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Manufacturing Methods

2.16 Million homes are without gardening spaces in the UK


16% of the population are elderly
16% of 2.16million = 345,600 people in the UK who are elderly do not have enough space to garden
1% of 365,600 = 3456 are subject to the product
Low to medium levels of production are necessary
Then continue to use the PRIMA Manufacturing Process Selection
Material
Stainless steel

High Carbon Steel

European Oakwood

Production Process
Shell Moulding
Centrifugal Casting
Ceramic Mould Casting
Forging
Drawing
Superplastic Forming
Spinning
Powder metallurgy
Automatic Machining
Electrical Machining
Electrical Beam Machining
Laser Beam Machining
Chemical Machining
Welding
- Gas Tungsan arc
- Gas Metal Arc
BMC Moulding
Evaporating pattern sand casting
Routing

Material
Stainless steel

Cost
3.50 - 3.85 per
KG

Benefits
Resist corrosion in most
environments
Remain ductile in low
temps
Large amount of
processes to be used with
the material
Magnetic
Recyclable

Negatives
Most stainless
steel will need
finishing if
necessary
rolling, blasting
and polishing

Properties
Youngs Modulus - 200Gp
Tensile Strength - 215 MPa
Density - 0.8 (10 per kg)
Fatigue Strength max 753 MPa

High Carbon
Steel

0.33 0.37

Very inexpensive
Can achieve stiffness to
be a cutting tool
Recyclable

Doesnt achieve
an amazing finish
Will need a
finishing touch

Youngs Modulus 200-215 GPa


Tensile Strength 550 MPa
Density 7.8 kg/m
Fatigue Strength max 606 MPa

European
Oakwood

36.30 per ft

Colour can be
variable after a
while
Can cause erosion
with metals after
a while
Not recyclable

Density - 0.74 (10 per kg)


Fatigue Strength max - 52 MPa
Tensile Strength - 180 MPa
Youngs Modulus - 13500 MPa

ABS

1.64-1.81 per
KG

Machines well
Finishes well
Glues well
Medium movement in
service
Machines well
Finishes well
Glues well
Medium movement in
service
Very good strength
Suitable for outdoor use
Shock Resistant
Tougher plastic
Easily Moulded
Can be used on a range of
different production
processes
High impact resistance
Temperature Resistant
Gives off a glossy Surface
Recyclable

Does need a
finish of butyl to
give the nice and
resistant finish

Youngs Modulus 1.1-2.9 GPa


Shears Modulus 0.4-1 GPa
Tensile Strength 27.6-55.2 MPa
Hardness 5.6-15.3 HV

Stainless Steel Processes


Processes

Benefits

Negatives

Cost

Metal
Injection
Moulding

No mould lines, no need for extra


finishing
Can mould a large amount
Tolerance of 0.1-0.2mm
Tooling costs low
Equipment cost medium
Labour cost medium

Relative health and pollution


problems with excess
material
Can mould a large amount
Average Surface Finish
Necessary to ass draft angles
to achieve quality mould

Low to
Medium

Possible or
not?
Possible

Centrifugal
casting

Good exterior finish


Can be used with a range of materials
Tooling cost stays the same no matter
what shape

Only produces hollow


cylindrical moulds
Does need finishing
Only for simple asymmetrical
shapes

Medium level
of cost

Not a
possibility

Forging

Gives a good surface finish


Tolerance of 0.2-1mm
Can form complex shapes
Can form most metals

Dies are exceptionally


expensive
Gives of vapours and some
health and safety hazards
Caution of waste producing
pollution

Very
Expensive

No

Ceramic
Mould Casting

Both ferrous and non-ferrous allows


can be used
Product excellent detail levels
Tolerance of 0.38-0.8mm
Tooling costs cover all ranges of
moulds

Excess mould material can


cause pollution.
Potential health hazards

Low to
medium level
of cost

Possibility

Superplastic
Forming

Tolerance 0.5-1mm
Product
Complex shapes possible with this
production method
Low to medium costs

Holes not possible


Long cycle times
Officially a secondary
shaping process

Drawing

This process cannot form many shapes. A lot of the different type of drawing produce a
cylindrical shape.
Not relevant to the part in need of stainless steel.

Not possible

Not possible

High Carbon-steel Processes


Processes
Gas Tungsan arc

BMC Moulding

Evaporating pattern sand

Benefits
Can receive great
precision
Can be used on a
range of materials
Most common
technique used for
joints
Produces a great
surface finish
Tolerance 0.12
1mm
Can produce a range
of shapes and holes

Negatives
Can be a safety
hazard to the
operators
Time consuming

Cost
Low to medium cost
but skilled operator
needed to use the
machine

Possible or not?
Possible for ay
welding necessary

The mould may be


expensive to
produce.

Medium level of cost

The most possible


technique for the
part in hand

Low tooling and

Produces poor

Low to medium level

Not possible, not

casting

operating costs
Complex shapes can
be produced
No draft or mould
line
Produces high levels
of production

finish
Will need extra
finishing
Quite large
tolerance of 12.5mm
Hazardous excess
materials to
environment

of cost

Part
Back board

Material
Oak (Wood)

Key Properties for material


Durable to weathering (to
ensure it can perform
outside)
Fatigue Strength max - 52
MPa (so the material doesn't
get tiered after long use)
Durability
Fatigue Strength max - 52
MPa
Sheer Modulus 1.5-1.8 GPa

Front Cover Board

Oak (Wood)

Slider

Stainless Steel

Fatigue Strength max 753


MPa
Hardness 130-151 GPa
Shear Modulus 74-84
GPa(Ability to undergo stress
from mass or movements)
Ductility (ability to maintain
shape under tensile load)
Youngs Modulus - 200Gp

Wheels in slider

Stainless Steel

Hardness - 130-151 GPa


Fatigue Strength max 753
MPa

Wall mounts

Stainless Steel

Fatigue Strength max 753


MPa
Hardness
Sheer Modulus(Ability to
undergo stress from mass or
movements) - 74-84 GPa
Youngs Modulus - 200Gp

Plant pot

ABS

Shears modulus 0.3 1


GPa
Fatigue Strength 11-21
MPs

suitable for the size


of the component in
hand.

Alternate Material
Pine Does not achieve as
high quality
Plywood is a durable
materials suitable for
outside situations but does
not give off quality.
Pine Does not achieve as
high quality finish
Plywood - durable
materials suitable for
outside situations but does
not give off quality.
High Carbon Steel
Titanium Would be
perfect for the job in hand
but is too expensive to be
considered

High Carbon Steel


Titanium Would be
perfect for the job in hand
but is too expensive to be
considered
High Carbon Steel
Titanium Would be
perfect for the job in hand
but is too expensive to be
considered

Polyethylene Is not
strong enough to hold a
large load.

Hardness 5.6 15.3 HV


Tensile Strength 27.6
55.5 MPa
Connector shelve

Stainless Steel

Fatigue Strength max 753


MPa
Hardness - 130-151 GPa
Sheer Modulus (Ability to
undergo stress from mass or
movements) - 74-84 GPa
Youngs Modulus - 200Gp

High Carbon Steel


Titanium Would be
perfect for the job in hand
but is too expensive to be
considered