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Pesticides

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What is Pesticides?
Pesticide is any substance or mixture of
substances intended for preventing, destroying,
or controlling any pest including vectors of
human or animal diseases, unwanted species of
plants or animals causing harm during, or
otherwise interfering with, the production,
processing, storage, or marketing of food,
agricultural commodities, wood and wood
products, or animal feedstuffs, or which may be
administered to animals for the control of
insects, arachnids or other pests in or on
their .bodies

How to identify pesticides


Pesticides

used in crops, gardens or domestic


animals, are often a mixture of several chemicals
mixed together in desired proportions suspended
in appropriate carrier or diluents materials. These
chemicals are called active ingredients that are
responsible for killing or otherwise affecting the
pests. Apart from the active ingredients, there
are other chemicals that are formulated together
with the active ingredients that usually do not kill
pests. These are called inert ingredients that
serve as carriers, diluents, binders, dispersants,
prolong the shelf life of active ingredients or
make the pesticide smell better.

Reactions
On

human

The chemical enter the body through


the skin, lungs, or by mouth
o Reactions:
-Mild poisoning -Irritation of the nose,
throat, eye, skin, Headache
-Moderate Poisoning- caughing,
trembling, profound weakness, mental
confusion, rapid pulse
-Severe poisoning- twitching, death,
inability to breath, loss of reflexes

Environmental Reactions
Pesticides

are
toxic to living
organisms.
Some can
accumulate in
water systems,
pollute the air,
and in some
cases have
other dramatic
environmental
effects

Usefulness
U.S.

food production would decline, many


fruits and vegetables would be in short
supply, and the price of food would rise
Americas production of important fibers
for clothing, such as cotton, would
decrease as farmers would lose their
harvests and livelihoods to crop pests and
diseases.
Increase food production
Decrease the cost of food
Consumer benefits

Usefulness
Pesticide

products are used


tocontrol termites, roaches, ants,
rats and other pests.
Pesticides are used to protect
and enhance lawns, gardens,
public parks, playing fields, lakes
and ponds for public enjoyment.

Structures

First important synthetic organic pesticide was


dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane first synthesized by a German scientist
Ziedler in1873 (Othmer, 1996) and its insecticidal effect discovered by a
Swiss chemist Paul Muller in 1873.

Mechanisms of pesticides
degradation

PTE organophosphorous pesticide


hydrolysis mechanism

Side effects of pesticides use to


the environment and public health

Classification of pesticides based


on the targeted pest species

Chemical Classification

four main groups (organochlorines, organophosphorous,


carbamates and pyrethrin and pyrethroids)

Future research &


development
The

federal regulator of pesticides in Canada want to lower


the environment risks, as well as human and animal health
factor
The National Research Council
-The scope of the study was to encompass pesticide use in
production systemsprocessing,storage, and
transportation of field crops, fruits, vegetables,
ornamentals, fiber (including forest products), livestock,
and the products of aquaculture. Pests to be considered
included weeds, pathogens, and vertebrate and
invertebrate organisms that must normally be managed to
protect crops, livestock, and urban ecosystems. All aspects
of pesticide research were to be consideredidentification
of pest behavior in the ecosystem, pest biochemistry and
physiology, resistance management, impacts of pesticides
on economic systems.

Works Cited
"Pesticides

May Be More Dangerous than Testing Reveals, Study


Finds." Environmental Health News. N.p., 11 Feb. 2014.
Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Barron, James. "Groups Press New York State to Ban Poisons
That Kill Wildlife."The New York Times. The New York Times, 27
July 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
"Ministry of Agriculture."General Information about Pesticides.
N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Zacharia, and James Tano.Identity, Physical and Chemical
Properties of Pesticides. N.p.: INTECH Open Access, 2011. 21
Oct. 2011. Web. 03 Mar. 2015.
"The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture."The Future
Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar.
2015.
"Chapter 10."Pesticide Biodegradation: Mechanisms, Genetics
and
Strategies to Enhance the Process. N.p., n.d. Web. 22
Mar. 2015.

Sources

http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/2014/Feb/pesticidesare-more-dangerous-than-testing-of-active-ingredient-alone-reveals

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/28/nyregion/groups-press-state-to-ban-poisons
-that-kill-wildlife.html?ref=topics
http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/pesticides/a_3.htm

http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/20983.pdf

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9598&page=250

http://www.croplifeamerica.org/crop-protection/benefits#

http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegradation-life-of-science/pesticide-b
iodegradation-mechanisms-genetics-and-strategies-to-enhance-the-process