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Activity 1: Define the Problem

The sport of archery has changed dramatically over the course of a

relatively small period of time. This advancement has come about partly
due to discoveries of new technologies and strategies. In this project, the
factors that aect archery performance that will be described are the pros
and cons of dierent bow types, and some dierent materials arrows are
made out of. Archery and it's evolution at the Olympics will then be
described.The maximum height and equation of the parabola of an arrow
will also be derived from three points along the parabolic arc of its flight.
Lastly the optimal weight of an arrow and it's eect on its spine will be
observed by comparing multiple regression line types.

Activity 2: Research

Pros and Cons of Varying Bow Types

- Compound Bow - A bow that uses a system of cables

and pulleys to bend the limbs

Pros - Drawing the bow causes the resistance to peak

and then drop o once at full draw.

-The resistance at full draw is approximately

60-80% of the force of actually drawing the bow back

- This allows an archer to pull his bow back to fill draw and

take time to aim without fatigue

- "Release Aids" are often used so that the string is released more

steadily and smoother than with one's fingers

- Rubber stoppers called draw-stops can be calibrated for an

individual's ideal full draw distance

- Makes it so an archer will always pull back to the same

distance so their form doesn't change

Cons - Cannot be taken apart for smaller storage

- Because of its lightweight nature, any shift in stance or form

while shooting will be amplified as an arrow travels further

away, causing the arrow to be o target

- Long Bow - The "traditional" simple bow made of a

curved piece of wood and string

Pros - Lightweight

- Easy to make

- Can be fired rather rapidly

- Good for short to medium ranges

- Is less sensitive to improper stances

- High draw weight allows for high arrow acceleration and speed

Cons - The recoil of the string after releasing the

arrow often can alter the form of the shooter, causing the
arrow to travel o target

- Scopes can't be attached

- Accuracy over a distance is limited by the shooter's eye sight

- Holding the bow back for an extended period of time is often

tiresome and can cause alterations in the archer's form

- Recurve Bow - A shorter adaption of the long

bow in which the bottom and top

of the limbs are curved away from

the archer

Pros - Shorter and more compact than a longbow

- Curved limbs allow the same draw weight

as a long bow, making the arrow fly faster

- The limbs can be taken apart for easy,

compact storage

- Lightweight

- Easy to string

- Can be fitted with sights, stabilizers, and arrow rests to improve

the quality of each shot

- Inexpensive

Cons - String recoil can cause an archer's form to falter

- Holding the bow back for an extended period of time is

tiresome, which can lead to shaking of the bow

- Long distance accuracy is limited

- Faulty stance and form can cause shots to wobble or fly o

target, which is amplified at longer distances

Arrow Types

Carbon - Very light, non-flexible arrows that can shatter if not used


- Shoots an arrow along a very "flat" path

Aluminum - Light arrows that are quite flexible and do not bend, shatter,

or break easily

Wood - Easy-to-make arrows that have been used since the invention of


- Generally cannot be used with compound bows or high power

recurve bows, as the force of impact would cause them to snap

Evolution of Archery at the Olympics

- First ever Olympic archery event : Paris Games of 1900

- Featured only men's competition in 7 styles of shooting

- In 1904, women's competitions were added

- Both men and women's competitions had 6 events

- Modern archery at the Olympics occurred after being reinstated as an

Olympic event in 1972

- In 1988 both men and women's team competitions were added

- Since 1992, a qualifying rounds (based on score) are followed by a "FITA

Olympic Round", in which archers are in head to head elimination


Activity 3: Develop a Plan

An archer releases an arrow from shoulder height of 1.39 m. When

the arrow hits the target 18 m away, it hits a point that is 1.6 m
above the ground. When the target is removed, the arrow lands 45
m away.

Draw a diagram of the situation (include the archer, the target and
the path of the arrow).

Identify 3 points on parabolic path of the arrow (Include these

numerical data points on the graph as well)

Create 3 quadratic equations using the three points you found.

Activity 4: Implementing the Plan

Find the maximum height of the arrow along its path.

Solve the system of equations you created in Activity 3 to find a

quadratic equation that models the parabolic path of the arrow.

Use your equation to find the coordinates of the vertex. You can
use either a graphic or algebraic method.

Use the vertex to find the maximum height of the arrow along its

Activity 5: Interpreting the Data

Archers need to use arrows that do not bend easily. The table
shows how the weight of an arrow aects its spine, or the distance
to where the center of the arrow bends when a certain force is

Using a graphing utility, graph the data in the table and find a
linear regression model for the data.

Using a graphing utility, graph the data in the table and find a
quadratic regression model for the data.

Activity 6: Justify Solutions/Draw Conclusions

For your final project, determine which model is a better fit.

Explain your choice and include pictures of your graphs.

The quadratic equation (

) models th weight/spine
relationship the best. The linear model will continue below the x-axis,
meaning that at some point the spine of the arrow will be 0. The
technology of archery has not progressed to create an arrow with a spine
of 0, nor will it ever due to the physics involved. In addition, the linear
model will continue on its negative path infinitely, which is not possible.
Visually, the graph of the quadratic equation also "hugs" the plotted
points more. The quadratic, which in this case will graph as a parabola,
will turn and increase again. This relationship between weight and spine is
entirely possible; an arrow's weight may decrease its spine, but an arrow
that is too heavy may actually cause it to bend more easily (and as a

result the spine value would increase again).

Works Cited

"Archery | Videos, Photos, Records." Archery | Videos, Photos, Records,

Events, News, Olympic Medals. Olympic Movement, n.d. Web. 15

Jan. 2015. <>.

"The Dierences in Arrows." Bowhunting. EastonHunting, n.d. Web. 17

Jan. 2015. <


Unger, Kristen. "Four Types of Archery Bows." LIVESTRONG.COM.

LIVESTRONG.COM, 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 17 Jan. 2015. <http://>.