FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

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FACILITATOR TRAINING
AN INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL

Facilitator Training Program
“Training the Trainer”

Presented By
Kelly Sneed

FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE

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CHAPTER 1
5
FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM
Program audience
Program goals & objectives
Program assessment

CHAPTER II
9
FACILITATOR SKILLS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Effective skills
Phases of development
Distance learning theories
Engaging distance learners

CHAPTER III
17
MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TOOLS
Mentoring program
Management and evaluation
Technology or media tools

CHAPTER IV
20
ISSUES AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Student collaboration technologies
Different in distance learners

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Management issues and resolutions

CHAPTER V
22

PREFACE
ONLINE EDUCATION GROWTH
A major global trend influencing current adult learning is online
education. Online education offers ease and convenience for adult
learners balancing the responsibilities of family and work. This
educational phenomenon is spreading around the world with eight
countries leading the way: the United States, India, China, South Korea,
Malaysia, the United Kingdom, Australia, and South Africa (ICEF Monitor,
2012). Many factors have influenced this global trend in online education:
population growth, economic necessity, the need for continuing
education programs, and a rapidly changing job market (Howell, Williams,
& Lindsay, 2003).
Adult learners are the fastest-growing population in higher education
increasing 170% between 1970 and 2000 (Howell, Williams, & Lindsay,
2003). Online Nation conducted a study on student enrollment and online
enrollment between 2002 and 2006. The results show a dramatic
difference between the annual growth rate of total student enrollments
and total online student enrollments.

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Annual Growth Rate
40
35
30
25

Total Enrollment
Online Enrollment

20
15
10
5
0
2003

2004

2005

2005

FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

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This growth is expected to continue, the US Department of Education
estimates that college enrollment will grow 16% over the next 10 years
creating an even higher demand for college classes’ availability (Howell,
Williams, & Lindsay, 2003). With online colleges and universities
expanding around the world adult learners will have more learning
opportunities, better resources, and an abundance of accessible
education. This global trend in online education is and will continue to
have profound influence on education, employment, communication, and
classes around the world.

CHAPTER I
FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM
This three day synchronous training program is designed to prepare each
learner on how to be an effective online facilitator. Chapter 1 outlines the
basics of this facilitator training program and will cover the following
items:

Training program audience

Training program goals

FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

Training program objectives

Summative assessment of trainee learning

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PROGRAM AUDIENCE
“Determining the learners’ approach to the instruction – including
prerequisite knowledge, skills, and attitude toward the task – is an
important part of effective design and development (Brown & Green,
2011, pg. 71). This training program is targeting current higher education
faculty members. These learners are assumed to have solid facilitator
skills in educating adults:

Skills, Experience, and Knowledge
o Minimum one course higher education experience
o Familiar with education techniques and strategies
o Solid foundation of learning models
o Knowledgeable about assessment and evaluation methods
o No prior experience with online facilitating

PROGRAM GOALS
The overall goal of this training program is to ensure that each higher
education faculty member receives the knowledge and skills necessary to
be effective online facilitators. These key skills and knowledge are broken
down into three sections (Chapters II, III, and IV), each to be covered over
the course of the three day training program.

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES
Training Objectives – (Day 1)

Each higher education faculty member will present an
understanding of the basics of online facilitator skills and
instructional materials (Chapter II).

Training Objectives – (Day 2)

Each higher education faculty member will exhibit the skills in
terms of online management and technology tools (Chapter III).

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Training Objectives – (Day 3)

Each higher education faculty member will demonstrate
knowledge on how to address online issues and classroom
management (Chapter IV).

PROGRAM ASSESSMENT
The assessment process has four steps:
1. Plan – This step is focused on establishing and clearly outlining
the learning goals.
2. Implement – This step is where the learning opportunities are
provided.
3. Assessment – This step is where the student’s learning is
assessed.
4. Report/Revise – This step is aimed at using the results to
improve the learning outcomes.
Each of these steps is necessary in order to drive instruction in an
institute. Think of knowledge as a house; planning forms the foundation,
implementation builds the walls, and assessment finishes it off as the
roof. Reporting/Revising would be viewing the completed home and
improving on the design for future homes.

Summative Assessment
To measure the success of the program it is first necessary to measure
the success of the students. Summative assessments identify whether

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learners are making expected progress and meeting learning outcomes.
This training program will utilize two forms of summative assessment:
(1)Participation –
Assessing understanding can be accomplished by noting each
learner’s level of participation, quality of contributions, and
depth of knowledge shown.
(2)Quizzes –
Quizzes are useful diagnostic tool to “determine whether and to
what degree students have learned the material they have been
taught” (Hidden curriculum, 2014).
Each of these forms of assessment will be emulated each day of the
training program. A quiz will be given at the end of each day and each
Chapter of instruction. Below are sample quizzes for each day/Chapter as
well as sample rubrics. Rubrics provide a key role in summative
assessment by; developed from learning outcomes and goals, rubrics
allow learners to know what is expected of them and allows educators a
clear outline for grading.
Quiz – Chapter II (End of Day 1)
1. What skills are necessary for an effective online facilitator and
how do you plan on developing them?
2. Describe one theory on engaging distance learners you plan to
use and explain why you choose it.
Quiz – Chapter III (End of Day 2)
1. What is the mentoring program, who qualifies, and how do you
plan to take part in it?
2. What are some issues you will see in an online classroom and
what strategies will you employ to deal with them?
3. Describe the learning platform and how it will be used.
4. Identify at least two technology or media tools you will use to
aid your online classroom and explain why.

Quiz – Chapter IV (End of Day 3)

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1. Name and describe one student collaboration tool (other than
the classroom platform) that you will incorporate into your
online classroom.
2. What are some of the differences in online students and how will
you identify these and take steps to ensure each learner’s needs
are met?
3. What are some technology management issues you will
encounter and how will you resolve these?
4. What are some classroom management issues you will
encounter and how will you resolve these?
Quiz Rubric

Excellent

Moderate

Weak

Knowledg
e

Each question is
answered fully and
demonstrates a
successful level of
understanding of
the topics learned.

Each question is
partially
answered and
demonstrates a
basic level of
understanding of
the topics
learned.

Each question is
incompletely
answered and
demonstrates a
lack of
understanding
of the topics
learned.

Content

Clearly written;
provides strong
ideas and
supporting
information.

Vaguely written;
ideas and
supporting
information
lacking.

Lacks a logical
or clear point;
does not provide
ideas and
supporting
information.

At the conclusion of the training program the summative assessment
results for each learner will be evaluated to determine the overall
successfulness of the training program. The goal of this program is to see
each learner achieve the learning outcomes; therefore the training
program is only as successful as the learners. Through this evaluation

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informed modification can be made to improve instruction design,
education techniques, and teaching materials (Hidden curriculum, 2014).

CHAPTER II
FACILITATOR SKILLS
The role of the online facilitator is to be the model of effective teaching
but what makes an effective online facilitator? Identify the skills needed
for effective distance learning facilitators. Chapter 2 outlines the skills
and theories necessary for effective online facilitating and will cover the
following items:

Describe the phases of development for distance learning
facilitators.

Identify the theories of distance learning.

Describe the theories for engaging distance learners.

EFFECTIVE SKILLS
Online facilitators need many skills in order to be effective; two of the
most important are: establishing presence and creating community. This
section will examine these two online facilitator skills, explore how they
are developed, and determine the forms of training necessary to support
these two skills.
Establishing Presence
“Establishing presence is the first order of business in an online class”
(Pallor & Pratt, 2011, pg. 7). Since online learning is devoid of face-toface contact the facilitator must make themselves visible, establish their
presence in the classroom. Without physical contact it can be easy for
students to feel distant from their teammates and teachers. Creating an
online presence means showing the students that the facilitator is “here”
in terms of availability, accountability, and dependability. Students need

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to know that the teacher cares and is paying attention, or they may lose
their care and attention for the learning. Students must feel they can turn
to the facilitator when they need assistance, something they cannot do if
the facilitator is not “there”.
The skill “establishing presence” is best mastered through personal
training. By focusing on the facilitator as a person it is easier to develop
his/her presences and confidence (Pallor & Pratt, 2011). This can include:
one-on-one training with more experienced facilitators on how to
establish ones presence, examples of other facilitator’s method or model
for establishing presence, and gaining confidence online through
experience and feedback. Technology training is also needed in order to
successfully master this skill. The first step is to orient the facilitator with
the online learning environment such: the computer platform and the
other technology medias used (i.e. Skype, email, etc.). Through repetitive
use of these technologies the facilitator’s knowledge and confidence will
grow, making him/her more comfortable using these.
Creating Community
“Creating a friendly, social environment in which learning is promoted is
also essential” (Berge, 1995, pg. 2). Online education lacks the physical
contact of classic classrooms; therefore a strong sense of community is
necessary. Online learners face a loss of connection, which in turn can
reflect in their learning. It is the facilitator’s responsibility to create three
things: communication, a sense of belonging, and a common focus.
Students must feel they are a part of the classroom so they can turn to
one another if they need help or for group assignments, something they
cannot do if there is no community to turn to.
The skill “creating community” is best mastered through personal
training. By focusing on the facilitator’s skills and techniques it is easier
to create a strong online community (Pallor & Pratt, 2011). This can
include: mentoring under another facilitator to discover their model for

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an online community, use feedback from peers and students to improve
community, rely on past experiences to evaluate personal model for
community, and training on techniques to build a strong online
community. Content training is also needed in order to successfully
master this skill. A deeper understanding of the course or program
discipline will allow the facilitator to enhance the community and
communication of the class. This can be done in many ways: enhancing
the learning environment through a solid community, bring students
together to work on a central focus, and use the content to steer
discussions in the focused direction.

PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT
There are five developmental phases that educators go through as
outlined by Pallor and Pratt, 2011:

Visitor – This is the beginning stage; facilitators have begun to
think about integrating technology into their face-to-face

classroom.
Novice – The facilitators are supplementing their face-to-face

classrooms with technology.
Apprentice – At this stage facilitators have started to provide
online education and are beginning to understand the new

online classroom environment.
Insider – These facilitators are more experience educating with
online instruction; they are growing more comfortable with the

learning environment and skills.
Master – This is the last stage; facilitators have taught online a
significant amount, have developed online curriculum, and can
train/support new online educators.

FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM
s te r
a
M

V is to
r

i d
s
In
er

13

v ic e
o
N

A p re
t i
n
c e

In order to successfully develop any skills an online would need to
advance through each of the five phases: visitor, novice, apprentice,
insider, and master. For the two skills listed above, establishing presence
and creating community, the stages of development would be as such:

Establishing Presence

Creating Community
Visitor

• The facilitator is toying with technology and
therefore his/her online presence is non-existent.
In this phase neither skills is obvious or much in
use; instead this is where each would begin to
emerge as possibilities.

Novice

• The facilitator is incorporating technology into the
classroom and is beginning to find his/her online
presence. This is in small steps such as posting
assignments or rubrics online.

Apprentice

• The facilitator is ofcially an online instructor but
has just begun testing the water for the
possibilities of online education. This is the first
all online classroom, therefore the need for a
presence is high. Here the facilitator will be forced
to establish his/her presence. Presence can be
established in many ways: welcome messages to
students, responding to questions quickly, and
posting in the discussions often.

Insider

• The facilitator has now instructed a couple online
classes and is more experienced. Feedback,
successes, and failures from previous classes will
help him/her in re-establishing their presence
within online classrooms in a more effective and
efcient way.

Master

• The facilitator has successfully instructed
numerous online classrooms and has developed
his/her online presence effectively. At this point
feedback will still be accepted and integrated to
continue to perfect the online presence but this
skill has successfully been mastered.

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Visitor

• The facilitator is playing with the idea of
technology and therefore he/she is not creating a
sense of community. In this phase neither skills is
obvious or much in use; instead this is where
each would begin to emerge as possibilities.

Novice

• The facilitator is integrating technology as a tool,
in small doses, regularly to their classrooms and
is starting to create a sense of community. This is
often through email communication and/or online
communication for team assignments.

Apprentice

• The facilitator is instructing their first online
classroom and is now in charge of creating the
community. This is where he/she will begin to see
the necessity of a community. This community
will not only be the classroom but between
students who will be working together.
Community can be created in many ways: group
assignments, classroom discussions, and new
student introductions.

Insider

• The facilitator uses prior classes and student
feedback to create a stronger sense of
community. He/she understands the importance
of the online community for the students
motivation, learning, and communication. By
reviewing successes and failures in previous
classes the facilitator can implement a stronger
community.

Master

• The facilitator has successfully instructed
numerous online classrooms and has developed a
strong sense of community within his/her
classrooms. At this point feedback will still be
accepted and integrated to continue to perfect
online community but this skill has successfully
been mastered.

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DISTANCE LEARNING THEORIES
As current higher education faculty members, each learner has an
understanding of learning theories and how to apply these to different
scenarios. This can be used to build an understanding of distance
learning theories. “These commonalities include understanding learning
as a psycho-social process, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to learn,
and a distinction between ‘development’ (as a naturally occurring and
integrative process) and ‘learning’ geared to shorter and medium-term
changes in states of mind and knowledge” (Pg. 28).

Online
Traditional
Classroom
Classrooms
Theories

ENGAGING DISTANCE LEARNERS
Engaging online learners is a significant challenge for online facilitators.
There are not many theories specifically dedicated to engaging online
learners, but this Model of Engagement is directly focused on the possible
ways to engage online learners throughout the online education process.
For the purpose of this training, the key factors are the red or middle

FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM
sections: course website, start of class, assignment, discussion, and
course activities.

(Angelino and Natvig’s Model of Engagement, 2007)
The basic behind engaging online learners is to encourage
communication between facilitators and students, as well as between
students and students. Online classrooms may lack the face-to-face
communication but there are numerous technology and media tools to
support engaging online learners.

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Communication-Connection Technologies
Communication-connection technologies “create a strong interactive
learning environment is key to any classroom and technologies such as
these can really “enhance the communication skills of students, as well
as their problem solving, productivity, critical thinking, and collaboration
skills” (Miller, 2014, pg. 1). Each of these tools can be used to encourage
engagement within online classrooms.
Example technology and media tools:












Skype
Facetime
Goggle Hangout
TutorClass
Dipity
Capzles
Audioboom

FotoBabble
VoiceThread
Animoto
Myhistro
Glogster
Mindmeister

Supporting Distance Learning:

Offering the best of both a
physical classroom and an online


classroom
Establishing a solid
connection
Creating a sense community.

These technologies “create •
opportunities for conversation,
learning and the creation of •
common understanding and
purpose” (Haythornthwaite &

Engaging Learners:
Helps overcome shyness
Allows learner’s to post after
reaction
Dismisses the need for turntaking
Offers simultaneous
responding
Available anywhere, anytime,
to anyone
These technologies “greatly

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CHAPTER III
MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TOOLS
Online education can be a challenge but there are many tools to assist
with this process. Chapter 3 outlines the management and technology
tools to use for effective online facilitating and will cover the following
items:

Mentoring program for faculty

Management and evaluation programs for facilitators

Learning platform used for facilitating their classes

Technologies and media tools that engage and enhance student
learning

MENTORING PROGRAM
The mentoring program will be in place to better train facilitators on the
benefits, challenges, and experiences with online education. In order to
be a part of the online mentoring program a facilitator must meet the
following requirements:


Be a current online facilitator
Have a minimum of one year experience with online facilitating
Possess a willingness to mentor, support, and train a new facilitator

Goals – The goal of the mentoring program is to connect experiences
online facilitators with new online facilitators, to assist each other with
growing their skills and knowledge.

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MANAGEMENT & EVALUATION
Management and evaluation programs for facilitators are necessary for
effective online classrooms. This section will examine the learning
community approach, Issues and strategies for addressing them in online
classrooms, and evaluation strategies.
Learning Community Approach –
“One of the most effective ways to assist faculty in understanding the
value of a learning community in online teaching is to incorporate this
same approach into faculty training and development” (Palloff & Pratt,
2011, pg. 54). The learning community approach is summed up in a
simple equation: people + purpose + process = reflection and
transformation. This approach to online facilitating can affect classroom
management by determining the purpose and the process of the course.

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FACILITATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

Creates a practice
community to
support online
instruction
Less competitive
mentality with
online facilitating
Faculty more
willing to share
their success
Reflect and
transform
practices

Process

• Use the same
technologies as
online learning
(forums, blogs,
webcasts, etc.)
• Use a blended
apporach (i.e.
communication,
discussions,
project-based
work, etc.)
• Having a charter
or guidelines is
beneficial

Purpose

• Online faculty
• Collegues
• Academic support
staff
• Online curriculum
designers
• Students

People

Issues and Resolution Strategies
Like any traditional classroom, an online classroom will experience
controversy and issues. These tend to differ slightly from traditional
classroom controversies and issues because the learning environment is
completely virtual.
Evaluation Strategies
The University of Washington defines program evaluation as the practical
and systematic assessment of the process, outcome, and intent of a
program which is used primarily to further develop and/or improve the
program (University of Washington, 2005). Program evaluation is a crucial
part of any program, as it provides tangible and credible information that
can aid in the future successfulness of the program.

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LEARNING PLATFORMS
Learning platform used by the distance learning faculty for facilitating
their classes will be a LMS. The facilitators will use the following
technologies to better present information and to engage and enhance
student learning.

YouTube to present lectures

Skype and/or Zoom to offer face-to-face communications

Email and/or Facebook chat to create conversation opportunities

CHAPTER IV
ISSUE AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
All classrooms come with challenges but online classrooms can be both
easier and harder to manage. Chapter 4 focuses on the issues that can
be present in managing an online classroom including:

Different technology tools for student collaboration

A description of the different distance learners

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The differences between synchronous and asynchronous facilitation

skills
Classroom management issues and resolutions

STUDENT COLLABORATION TECHNOLOGIES
Social learning is not a new concept; it occurs in workplace settings,
conversations over coffee, and anywhere two people are together sharing
thoughts, ideas, and information. Today’s technology has increased the
possibilities for social learning through social media. Social media is
important to creating a positive and effective social learning
environment. This paper will explore four social media tools and how
each can “create opportunities for conversation, learning and the
creation of common understanding and purpose” (Haythornthwaite, &
Andrews, 2011, pg. 14).

TutorClass an online tutoring resource that creates a comfortable,
less formal learning environment. Here students, colleagues,
trainers, and facilitators can all communicate with one another and
share information. This tool aids in creating a sense of community;
establishing a solid connection from anywhere, anytime. TutorClass
supports an interactive social learning environment by establishing
a place where questions can be answered, new concepts can be
shared, and creating a digital trail for others to follow and learn

from.
Mindmeister is an online brainstorming platform that creates a
place for students to communicate and share their ideas with one
another; allowing students to interact together in much the same
way as a traditional classroom setting. This platform is an
extremely useful tool that allows people to “meet” and collaborate
on ideas, thoughts, and experiences. Mindmeister creates an
interactive social learning environment by establishing another way

in which people can communicate, connect, and collaborate.
Diggo is a research tool that allows users to highlight text
information and bookmark it for future use. The highlighting, note

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taking, bookmarking, searching, and information sharing features
work well for educators that require students to complete
additional readings and specific projects outside of the classroom.
This social media tool can be utilized in conjunction with other
social media tools such as blogs, twitter, or Facebook to allow for
important information to be highlighted and shared.

DIFFERENCES IN DISTANCE LEARNERS
Distance learners come in many different shapes and styles. They are
made up of numerous different cultures, religions, geographical locations,
experience levels, prior knowledge, personal experiences, and so on.
Some learners will prefer a traditional learning environment while others
a non-traditional. Some will prefer group learning, other mentoring, other
technology, and still others self-directed approach. Online facilitators
have the extreme challenge of having a diverse group of learners they
must get to know in order to meet all the learning needs present.

MANAGEMENT ISSUES & RESOLUTIONS
Technology management issues are going to occur in online facilitating.
Online facilitating can come with very specific forms of challenging
behaviors such as:



Cyber-bullying
Inappropriate posts
Lack of participation or engagement
ADA learners and associated strategies

While there are numerous approaches to resolving these challenging
behaviors one of the most effective and basic is communication. The first
two challenges focus on the learner’s not being aware or complying with
appropriate online behavior. This can often be averted by outlining the
expectations prior to the onset of class. The last two challenges focus
more on the expectations of the classroom in terms of learning goals and
behaviors. Communicating these issues in a syllabus is often key to

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outlining the learner’s expected involvement before the beginning of the
class.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
The fact is that today online education is more than a fad or phase; it is a
rapidly growing reality. Adult learners are the fastest-growing population
in higher education increasing 170% between 1970 and 2000 (Howell,
Williams, & Lindsay, 2003). This growth is expected to continue, the US
Department of Education estimates that college enrollment will grow 16%
over the next 10 years creating an even higher demand for college
classes’ availability (Howell, Williams, & Lindsay, 2003). This means that
online facilitators need to develop their skills and train to be effective
online facilitators. “Excellent online instructors rarely emerge ‘‘out of the
box’’ but develop their skills over time” (Pallor & Pratt, 2011, pg. 16).

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REFERENCES
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%202-1%20instructor%20role.pdf.
Brown, A., & Green, T. D. (2011). The essentials of instructional design:
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Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2011).The adult learner:
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Haythornthwaite, C., & Andrews, R. (2011). E-learning theory and
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Hidden curriculum (2014, August 26). Summative Assessment. In S.
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Howell, Scott L., Williams, Pere B., & Lindsay, Nathan K. (Fall 2003).
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State University of West Georgia website:
http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
ICEF Monitor. (June 2012). 8 Countries Leading the Way in Online
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http://monitor.icef.com/2012/06/8-countries-leading-the-way-inonline-education/
Miller, Sandra. (2014). Top 10 essential web tools for project-based
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http://www.edudemic.com/web-tools-project-based-learning/
Online Nation. (2007). Five Years of Growth in Online Learning. Retrieved
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www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/online-nation.pdf
Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2011). The excellent online instructor:
Strategies for professional development: Strategies for professional
development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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