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Air handling unit

performance tests
Final Report 53830/1
Carried out for
Air Handlers Northern Ltd
By Calum Maclean
15 November 2010

Air handling unit


performance tests
Carried out for:
Air Handlers Northern Ltd
Bute Street
Weaste
Salford
Lancashire
M50 1DU
Contract:

Final Report 53830/1

Date:

15 November 2010

Issued by:

BSRIA Limited
Old Bracknell Lane West,
Bracknell,
Berkshire RG12 7AH UK

Telephone: +44 (0)1344 465600


Fax:

+44 (0)1344 465626

E: bsria@bsria.co.uk W: www.bsria.co.uk

Compiled by:

Approved by:

Name: Calum Maclean

Name: Greg King BSc MSc M.InstR

Title:

Title:

Senior Research Engineer

Group Manager
MicroClimate & Test

This report must not be reproduced except in full without the written approval of an executive director of BSRIA. It is only
intended to be used within the context described in the text.

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
1

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 5

INSTRUMENTATION.................................................................................................................... 5
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Temperature and humidity ..................................................................................................5


Air flowrates ........................................................................................................................5
Electrical and thermal loads ...............................................................................................5
Calibration...........................................................................................................................5

UNIT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................... 6

TEST PROCEDURE ..................................................................................................................... 6


4.1
4.2

Test setup ...........................................................................................................................6


Test conditions....................................................................................................................7

TEST RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 8

OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................... 11

TABLES
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7

Target test conditions ............................................................................................................. 7


Test 1 Cooling 1 .................................................................................................................. 8
Test 2 Cooling 2 .................................................................................................................. 8
Test 3 Heating 1 .................................................................................................................. 9
Test 4 Heating 2 .................................................................................................................. 9
Test 5 Heating 3 ................................................................................................................ 10
Test 6 Heating 4 ................................................................................................................ 10

FIGURES
Figure 1 Test setup ............................................................................................................................... 6

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

BSRIA was contacted by Air Handlers Northern Ltd to test an air handling unit (AHU). The unit
consisted of a combined air supply and extract system. The tests were conducted during March and
April 2010. A range of tests was conducted for a range of outside air conditions including summer,
winter and mid-season.
The tests were conducted to determine the capacity and the energy used by the unit during the range of
conditions tested.
The construction of the test facility, the instrumentation used, the data collected, analysis and the
derived conclusions are presented in this report.

INSTRUMENTATION

2.1
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
Two types of sensors were used to measure temperature during the test, platinum resistance
thermometers (PRTs) and combined Vaisala temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensors.
2.2
AIR FLOWRATES
Before the testing took place, pressure drop against flow rate curves were taken for the supply and
extract coils within the unit. The pressure drop and flowrate were measured using a Wilson flowgrid,
fitted to the extract side of the AHU, and a set of micro-manometers. The airflow rates were recorded
during the testing by measuring the pressure drop across the coils.
2.3
ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL LOADS
Power consumption measurements were conducted on the AHUs using two Yokogawa power meters
during the tests. One Yokogawa power meter was measuring the total power into the AHU and the
second Yokogawa was measuring the compressor power only.
2.4
CALIBRATION
All equipment significant to measurements is regularly serviced and maintained according to the
manufacturers instruction and is regularly calibrated in accordance with the BSRIA quality
requirements.

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

UNIT DESCRIPTION

UNIT DESCRIPTION

The AHU comprised of a single unit with:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Air supply section


Air extract section
Compressor and corresponding coil system
Thermal wheel for energy recovery
Inverter driven fans
Control system

The air supplied to the building is conditioned using a combination of a thermal wheel and a coil
supplied from a compressor to provide cooling or heating as required. The compressor capacity was
variable over the range of 10% to 100% in both cooling and heating modes.
The thermal wheel is switched off during the cooling tests via the units control system.

TEST PROCEDURE

4.1

TEST SETUP

The test setup is shown in Figure 1 below:


Figure 1 Test setup

The black Xs show the placement of the humidity and temperature probes and consist of four probes
each. The pressure drop across the supply and extract coils was measured during the testing to allow a
measure of the air volume flowrate. The air volume flowrate against pressure drop curves for the two
coils were recorded prior to the tests by use of a Wilson flow grid.
Combined %RH and temperature probe placements:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Outside air supply


Air onto supply coil temperature
Air off supply coil and air to building
Air return from building

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

TEST PROCEDURE

The tests were conducted at the settings requested by the client, to simulate a range of conditions
including summer, winter and mid season.
The test data was recorded at 1 minute intervals and averaged over the test period when completed.
The air was supplied to the AHU at the required condition by use of a range of equipment depending
on the condition required. The supply conditions were held constant throughout the test period.
4.2

TEST CONDITIONS

Test description

Air on temperature

Air supply to
building
temperature

Air return from


building
temperature

Airflow volume

Target test conditions

Test number

Table 1

Units

m3.s-1

Cooling 1

24.5

20.0

26.0

1.0

Cooling 2

30.0

20.0

26.0

1.0

Heating 1

1.0

20.0

20.0

1.0

Heating 2

4.0

20.0

20.0

1.0

Heating 3

8.0

20.0

20.0

1.0

Heating 4

0.0

26.0

20.0

0.8

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

5
Table 2

TEST RESULTS
Test 1 Cooling 1

Date of test
Start time of test
Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high
Compressor power low
Fresh air temp
Air onto coil temp
Air off coil temp
Air return temp

29-Apr-10
14:48:30
30.0
12.9
14.0
5.2
7.0
36.0
1.20
2.72
0.48
24.5
24.2
20.2
26.2

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW
kW
C
C
C
C

Air supply volume

1.00

ms-1

Air extract volume


Cooling over coil
Cooling over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

0.97
4.91
5.3
32.6
32.5

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

Table 3

Test 2 Cooling 2

Date of test
Start time of test
Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high
Compressor power low
Fresh air temp

29-Apr-10
16:26:30
30.0
17.6
17.6
5.3
5.3
100.0
3.00
3.05
1.58
30.2

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW
kW
C

Air onto coil temp


Air off coil temp
Air return temp

30.1
20.0
26.3

C
C
C

Air supply volume

0.99

ms-1

Air extract volume


Cooling over coil
Cooling over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

1.03
12.27
12.4
32.7
32.6

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

BSRIA

TEST RESULTS

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AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

Table 4

Test 3 Heating 1

Date of test
Start time of test
Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high
Compressor power low
Fresh air temp
Air onto coil temp
Air off coil temp
Air return temp

30-Apr-10
9:50:00
30.0
10.1
12.0
3.6
4.3
55.0
1.33
2.23
0.46
0.8
15.1
20.0
20.4

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW
kW
C
C
C
C

Air supply volume

1.03

ms-1

Air extract volume


Heating over coil
Heating over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

0.99
6.18
24.3
32.7
32.6

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

Table 5

Test 4 Heating 2

Date of test
Start time of test
Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high
Compressor power low

30-Apr-10
11:02:30
30.0
10.0
11.8
3.9
4.7
43.0
1.14
2.21
0.48

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW
kW

Fresh air temp


Air onto coil temp
Air off coil temp
Air return temp

3.5
16.1
20.0
20.4

C
C
C
C

Air supply volume

1.02

ms-1

Air extract volume


Heating over coil
Heating over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

1.01
4.93
20.7
32.7
32.6

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

BSRIA

TEST RESULTS

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AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

Table 6

Test 5 Heating 3

Date of test

30-Apr-10

Start time of test


Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high
Compressor power low
Fresh air temp
Air onto coil temp
Air off coil temp
Air return temp

12:40:00
30.0
9.8
11.4
4.4
5.3
30.0
0.93
2.21
0.48
8.2
17.3
20.0
19.9

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW
kW
C
C
C
C

Air supply volume

0.99

ms-1

Air extract volume


Heating over coil
Heating over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

1.03
3.34
14.5
32.7
32.6

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

Table 7

Test 6 Heating 4

Date of test
Start time of test
Length of test
HP Low (gauge)
HP High (gauge)
LP Low (gauge)
LP High (gauge)
Compressor percentage
Power to compressor
Compressor power high

30-Apr-10
15:23:00
30.0
13.8
13.8
2.9
2.9
100.0
2.43
2.46

Compressor power low


Fresh air temp
Air onto coil temp
Air off coil temp
Air return temp

2.41
-0.3
15.0
25.6
20.7

kW
C
C
C
C

Air supply volume

0.81

ms-1

Air extract volume


Heating over coil
Heating over supply unit
Supply fan setting
Extract fan setting

0.77
10.63
25.9
27.4
27.9

ms-1
kW
kW
Hz
Hz

BSRIA

TEST RESULTS

Minutes
Bar
Bar
Bar
Bar
%
kW
kW

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Final Report 53830/1

AIR HANDLING UNIT PERFORMANCE TESTS

OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

A range of tests were completed on the air handling unit at the requested conditions of the client to
simulate summer, mid season and winter conditions.
Tests 1 to 5 show that the unit was able to provide the conditioned air at the requested temperature, of
20C, from an ambient temperature of between 1C and 30C at a volume flowrate of 1.0 m3.s-1.
During the heating tests the thermal wheel was on for heat recovery from the extract air from the
simulated building. The thermal wheel was inactive during the two cooling tests.
Test 6 shows that the unit can provide 0.8 m3.s-1 of conditioned air at 26C to a building at a fresh air
inlet temperature of 0C. The test was conducted to check the winter heating capacity at maximum
compressor duty.

BSRIA

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Final Report 53830/1