(parameter n = 4);
reg [n-1:0]d;
wire [n-1:0]q;
initial

clk = 1'b0;
always
#5 clk = ~clk;
initial
begin
ce = 0; load = 1; updown = 1; d = 4'b0011;
\$monitor("clk=%b, ce =%b, load = %b, data = %b, updown = %b, q=
#17 ce = 1;
# 80 updown = 0;
#7 d = 4'b1100;
#10 updown = 1;
end
endmodule

## 26. 1 : 4 DEMUX in Behavioral Modeling

a. To infer latches at the output
module demux1to4 (input i, input [1:0]sel, output reg [3:0]y);
always@(sel)
begin
if(sel == 2b00)
y[0] = i;
else if(sel == 2b01)
y[1] = i;
else

y[2] = i;
end
endmodule
b. Not to infer latches at the output
module demux1to4 (input i, input [1:0]sel, output reg [3:0]y);
always@(sel)
begin
if(sel == 2b00)
y[0] = i;
else if(sel == 2b01)
y[1] = i;
else if(sel == 2b10)
y[2] = i;
else if(sel == 2b11)
y[3] = i;
else
y = 4bx;
end
endmodule

## 27. a. 4 bit Parity Generator

module parity_gen(input [3:0]a, output y);
assign y = ^a;
endmodule
Test Bench
module parity_gen_tb;
reg [3:0]a;
wire y;
parity_gen pa1(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 4'b0000;
repeat(15)

begin
a = a + 4'b0001;
#10 \$display("a=%b, y = %b,a,y);
end
end
endmodule

## 4 bit Parity Checker

module prity_check(input [4:0]a, output reg y);
always@(a)
begin
y = ^a;
if(y)
\$display("error");
else
\$display("No Error");
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module parity_check_tb;
reg [4:0]a;
wire y;
parity_check pa1(.a(a),.y(y));
initial
begin
a = 5'b00000;
repeat(31)
begin

a = a + 5'b00001;
#10 \$display("a=%b, y = %b,a,y);
end
end
endmodule

27 / 01 / 2015
28.Pattern Detector ( FSM )
a. 1101
module fsm1101
(input x,clk,rst,
output reg y);
parameter GN = 2'b00,
GOT1 = 2'b01,
GOT11 = 2'b10,
GOT110 = 2'b11;
reg [1:0]state,next;
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
state <= GN;
else
state <= next;
end
always@(state,x)
begin

case(state)
GN:if(x)
begin
next = GOT1;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT1:if(x)
begin
next = GOT11;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT11:if(x)
begin
next = GOT11;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GOT110;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT110:if(x)
begin
next = GOT1;

y = 1'b1;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
endcase
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module fsm1101_tb;
reg clk,x,rst;
wire y;
fsm1101 f1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.x(x),.y(y));
initial
begin
clk=0;
end
always
begin
#5 clk=~clk;
end
initial
begin
rst = 1'b0;
#40 rst=1'b1;
#220 rst = 1'b0;
#20 rst = 1'b1;
end
initial
begin
#15 x=1;
#10 x=1;

#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
end
endmodule

b. 0111
module fsm0111
(input x,clk,rst,
output reg y);
parameter GN = 2'b00,
GOT0 = 2'b01,
GOT01 = 2'b10,
GOT011 = 2'b11;
reg [1:0]state,next;
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
state <= GN;
else

## state <= next;

end
always@(state,x)
begin
case(state)
GN:if(x)
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GOT0;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT0:if(x)
begin
next = GOT01;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GOT0;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT01:if(x)
begin
next = GOT011;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GOT0;
y = 1'b0;

end
GOT011:if(x)
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b1;
end
else
begin
next = GOT0;
y = 1'b0;
end
endcase
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module fsm0111_tb;
reg clk,x,rst;
wire y;
fsm0111 f1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.x(x),.y(y));
initial
begin
clk=0;
end
always
begin
#5 clk=~clk;
end
initial
begin
rst = 1'b0;
#40 rst=1'b1;
#220 rst = 1'b0;
#20 rst = 1'b1;

end
initial
begin
#15 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
end
endmodule

c. 1110
module fsm_1110
(input x,clk,rst,
output reg y);

parameter GN = 2'b00,
GOT1 = 2'b01,
GOT11 = 2'b10,
GOT111 = 2'b11;
reg [1:0]state,next;
always@(posedge clk, negedge rst)
begin
if(!rst)
state <= GN;
else
state <= next;
end
always@(state,x)
begin
case(state)
GN:if(x)
begin
next = GOT1;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT1:if(x)
begin
next = GOT11;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;

end
GOT11:if(x)
begin
next = GOT111;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b0;
end
GOT111:if(x)
begin
next = GOT111;
y = 1'b0;
end
else
begin
next = GN;
y = 1'b1;
end
endcase
end
endmodule
Test Bench
module fsm_1110_tb;
reg clk,x,rst;
wire y;
fsm_1110 f1(.clk(clk),.rst(rst),.x(x),.y(y));
initial
begin
clk=0;
end
always

begin
#5 clk=~clk;
end
initial
begin
rst = 1'b0;
#40 rst=1'b1;
#220 rst = 1'b0;
#20 rst = 1'b1;
end
initial
begin
#15 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=0;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
#10 x=1;
end
endmodule