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PSC BULLETIN SILVER JUBILEE SPECIAL ISSUE -2014


website: www.keralapsc.gov.in

1
e-mail:kpsc@keralapsc.org

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KERALA
KERALAPUBLIC
PUBLICSERVICE
SERVICECOMMISSION
COMMISSION
CHAIRMAN
CHAIRMAN

DR.DR.
K.S.K.S.
RADHAKRISHNAN
RADHAKRISHNAN
MEMBERS
MEMBERS

SMT.
SMT.
P. JAMEELA
P. JAMEELA
SMT.
SMT.
K.K.
K.K.
REMANI
REMANI
SHRI.
SHRI.
U. U.
SURESH
SURESH
KUMAR
KUMAR
PROF.(DR.)
PROF.(DR.)
GRESAMMA
GRESAMMA
MATHEW
MATHEW
SHRI.
SHRI.
A.V.A.V.
VALLABHAN
VALLABHAN
PROF.
PROF.
N. N.
SELVARAJ
SELVARAJ
DR.DR.
P. MOHANDAS
P. MOHANDAS
SHRI.
SHRI.
K. K.
PREMARAJAN
PREMARAJAN
SHRI.
SHRI.
ASOKAN
ASOKAN
CHARUVIL
CHARUVIL
ADV.
ADV.
M.K.
M.K.
SAKEER
SAKEER
DR.DR.
K. K.
USHA
USHA
ADV.
ADV.
V.T.V.T.
THOMAS
THOMAS
DR.DR.
M.K.
M.K.
JEEVAN
JEEVAN
ADV.
ADV.
V.S.V.S.
HARINDRANATH
HARINDRANATH
SHRI.
SHRI.
P. SIVADASAN
P. SIVADASAN
SHRI.
SHRI.
T.T.T.T.
ISMAIL
ISMAIL
SMT.
SMT.
SIMMY
SIMMY
ROSEBELL
ROSEBELL
JOHN
JOHN
ADV.
ADV.
E. E.
RAVINDRANATHAN
RAVINDRANATHAN
ADV.
ADV.
S. S.
SHINE
SHINE
PROF.
PROF.
P.A.P.A.
KOCHUTHRESIA
KOCHUTHRESIA
SECRETARY
SECRETARY

SHRI.
SHRI.
P.C.P.C.
BINOY
BINOY

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PSC BULLETIN

SILVER JUBILEE SPECIAL ISSUE -2014


EDITORIAL BOARD
CHAIRMAN
Shri. Asokan Charuvil, Member, KPSC
MEMBERS
Dr. K. Usha, Member, KPSC
Dr. M.K. Jeevan, Member, KPSC
Adv. V.S. Harindranath, Member, KPSC
Shri. P. Sivadasan, Member, KPSC
ADVISORS (SPECIAL ISSUE)
Shri. P.C. Binoy, Secretary, KPSC.
Shri. Saju George, Controller of Examinations, KPSC
Shri. S. Vijayadas, Additional Secretary, KPSC
Smt. J. Henreetha Dores, Joint Secretary, KPSC
CREATIVE HEAD (SPECIAL ISSUE)
Shri. N. Sandeep, Public Relations Officer
TEAM MEMBERS (SPECIAL ISSUE)
Shri. K. Sebastin
Shri. R.C. Suresh Kumar
Shri. R. Pradeep Kumar
Shri. D.Santhosh Kumar
Shri. V. Anil Kumar
Shri. B.S. Jyothi
Shri. B. Rajesh Kumar
Shri. C. Vijayakumaran Pillai
LAYOUT
Shri. S.R. Rajagopal
Shri. N.T. Sajeev
PHOTOS
Shri. N. K. Chatterjee
EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY
P. C. BINOY,
Secretary, Kerala Public Service Commission
SECOND EDITION : September 2014
COVER DESIGN & PRINTING
Akshara Offset, Thriuvananthapuram

Rights reserved: No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
means, without prior written permission of the publisher.

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Price: 100

NIKHIL
NIKHILKUMAR
KUMAR

RAJ
RAJBHAVAN
BHAVAN
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM-695099
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM-695099

GOVERNOR
GOVERNOR
OFOF
KERALA
KERALA

3 3December
December2013
2013

MESSAGE
MESSAGE
It Itisisgood
goodtotoknow
knowthat
thatthe
theKerala
KeralaPublic
Public
Service
ServiceCommission
Commission(KPSC)
(KPSC)intends
intendstotobring
bring
out
outa aspecial
specialedition
editionofofthe
thePSC
PSCBulletin
Bulletininin
January
January2014
2014highlighting
highlightingitsitsfunctioning
functioningand
and
procedures.
procedures.The
TheBulletin
Bulletinpublishes
publishes20,000
20,000
information
copies
copiesevery
everyfortnight
fortnightwith
withinformation
regarding
regardingjob
jobopportunities
opportunitiesininGovernment
Government
and
andPublic
PublicSector
SectorUndertakings.
Undertakings.
I wish
I wishthe
thespecial
specialissue
issueofofthe
thePSC
PSCBulletin
Bulletin
allallsuccess.
success.

(Nikhil
(NikhilKumar)
Kumar)
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FORMER
FORMER
CHAIRMEN
CHAIRMEN
V.K.
V.K.
VELAYUDHAN
VELAYUDHAN
(1956-62)
(1956-62)

P. P.
MARIYAR
MARIYAR
PUTHAM
PUTHAM
(1963-67)
(1963-67)

M.K.
M.K.
KUMARAN
KUMARAN
(1972-75)
(1972-75)

T.M.
T.M.
SAVANKUTTY
SAVANKUTTY
(1975(1975-8I)8I)

M.K.
M.K.
HEMACHANDRAN
HEMACHANDRAN
(1981-84)
(1981-84)

K.K.G.G.ADIYODI
ADIYODI
(1984)
(1984)

Prof.
Prof.
GOPALAKRISHNA
GOPALAKRISHNA
KURUP
KURUP
(1985-91)
(1985-91)

R.R.CHANDRASEKHARAN
CHANDRASEKHARANNAIR
NAIR
(1991-95)
(1991-95)

G.G.GOPALAKRISHNA
GOPALAKRISHNAPILLAI
PILLAI
(1996-2000)
(1996-2000)

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(2006-2011)

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DR.
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26

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FmcoXn-bn-epap {Ia-t-Sn-\p ]gp-X-S-bpIbpw sNpp.
hnh-cW
-- m-I coXn-bn-ep ]co--Iv
cPn- \ tcJ-s-Sp-nb `mKw th-s]-Spnbtijw D-c--S-em-kn ^mkv \-cnv tI{o-IrX aqe-y\
- nbamWv \S-p-X
- v. H.Fw.-B ]co--Iv I-yq- aqe-y-\n-bamWv \S-p--Xv.
7. D-c-kqNnI H_vP-IvSohv amXr-I-bn-ep
]co-I
- \Sv Znh-k
- Iw Xs Dc-kq-NnI ]n.-F-kv.-kn. sh_vsskn {]kn-oI-cn-p-p. D-c- kw_-nv ]com
It{Sm-fv e`n-p ]cm-XnIfpw \nt-ifpw hnZ-Kv[s
- c-smv ]cntim-[n-n-p-Ibpw
t`Z-KXnI Bh-i-y-ap ]w Ah hcp-pIbpw sNbvX tijw am{X-amWv D-c--S-emkp-I aqe-y-\nbw \-S-p--Xv.
8. Npcp---nI Xm-dm- Hmtcm XkvXnI-bp-sSbpw Npcp---n-I-bn Ds-Sp-t
DtZym-Kmn-I-fpsS Fw Io-j \n-bnp-p. Cu F-ns ASn-m-\-n
enn Ds-Sp-p--Xn-\m-h-i-y-amb Ghpw
Ipd amv Xocp-am-\n-p-p. tPmen-bpsS
kz-`mhw, {]m[m-\y- w Fnh ]cn-KW
- n-m-Wv sXc-s-Sp-p- am-\-ZWvUw \n-bn-p--Xv. sXcs-Spp {]{In-b-bpsS `mK-ambn {]mtbm-KnI
]co-tbm Ch-yqthm \S-t-X
- p-s-n
Bh-iy- a
- p Fw DtZ-yK
- mn-Isf Fgp-p]-co-b
- psS amns ASn-m-\
- n DsSpn Npcp-
- - nI Xm-dmn {]kn-o-Ic
- n-pIbpw AXn Ds-Sp-h
- sc {]mtbm-KnI ]cobvtm A`n-ap-J-nt\m hnfn-p-I-bp-amWv
sNp-X
- .v Chyq \S-m XkvXn-II
- v
Fgp-p-]-co--bpsS amns ASn-m-\n km[yX ]nI {]kn-o-Ic
- n-p-p. DtZymKmn t\cnv lmP-cmbn kn-^n-v ]cn-tim[-\bvv hnt[-b-am-t--Xm-Wv. XpSv dmv
env Xm-dm-p-Ibpw AX-\p-k-cnv kwh-c-WX-X-z- ]men-p-sImv \nb-a\ in]mi
\Ip-Ibpw sNp-p.
9. Imbn-I--aXm ]co--I {]Xo-n-p
Hgn-hp-IfpsS ASn-m-\-n, ]-co-bvv
tijw Xm-dm-p Npcp-
- - n-Ib
- n Ds
\nnX Fw DtZ-ym-Kmn-Is
- f-bmWv Imbn-I-aX
- bvv ]s-Sp-n-p-X
- .v CXn-\mbn kwLSn- np t_mUn ]n.- F - k v . - k n. bnse

tI-c-f ]-n-Iv ko- k v I- o- j - s


kp-{]-[m-\ Np-h-Sp-hbv-]m-bn B-Zy
Hm- s se ]- c o 2013 sk-]v-Xw_ 7 \v sI.sI.---F-kv.- --B.B.--- S n.-- k n. bn- s e
A- k n- v F-n\o-b (kv-s]-jy
dn-{Iq-s
v- a v) X-kX
v- nI-bn-te-v th-n
\-S-p-I-bp-m-bn.

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

31

Db DtZ-ym-K
- \
- m-bn-cnpw sNbam. t]meokv hIpnse Hcp DX DtZym-K-, Hcp ^nkn- FU-yq-tj A[-ym-]-I Fn-h AwK--fm-bn-cn-pw. \n-nX
imco-cnI Af-hp-I Df-fh
- sc am{Xta Imbn-I-aXm ]co-bn ]s-Sp-m A\p-h-Zn-p-I-bp-p. hnm-]\
{]Imcw \njvIjn-n-p \ne-hmcw Imbn-I-aXm ]co-bn ]pep-h
- sc sXc-s-Sp-ns ASp Ln--tev ]cn-KW
- n-p-p. Imbn-a
- Xm ]co-, tbmKyX
\n-bn- am{X-am-Wv. AXn\v {]tX-yIw amv \Ip-X. Pb-]c
- m-Pb
-
- tcJ-s-Sp-p-Ib
- mWv sNp-X
- v.
10. Chyq Npcp---n-I-bn Ds-Sp--hsc am{Xta
Ch-yq-hn\v Wn-p-I-bp-p. Fgp-p-]-co--bpsS
amns Ccp-]Xp iX-am-\-ambn Ch-yq- amv \nP-sSp-n-bn-cn-p-p. Fgp-p-]c
- o-b
- n-msX Chyq am{Xw
\S-p A]qw sXc-s-Sp-p-I Dm-Im-dp-.v At]-Ic
- psS Fw hfsc Ipd-hm-bn-cn-p-h
- b
- psS Imc-y
- nemWv Cs\ sNp--Xv. IpdXv cv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
AwK-, _s hIp-ns/m]-\
- ns ta[m-hn,
AtX hnj-b--fn-ep hnZ-Kv[ Fn-h Ds--XmWv
Chyq t_mUv . ]n.- F - k v . - k n. AwK- a m- b n- c - n pw
t_mUns sNbam.
11. dmv enns Imem-h[n km[m-cW KXn-bn Hcp
dmv env {]m_-e-y-n hcp XobXn apX Ghpw
Ipd-Xv Hcp hj-hpw, Ghpw IqSn-bXv aqv hjhpw
\ne-hn-en-cn-p--Xm-Wv. Fm Hcp hjn-\p-tijw
AtX XkvXn-Ib
- n Hcp ]pXnb dmv env {]kn-o-Icns-Sp-Ibm-sW-n B XobXn apX ]gb dmv enn\v
{]m_-e-y-ap-m-bn-cn-p--X-. tPmen-bn {]thin-p-Xn\v ap]v s{Sbn-\nwKv \n_--am-bn-p XkvXnI-bn-tep dmv enp-Iv Ah {]m_-ey-
- n hcp XobXn
apX Hcp hjtam AYhm Hcp hj-n-\Iw dmv
enn \npw Ah-km-\-ambn ]cn-io-e-\-n-\mbn sXcs-Sp-s
- -Sp-c
- psS ]cn-io-e\w XpS-p XobXn apX
Hcp amktam GXmtWm Ah-km-\-ambn hcp--Xv AXp-hsc-bm-bn-cn-pw {]m_-eyw. Hcp dmv enkvn \npw, sabn
enn-ep Fm DtZ-ym-Kmn-I-sfbpw \nb-a-\-n-\mbn
in]mi sNbvXp-Ig
- n-m {]kvXpX enns Imem-h[n
Atm Ah-km-\n-p-X
- m-bn-cn-pw. Hcp dmv env \nehn-en-cn-p-tm FgpXn Adn-bn-p Fm Hgn-hp-I-fntepw B enn \np \nb-a\w \S-p--Xm-Wv. dmv
enns Imem-h-[n-p-n dntmv sNbvX Hgn-hp-I-fntebvv Imem-h[n Ign-mepw AtX dmv enn \npXs \nb-a\ in]mi \Ipw.
12. \nb-a\ in]mi kwh-cW kap-Zm-b
- v km
ko-kn Al-amb {]mXn-\n[yw Dd-m-m \n-bnp sdmt-j Nmv {]Imcw, Hgn-hp-I dntmv sNp
apdbvv dmv enn \n-pw \nb-a\ in]mi sNp-p.
kwm-\s hnhn[ kwh-cW kap-Zm-b
- sf ]Xn-s\mv
D]-hn-`m-K--fmbn Xncn-mWv tSWpI \n-bn-n-cn-p-Xv. emv t{KUv XkvXn-I-Ipw CXc XkvXn-I-Ipw
hy-XykvX sdmt-j Nm-p-I-fmWv \S-m-n-bn-p--Xv.
tIcf tv B v kt_mUnt\v kokv dqknse 14
apX 17 hsc-bp N-p hnt[-b-ambn kwh-c-W-XX-z- Ii-\-am-bn-]m-en-p-sIm-mWv \nb-a\ in]mi
\S-p-X
- v.
13. \nb-a\ BUnv 2010 Unkw-_ 14 \ptijw ]n.-Fkv.-kn. hgn \nb-a\w e`n-p DtZ-ym-Kmn-Isf kw_n hnh-c- BUnv sNp kwhn-[m\w \S-m-nbn-p-v. CXn-\mbn \nb-a\ in]mi \Inb ]n.-F-kv.kn. B^o-kn DtZ-ym-Kmn t\-cnv lmP-cm-tI--Xm-Wv.
]n.-Fk
- v.k
- n. \nb-a\ in]mi \Inb B Xs-bmtWm
DtZ-ym-K-n {]th-in-Xv Fp Dd-p-h-cpn kn-^nv \Ip-p. Cu ]cn-tim-[\ Ign-m am{Xta DtZymKmn-I-fpsS s{]mt_-j Un-b sNp-I-bp-p.

32

14. Unmvsa sSv km ko-kn {]th-inp--h-cpsS s{]mt_-j Un-b sNp--Xn\pw m\- b w e`n- p- - X n\pw Ah- i yw ]mm- b n- c n- t
Unmvsa v ]co-I
- Fm hjhpw cp XhW hoXw
P\p-h-cn, Pqsse amk--fn \S-n-h-cp-p. 92 t]-dpIp Cu ]co- - I v e- Z - z o- ] nse Ih- c n
DssS 56 ]com tI{--fm-Wp-Xv. CXp IqSmsX
Pq\n-b sF.-F.-Fk
- ,v sF.-]n.-Fk
- ,v sF.-F^
- ,v F
- kv saamp- sSv, tIcf {Inan-\ PpUo-jy- sSv, ^v t{KUv
{Um^vvkvam--slUv {Um^vvkv-am, ^v t{KUv ktb, slUv kt-b, eoK Akn- v, Unhn-j-W
Au- v Fn-hm-bp kvs]j-y sSp-I Fnhbpw \S-n-h-cp-p.
15. Unmvsa s{]mtam-j In-n-I km
Poh-\-mv m\--bw \Ip-Xv Unmvsa
s{]mtam-j In-n-I tbmKw tNv kokv tcJ-I
]cn-tim-[nv tbmK-yX \n-bnv Xm-dm-p skeIvSv env
{]Im-c-am-Wv. ]n.-F-kv.-kn. sNbamt\m Atlw \nt-inp ]n.-F-kv.-kn. AwKtam BWv Cu In-n-bpsS A[-y. hIpv ta[m-hntbm _-s Khsa v sk{I-dntbm BWv Iho-\.
16. hnPn-ekv hn`mKw Agn-aX
- n-bp-sStbm {Iat-Sn-stbm
kz-`m-ha
- p kw`-h
- f
- p-m-bm ^e-{]-Za
- mb At\-zj
- W
- hpw
i-amb \S-]S- n-Ifpw ssIsm-p-X
- n\v Io-js\ klmbn-p kwhn-[m-\a
- mWv Io-js hnPn-ekv B v skIyq-cnn hn`m-Kw. t]meokv hIp-nse Hcp DX DtZ-ym-K-\mWv CXns Xe-h.
17. FI-z-bdn hn`mKw DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv th hnh-c \Ip--Xn\pw Ah-cpsS kwi-b- Zqcn-I-cn-p-Xn-\pambn cmhnse Fp aWnapX sshIp-tcw Bdp aWnhsc XpSbmbn Io-js Bm\ B^o-kn FI-zbdn hn`mKw {]hn-p-p. Pnm--ta-Jem B^o-kp-Ifn B^okv ka-bv FIz-bdn hn`m-K-ns tkh\w
e`-y-am-Wv. DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv ]n.-F-kv.kn sbp-dn-p
IqSp-X hnh-c
- e`-ya
- m-p-X
- n-\mbn ]nIv dnte-jkv
bqWn-pw {]hn-p-p.
18. ]n.-F-kv.-kn. _p-n Io-js HutZym-KnI {]kno-I-c-W-amb ]n.-Fkv.-kn. _p-n Fm amkhpw Hv,
15 Xob-Xn-I-fn {]kn-o-I-cn-p-h-cp-p. sXmgn-h-e-kc Adnbn-p-I, ]com Ie-, tjmv enp-I, dmv enpI XpS-n-b-hbvv ]pdsa sXmgnhn-m-\ ]wn-Ifpw
CXn Ds-Sp-n-bn-cn-p-p.
19. tIm sk - - ]n.-F-kv.-kn. bpambn _-s Imc-y-fpsS At\-z-j-W-pw kwib\nhm-c-W-n-\p-am-bn
cmhnse Fp-aWn apX cm{Xn Fp-aWn hsc Im sk
kw-hn-[m\w ]n.-F-kv.-kn. Bm\ B^o-kn {]hnp-p-v. kwm-\n-\I
- pw ]pdpw \np-ambn {]XnZn\w Bbn-c
- W
-
- n\p t] Im sk-dns tkh\w {]tbmP-\sS-pnhcp-p. 0471 2554000 BWv Im sk-dns
\.
20. ]n.-F-kv.-kn. sh_vsskv 2003 sk]vw-_ Hn\v
\ne-hn h Io-js HutZym-KnI sh_vssk-mb
www.keralapsc.gov.in eqsS Io-j\
- p-ambn _-s Fm
hnh-c
- fpw temI-ns GXp tImWn \npw ka-{K-ambpw
kX-z-c-ambpw Adn-bm Ign-bpp.
21. hmjnI dntmv Io-js {]h\w kw_n hmjnI dntmv Hmtcm hjhpw Pqsse ]Xn-\-n\Iw Xm-dm-p-Ibpw Khv kan-p-Ibpw sNpp. {]kvXpX dntmn Io-js GsX-nepw D]tZiw
Kh-sa v \ncm-I-cn-n-p-s-n AXn-s\-p-dn-p ]cmaihpw Ds-Sp-p-p. Cu dntmv Io-js D]-tZ-in \nv hy-Xn-N-en-m-\p km-cns hni-Zo-I-cWw
klnXw \nb-ak
- `
- b
- n hbvt-X
- m-Wv.

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

dmv enn\pw AssU-zk


- n-\p-an-Sb
- n
_n. {]Zo]v
tPmbn v sk{I-dn
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
cp XkvXn-I
- mbn Io-js\ Adn-bn-np Hgn-hp-Iv \nb-a\ in]mi
sNm-\mbn sdmt-j Xm-dm-m XpSp-Xv B XkvXn-I-m-bp dmven-ns
{]kn-o-I-c-W-n\v tij-am-Wv. tIcf tv
B v kt_mUnt\v kokv dqknse
]mv cv P\-d dqkv 14 apX 17 hscbp N-f
- n \njvIjn-n-p hy-h
- I
-
IWn- i - a mbn ]men- p- s Im- mWv Io- j
AssU-zkv env Xmdm-p--Xv. Hmtcm kwhcW hn`m-K-n-sbpw Dugw Ftm-gs Fv
hy--amnsmp \qdv Dug--fpsS Hcp
]nI (Rotation Chart) emv t{KUv ko-kn
Dsm- f - f n- n- p Xkv X n- I - I mbpw
Am XkvXn-I-Imbpw shtsd \ne-hnep-v. Cu Ccp Nmp-I-fnepw 50 Dug- H.kn. (Open Contest) hn`m-K-n\pw _mn 50
Dug- kwh-cW hn`m-K
- p-ambn amn-shn-p-v. 1, 3, 5 XpSn Fm H kwJy Dugfpw H.-kn. hn`m-K-n-\p--Xm-Wv. AXpt]mse 2, 4, 6, XpS-nb Fm Cc kwJy
Dug-fpw kwh-cW hn`m-K-p--Xm-Wv.
dmv enn \nv Dug- Hsm-mbn \nIn-bm Cu {]{Inb hfsc efn-X-amWv Fv
tXmmw. Fm IqSp-X Ah-kc Xpe-yXbpw \oXnbpw Dd-m-m-\mbn ap Nne hy-h-I IqSn sdmt-j \nb-a--fn Dsmn-n-p-v. KS & SSR Rule 14 apX 17 hscbp N-v IqSpX kv]jvSo-I-cWw
\In-smv Cd-n-bn-p km D-chp-Ifpw CXp-ambn _-sv Dm-bn-p
tImSXn hn[n-Ifpw Hs tNmWv Cp
sdmt-j \nb-a- cq]-s--Xv.
sdmt-j Hcp XpS {]{Inb BWv. AXmbXv Hmtcm XkvXn-Ibvpw ]pXnb dmvenv
hcp-tm, Ign dmv env Ah-km-\n Ln sdmt-j FhnsS \ntm AXns
XpS-bm-bn-m-bn-cn-pw ]pXnb dmv enns
sdmt-j Bcw`n-p-I. Ign dmv enns
Imep hp IqSnb IpSn- i nI Dug-
(Pending turns) ]pXnb dmv enns sdmtj-\n hom-\p--Xm-Wv. F.-sP.-Un, Sn.-]n.-H,
F.-kn.F Fn-hb
- mWv {][m-\s
- IpSn-inI
Dug-. C\n FmWv Cu IpSn-inI Fv
t\mmw.
Io-j \nb-a-\-n-\mbn in]mi sNs-b
- m GsX-nepw Imc-W
- m tPmen-bn
{]th-in-n Fn-cn-s
- . AXp-aq-ea
- p-m-Ip
Hgn-hns\ Not Joined Duty Vacancy (NJD)

Fp ]d-bp-p. tPmenv lmP-cm-Im--bm


\nb-a\ in]mi sN-s AtX Dug-n
Xs-bm-bn-cn-pw. ]I-c-m-cs\ NJD Hgn-hn
\nb-a\ in]mi sNp--Xv. IpSn-inI Dug-fn Ghpw apK-W\ \I-s-Sp-Xpw
NJD mWv.
kwh-cW
--
- ns tXmXv 50% ne-[n-Ia
- m-ImXn- c n- m Nne Ah- k - c - - f n kwh- c W
Du-g-sf Xmm-en-I-ambn amn-sh-m-dp-v.
50% n\-Ip \np-s-Imv kwhcW Dugw
\nI-m Inp Ghpw ASp Ah-k-cn Xs Cs\ amn-sh-- kwh-cW
Dug- \nI--s-Sp--Xm-Wv. CXn-s\-bmWv
Sn.-]n.H (Temporarily Passed Over) Fv ]d-bp-X.v
Hcp kwh-cW Dugw \nI--s-Sp kabv B hn`m-K-ns Bcpw Xs dmv
enn CmsX hm sdmt-j Nmnse
sXm-Sp kwh-cW hn`m-K
- n\v B Dugw ISambn ssIamdp coXn ap]p-m-bn-cp-p.
]pXnb dmv env \ne-hn hcptm Cu
A[nI t\w ssIh-cn hn`mKw \jvSs
- hn`mK-n\v XncnsI \I-Ws
- a hy-h
- b
- n-emWv
Cu ISw. CXn-s\-bmWv F.-kn.F. Fv ]dbp-X
- v. Fm km G.O.(P) 7/2006/P &
ARD dated 08-03-2006 D-chv {]Imcw Cu
\nb-a-v t`Z-KXn hcpn Cu k{-Zmbw
Ah-km-\n-n-p. GsX-nepw Hcp kwh-cW
Dugw \nI-t ka-bv B hn`m-K
- ns Bcpw Xs dmv enn Cm--]w B
Dughpw Hgnhpw \nI-msX Hgn-n tijw B
Hgn- h n- t ev B hn`m- K - mv am{X- a mbn
hnm-]\w (NCA hnm-]\w) ]pd-sSphn-pI F-XmWv Ctm-gs coXn. ]nI
PmXnmcpsS Dug-f
- n Ah-cpsS A`m-h
- n
]n-IhK-n\pw Xncnpw ssIam-dm Cu
\nbaw XS-k-am-Ip-n-. apIm-e--fn-ep-mbn-p F.-kn.F. IpSn-inI-I XncnsI hot-XmWv Fv ]pXnb \nb-a
- n hy-h
s
- NbvXn-p-v.
Hcp ]pXnb dmv env \ne-hn h tijw
Hgn-hp-I \nI-p-tm Ign dmvenv
Ah-km-\n--Xp-ap-X dmvenv \ne-hn hcpXp hsc-bp Ime-b-f-hn Io-js\ Adnbn-n-p Hgn-hp-I Hcp-anp tNmWv sdmtj Xm-dm-p-X
- .v BZyw IpSn-inI NJD Dug \nI-pw, NJD Dug-sf Dug--fpsS
kwJ-ym-{I-a
- n ASpnb tij-amWv \nI-p-

sdm-t-j H-cp XpS {]-{In-b B-Wv.


A-Xm-X-b-Xv Hm-tcm
X-kv-Xn-I-bv-pw ]pXn-b dm-v-en-v hcp-tm, I-gn-
dm-v en-v A-h-km\n- L- - n
sdm-t-j F-hn-sS
\n- t m A- X n- s
Xp-S--bm-bn-m-bncn-pw ]p-Xn-b dmv en-n-s sdm-tj B-cw-`n-p-I.
I-gn- dm-v enn- s Im- e - p
h-p Iq-Sn-b Ip-Snin-I Du-g- ]pXn-b dm-v en-n-s
sdm-t-j\
- n ho-m\p--Xm-Wv.

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

33

-Xv. AXn-\p-ti-j-amWv ]pXnb sdmt-j


Bcw-`n-p-I. 20 Dug- Dsm-n-p-sImp bqWn- pI- f m- b n- m- b n- c npw ]pXnb
HgnhpI (Fresh Vacancies) mbn ]pXnb
sdmt-j Fgp-Xp-I. Hcp bqWn-nse 20 Dugfn 10 Fw OC hn`m-K-n\pw _mn 10
Fw kwh-cW hn`m-K
- n-\p-am-bn-cn-pw. bqWnnse OC Dug--fmIpw BZyw \nI-sSp-I.
dmv enn Ah-tijn-n-p--h-cn Ghpw
anI dmv D-h-sc-bmWv H.-kn. Dug--fn
]cn-K-Wn-p--Xv. kwh-cW B\p-Iq-eyaphpw H.-kn. Dug--fn ]cn-K-Wn--s-Sm
XS-k-sam-p-an-. AXn-\p-ti-j-amWv kwh-cW
Dug- \n-I--s-Sp--Xv. Hmtcm kwh-cW
Dugw \nI-p-tmgpw B hn`mKw ap]v NCA
B\p-Iq-eyw ]n-bn-p-s-n AXv NCA aqew
\jvSw kw`-hn hn`m-K-n\v XncnsI \Im\ptm Fv ]cn-tim-[npw 20 Dug-fpw
\nI-n-bt- ijw ASp bqWn-n-tev IS-pw.
Fm Hgn-hp-Ifpw \nI-n-b-tijw OC Dug-fn kwh-cW B\p-Iq-e-y-ap--h Ib-dn-bn-p-

s-n kwh-cW Dug--fnepw OC Dug--fnep-ap B hn`m-K-m-cpsS m\w dmv ASnm\n ]p\:-{I-ao-I-cn-pw.


3% hnIemwK kwhcWw km[-ya
- mb XkvXnI-I-fn AXn-\mbv Hgn-hp-Iv {Ia-\-
\In-bmWv sdmt-j Xm-dm-p-Xv. {Ia
\ 33 ImgvN-p-d-hp--hpw 66 tIhnp-d-hp--hpw 99 Ne\ tijn Ipd-hp-hpw (Locomotor disability) Bbn kwhcWw sNbvXn-p--Xm-Wv. Cu {Ia-\--cp-I-fn
dmven-n-t\m-sSmw hnI-emw-Kmbn {]tX-yI-ambn Xm-dm-nb enn-ep-h
- sc am{Xta ]cnK-Wn-p-I-bp-p. PmXn kw-h-cWw ]men-
hnI- e mw- K m- b p {Ia- \ - - d p- I - f n
DtZymKmn-Isf Dsm-n-p-X
- v.
-sdmt-j Xm-dm-nb {Ia-n Xs
\nb-a\ in]mi ]n-I-bmbn \nb-a\ A[n-Icnv ssIam-dpw. \nb-a\ in]mi sN-s--hcpsS ko\n-tbm-dn-nbpw Advice List - se apKW\m {Ia-n-em-bn-cn-pw.

ARCHIVES

H-cp bq-Wn-n-se
20 Du- g - - f n
10 F- w OC
hn- ` m- K - n- \ pw
_m-n 10 Fw kw- h - c - W
hn-`m-K-n-\p-ambn- c n- pw. bqWn-se OC Dug- - f m- I pw BZyw \n-I--sSp- I . dm- v enn A- h - t ijn-n-p--hcn G--hpw anI- dm- v D- h- s c- b m- W v H.kn. Du-g--fn
]- c n- K - W n- p- Xv.

34

AUo-j-W No^v sk{I-dn {io.F-kv.-\m-cm-b-W-kzm-anv Hcp {]Xn


\In-smv apJy-a{n {io. sI.I-cp-Wm-I-c ]n.-F-kv.kn. _pn\ns BZy- e - - ns {]Imi\w \n-ln-p-p.

1985 \hw-_-dn
{]kn-o-I-cn ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
_p-n\ns
BZy-e--ns Hmw t]Pv

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

]n.-Fk
- v.k
- n. _p-n\ns Ncn{Xw
F. ko]v
]nIv dnte-jkv Hm^o-k
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
gn-he
- k
- c
-
- s
- f-p-dn-v bYm-ka
- bw
Adn- b phm\pw a- c - - c o- Ip Xm-sd-Sp-phm\pw klmb-Ic
- a
- mb coXn-bn \nc-h[n {]k-n
- o-Ic
- W
-
-
Cv \psS kwm-\-p-v. ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
kw_--amb hnh-c- DtZ-y-mKmn-Iv
\Im kz-a
- mbn sh_vsskpw ]n.-Fk
- v.k
- np-v. FXp hnh-chpw sRmSn-bn-S-bvp-n
Adn-bm Hcp aukvnv am{Xw aXn. Fm,
hnhckmtXnIhnZ-y-bpsS B`n-ap-J-y-n-ep
Cu hnhw Ac-t-dp-X
- n-\p-apv DtZ-ym-KmnIv sXmgn-eh
- k
- c
-
- s
- f-p-dnv Adn-bm-\p
am-K- km Kkpw ]{X--c-k-yhpw ]n.F-kv.-kn. FI-z-bdn kwhn-[m-\hpw am{X-am-bncp-p. ]n.-F-kv.kn dmv enn t]cptm
F- d n- b p- - X n\v ]n.- F - k v . - k n. Bm- \ ttm PnmHm^o-kp-If
- n-tetm Gsd Zqcw
kcntn hn-cp Hcp Xe-apd \psS
\mn-ep-m-bn-cpp F Imcyw C-s bphP-\
- v hnkvab
- a
- m-W.v Av B Xe-apd A\p`-hn _pn-ap-p-I-v AdpXn hcp-m-\p A[nIr-Xc
- psS {ia-amWv tIc-f
- nse Icn-b {]kn-oI- c - W - - f psS A{K- K m- a n- b mb ]n.- F - k v . kn. _p-n-\ns ]nd-hnbvv hgn-sX-fn-X
- .v
cmjv{Sob t\Xm-hv, am[-y-a-{]-h-I Fo
\ne-I-fn hy-n-ap{Z ]Xn-n ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
sa-dm-bn-cp {io. sXaw _meIr-jW
v \
- mWv
]nIv kokv Ioj\v kz--ambn Hcp
HutZ-ym-KnI {]kn-o-I-cWw F Bibw
aptmv hXv. As sNbam-\m-bn-cp
s{]m^. hn.tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW -Ip-dpv AXns\
A\p-Iq-en-p. km-cns A\p-aXn e`n-tXmsS _p-n-\ns BZ-ye
- w {]kn-o-Ir-Xam-bn. 1985 \hw-_ 4 \v Xncp-h-\--]p-cv
bqWn-th-gvknn pU vkv sk-dn hv
As apJ-y-a{n {io. sI.-I-cp-Wm-I-c-\mWv
AUo-j-W No^v sk{I-dn {io. Fkv.-\m-cmb-W-k-zm-anv ]n.-F-kv.-kn. _p-n\ns Hcp
{]Xn \In-smv {]Im-i\ Iw \nln--Xv. 12 t]Pp _p-n\v hne Hcp cq]bm-bn-cp-p (C-tm Ap-cq-]).
]n.-Fk
- v.k
- n. v kz-a
- mbn {]n-m-X
- n\m A-Snv Khsa v {]n-s\-bmWv XpS-n B{i-bn-n-cp-X
- .v Khsa v {]nse
tPmen-n-c
- p-Im-cWw bYm-ka
- bw _p-n
A-Snp Inp-Is
- b-Xv hfsc {iaI-ca
- m-bn-cp-p.
C-s\-sbms _mem-cn-jvSX
- I
- t\cn-tSn
hs-n-epw hmb-\-m-cn \nv Kw`oc hc-

sXm

th]mWv _p-n\v e`n-X


- .v kwm-\
- ns
hnhn[ `mK-f
- n \nv \nc-h[n t] GPknsb-Sp-m aptm-p-h
- t- XmsS sXmgn-eh
- k
- c
- , ]co-,- dmv enkvv, \nb-a\ in]mi XpSn-bh
- sbpdn-p hnh-c
- _pn-ap-p-IqSmsX bYm-ka
- bw DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv e`n-p-XpS-n. hmb-\-m-cpsS Xs Bh-i-y-{]-Imcw
X]m hgn hcn-mv Ab-bvm-\p kwhn[m-\hpw Ime-{I-a
- n Gs-Sp-pI-bp-m-bn.
19921997 Ime-b-f-hn {]kn-o-I-cn-m-Xncp _p-n {io. Pn. tKm]m-e-Ir-jvW-]n
]n.-F-kv.-kn. sNbam-\m-bn-cns 1997 apX
]p\:-{]-kn-o-I-cnp XpS-n. ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
aptJ\ km-cp-tZ-ym-K-v At]-n-phv, {]tX-y-Inv {Kma--fnse km[m-c-Wm-cn \smcp ]n\v ]n.-Fkv.-kn. bpsS
kpXm-c-yamb \S-]-Sn-{I-a--sf-p-dnv hf-sc-b[nIw kwi-b-fpw [mc-W-p-dhpw Dv. AhcpsS kwi-b- \nhm-cWw sNp--Xn\pw
sXmgn t\Sn-sb-Sp-p-X
- n\v klm-bI
- a- mb coXnbn amK-\ntiw \Im\pw ]n.-F-kv.-kn.
_p-n Fpw _{i ]pe-n-bn-p-v.
C-y-bnse ]nIv kokv Io-j-\p-I-fn
tIcf ]n.-F-kv.-kn. v am{X-amWv kz--ambn
HutZ-ym-KnI {]kn-o-Ic
- W
- a
- p-X
- v. tIc-f
- n
km B`n-ap-J-y-n-ep {]kn-o-I-c-W-fn Ghpw {]Nm-c-ap--h-bn-sem-mWv _pn. CsXms Cu {]kn-o-Ic
- W
- s kw_n-n-S-tmfw A`n-am-\ml-am-Wv. DtZ-ymKmn-Iv a-c--co--Iv Xm-sd-Spm klm-b-I-c-amb Xc-n Fm efnepw hnhn[ hnj-b--fn-embn 1000 tNmtZ-ym-c- hoXw {]kn-o-I-cnp t]mcp-Xv
[mcmfw hmb-\
- msc BIjn-p-p-v.
C-y-bn-se-hn-sSbpw ]n.-F-kv.-kn. _pn ssZz-hm-cnI e`n-m kuI-c-y-ap-v. 30
e--fpsS hcn-kw-J-y-bmb \qdp cq] Iojs hnhn[ Hm^o-kp-I-fntem t]mtm-^o-kpI-fntem HSp-mw. tIc-f-n-se-mSpw ]n.-Fkv.-kn. _p-n\n\v GPkn-I-fp-v. Fm
{][m\ _pv mfp-I-fnepw ]n.-F-kv.-kn. _pn e`-y-am-Wv. km-nI em`-n-ep-]cn
tkh\ k--X-bmWv ]e-scbpw ]n.-F-kv.kn
_p-n-\ns GPkn-sb-Sp-
- m t{]cn-Xc
- m-p-Xv. \nch[n DtZym-Kmn Iqm-bvaI
- fpw hmb\- mv _p- n e`- y - a m- p- - X n- \ mbn
GPkn-sb-Spv {]hn-p-h-cp-p-v.

1985 \-h w-_ 4


\v Xn-cp-h-\--]pc-v bq-Wn-th-gvkn-n p-U v-kv
sk- d n h- v
A--s ap-J-y-a{n {io. sI.-Icp- W m- I - c - \ m- W v
A-Uo-j-W
No-^v sk-{I--dn
{io. F-kv.-\m-cmb-W-k-zm-an-v
]n.-F-kv.-kn. _p- n- \ n- s H- c p
{]-Xn \-Insm-v {]-Im-i\ I-w \n-ln--Xv.

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

35

H--hW cPn-kvt{S-j\pw
Hmsse ]cobpw
B.a-t\mPv
knw amt\-P
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-js sh_vssk-n-eqsS Hmsse-\mbn
H--hW cPn-kvt{S-j \S-p--Xn-\p am \nt-i-

o-js HutZ-ym-KnI sh_vssk-mb


www.keralapsc.gov.in eqsS DtZ- y mKmn-Ip H-h
- W cPn-ktv {S-j
\S-m-hp-X
- m-W.v

H--hW cPn-kvt{S-j

Hm-tcm X-h-W At]- k-a-n-ptm- g pw, D- t Z- y mKm-n X-s hyn-K-X, tbm-K-y-X


hn-h-c- B-hn-p tc-J-s-Spt--Xn- a-dn-v
c-Pn-k v-t{S-j-\n
\-In-bn-p- hnh-c
- A-t]-I-v _m-[-I-amIp-I-bm-Wv sN-p-Xv. A-Xp-sImp-X-s c-Pn-kvt{S-j h-f-sc {i-tbm-sS-bm-Wv tcJ-s-Sp-t-X
- v.

36

tI-cf
- ]-n-Iv k-ho-kv I-o-j D-tZ-ym-Kmn-I-m-bn H-cp-n-bn-p- G-IP
- m-eI
- kw-hn[m-\-am-Wv H---h-W c-Pn-kv-t{S-j. H---hW c-Pn-kv-t{S-j 2012 P-\p-h-cn 1 ap-X {]m-_ey-n h-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. I-o-j-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I sh-_s
-v sk-m-b www.keralapsc.gov.in eqsS-bm-Wv D-tZ-ym-Km-n-I h-s
- sSw c-Pn-ktv- {Sj \-S-t--Xv. {]-kv-Xp-X kw-hn-[m-\-n-eqsS-bm-Wv ]n.-F-kv.-kn. hn-m-]-\w ]p-d-s-Sp-hnp- hn-hn-[ X-kv-Xn-I-I-fp-sS A-t]--I DtZym-Km-n-I k-a-n-t-X
- v. Hm-tcm X-hW
A-t]- k-a-n-p-tm-gpw, D-tZ-ym-Km-n Xs hy-n-K-X, tbm-K-y-X hn-h-c- B-h-np tc-Js
- -Sp-t-X
- n-. a-dn-v c-Pn-ktv- {S-j\
- n
\-In-bn-p- hn-hc
-
- A-t]-I
- -v _m-[I-am-Ip-Ib
- m-Wv sN-p-X
- v. A-Xp-sIm-p-Xs
-
c-Pn-kv-t{S-j h-f-sc {i--tbm-sS-bm-Wv tc-J-sSp-t-X
- v. {]-kvX
- p-X kw-hn-[m-\
- n-eq-sS D-tZym-Km-n-I-v \m-fn-Xp-hs
- c k-a-n-n-p- At]-I
- f
- p-sS hn-hn-[ L-
- t\-cn-d
- n-bp-hm-\pw
]-co--I-fp-sS A-Uv-an-j Sn--v/C-hyq satm/Im-bn-I
- a
- X
- m ]-co-b
- p-sS A-Ua
-v n-j Sn-v Xp-S-n-b-h Uu-tem-Uv sN-bv-Xv F-Sp-p-Xn-\pw, ]-s-Sp- ]-co--I-fp-sS ^-ew, Np-cp--n-I, dm-v ]-n-I Xp-S-n-b hn-h-c- A-dnbp-X
- n-\pw km-[n-p- X-c
- n-em-Wv h-s
- sSw
c-Pn-kt-v {S-j cq-]I
- -]\
- sN-bX
-v n-p-X
- .v D-tZymKm-n-I-p- A-dn-bn-p-I c-Pn-kv-t{S-j
s{]m-ss^ h-gn-bpw F-kv.-Fw.-F-kv. eq-sS-bpw
e-`-y-am-p--Xpw Cu kw-hn-[m-\-n-s {]-tX-yI-Xb
- m-W.v
H---h-W c-Pn-kv-t{S-j \-S-p--Xn-\m-bn
]n.-F-kv.-kn. bp-sS Hu-tZ-ym-Kn-I sh-_v-ssk-m-b
www.keralapsc.gov.in se h ssSw c-Pn-kvt{j en-v n-v sN-p-I. A-tm c-Pn-kv-t{Sj \-S-p--Xn-\p- t]-Pv kv-{Io-\n sX-fnbpw. Cu t]-Pn c-v ku-I-c-y--fp-v-.
(A) ]pXp-Xmbn cPn-kvt{S-j sNp-X
- n\v
(B) cPn- sNbv X n- p- - h v Ah- c psS
s{]mss^-en Fp-X
- n\v
(A)) ]pXp-Xmbn cPn- sNp-Xn\v
(1) BZ-ya
- mbn cPn- sNp-h
- Registration

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

(2)
(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(Sign Up) env nv sNp-I.


cPn sNp-X
- n-\p Hmsse t^mw
Atm kv{Io\n sXfnbpw
BZ-ya- mbn DtZ-ym-Kmn-bpsS t^mtm BWv
A]vtemUv sNt-X
- v. AXn-\mbn
150pxX200px hen--n-ep t^mtm
thWw A]vtemUvsNm. kvIm sNbvX
t^mtm-bpsS henw Hcp Imc-Wh
- i
- mepw
30KB bn Ihn-b-cp-Xv. t]cpw t^mtm
FSp Xob-Xnbpw tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-p
t^mtm thWw A]vtemUv sNp-hm.
t]cpw XobXnbpw tcJ-s-Sp-m t^mtmtbmSp IqSn kan-p At]-I
- \ncp]m-[nIw \nc-n-p-X
- m-W.v t^mtm-I Hcp
h-j
- n\Iw FSp-X
- m-bn-cn-W
- w.
C\n 150px X 100px hen-
- n-ep kvIm
sNbvX ssIsbmv A]vtemUvsNWw
CXns hen-hpw 30KB bn Ihn-bc
- p-Xv.
ssIsbmv tcJ-s-Sp-p-X
- n-\p Inbn Xs thWw AXv A]vtemUv sNphm.
DtZ-ym-Kmn-bpsS hy-n-KX hnh-c
- f
- mWv
ASp-X
- mbn tcJ-s-Sp-t-X
- .v Cu Bhi-y
- n-\mbn {]tX-yI In-If
- p-v. t]cpw
P\-\X
- o-bX
- nbpw cp {]mh-iyw hoXw tcJs-Sp-W
- w. cpw Hn-s\mv s]mcp-ap-X
- m-IW
- w. Fn am{Xta I-yq- AXv
kzo-Ic
- n-p-Ib
- p-p.
AXn-\p-tijw enwKw, aXw, PmXn, D]-PmXn, A-tbpw A-bp-tSbpw t]cv, cIm-hns t]cv, _w `mcy/`mhv
Fn-hc
- psS t]cp-I XpS-n-bh tcJ-sSp-W
- w;
ASp-X
- mbn hy-nsb Xncn-d- n-bm klmbn-p AS-bm-f-, tZio-b-X, amXr
kwm-\w, amXr-Pn-, Xmeq-,v h
- n-tPv, ]mbv/ap\n-kn-m-enn/tIm-td-j Fnh
\nnXIn-If
- n icn-bmbn tcJ-s-Sp-Ww. C\n Next _ nv sNp-X
- n\v
ap]v CXp-hsc tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-p Imc-y icn-bmtWm Fv ]cn-tim-[n-m-hp-Xm-Wv. ]cn-tim-[\
- b
- n GsX-nepw Imc-yn hy-Xy- m-ka
- p-s-n AXv Xncp-n-bXn-\p-tijw Next _ nv sNm-hp-Xm-W.v AXn-\p-tijw ID Proof sXc-s-Spv AXns\ tcJ-s-Sp-p-I. (I-oj AwKo-Ic
- n-n-p GsX-nepw ID Proof

sXc-s-Sp-m-hp-X
- m-W.v Cu tc-Jb
- m-bn-cnWw DtZ-ym-Kmn ]co/{]amW]cn-tim[\ Fn-hbvv lmP-cm-t-X
- .v )
(8) Atm nc tahn-emkw, Ip-I
Ab-t XmXvIm-enI tahn-emkw
Fnh tcJ-s-Sp-p-X
- n-\p In-I
Zri-ya
- m-Ipw, Ah-bn hop \, hop t]cv,
sXcp-hv, t]mv Hm^o-kv, ]ntIm-Uv, Pn,
Xmeq-v, hnt-Pv, ]m-bv/ap\n-kn-menn/tImtd-j Fnh icn-bmbn tcJs-Sp-t-X
- m-W.v
(9) AXn-\p-tijw DtZ-ym-Kmn-I
- v kzw
C-sa-bn hnem-khpw samss_ \dpw
Dsn AXn\v tcJ-s-Sp-m-hp-X
- m-W.v
samss_ \ \Ip DtZ- y mKmnIp am{Xta Io-js Fkv.F
- w.F-kv. tkh\w e`-ya
- m-Ip-Ib
- p-p.
(10) XpSv ImW-s-Sp kv{Io\n DtZ-ymKmnv Xm--c-y-ap User ID bpw
PasswordDw \I-Ww. bqk sFUn e`yamtWm Atbm Fv Adn-bnv e`-ya
- m-Ipw.
User ID e`-y-a-s-n amn \Ip-Ibpw
thWw. DtZ-ym-Kmn Hmn-cn--hn-[n-ep User ID sXc-s-Sp-pXv A`nIm-ay- a- m-bn-cn-pw. {]kvXpX User ID bpw Password Dw `mhn-bnse ]co-I
- v At]-np--Xn\pw dnkpw ap hnh-c
- fpw Adnbp-Xn\pw hfsc cl-ky kz-`m-ht- msS
kqnv hbvp-hm {]tX-yIw {in-btv -Xm-Wv. XpSp-hc
- p SMS User ID
bpw Password Dw e`-ya
- m-Ipw. (SMS s e`-y
X Ddv hcp-m Ignbn-. SMS e`n-n-snepw login sNm Ign-m DtZ-ym-Kmn
register sNbvXp Fv Dd-p-hc
- p-mw)
(11) ta ]d-n-p hnh-c
- \In Untd-j\
- n ]d-n-p hnh-c
- hmbn-pt\mn AXn-ep t_mIvkn nv ( )
sNbvXv Submit _ nv sNp-tm
cPn-ktv {S-j ]q-am-Ipw. Atm DtZ-ymKmnv login details t]Pv e`-ya
- m-Ipw. Hcp
DtZ-ym-Kmn bmsXmcp Imc-Wh
- i
- mepw Hntesd cPn-kvt{S-j \S-m ]mSp-X
-
- .
( B)) cPn- sNbv X n- p- f - f - h v Ah- c psS
s{]mss^- e n Fp- Xn\v temKn
sNm
cPn- sNbvXn-p DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv
cPn-kvt{S-j t]Pn-eqsS User ID bpw Pass-

word Dw \In kzw t]Pn-tev login


sNm-hp-X
- m-W.v {]kvXpX t]Pn \npw
Registration card env nv sNbvXv kzw
cPn-kvt{S-j ImUv ImWp-hm\pw Printout
FSpv kqn-p-hm\pw Ign-bpw. cPn-kvt{Sj kw_-a
- mb hnh-c
- Xncp-p-Xn-\p kuI-cy- hpw {]kvXpX t]Pn-ep-v.
DtZ-ym-Kmn-I {in-t Imc-y-

A]vtemUv sNp t^mtm-bn t]cpw,


t^mtm FSp Xob-Xnbpw hy-a- mbn tcJs-Sp-n-bn-cn-W
- w. t^mtm-bn t]cpw,
Xob-Xnbpw Cm At]-I
- \ncp-]m[nIw \nc-kn-p-XmWv. t^mtm-I Hcp
h-j
- n\Iw FSp-X
- m-bn-cn-W
- w.

A]vtemUv sNp Ismv hy-a


- m-bn-cn-Ww. t^mtmbpw ssIsmpw hy-amsWpw IrX-y-am-sWpw kv{Io\n
t\mn DtZ-ym-Kmn kzbw t_m[-ys
- -tS-Xm-W.v

]mkvthUv ad-p-t]mb DtZ-yK


- mn-Iv
cPn-kvt{S-j t]Pn-eq-sSbpw Fkv.-Fw.FkveqsSbpw ]mvthUv doskv sNp-hm\p kuI-cy- a
- p-v. bqk sF.-Un. ad-pt]mbm DtZ-yK
- mn-I ASp-p ]n.F-kv.-kn. Hm^o-kp-amtbm Fkv.-Fw.-Fkv
aptJ-\tbm _-s-m e`yam-Ip-X
- m-W.v

Io-js Adn-bn-p-I Fkv.F


- w.-Fk
- v.
Bbn e`np-X
- n\v samss_ \ IrXyambn tcJ-s-Sp-W
- w.

cPn-ktv {S-j \S-n-bX


- n\p tijw tcJ-sSp-n-bn-p hnh-c
- s
- fmw Xs {itbmsS- IrX-ya
- m-sWv Dd-phcp-n-bn-p-thWw
At]-I
- kan-p-hm. At]-I
-
kan-p-X
- n\v apv s{]mss^-ense hnhc- Xncp-p-hm-\p kuI-cyw e`-ya
- m-W.v

Hcp At]-s
- b-nepw kan-p-Ig- n-m
DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv s{]mss^-en Xncp hcp-p-hm km[n-p-Ib
- n. XpSv
Xncp- hcp-p-hm ]n.-Fk
- v.k
- n-b
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Hm^o-kn A-t] \tIXpw Adn-bnv
Inp apdbvv A kn-^n-
- p-ambn
]cn-tim-[\
- bvv lmP-cm-tI-Xp-amWv.

Hcp XkvXn-Ibvv hnm-]\


-
- n Bhi-ys
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H- c p A- t ]- - I sb-n-epw k-a-np- I - g n- m DtZ- y - K m- n- I v s{]m-ss^-en


Xn- c p- h- c pp- h m km- [ np-I-bn-. Xp-Sv Xn-cp- h-cpp-hm ]n.-F-kv.kn- - b p- s S Hm- ^ okn A-t]-
\-tI--Xpw Adn-bn-v In-p- apd-bv-v A-
k- n- ^ n- - p- a mbn ]-cn-tim-[-\-bvv lm-P-cm-tI-Xp-am-Wv.

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

37

m-\p kuI-cyhpw e`-ya


- m-Wv.

DtZ-ym-Kmn Hn-tesd cPn-kvt{S-j \Sm ]mSp-X


-
- .

sXmb hnh-c Hcp Imc-W-h-imepw


tcJ-s-Sp-p-hm ]mSn-.
cPn-kvt{S-j kw_-n IqSp-X hnh-cv ]n.-Fk
- .v k
- n. Call Centre (0471-2554000)ambn _- s - S p- I tbm sh_v s sk- mb
www.keralapsc.gov.in kin-p-Itbm sNmhp-XmWv.
Hm sse ]co- F-s\.
1. sh_vs
- sk-n \n-v Uu-tem-Uv sN-bvsX-Sp- A-Ua
v- n-j Sn-pw I-o-j AwKo-Ic
- n-n-p- Xn-cn-d
- n-b tc-JI
- fn-sem-ns A-e
- p-am-bn \n-n- k-ab
-
- pX-s
]-co-m-tI-{-n lm-Pc
- m-tI-X
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2. Xn-cn-d
- n-b ]cn-tim-[\
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- v \Ip-X
- mWv. C-Xn X-kX
v- n-Ib
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- \-, ko-v \-\, tem-Kn sN-p-Xn-\p- bqk sF-Un, ]m-kv th-Uv Fo hn-hc
-
- D-m-hpw.
3. ]co XpS-p--Xn\v Ac aWn-q
ap]p-Xs DtZ-ym-Kmn-I ]com
tI{-n DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv A\p-hZ- nn-p I-yq-dn\p ap]n m\-ap-dnt-X
- m-W.v
4. Hmsse ]co-b
- psS tNmZ-y
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D-c
- I-yq-d
- n-emWv tcJ-s-Sp-tXv.
5. ]co Bcw-`n-p-X
- n\v Ac aWn-q
ap]v DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv temKn sF.-Un.
bpw ]mkvthUpw \In I-yq-d- n temKn
sNm-hp-X
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6. tem-Kn sNp-X
- n-\mbn kv{Io\n sXfnbp Virtual Keyboard mouse D]-tbmKnv nv sNbvXv thWw bqk sFUnbpw
]mtkhUpw \Ip-hm
7. I-yq-d
- n hnhc-sfbpw tcJ-s-Sp-tXv mouse click eqsS-bmWv computer
keyboard ]co-m-th-fb
- n- bm-sXmcp Ahk-c
- nepw D]-tbm-Kn-p-hm ]mSp-X
-
- .
8. IrX-y-ambn temKn sFUnbpw ]mkv
thUpw \In tem- K n sNbv X p IgnmHmsse ]co-sb kw_-np \nt-i
- Zri-ya
- m-Ipw.
9. Hm sse ]co Bcw-`n-p--Xn\v
app 15 an\nv DtZ- y - m Kmn- I sf
{]kvXpX ]co ]cn-Nb
- s
- -Sp-p-X
- n\p

38

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

10.

11.

12.
13.

14.

15.

16.

thn-bp-X
- m-W.v
{]kvXpX ka-bv Hmsse ]co-bpsS amXr-I-bn DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv
practice sNp-X
- n-\p tNmZ-y
- fpw AXn\p option Ifpw kz-ta
- [
- bm kv{Io\n
Zriy-amIpw. icn-bm-b o- ption click sNbvXv
DtZ-ym-Kmn-Iv D-c
- tcJ-s-Spm-hp-XmWv
Demo ]co-bvv 20 tNmZ-y
- f
- mWv \Inbn-p-X
- v. IrX-ya
- mbn ]co Bcw-`n-p
ka-ba
- m-Ip-tm sUtam ]co Ah-km\n-p-Ibpw kz-ta-[bm bYm ]co
Bcw`n-p-Ibpw sNpw. Atm Xs
DtZym-Kmn-Iv ]co-b
-
v p tNmZy Attend sNbvXv XpS-m-hp-X
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BsI \qdv tNmZ-y
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- v. Hcp ka-bv Hcp tNmZyw
am{Xta kv{Io\n ImWp-hm Ign-bq.
Hmtcm tNmZ-y
- pw \mev option D-c Dm-Ipw. DtZ-ym-Kmn-I
- v icn-sbv
tXmp option button click sNbvXX
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tcJ-s-Sp-m-hp-m-XW
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sNbv X m am{Xta Dcw tcJ- s - S pnbXmbn \n-bn-p-Ib
- p-p. DS Xs
ASp tNmZyw kv{Io\n sXfn-bpw.
kv{Io\ns Xmgv `mK-mbn \qdv tNmZ-y
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ImWphm km[n- pw. Hmtcm tNmZ- y pw Dcw tcJ-s-Sp-p-tm InI-fpsS \ndw\oebmbn a m d p - - X m - W v .
Dcw tcJ-s-Sp-nb tNmZ-y
- t- f-Xm-sWv
In-If
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- m-W.v InI-fn nv sNbvXv GXv tNmZyw thW-san-epw Zri-ya
- m-p-X
- n\pw Dcw tcJ-sSp-p-X
- n\pw tcJ-s-Sp-nb Dcw Xncpp-X
- n-\v km[n-p-X
- m-Wv.
]com kabw Ah-km-\n-p-tm DtZymKmn Dcw tcJ-s-Sp-nb hnh-csfw I-yq- skh-dn kqn-s
- Sp-Ibpw Dcw tcJ-s-Sp-n-bXpw Amp- a mb tNmZy- - f psS \ne- h m- c - - nI
kv{Io\n Zri-ya
- m-Ip-Ibpw sNp-X
- m-W.v
]co-m kabw Ah-km-\n-m DtZ-ymKmn kz-ta-[bm Xs Logout Bp-Xn\m AXn-\p-tijw D-c
- tcJ-sSp-p-X
- nt\m Xncp-p-X
- nt\m D Ahkcw e`np-X
-
- . Bb-Xn-\m ]com
ka-b
- n-\p-n Xs tcJ-s-Sp-e
- p-I
]q-o-Icnt-X
- m-W.v

tIcf ]nIv kokv


Io-j\pw Ncn-{Xhpw
sI.-sk-_m-y
sk Hm^o-k
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
cf ]nIv khokv Iojs
Ncn{Xat\zjnptm
\mw
sNspXv XncphnXmwIq,
sImn
Fo
\mpcmPyfpsSbpw
{_nnjpImcpsS t\cnp `cWnembncp
ae_mdnsbpw CseIfnemWv.
XncphnXmwIqdnse Ncn{X]mew
Ncn{X]mew: {Iao-IrXam-b co-Xn-bn-ep- DtZym-K \n-ba\sn- Nnn- BZy- Xn-cp-hn-Xm-w-Iq- `cWm-[n-Im-cn- A\ngw- Xn-cp-\m- am-m-WU
-v h-abm-W-v . `cWb{whn-]p-eam-bn- ]p-\x-kw-LSn-n- Atlw- hn-hn-[
hIp-p-Ifn-em-bn- \n-ch[n- DtZym-KkvY
- sc \n-banp.- Ghpw- Iq-Sp-X- t] \nbansXv
dh\yq- hIp-n-em-Wv-.- - ssk\n-I-v- ifw]Wam-bn- \-Ip- co-Xn- \Sm-n-b am-mWv-Uh- - ssk\y-tbpw- DtZ-ym-K--scbpw
t\cn-mWv \nb-an-n-cp--Xv. XpSv am-m-WvUh-a-bpsS Zfh cm-as-d kzm-[o-\^eam-bn`cWcw-Kv- \n-ch[n- Xan-gv- {_m-lva
- W- \n-banXcm-bn.- CXv- ]n-m-ev- cm-Py-v- ]e {]iv\fpw- kr-jSv- n-p.tIW atdmbpsS ]cnjvImc
]cnjvImc:
BZyImev XncphnXmwIqdn - DtZym-K\nba\s kw-_\v-[nv- hy-Iv-Xam-b am-\ZWvU Cmbncpp.- hn-Zy-`ym-ktbm-KyXsbmpw- DtZymK\nba\n\v {]kIv-Xambncpn.
cm-Pm-hn-\pw- a{n-pw- CjvS- s Btcbpw- GXptZym-Kn-epw- \n-ban-mw .- am-m-Wv-UhabpsS am{Xa Atlns ]nKmanIfmbncp- [-acm-Pm-hv-,- _m-ecm-ah-a Fn-hcpsS Im-epw- CXp-Xsbm-bn-cp-p- Ahkv-Y.dm-Wn- ev-ao-`m-bn-bp-sS (181015)- do-P-kn`cWIm-ev- Cu- \bn- am-w-hp.- Amev- dkn-U-dpw- Zn-hm-\p-am-bn-cp- tIWa-tdm- DtZym-K \n-ba\Im-cy-n- hy-Iv-Xamb Nn-e \n-_\v-[\I- Dm-n.- k-kz-`m-hnIfpw- ka-Xv-Ycp-am-bhsc am-{Xta s]m-Xp`cWcw-Kv- \n-ban-m-hq Fv- Atlw- hyhkv-Y sNbv-Xp.- ]e DtZym-Kkv-Y-am-cp-sSbpwkv-Ym-\tcp-I- Atlw- ]cn-jI
v- cn-p.- an-hmdpw- DtZym-K-v- XXm-b hn-Zym-`ym-k tbmKy-X Dm-bn-cn-Wsapw- hy-hkv-Y
sNsp.- sk{Itdnb kwhn[m\w
BhnjvIcnv cmPy`cWw tIoIrXamnb
a-tdm- \o-Xn-\ym-b kw-hn-[m-\hpw- ]p-\x-kwLSn-n-p.

tI

Fnepw ]n-p-S-m-hIm-isa \n-ebn-emWv- ]escbpw- DtZym-Kn-- \n-ban-n-cp-Xv.CXv- s]m-Xp-`cWn-s-d Im-cy-aX KWy-ambn- Ip-dbv-p-p-shv- a\n-em-n-b Bbn-eywXn-cp-\m- alm-cm-Pm-hv- 1874 - kz-P\]]mXw- \n-b{n-m- Hcp- hn-fw-_cw- ]p-dsSp-hnp.Ime{ItaW Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq- k-ho-kn-se
DtZym- K \n- b a\w- DX Pm- X n- m- c p- s S IpIbmbn amdngnncpp. F{X ka-XY
-v cmbn-cp-m-epw- Xm-gv- Pm-Xn-m-sc k-m- kho-kn-seSp-n-cp-n-.- Kh-san-se DX
Xkv-Xn-II- ]ctZin-Ifm-b Xan-gv- {_m-lv-aWISn-bn-cp-p.- 19mw- \q-m-n-s-d Ahkm-\ambtm-tgpw,- Xsfbm-Iam-\w- k-m-cp-tZymKfn-\n-v- am-n- \n-n-bn-cn-p-Xn-ep-
Aa-jw- Xm-WPm-Xn-mcpw Xt-iobcpw- {]ISnn-p- Xp-Sn.- Xfn-\n-v- Ip-tdt-snepw- \n-ba\w- XcWsa Ahcp-sS BhiywKhsa v AwKo-I-cnn-.a e b m f n Cu-gh
satmdnbepI
:
XncphnXmwIqdnse
Db DtZymKfn
]ctZinIfmb Xangv
{_mWamsc
\nbanncpXn
Aajw]qv {ioaqew
Xncp\m almcmPmhn\v
\mpIm kan
\nthZ\amWv "aebmfn
satmdnb'-.
"XncphnXmwIq
Pn.]n.]n
XncphnXmwIqdpImv'F Bibns D]mXmhmb _mcn
Pn.]n.]nbpw
sI.]n.ictat\m,
kn.hn.cma]n FnhcpamWv CXn\p
apssIsbSpXv. 1891 P\phcnbn
almcmPmhn\p kan lPnbn 10038 t]
Hnncpp. DtZymK\nba\fn \mpImv
PmXnaX]cnKW\IfnmsX apKW\
\IWsapw \nba\fn B\p]mXnI
{]mXn\n[yw thWsapambncpp CXnse apJy
Bhiy.
cm-Py-s sam-w- P\kw-Jy-bp-sS An-semp-`m-Kap-m-bn-cp- Cu-gh-v- DtZym-Kfn-

F{X ka-XvYcm- b n- c p- m- e pwXm-gv- Pm-Xn-m-sc


k-m- k-ho-knseSp- n- c p- n- .Kh-san-se
DX
Xkv-XnII- ]ctZin-Ifmb Xan- g v - {_m- l v aW- ISn-bn-cpp.- 19mw- \q-m-ns- d Ahkm- \ ambtm-tgpw,Xsfbm- I am- \ wk-m-cp-tZymKfn-\n-v- am-n\n-n-bn-cn-pXn- e p- Aajw- Xm-WPm-Xnmcpw
Xtiobcpw- {]ISn- np- Xp-Sn.-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

39

DtZym-Km--Yn-Isf
sXcsSp-p-I,tbm-Ky-X \n-iv-Nbnp-I,- a-kc]coIfpw- C-d-hyqhpw- \Sp-I,- dn{Iq-v-sa-dv- \nba- Xm-dmp-I Xp-Snbhbm-bn-cp-p- 1935
Pq- 25\vKhsa - v - ]pdsSp-hn-
Dchn- ]n-Ivk-ho-kvIojWdp-sS NpaXeIfm-bn- \nhNn-n-cp-Xv-.-

40

\m-aam-{X {]m-Xn-\n-[yw- t]m-epw- Cmbncpp. _pn-ap-p-I- ]eXpw- kln-v- DXhn-Zym-`ym-kwt\Sn-b ]e kap-Zm-bmw-K-pw- DtZym-Kat\zjn-v- cm-Py-n-\p- shfn-bn- t]m-tIn-hp.km
kvIqfpIfnepw
km
DtZymKfnepw Cughv Ahkcw thWsav
Bhiysv 13176 t] Hn lPn 1896
sk]vXw_ aqn\v tUm.]]phns
t\XrXzn {ioaqew
Xncp\m almcmPmhn\p
kanXmWv Cugh
satm-dn-b. Cu-ghcpsS km-aq-ln-I ]n-m-mhkvY
- bv
- p-ap- Hcp- ImcWw- Ah-v- k-mk-ho-kn- {]m-Xn-\n-[ywCm-Xn-cp-Xm-sWpwae_m- {]tZiv- {_no- j v - k- m- c n- s - d
Iogn, XfpsS kam\
tUm.]]p
kmaqlnI ]Zhnbp
kapZmbamb Xo-b-v- tPm-en- e`n-p-sIm-n-cnp-p-ap-s hkvX
- p-X Cu- l-Pn-bn- Nq-nm-Wn-n-cp-p.- lPnbnse Bhiy Znhm
ickp \ncknpIfp. AXn\m
asmcp lPn, ssht{kmbn Igvk {]`p
1900 XncphnXmwIq kintm
kanp. Fm, \mpcmPyfnse sNdnb
Imcyfn CSs]Sm {_n\v Xm]cyans
\ne]mSmWv Atlw kzoIcnXv.
Ccp]Xmw \qmnse XncphnXmwIq
XncphnXmwIq: ta
{]tm-`
- f
- psSsbmw ^e-ambn k-m-cn-s
\bn- Nn-e am-- hp.- ]n-m-hn-`mKm--v \m-aam-{Xam-sbn-epw- k-m-cp-tZy-mK
- we`n-p-Xp-Sn.- {io-aq-ew- Akw-n-bn- Aw-Kamb alm-Ihn- Ip-am-c\m-im- Cu-gh-pw- ap- ]nm-m-pw- k-mk-ho-kn- Iq-Sp-X- {]mXn-\n-[yw- \-tIXn-sd Bhiy-IX- ]etm-gpwk`bn- N-m-hn-jbamn.- 1915 Bbtm-tgpw\n-ba\fnAhkckaXzw- \-IpIsb Bibn-s-d
shfn-n- Khsa -v
]n-m-m--v Nn-e ]cnIp-am-c\m-imKW\I- \- I n- pSn.AhkckaXz-n-\p-thn- s]m-Xp-P\m-`n-{]mbw- iIv-Xam-bXn-s-d ^eam-bn- 1921 Bbtmtgpw- Fm- Pm-Xn-aX hn-`m-Km-pw- \nba\Im-cy-n- ]cn-KW\ \-IWsa \ntZiw- Kh-sa v- hIp-p-Xehamp\-In.km-ap-Zm-bn-I {]m-Xn-\n-[y-n-s-d {]iv-\w- 1929ePn-to-hv- Iu-kn-en- N-bv
- p-hp.- {]mXn-\n-[y-an-sp- hn-hn-[ kap-Zm-bfp-sS ]cm-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

Xn-v- ]cn-lm-cap-m-m-\p- ^e{]Zam-b amK \n-tZin-m- Khsa v- Hcp- In-nsb \n-tbm-Kn-p.- 1933- ka-n-s In-ndn-tm-v- Khsa v- ]cn-tim-[n-p-Ibpw- Hm-tcmhIp-n-epw- hnhn-[ Pm-Xn-m--v e`n-n-p- DtZymKfp-sS A\p-]m-Xw- IWm-p-Xn-\p-thnkvY
- n-Xn-hn-hcIWp-I- tiJcn-p-Xn-\p-
\S]Sn-I- kzo-Icn-p-Ibpw- sNbv-Xp.\nh\ {]tm`Ww
{]tm`Ww: XncphnXmwIqdn
\nbak`bnepw km \nba\fnepw
\ymbamb
{]mXn\n[yw
e`nm
Cugh{InkvXyapnw kapZmb
kwLSnv \Snb kacamWv \nh\
{]tm`Ww. Cu {]tbmKns D]mXmhv
{]ikvX ]WvUnX sF.kn.Nmtmbmbncpp.
CXn\mbn 1932 Unkw_ 17\v Hm {SmhIq
tPmbn v s]mfnn tIm^dkv
(kwbp cmjv{Sob kanXn) Fsmcp kwLS\
cq]hXvIcnp. F.hn.tPmk^pw kn.tIi-h\pw
]n.sI.Ippw ap\ncbn {]hnp. DtZymK\n-ba\ {]iv\
- w- hn-iZam-bn- ]cn-tim-[n-p-Xn\v- Khsa v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq- ssltm-SXn-bnse PUv-Pn-bm-bn-cp- tUm.Pn.- Un.- t\m-Iv-kns\
kvs
- ]jy- Hm^o-kdm-bn- 1934- \n-ban-p.- DtZymK \n- b a\n- \ p- t hn- ]n- I v - k- h o- k v Inj- cq-]h-Icn-p-Xn-\p- km-[yXIsfp-dn-v- ]Tn-v- dn-tm-v- ka-n-p-Ibmbn-cp-p- kv-s]jy-em-^o-kdp-sS Np-aXe.- kapZm-b {]m-Xn-\n-[yw- {Iao-Icn-p-Xn-\p-thnP\sf ku-Icy-{]Zam-b co-Xn-bn- h-Ko-Icnp-Xn-\pw- t\m-Ivk
- n-s\ Np-aXesSp-n-bn-cpp.- 1935 am-v- 14\v- ka-n-s t\m-Iv-kns-d dn-tm-v- {]Im-cw,- sam-w- P\kw-Jy-bpsS cp-iXam-\san-epw- kw-Jym-_eap- kapZm-b-sm-w- h-Ko-b {]m-Xn-\n-[y-n-s-d
{]tbm-P\w- \-Im- Khsa v- Xo-cpam-\n-p.]n- I v - k- h o- k v - IojW
IojW: \n-h-\
{]kv-Ym-\w,- \n-bak`bn-se hm-Z{]Xn-hm-Z,s]m-Xp-P\m-`n-{]m-bw- Xp-Sn-bhbp-sS kzm-[o\^eam-bn- DtZym-K\n-ba\n-\v- Hcp- ]n-Ivk-ho-kv- IojWsd \n-ban-m- Khsa vXo-cp-am-\n-p.- DtZym-Km--Yn-Isf sXcsSp-pI,- tbm-Ky-X \n-iN
v- bn-p-I,- a-kc]co-IfpwC-d-hyq-hpw- \Sp-I,- dn-{Iq-s
v- a-dv- \n-baXm-dm-p-I Xp-Sn-bhbm-bn-cp-p- 1935 Pq25\v- Khsa - v- ]p-dsSp-hn- Dchn- ]nIv- k-ho-kv- InjWdp-sS Np-aXeIfm-bn- \nhNn-n-cp-Xv.- - Pn-.Un-. t\m-Ivk
- v- Bbn-cp-p- BZys ]n-Iv- k-ho-kv- InjW.- 1936 s^{_phcn-bn- DtZym-Kkv-Y\n-ba\s kw-_\v-[n-
hy-Iv-Xam-b \n-ba- k-m- {]kn-o-Icnp.- 1936 Pq- 14mw-Xo-bXn- ap-X- Cu- \n-ba{]m-_ey-n- hp.- Cu- dn-{Iq-v-sa-dv- \nba- Nn-d t`ZKXn-Itfm-sS 1940 hsc \nehn-en-cp-p.- 1940 HIvt- Sm-_dn- dn-{Iq-vs
- a-dv- \nba- \ho-Icn-sp.- ]n-Iv- k-ho-kvInjWdp-sS \n-ba\tm-sSm-w- Xm-m-en-

Iam-bn- cq-]h-Icn-s ]n-Iv- k-ho-kvhIp-v- 1942- Hcp- kv-Yn-cw- hIp-m-bn-o-p.1949- Xn-cp-sIm-n- kw-tbm-P\w- \Sp-Xp-hsc
]n-Iv- k-ho-kv- IojWdpw- Atln-s
Io-gn-ep- ]n-Iv- k-ho-kv- hIp-pw {]h-np.sImocmPyhpw
]nIv
khokv
I o j \ p ww: sImnbn {IaoIrXamb
coXnbnep `cW k{Zmbw Bcw`nXv
i Xpcm Fdnbsncp cmaha(`c- W - I mew 17901805) bpsS ImetmSp
IqSnbmbncpp. 1812 sImnbn Znhm\mbn
\nbans tIW atdm cmPynse
s]mXp`cW kwhn[m\s Agnp ]WnXp.
`cW]cnjv I mcfpsS `mKambn hnhn[
hIppIfn At\Iw DtZymKamsc
]pXpXmbn \nbantXm-bnhp. Db
XkvXnIIfn Znhm t\cnp \nba\w \Sn.
Xmgv XkvXnIIfnse \nba\n
kzP\]]mXhpw PmXn]cnK- W \bpw
kzm[o\w sNepp {]hWX \ne\np.
`cWImcyfn P\Iob ]mfnw
BhiyspsImv \nch[n {]tm`W
Dmbn. Ccp]Xmw \qmtmSpIqSn Cu
Bhiyw iambnop. \nbak`bnepw
ham\-]{Xfnepw DtZymK\nba\{]iv\w
hnhmZhnj- b ambnop. kzX{ambn
{]hnp Hcp m]\neqsS \nba\w
\StXns BhiyIX t_m[ys
km 1936 sk]vXw_dn m^v ske
t_mUv cq]hcnp. \nbak` ]mkmnb
BIvSv A\pkcnv 1947 aqv AwKtfmsS
sImn ]nIv khokv Ioj
cq]hXvIcnp.
XncpsImn ]nIv khokv Ioj
Ioj:
1949 XncpsImn kwtbmP\spSv
XncpsImn ]nIv khokv Ioj
\nehn hp. Xncph\]pcw Xs
bmbncpp Bm\w. aqwK Iojs

sNbam kn.Ipncma\mbncpp.
a e _ m d p w ] n F k v k n b p ww: 1792se
{iocwK]Ww DSSn {]Imcw ae_m {]tZiw
Snphn\nv {_nojpImp e`npIbpw
XpSv a{Zmkv {]hniybpsS Iognep Hcp
Pnbmbn amdpIbpw sNbvXp. tImgntmSmbncpp {_nojv ae_mdns Bm\w. 1929
Cy- b nse BZys {]hniym ]nv
kokv Io-j\
- mb "a{Zmkv ]nv kokv
Io-j' {]h-\a
- m-cw-`n-t- Xm-Sp-IqSn ae-_m
{]tZ-is km DtZym-K \nb-a-\-
a{Zmkv ]nv kokv Io-js \nb-{W-n-em-bn. 1956 se kwm\ ]p\x-kw-LS\ hsc B nXn XpSp.
tIcf ]nFkvknbpsS cq]hXvIcWw
cWw: 1956
kwm\ ]p\wLS\sbpSv Xncph
\]pcw Bm\ambn kwm\-sammsI
A[nImc]cn[nbp tIcf ]nIv khokv
Ioj \nehnhp. hn.sI.them-bp[-\mbncpp BZys tIcf ]nIv kokv Ioj sNbam. s]mXp{]h- I \mbpw
XncphnXmwIq te_ IojWsd
\nebnepw Iatijn sXfnbn hynXzn\pSabmbncpp Atlw. IfIvSdpsS
tat\mn {]hnncp Unkv{SnIvSv
dn{Iqv s a v t_mUpI ]nmev
]n.Fkv.knbpsS Pnm Hm^okpIfmbn amdn.
]noSv Dc, a[y, ZnWtaJeIfpsS
Iognhcp PnIsf GtIm]nnpsImv
bYm{Iaw tImgntmSv, FdWmIpfw, sImw
Fnh Bm\ambn aqv taJem Hm^okpIfpw \nehnhp. Ctm Io-j-\n
sNb--am DssS 21 AwK-fp-v.
Ah-ew_w
1. tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
t\i.-Sn.-am-X-yp.
2. tIcfw Ncn{Xw F. {io[-c-ta-t\m
3. tIcf ]n.-F-kv.-kn. Hm^okv am\z

hn.sI.them-bp[\m-bncpp
BZys tIcf
]nIv kokv
Io-j
sNbam.
s]mXp{]hI\mbpw
XncphnXmwIq
te_
IojWsd
\nebnepw
Iatijn
sXfnbn
hynXzn\pSabmbncpp
Atlw.

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

41

Hm-p-dnv
kzm
kzm-- X-{y-k-a-c tk-\m-\n-bpw- {]-ap-J- cm-jv-

-fn-\n-v- hn-Zym-`ym-kw- t\-Sn.- kv-Iq- hnZym- ` ym- k - Im- e - p- X- s {So-b- t\-Xm-hpw- ap- ]n.-Fkzm- X - { y- k - a - c - h p- a m- b n- _kv.-kn.- Aw-K-hp-am-bn-cp- sX-s-- {]-h--\-- B-aw- _m-e-Ir-jv-W-s hn-cw-`n-- A-t-lw- tkm-jy-enh-I-c-am-b B-i-b-am-Wv- ]n.-Fv- {]-m-\--fn-se- k-Po-hkv.-kn.- _p--n-\ns- {]-knkm-n-[y-am-bn- \n-c-h-[n- k-ao-I-c-W-n-te-v- \-bn--Xv.c-t]m-cm---fn t\-Xr-m-\{]-kn-o-I-c-W-n-\v- ap-Jy-]p- m- b n- c p- p.- 1970- A vh- l n- bi:
Sq- a--e-n \n-pw- Fw.-i-co-c-\m-b- At-ls- 25mwF.-F.B-bn- sX-c-s-Sp-h-j-n F-n-\n--p-s-p. 1981 sk-]v-w-_- 7mw]n.-F-kv.-kn.- _p--n- CuXo-b-Xn- ]n-F.-kv.-kn.- Aw-K-amA-h-k-c-n- - B-Z-c-thm-sSbn- Np-a-X-e-tb-p. km--c-Xmkv-a-cn-p-p.{]-h--\-n-epw- {K--imsImw- Pn--bn ]-g-b- Ipem- {]-m-\-n-epw- k-Po-h-q- Xm-eq-n-s-- AsXaw _me- I r- j v W
km- n- [ y- a m- b n- c p- p- A- t Sq-cn-\-Sp-v- sX--a-v- 1927
G-{]n- -H-n-\m-Wv- A-t-l-n-s- P-\-\w.- am- lw,- tI-c-f- {K--im-em- kw-L-n-s- sshth-en--c- Xm-eq-n-se- ]--q- kv-Iq,- I-S- kv-{]-kn-U-m-bpw- {K-m-tem-I-n-s- F-Un-\m-Sv- bp.-]n.-kv-Iq,- C-cp--\-m-Sv- K-h.- kv- -dm-bpw- Im-s^-Un-s- t-v- dn-tkm-gv-kv- skIq,- sIm-w- F-kv.-F- tIm-tf-Pv- F-n-hn-S- - U-b-d-Iv-S-dm-bpw- {]-h-n-n-cp-p.-

H--hW cPn-kvt{S-j
::
t^mtm kw_-n \nt-i-
01012012 apX {]m_-ey-
- nep h-ssSw
cPn- k v t {S- j , Io- j s HutZ- y m- K nI
sh_vssk-mb www.keralapsc.gov.in hgn
\S-n-bt- i-ja
- mWv DtZ-ym-Kmn-I hnhn[
XkvXn-Imbn At] kan-t-X
- v.
t^mtm A]v t emUv sNp- t m ]comn- I Xmsg- ] - d - b p Imc- y -
{]tXyIw {in-t-X
- m-Wv.
1. t^mtmbn DtZ-ym-Kmn-bpsS t]cpw
t^mtm FSp Xob-Xnbpw ]Xn-n-cnWw.
2. 01082014 apX Io-j ]pd-s-Sp-hnp hnm-]-\- {]Imcw DtZ-ymKmn-I At] kan-p-tm
At] kan-p Xob-Xnv Hcp
hj-n-\Iw FSp t^mtm Bbn-cnWw A]vtemUv sNt--Xv.
3. ]co-mn-bpsS apJhpw tXmfp-If
- psS
apI`m-Khpw hy--ambn ]Xn-n-cn- hn[- n- e p ]mk- v t]mv
sskkn- e p If/mv & sshv

42

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

t^mtmbmbn-cn-W
- w.
4. shfp-tXm Cfw \nd-ntem D ]m-e-n Cfw \nd-n-ep hkv{Xw
[cnv FSp t^mtm-bm-bn-cn--Ww.
5. apJw t\scbpw ]q-ambpw t^mtm-bpsS
a[-y-`m-Kv ]Xn-n-cn--Ww.
6. Ip-I hy-a
- mbn ImW- hn[-nem-bn-cn-W
- w.
7. A]v t emUv sNp t^mtm- I 200
]nIvsk h x 150 ]nIvsk w DXpw JPG
t^mam-n-ep-Xpw 30 KB ^b sskkn
A[n-Ic
- n-m-X
- pambncnWw.
8. km-kv, sXmn Fnh [cnv FSpXpw apJ-ns Hcp hiw am{Xw ImW--hn-[-ap-Xpw apJw hy--a-m--Xpamb t^mtm-I kzo-Im-cy- a
-
- .
9. aXm-Nm-c-ns `mK-ambn sXmn/intcmhkv{Xw [cnv FSp t^mtm av \nti-f
- \p-kc
- n-m-sW-n kzo-Im-cy- a
- m-Wv.

s]mXp-hn-m\w
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

tjm-v lm-Un-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- sF-k-Iv ]n-v-am


td-Un-tbm I-p-]n-Sn--Xv B-cv- am-tm-Wn
ss\-en-s Zm-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
C-y-bn-se sh-\o-kv- B-e-p-g
1215 Pq 15 s {]m-[m-\yw- am- Im- H-p-sh-p
1939 sk-]v-Xw-_ H-n-s {]m-[m-\yw- c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-w
B-cw-`n-p
7. 1776 Pq-sse \m-en-s {]m-[m-\yw- A-ta-cn--bv-v kzm-X-{yw
8. ^n-tem-f-Pn F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- `m-j
9. C-y-sb- t]-cn-\v \n-Zm-\-am-b \-Zn--kn-p
10. Uo-k F-n I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- dp-tUm-^v Uo-k
11. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv m-]n--Xv- F.H.lyqw
12. kn._n.sF.bp-sS ]q-W-cq-]w- sk-{S _yq-tdm Hm-^v Csh-n-tK-j
13. im-kv-Xmw-tIm- X-Sm-Iw G-Xp Pn--bn- sIm-w
14. cm-am-\p-Pw G-Xv hn-j-b-n {]-kn-- K-Wn-Xw
15. G-gp Ip-p-I-fp-sS \-K-cw--tdmw
16. Ip-jvT-tcm-K-ap-m-p- A-Wp- ssa-t{Im _m-Iv-So-cn-bw se-t{]
17. I-n-s i-cn-bm-b {]-h--\-n-\v B-h-iy-am-b hn-m-an--hnm-an F
18. \m-c--bn-epw Hm-d-n-epw A-S-n-bn-cn-p- A-av-fw- kn-{SnIv A-av-fw
19. ssX-tdm-Iv-kn-s Ip-d-hp-aq-ew Ip-n-I-fn D-m-Ip- tcm-Kw-
s{I-n-\n-kw
20. sF-kv mp-I-fn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hm-X-Iw- A-tam-Wn-b
21. ^m-Iv-Sw-t^m-kn-s cm-k-\m-aw- A-tam-Wn-bw Im-_-tW-v
22. c--k--Zw A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- kv-^n-tm-am-t\m-ao-
23. ssh-Zyp-Xn-bp-sS hm-Wn-Py G-I-Iw- In-tem-hm-v-A-h
24. \p-an-kv-am-n-Iv-kv F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- \m-W-bw
25. B-Zy-s tI-{ h-\n-Xm Iym-_n-\-v a-{n- cm-Pv-Ip-am-cn A-arXvI
- u
26. ap-l--Zv \-_n P-\n- -ew- sa-
27. kzm-an hn-th-Im-\--s Kp-cp- {io-cm-a-Ir-jv-W ]-c-a-lw-k
28. s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s `m-c-Xo-b- c-_o-{\m-Yv Sm-tKm
29. B-Zy-s tem-I-I-v {In--n-\p th-Zn-bm-b-Xv- Cw--v
30. ]n-d-hn F- N-e-n-{X-n-s kw-hn-[m-b-I- jm-Pn F.Icp
31. K-fn-h-dp-sS k-m-c-I-Y-I c-Nn--Xv- tPm-\m-Y kzn-^v-v
32. hn-f-t-n-b h-\n-X F--dn-b-s--Xv- ^v-tfm-d-kv ss\-nwtK
33. k-tm-jv t{Sm-^n G-Xp-am-bn _-s
- -n-cn-p-p- ^p-Stv- _m
34. C-y-bn [o-c-X-bv-p- ]-c-tam--X ssk-\n-I _-lp-a-Xn-
]-ca
- h
- o-cN
- {- Iw
35. {]-`m-X-\--{Xw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ip-{I
36. 1959 m-]n-X-am-b \m-j-W kv-Iq Hm-^v {Um-a F-hnsS-bm-Wv- \yq-U-ln
37. \m-j-W C-n-yq-v Hm-^v \yq-{Sn-j- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
38. a-Xa
- n-m- im-kv{- Xw ap-S
- \
- m-Wv, im-kv{- X-an-m- a-Xw Ip-cpS-\pw- B-cp-tS-Xm-Wv Cu hm-p-I- sF-o
39. Cu-w A-f-p--Xn-\p- D-]-I-c-Ww- ssl-t{Km-ao-
40. k-Km-tkm I-S G-Xp k-ap-{Z-n-s `m-K-am-Wv- A-Xv-emnIv
41. Nn-]vt- Im {]-m-\w F-n-\p-th-n \n-es
- Im-p-p- ]-cn-nXn kw-c--Ww
42. C-y bqWnbs _-Uv-P-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv
-]n.kn. a-l-e-t\m-_n-kv
43. C-y-bn G-Xv ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv k-l-I-c-W {]-m-\w B-Zyam-bn B-cw-`n--Xv- Im-jn-I I-Sw
44. a-Z sX-tc-k P-\n- cm-Pyw- ap bp-tKm-m-hy-bn-se am-kntUm-Wn-b-bn

Xm- d m- n- b Xv :
B.- k n. kptcjv I pam
sk Hm^o-k
tIcf ]nIv kokv Io-j
45.

an- ss\y-v F--dn-b-s- d-jy t\-Xm-hv- B-s{U-bn


t{Km-ssa-tIm
46. Ip-S I-o-j F-n-s\-p-dn-m-Wv A-t\z-jn--Xv- Km-n
kv-am-c-I \n-[n-bp-sS {]-h--\w
47. hn-tam-N-\ k-a-c-Im-e-v Po-h-in-Jm-Pm-Y \-bn--Xv--a--v ]Zva
- \
- m-`
48. \o-e-Kn-cn-bn \m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-Ip-ew m-]n--Xm-cv- \-S-cm-P-Kpcp
49. G-Xv tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\-n-em-Wv Sn.sI.am-[-h h-w
k-Xym-{K-lw kw-_-n- {]-ta-bw A-h-X-cn-n--Xv- Im-n-\U
50. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ c-mw _p- F-p hn-ti-jn-n-Xv- Pn.i-c
-
- p-dp-v
51. Im-bn-I ]-cn-io-e-I-p- tZ-io-b A-hm-Uv- t{Zm-Wm-Nm-cy
A-hm-Uv
52. B-Zy-s th-Zw- E-tKz-Zw
53. ssP-\-a-X m-]-I- a-lm-ho-c
54. A-tim-I N-{I-h-n-bp-sS X-e-m-\w- ]m-S-eo-]p-{Xw
55. ap-K `-c-W-n-\v A-Sn--d-bn- bp-w- 1526-se H-mw ]m\n--p-bp-w
56. C-y bq-Wn-b-s G--hpw sX-t-b-w- C-n-cm t]m-bn v
57. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b t-{X k-ap--bw- A-tm-hmv
58. Ip-ssh-n-se \m-W-bw- Ip-ssh-n Zn-\m
59. B-t]-n-IX
- m kn-m-
- n-s
D-]
m-Xm-h-v B-_-v sFo
60. sl--ss-n-kv _m-[n-p- i-coc-`m-Kw- I-c
61. kp-h-W ]-tKm-UI
- f
- p-sS \m-Sv F-dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- aym-a
62. tem-I-n-s ta-q-c F--dnb-s-Sp--Xv- ]m-ao
63. \m-jW
- C-n-yq-v Hm-^v Hm-jym-t\m-{K-^n- ]-\m-Pn
64. G-jy sU-h-e-]v-sa v _m-n-s
B-m-\w- a-\n-e
65. tKm-Kpw-_m-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- _os\mt_ km\w t\Snb
Pm-q
66. C-ym tK-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \yq- BZys `mcXob
c_o{\mYv SmtKm
U-ln
67. Hm-tdm-hn-n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]p-Xpt-cn
68. Ip-fp Xm-gv-h-c G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv
69. tIm-_-v \m-j-W ]m-v G-Xp kw-m-\-v- D--cm-JWvU
- v
70. Zn {Sn-_yq F-hn-sS-\n-p-am-Wv {]-kn-o-I-cn-p--Xv- N-WvUn-K-Uv
71. \m-j-W Un-^-kv A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- J-U-Iv-hm-kve
72. Pm-en-b-hm-em-_m-Kv G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-m-_v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

43

73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.

44

bp.F.]-Xm-Ib
- n-se Nn-{Xw- H-en-hp in-Jc
-
- -n-Sb
- n temI `q-]-Sw
I-hn-bp-sS Im-]m-Sp-I B-cp-sS B-I
- Y
- b
- m-Wv- ]n.Ip-ncm-a \m-b
th-fm--n G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy ap-Jy-a-{n- C.Fw.F-kv.
aq-Imw-_n-I t-{Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-v- I-Wm-S-Iw
G-sX-mw `m-j-I tN--Xm-Wv a-Wn-{]-hm-fw- a-e-bm-f-hpw
kw-kv-Ir-X-hpw
_-m-h-Xv dn-tm-v F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ]-{X-{]h--I-cp-sS th-X-\w
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s, X-t-io-b-am-b \n--_v-Z kn-\n-a- cmPm l-cn--{
C-y C-n-yq-v Hm-^v B-kv-t{Sm-^n-kn-Iv-kv F-hn-sS-bmWv -_mw-q
s_m-m-Wn- k-th Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS B-m-\w- sIm-
B C-y C-n-yq-v Hm-^v kv-]o-v B v ln-b-dnw-Kv F-hnsS-bm-Wv- ssa-kq
hn-P-b-hm-U G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- Ir-jv-W
P-_-]q G-Xp-\-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- \-a-Z
Kp-h-l-n G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- {_--]p-{X
kq-d-v G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- X-]v-Xn
G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv B-{K--b-ap-\
ss\-en-s Zm-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
C-y-bn km-bp-[ tk-\-I-fp-sS kp-{]ow I-am-U- {]-knU v
A-Sp-f
- b
- n-\n-v A-c
- t- -v c-Nn-X
- m-cv- hn.Sn.`-X
- n-cn-mSv
h--e G-Xv Pn--bn -Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
tkm-\ am-kn-Mv F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- H-Uo-kn
kn-p-\-Zo-X-S kw-kv-Im-c-n-s A-h-in-jv-S- I-s-nb -ew- sam-l-sPm-Zm-tcm
km-enw A-en G-Xv \n-e-bn-em-Wv {]-kn-- ]-n-im-kv-{X
te-Iv ]m-e-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- D-Z-bv-]q
]p-cm-W-{]-Im-cw, tI-c-f-s I-S-am-n kr-jv-Sn--Xv- ]-c-ip-cma
B-K-I F-hn-sS Im-W-s-Sp-p- P-ew
s\-{lp-hn-\p-ti-jw B-IvS- n-Mv {]-[m-\a
- {- n-]Z- w h-ln-X
- v -Kpk-cn-em \-
am-cp-Xn D-tZym-Kv G-Xv P-m-\o-kv I--\n-bp-am-bn-m-Wv k-l-Icn-p--Xv- kp-kp-In
t_-kv-t_m G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv D-Zv-`-hn--Xv- A-ta-cn-
G-Xv cm-Py-s s]m-eo-kv B-m-\-am-Wv kv-tIm-Sv-e-Uv-bmUv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Cw--v
]-n-m- Xn-anw-Kn-ew- _m-eo Xn-anw-Kn-ew
]m-cm-sX-tam-Wn-s A-f-hv Ip-d-bp--Xv aq-e-ap-m-Ip- tcmKw- sS--\n
]p--Ir-jn-bp-sS Im-ew- ta-S-am-kw
]-Zm-Y-n-s G--hpw sN-dn-b I-W-am-Wv B-w- C-Xv I-sn-b im-kv-{X- B-cv- tPm Um-
]-Zv-a-\m-`-kzm-an-t-{Xw G-Xv cm-P Ip-Spw-_-hp-am-bn _--sn-cn-p-p- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
{^m--kn-epw- P-a-\n-pw- C-S-bn-ep-- A-Xn-n-tc-J- am-Pnt\m-v- sse
C-y-bn an-I- ]m-e-sa-t-dn-b-\p- A-hm-Uv \-Ip-Xv G-Xv t\-Xm-hn-s t]-cn-em-Wv- Pn._n.]-v
F-hn-sS-bm-Wv i--c-tZ-h `-n-{]-m-\w {]-N-cn-n--Xv- Akw
A-tm-an-I kw-Jy F-p ]-d-m A-Xv B--n-s \yq-nb-kn-ep- t{]m-tm-Wp-I-fp-sS F-w
cm-jv{- S-Kp-cp F-v B-sc-bm-Wv hn-fn-p-X
- v- kp-tc-{-\m-Yv _m\-Pn
hn-P-b-\-K-c-km-{am-Py-n-s A-yw Ip-dn- bp-w- 1565se
X-fn-tm- (cm--k X--Sn) bp-w

CONFUSING FACTS
tI-c-f-n-s hn-kv-Xo-Ww 38863 N.In.ao. B-Wv. C-Xv
15005 N-Xp-c-{i-ssa-en-\p Xp-ey-am-Wv.
-\m-Km-Pp-\ km-K A-W-s-v Ir-jv-Wm-\-Zn-bn-emWv. Fm Ir-jv-W-cm-P-km-K A-W-s-v Im-th-cn-bn-em-Wv.
tI-c-f In-kn-Rv-P F--dn-b-s--Xv t_-_n tPm BWv. tI-c-f kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv ap-l-Zv A-_v-Zp d-m km-ln-v.
G--hpw h-S-t-b--s sX-t A-ta-cn- cm-Pyw sImfw-_n-b-bpw G--hpw h-S-t-b--s em-n A-ta-cn-
cm-Pyw sa-Iv-kn-tm-bp-am-Wv.
ku-c-]-mw-Kw B-Zy-am-bn hn-I-kn-n--Xv Cu-Pn-]v-jy
kw-kvI
- m-ca
- m-Wv. sa-skm-s]m-m-an-b
- m-cm-Wv Nm-{-]
- mwKw B-Zy-am-bn hn-I-kn-n--Xv.
114. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b
B-q-w- A-e-l-_m-Zv Ipw`-ta-f
115. i-co-c-hpw a-kv-Xn-I-jv-I-hpw Xn-ep- A-\p-]m-Xw ]-cn-KW
- np-tm G--hpw h-en-b akv-Xn-I-jv-I-ap- Po-hn- {jq
116. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn ap-gp-h
{Km-a--fn-epw sS-e-t^m e`y-am-n-b Pn-- Z-n-W Im\-d
117. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn Hm-kvI A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-bX
- v- `m-\p
A--
118. [m-\y-a-Wn-I a-n-Ip-g-v
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy
\n-an-p- [m-\y-Kp-fn-I-I
A-Y-hm [m-\y--p-I hn-I- ap-Jy-a-{n- C.Fw.F-kv.
kn-n-s-Sp-p- co-Xn B-hnjv-I-cn--Xv- ^p-p-thm-
119. am-Pym-dp-I F-hn-Sp-s P-\-X-bm-Wv- lw-K-dn
120. \-q-Xn-cn-sb a-\p-jy-\m-p-I F- ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-ap-b-n-b kwL-S-\- tbm-K-t-a-k-`
121. am-S-v- Ip-p-p--s-d b-Ym-Y t]-cv- ]n- i--c-\-q-Xn-cn122. a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`-s B--I-Y--F-s Po-hn-X kv-a-c-W-I
123. in-h-Kn-cn Xo-Ym-S-\-n-\v t]m-Ip--h-v a- h-kv-{Xw \nt-in-X
- v- {- io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp
124. `-K-hm Im-d am-Iv-kv {]-kw-Kw G-Xv t\-Xm-hp-am-bn _-s-n-cn-p-p- kn.tI-i-h
125. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp B-sc-bm-Wv 1925 ]n-Km-an-bm-bn \nt-in--Xv- t_m-[m-\-
126. B-cp-sS A-y-hn-{i-a -ea
- m-Wv Ip-am-ct- Im-Sn- Ip-am-c\
- m-im
127. ap-p-km-an-Zo-n-Xc
- p-sS ]n-Xm-hv cm-ak
- zm-an Zo-n-X cq-]w \In-b {]-i-kv-X-cm-Kw- lw-k-[z-\n
128. A-P-m Kp-l-I I-s-n-b h-jw- 1819
129. B-Zy-s C-y {]-kn-U v- Xn-c-s-Sp-v- \-S- h-jw- 1952
130. {_--k-` m-]n--s- h-jw- 1828
131. B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm Iw-]yq- t{]m-{Km-a- A-Um eu-te-kv
132. C-y-bn Im-Wp- am h-K--fn G--hpw h-ep-Xv- kmw_m
133. ap-e-m-ep-m-p- tlm-tam- s{]m-em-Iv-Sn
134. C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv thm-n-Mv sa-jn-\n D-sm-n-m I-gnbp- ]-c-am-h-[n k-Ym-\m-Yn-I-fp-sS F-w- 64
135. C-y X-]m m-p-I A--Sn-p--sX-hn-sS- \m-kn-Iv
136. Lm-\-bn-se (B-{^n-)kzm-X-{y--{]-m-\
-- n-\p- t\-Xr-Xzw
\-In-b-Xv- Izm-an F--{Iq-a

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

137. P-Rm-\-]oTw, F-gp-- ]p-c-kv-Im-cw, h--tm ]p-c-kvIm-cw F-n-h t\-Sn-b B-Zy hy-n- X-I-gn
138. C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv thm-n-Mv sa-jn-\n tc-J-s-Sp-m I-gn-bp ]-c-am-h-[n thm-p-I-fp-sS F-w- 3840
139. c-mw- A-tim-I- F-v- B-sc-bm-Wv- hn-ti-jn-n-p--Xv--I\n-jvI
- 140. c-tYm-k-hw \-S-p- P-K-m-Y-t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]pcn
141. Cw-o-jv A-c
- a
- m-em-{I-a
- n B-Zyw-hc
- p- X-e
m-\w- A_p-Zm-_n
142. Cw--n-s ]q-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sI v
143. D-dq-_n-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- ]n.kn.Ip-n-Ir-jv-W
144. F-{X Zn-h-k-n-\p-n-em-Wv cm-Py-k-` H-cp _n tem-Iv-k-`bn-te-v ]p-\--cn-K-W-\-bv-v A-b-bv-t--Xv- 14
145. U-n F- ]-Zw G-Xv Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Z-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- {_n-Uv-Pv
146. sIm-n- `-c-Ww- U-p-Im- I--S-n-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1663
147. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn sS-en-hn-j tI-{w B-cw-`n- h-jw-
1959
148. B-Zy-s h--tm A-hm-Un-\-l-\m-b-Xv- ]m-em \m-cmb-W \m-b
149. G--hpw h-en-b B--tdm-bn-Uv- ko-dn-kv
150. en-m-Pv G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- I-dp-o-bw
151. E-tKz-Zw Cw-Kvf
- o-jn-te-p ]-cn-`m-js
- -Sp-n-bX
- v- am-Ivk
- va
- p-
152. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS Lm-X-I- \m-Yp-dmw hn-\m-b-Iv tKm-Uv-sk
153. en-n em-k F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- [-a-im-e
154. a-lm-bm-\ _p-a
- X
-
- m _p-s
- \ I-W
- m-n-bn-cp-X
- v- ssZh-am-bn-v
155. H--sk h-K-m A-[n-h-kn-p- -ew- B--am
156. H-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-w Xp-S-p-tm {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a-{nbm-bn-cp--Xv- sl-_-v sl-dn B-kv-Izn-v (190816)
157. H-cp ssa F-{X In-tem-ao-- 1.609
158. G--hpw h-en-b C-e(e-Lp-]-{Xw)bp--Xv- hn-Iv-tSm-dn-b do-Pnb
159. Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS ho-pw A-[n-Im-c-n h- B-Zy-s
tIm-{K-kn-X-c {]-[m-\ a-{n- F._n.hm-Pv-t]-bn
160. H-tc-k-a-bw B-kn-Un-s-bpw m-c-n-s-bpw kz-`m-h-
{]-I-Sn-n-p- ]-Zm-Y--p- t]-cv- Bw-t^m-sS-dn-Iv
161. h-tUm-Z-c-bp-sS ]-g-b-t]-cv- _-tdm-U
162. `q-an-bp-sS tIm-Uv tm-td-Pv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp- h-Ic
- - A
- mn-
163. m-v j-v-kv(I-cn-p-m-b-m)- F- kw-L-S-\ m-]n-Xm-cv- s_-\n-tm ap-tm-fn-\n
164. _m-Iv-So-cn-b-sb I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- eyq-h-tlm-v
165. ]-v, I-fn-a ]m-{X- F-n-h B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cmPyw- ssN-\
166. `q-an-bn-se ]m-fn-I-fn a-[y-t-Xv- amn
167. `-c-W-n-\n-pw hn-p-\n-t-n-h- G-I ap-K N-{I-hn- lp-a-bq
168. _m-en-n-Iv an-ssk I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sh-W thm
{_u
169. tPm t]m c-m-a am-]m- P-\n- cm-Pyw- t]m-f-v
170. tem-Iv-k-`-bv-p Xp-ey-am-b Cw-o-jv t]-cv- lu-kv Hm-^v ]on
171. tKm-h-bn-se Hu-tZym-Kn-I-`m-j- sIm--Wn
172. kw-L-Im-e P-\-X-bp-sS {]-[m-\ B-cm-[-\m aq-n- ap-cp-I
173. U-ln knw-lm-k-\-n A-h-tcm-[n-X-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X-
d-kn-bm _o-Kw
174. _m-Kv-Zm-Zv G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- ssS-{Kn-kv
175. ]m-p-I-Sn-tb-p-a-cn- {]-i-kv-X-\m-b B-Zy-Im-e I-ayq-Wn-v t\Xm-hv- ]n.Ir-jv-W-]n-
176. `q-an-bn-\n-v \--{X--fp-sS Zq-cw A-f-p- bq-Wn-v- {]Im-ih
- -jw
177. a-\p-jy Ir-{Xn-a-am-bn \n-an- B-Zy-s aq-e-Iw- sS-Iv-\ojyw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s ]-n-I-bn-em-Wv kw-m-\-fp-sS-bpw tI-{-`c


- W
- {- ]-tZ-i
- f
- p-sS-bpw ]-n-I tN-ncn-p-X
- v
a-\p-jy-tIm-i-n F-{X tPm-Sn enw-K-t{Im-a-tkm-ap-I-fmWp-X
- v
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se t\m-an-t\--Uv Bw-tm C-y
Aw-K--fp-sS F-w
cm-Py-s ]-Z-hn--n-I-bn-se {I-a-n C-y {]-knU v F-{Xm-a-Xm-Wv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS s]m-Xp-k-`-bn-te-v H-cp cm-Py-n\v A-p {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-sf A-b-bv-m-sa-n-epw F-{X thmm-Wp-X
- v
sF-Iy-cm-j{v- S c-m-ka
- n-Xn-bn n-cmw-KX
- z-ap- G-jy
cm-Py--fp-sS F-w
a-lm-Xv-am-Km-n F-{X {]m-h-iy-am-Wv C-y \m-j-W
tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-Um-bn-p--Xv
B-W-h-i-n-bm-b F-{Xm-a-s C-m-an-I cm-jv-{S-am-Wv
]m-In-kv-Xm
kp-\n Km-h-kv-I G-I-Zn-\ a--c--fn F-{X sk-zdn-I t\-Sn-bn-p-v
P-e-n-s B-t]-n-I km-{-X
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv lm-tcm-Uv--tUm-a
am-Xr-I F--dn-b-s--Xv
178. `q-an-bn-\n-v G--hpw h-ep--n Im-Wm-hp- \--{Xw-
kq-cy
179. m-v se-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp--sX-v- {Km-ss^-v
180. `q-an-bn-se G--hpw B-gw Iq-Sn-b {]-tZ-iw- a-dn-bm-\ K-w
181. kn-p-X-S-\n-hm-kn-I B-cm-[n-n-cp- s]-ssZ-hw am-XrtZ-h-X
182. tem-Iv-k-`-bn-se Iym-_n\-v ]-Z-hn-bp B-Zy-s {]-Xn-]-
t\-Xm-hv- ssh._n.N-hm
183. a-\p-jy kz-X-{-\m-bn P-\n-p-p, ]-t F-m-bn-S-pw
A-h N--e-I-fn-em-Wv- C-Xp ]-d--Xm-cv- dq-tm
184. sN-n-kv-Jm-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- sX-ap-Pn
185. G--hpw h-en-b [-a-\n--A-tbm-
186. G--hpw h-en-b \--{X k-aq-lw- ssl-{U
187. I-\n-jv-I-s c-mw X-e-m-\w- a-Yp-c
188. I-n-\-I-v A-km-am-\y-a--ap-f-hm-p- ssh-I-eyw- tmtm-a
189. I-n-s G-Xv \yq-\X
- ]-cn-lc
- n-m-\m-Wv kn-en-{n- sekv D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- A-n-Iv-am-n-kw
190. I-c-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b amw-k-t`m-Pn- {[p-h--c-Sn
191. P-a-\n-bp-sS B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm Nm-k-e- B-Rv-sP-em sa
192. s]-cn-bm-dn G-Xp h-j-ap-m-b sh-sm-am-Wv ap-kn-cnkv Xp-d-ap-J-n-s A-[-x]-X-\-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b-Xv- 1341
193. A-Xve
- mn-Iv k-ap-{Z-hp-am-bpw ]-k^
- n-Iv k-ap-{Z-hp-am-bpw A-Xnn ]-n-Sp- G-I sX-t A-ta-cn- cm-Pyw- sIm-fw-_n-b
194. D-an-\o {K-\v-Yn-I D-]m-Zn-n-p- F-sskw- X-bm-en
195. cm-j{v- So-b C-y an-en-d
- n tIm-tf-Pv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- s
- U-dm-Uq
196. cm-Py k-am-Nm-cw {]-kn-o-I-cn-p Xp-S-n-b h-jw- 1847
197. C-y-bpw- ]m-In-kv-Ym-\pw- kn-w-e D-S--Sn- H-p-sh- h-jw-
1972
198. sl-bv-en \m-j-W ]m-v C-tm A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv-
tIm-_-v \m-j-W ]m-v
199. I-c-bn-se G--hpw- h-en-b k-kv-X-\n- -B-{^n-- B-\
200. cm-Pm-km-kn hn-am-\-m-h-fw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- A-ar-X-k

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

45

201. I-dp- N-{ F--dn-b-s-Sp-, sNm--bp-sS D-]-{K-lw- t^mt_m-kv


202. `q-an-bp-tS-Xn-\p k-am-\-am-b Zn-\-cm-{X- G-Xp {K-l-n-\mWp--Xv- sNm-
203. I-gp-v ]q-W-hr--n Xn-cn-m I-gn-bp- ]-n- aq-
204. I-\n-jv-I-s k-Z-n-se G--hpw {]-K-ev-`-\m-b ]-Wv-Un-X- Aiz-tLm-j
205. I-hn-cm-P-am-Kw c-Nn--Xv- A-tam-L-h-j
206. i-I-hw-i-n-se G--hpw {]-i-kv-X-\m-b `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- cp-{ZZm-a
207. tem-Iv-k-` B-cw-`n-m B-Zy-s sk-j- Iz-y A-h
208. sl-p-eo-kn-s kv-Xq-]- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Pn-{_m
209. i-Im-cn- F- A-]-c-\m-a-n A-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv- N-{-Kp-]vX c-m-a
210. Im--co-b a-lm-tZ-h t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- J-Pp-cm-tlm
211. m-n Nn-{Xw A--Sn--s- B-Zy `m-c-Xo-b- a-lm-mKm-n
212. I-hn-cm-P F--dn-b-s--Xv- k-ap-{Z-Kp-]v-X
213. m-n Nn-{Xw A--Sn--s- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- {io-\m-cm-bW Kp-cp
214. `q-an-bpw kq-cy-\pw X-n-ep- A-I-ew G--hpw Iq-Sn-bn-cn-p-
Zn-h-kw- Pq-sse 4
215. Im-ep-sIm-v cp-Nn-b-dn-bp- Po-hn- Nn-{X-i-e-`w
216. Im-fn-n F-v ]p-cm-W--fn A-dn-b-s-n-cp- \-Zn- b-ap-\
217. im-kv-{Xo-b-am-bn ap-b h-f-p- co-Xn-p ]-d-bp- t]-cv-
Iq-Wn-I-
218. tem-Iv-k-` B-Zy-am-bn k-t-fn--Xv- 1952 sa-bv 13
219. Xm-Pv-a-l F-hn-sS n-Xn-sN-p-p- B-{K
220. Nn-e--Xn-Im-cw c-Nn--Xv--C-f-tm-h-Sn-I
221. P-m-\n-se \m-W-bw- sb
222. kp-h-Wt- -{X-n-\n-pw `o-Ic
- s
- c Xp-c
- m Hm-t- d-j
q-m \-S-n-b h-jw- 1984
223. `q-an-tbm-Sv G--hp-a-Sp-p- \--{Xw- kq-cy
224. t`m-m Zp-c-w \-S- h-jw- 1984 Un-kw-_ 3
225. sF-hm-tlm c-Nn--Xv- hm- kv-tIm-v
226. ssN-\ C-y-sb B-{I-an- h-jw- 1962
227. am-Iv-s_-v c-Nn--Xv hn-eyw tj-Iv-kv-]n-b
228. Pn-8 F- kw-L-S-\ cq-]w sIm- h-jw- 1985
229. 1985 {Ko-]o-kn-s sd-bn-t_m hm-cn-b F- I--ens\ X-I- cm-Pyw- {^m-kv
230. C-y \m-jW
- tIm-{K-kv G-Xp h-jw \-S
- Xn-cs
- Sp-n-em-Wv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ko-p-I t\-Sn-b-Xv- 1984 (542
415, ]-s-w t\-Sn-b-Xv 1985se D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n-em-Wv )
231. Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw Zq-c-Z-i tI-{w a-e-bm-fw ]-cn-]m-Sn-I kwt{]--Ww B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1985
232. tKm-h-kq-cn {]-tbm-Kw I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv- F-tUz-Uv P-
233. {`m- Nm-m G-Xv Ir-Xn-bn-se I-Ym-]m-{X-am-Wv am-mWvU
- h
- -a
234. sN--Ip-v G-Xv t\m-h-en-se I-Ym-]m-{X-am-Wv- sN-o
235. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS 52mw t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS(1985) cm-jv-{So-b-mcp-sS Iq-dp-am--n-\pw A-Xp-h-gn ]m-n-I-fp-sS ]n-f-n-\pw \nb-{-Ww sIm-p-h- C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- cm-Po-hv-Km-n
236. tem-I-s- G--hpw- h-en-b- B-W-h-Zp-c-w- (1986)- \-S-- sNtWm-_n- G-Xp- cm-Py-am-Wv- --D-{I-bn237. I-ky-aq s{]m-- \n-b-aw C-y-bn \n-e-hn h-
h-jw- 1986
238. ssj-tem-v G-Xv Ir-Xn bn-se I-Ym-]m-{X-am-Wv- sh-\o-kn-se
hym-]m-cn
239. B-hn-b-{w I-p-]n-Sn--X-v sP-bnw-kv hm-v
240. H-fn-n-Iv-kv ss^-\-en-se-n-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X- ]n.Sn.Dj (1984, tem-kv B--e-kv)
241. t]-n-m-d A-W-s-v G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
242. im-n-\n-tI-X G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-n-a _w-Km
243. C-y-bn-se B-Zy _-tbm-kv-^n-b dn-k-hv \n-e-hn-h- hjw- 1986

46

CONFUSING FACTS
I-cb
- n-se G-h
- pw i-\
- m-b ar-Kw B-\b
- m-W.v F-m, th-bm-Sp- ar-K
- f
- n G-h
- pw i-n-bp-X
- v I-Sp-hb
- m-Wv.
H-Uo-kn \r--n-s hn-I-k-\-n-\p-th-n ]-cn-{i-an-Xv tI-fp-N-c a-lm-]m-{X. b--Km-\-n-s ]p-tcm-K-Xnm-bn ]-cn-{i-an--Xv in-h-cm-a Im-c-v.
I-dp- ]-tKm-U F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv H-do-k-bn-se sImWm-n-se kq-cy-t-{X-hpw sh-fp- ]-tKm-U F--dnb-s-Sp--Xv ]p-cn-bn-se P-K-m-Y t-{X-hp-am-Wv.
tI-c-f-n D-p k-Xym-{K-l-m-e-s ]-S-b-Wn-Km-\-amb h-cn-I h-cn-I k-l-P-tc c-Nn--Xv Aw-in \m-cm-b-W-]n-bm-Wv. A-Jn-em-Wv-U-a-Wv-U-ew A-Wn-bn-sm-cp-n F Km-\w ]--fw sI.]n.cm-a ]n- \m-b k-ho-kv
skm-ssk-n-bp-sS D-]- ]n-cn-hp-am-bn _--s-v c-Nn-Xm-W.v
244. tem-I-kp--cn---n-\p-th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy C-y \-K-cw (1996)_mw-q
245. C-y-bn kv-]o-Uv t]m-v B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1986
246. s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy B-{^n- km-ln-Xy-Imc- thm tkm-bn- (1986, ss\-Po-cn-b)
247. sS-e-t^m I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- A-e-Iv-km-- {K-lmw-s_
248. _p- P-\n- h-jw- _n.kn.563
249. a-e-_m I-em-]w \-S- h-jw- 1921
250. ssU-\m-an-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- B-{^-Uv t\m-_
251. hm-kv-tIm U Km-a B-Zyw C-y-bn h- h-jw- 1498
252. C-e-Iv-{Sn-Iv _-_v I-p-]n-Sn- im-kv-{X-- F-Un-k
253. Hm-tm-sam-ss_-ep-I-fp-sS ]n-Xm-hv Im s_-kv
254. \m-j-W sI-an- e-t_m-d--dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]q-s\
255. tUm.]-]p P-\n- -ew- t]- (Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw)
256. in-h-Kn-cn Xo-Ym-S-\w B-cw-`n-p- am-kw- Un-kw-_
257. {]-Im-i-n-s th-Kw F-{X e-w ssa B-Wv 1.86
258. D-Z-b-kq-cy-s \m-Sv- P-m
259. B-bn-cw X-Sm-I--fp-sS \m-Sv ^n-e-Uv
260. G-Xp \m-p-cm-Py-s k-m k-ho-kn-em-Wv tUm.]-]p
tk-h-\-a-\p-jvTn--Xv- ssa-kq
261. Fw.sI. ta-t\m-s Xq-en-Im \m-aw- hn-em-kn-\n
262. {]-kn--am-b ao-\m-n t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- a-[p-c
263. Km-n kn-\n-a kw-hn-[m-\w sN-bv-X-Xv- dn-m-Uv A--_-tdm
264. kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bm-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X -P-nkv Fw.F-kv.^m-n-am-_o-hn
265. knw-_m-_v-sh-bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- k-tX sdm-tU-jy
266. bp.F.P-\-d A-kw-n {]-kn-Um-b B-Zy h-\n-X- hn-Pb-e-v-an ]-Wv-Un-v
267. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy K-h-W- cm-aIr-jW
v- d
- m-hp
268. P-hm-l-em s\-{lp A--cn-Xv- 1964 sa-bv 27
269. th-gv-k-bn-kv D-S--Sn Hp-sh- h-jw- 1919
270. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G-hpw h-en-b {K-n--I-c
271. hn-hm-Za
- m-b hn-p-h
- n-bm-{X
\-S-n-b \-thm-m-\ \m-bI- A--m-fn
272. D-Zym-\-hn-cp-v c-Nn--Xv- ]-WvUn-v I-dp-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

H-fn-n-Iv-kv ss^-\-en-se-n-b
B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X- ]n.Sn.D-j
(1984, tem-kv B--e-kv)

273. ssh-w k-Xym-{K-l-k-a-b-v k-h-W-Pm-Y kw-L-Sn-n-m


D-]-tZ-in--Xv- a-lm-m-Km-n
274. C.Fw.F-kv.B-Zy-s tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-bn A-[n-Im-c-ta-
Xo-b-Xn- 1957 G-{]n 5
275. {^-p-hn--hw \-S- h-jw- 1789
276. P-hm-l-em s\-{lp P-\n- h-jw- 1889
277. B-Zy-s ]--h-k-c ]--Xn B-cw-`n- h-jw 1951
278. bp.F.Nm- H-p-sh--s- h-jw- 1945
279. B-{Z-X A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- ssl-t{Km-ao-
280. Cw-Kv-fo-jv Cu-n-ym---\n m-]n-X-am-b h-jw 1600
281. a-\p-jy B-Zy-am-bn N-{-\n-en-d-n-b h-jw- 1969
282. ]-n-a _w-Km-fn-se sd-bn-th F-n ^m-Iv-S-dn-bp-sS t]-cv Nn--c-Rv-P
283. C-y-bn-se A-h-km-\-s K-h-W P-\-d kn.cm-P-tKm]m-em-Nm-cn
284. am- {K-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]n-yq--dn
285. A-d-_n--S-en-s dm-Wn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sIm-n
286. A--co--n-se G--hpw Xm-g-s ]m-fn- t{Sm-tm-kv-^n-b
287. {]-Y-a B-[p-\n-I H-fn-n-Iv-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b-Xv- G-Y-kv
288. C-y-bn sd-bn-th sIm-p-h- K-h-W P-\-d- Ulu-kn
289. l-cn-P F- {]-kn-o-I-c-Ww B-cw-`n--Xv- a-lm-m-Km-n
290. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b A-n-bm-b ^o-a F-hnsS-bm-Wv- Xp-S
291. tIm-f-d-bv-p Im-c-W-am-b A-Wp- _m-Iv-So-cn-b
292. kv-]n-nw-Kv sP-n I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- l-{Ko-hv-kv
293. C-y-bp-sS ]q-tm-w- Im-iv-ao
294. s^-n-sse-tk-gv-kv B v sI-an--kv {Sm-h-Iq F-hn-sSbm-Wv- B-ep-h
295. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn Ip-Sn-m-cn k-{-Zm-bw A-Y-hm tZ-h-Zm-kn
hy-h- \n--em-n-b `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- tk-Xp-e-v-an-`m-bn
296. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s {]-Xn-a B-Zy-am-bn m-]n- -ew-
X-e-t-cn
297. hn-tam-N-\-k-a-c-Im-e-v a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`-s t\-Xr-Xz-n
Po-h-in-Jm-Pm-Y B-cw-`n- -ew- X-e-t-cn
298. Du-gn-b th-e-bv-s-Xn-sc k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- A-m ssh-Ip-WvT
299. m-\-]oTw m-]n--Xv- im-n-{]-km-Zv P-bn
300. tI-c-f-s {`m-m-e-b-sa-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- kzm-an hn-th-Im\-
301. C-y s\-tm-fn-b F--dn-b-s--Xv- k-ap-{Z-Kp-]v-X
302. tI-c-f K-h-W-dm-b B-Zy h-\n-X--tPym-Xn sh-n-Sm-N-ew
303. dn--n-Iv Zn-\--tc-Uv U-ln-bn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \-S-p--Xv cm-Pv-]-Yv
304. k-Zm h--`v-`m-bn ]-t \m-j-W s]m-eo-kv A-m-Z-an Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
305. sN-Sn-I-sf sN-dn-b-cq-]-n h-f-p- I-e- t_m-km-bv
306. s_-bv- X-Sm-Iw G-Xv cm-Py-v- d-jy
307. hn-{Iw km-cm-`m-bv kv-t]-kv sk F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xp-(Xn-cph-\--]p-cw)
308. C-cp-n-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-ap-m-Ip- A-kp-Jw- A-\o-an-b
309. K-^p cm-Py--fn Zzo-]v- _-l-dn
310. C-y \m-jW
- tIm-{K-kv cq-]h
- X
- vI
- r-Xa
- m-b h-jw- 1885
311. `q-Zm-\-{]-m-\-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- B-Nm-cy hn-t\m-_m
`m-sh
312. tem-I-s G--hpw h-en-b a-cp-`q-an- k-lm-d
313. a-\p-jy-s km-[m-c-W c- k--w 120/80
314. B-cy-k-am-Pw m-]n--Xv- Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
315. C-y-bn-se H-m-a-s ]u-c- {]-kn-U v
316. c--n-\p Np-h-p-\n-dw \-Ip- h-kv-Xp- lo-tam-tm-_n
317. B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f t\m-h- C-p-te-J
318. A--m-Sn G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv- ]m-e-m-Sv
319. H-cp t{Km-kv F-{X F-w- 144
320. C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b-Ko-X-am-b h-t-am-X-cw c-Nn--Xv- _-nw N{ Nm--Pn
321. \m-i-Im-cn-bm-b \-Zn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tIm-kn

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

B-n-n 352 {]-Im-cw tZ-io-b A-Sn-b--cm-h- {]Jym-]n-m F-{X am-k-n-\-Iw ]m-e-sa v B \-S-]Sn Aw-Ko-I-cn-n-cn--Ww
tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s X-]m m-m-b s]-n mn-s hn-e F-{X s]-n-bm-bn-cp-p
A-ao-_-bv-v F-{X tIm-i--fp-v
H-cp _n cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-v \n-b-a-\n-am-W-k-`-bn-te-v F{X {]m-h-iyw Xn-cn--b-bv-mw
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv Ir-jn-bv-v Du \-In-b-Xv
{Kn-tKm-dn-b I-e--dn-se G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv i-I-hjw B-cw-`n--Xv
kw-m-\--fp-sS H-cp bq-Wn-b-\m-Wv C-y- F-v \nh-Nn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw F-{Xm-a-s-Xm-Wv
C-y-bn F-{X X-cw ]u-c-Xz-am-Wp--Xv
H-n-\v F-{X Im-ep-I-fp-v
H--I--n-bp-sS ap--bn F-{X tIm-i--fp-v
Km-n-Pn F-{X h-t- a-i k-t-f\
-
- f
- n-em-Wv ]-s-Sp-X
- v
a-\p-jy-s B-am-i-b-n-se A-d-I-fp-sS F-w
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- `m-K
- n-em-Wv (]m-v) bqWn-b-s\-p-dn-pw `q-{]-tZ-i-s-p-dn-pw {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-Xv
322. C-y-bn tX-bn-e-bpw Im-n-bpw Ir-jn-sN-p- {]-tZ-iw
- Z-n-tW-y
323. ]m-N-Iw sN-p-tm [-cn-m G--hpw A-\p-tbm-Py-am-b hkv-{Xw- ]-cp-n
324. \m-j-W U-b-dn dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- IWm
325. C-y A-{Kn-I--d dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv
\yq-U-ln
326. t^m-d-v dn-k-v C-n-yq-n-s B-m-\w--sU-dm-Uq
327. sk-{S s]m--tm dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--jnwe
328. sk-{S ssd-kv dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- I--v
329. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b s]m-Xp-ta-J-em-m-]-\w- C-y
sd-bn-th
330. H-cp en- P-e-n-s `m-cw- 1000 {Kmw
331. Am-n--tbm-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p- `q-J-Wv-Uw- sX-t Ata-cn-
332. d-jy hn--h-n-s {]-[m-\ t\-Xm-hv- se-\n
333. ln-cm-p-Uv A-W-s-v G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- a-lm-\-Zn
334. Pq-lp _o-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- apw-ss_
335. Xw-kv A-]v F-p-X-cw D-]--am-Wv- _n-h-td-Pv
336. Hm-n-kv F-p-X-cw D-]--am-Wv- en-^v-v
337. Im-Uv-_-dn-kv F-p-X-cw D-]--am-Wv- anTm-bn
338. hn-th-Im-\- ]m-d G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
339. _-nw-Kv-lmw sIm-m-cw B-cp-sS h-k-Xn-bm-Wv- {_n-o-jv samWm-v (cm-Pmhv/cmn)
340. ssh-v lu-kv B-cp-sS Hu-tZym-Kn-I h-k-Xn-bm-Wv- bp.F-kv.{]kn-U v
341. C-y-bn B-n-se G--hpw \o-fw Ip-d- Zn-h-kw- Unkw-_ 22
342. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS P-\-\w F-m-Wv- 1869 H-Iv-tSm-_ 2
343. C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b Nn-w- A-tim-I-kv-Xw-`w
344. kq-cy-t\m-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p n-Xn sN-p- {K-lw- _p[
345. `q-I
- X
- c
- w-K
- f
- p-sS Xo-{h-X A-f
- p- D-]I
- c
- W
- w- ko-kvt- am{Km-^v
346. U-v Cu-v C-Uo-kv F--dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv- C-tm-\o-jy

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

47

347. A-ta-cn- I-s-n-b-Xv- {In--^ sIm-fw-_-kv


348. C-kp-en I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- {^-U-dn-Iv _mnw-Kv, Nm-kv _v
349. F-kv.sI. s]m--m-n-\v m-\-]oTw e-`n- h-jw 1980
350. sI--Un h-[n--s- h-jw- 1963
351. 1986- Im-W-s- hm-\--{Xw- lm-en
352. F-hn-sS-bm-Wv ssN-X-\y `-n-{]-m-\w {]-N-cn-n--Xv- _wKm
353. k-h-cm-Py-k-Jyw G-Xp-h-j-am-Wv \n-e-hn h--Xv- 1920
354. k-ky--fp-sS {]-Xn-I-c-W-ti-jn sX-fn-bn- im-kv-{X--
sP.kn.t_m-kv
355. Z-n-tW-y-bn-\n-pw {]-[m-\-a-{n--bm-b c-m-a-s hyn- tZ-h-Ku-U
356. Jn-em-^-v {]-m-\w B-cw-`n--Xv- A-en k-tlm-Z-c-am
357. tU-hn-kv I-v G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- tem
sS-o-kv
358. G--hpw D-b-c-n-ep- ]oT-`q-an- ]m-ao
359. lm-Mnw-Kv Km-U F-hn-sS-bm-bn-cp-p- _m-_n-tem
360. kv-^n-Iv-kv G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
361. ]n-k-bn-se N-cn- tKm-]p-cw G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- C--en
362. G--hpw h-en-b {K-lw- hym-gw
363. kv-Iu-v {]-m-\w m-]n--Xv- t_-U ]-h
364. F--b t-v _n-Unw-Kv G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- bp-F-kv-F
365. G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- Im-kv-]n-b I-S
366. ssN-\-bp-sS Zp-Jw F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-Zn- slm-bm-Mv-tlm
367. G-Xp cm-Py-s en-]n-bm-bn-cp-p -lo-tdm-n-^n-Iv-kv- Cu-Pn-]vXv
368. B-Zy-am-bn ssl-{U-P t_mw-_p-m-n-b-Xv- F-tUz-Uv sS
369. ss_-t^m- se-kv I-p ]n-Sn--Xm-cv- s_--an {^mvf
- n
370. ]m-Iv I-S-en-Sp-v G-sX-mw cm-Py--n-S-bn- C-y- {ioe-
371. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b U-- kp--_-kv
372. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Zzo-]-k-aq-lw- C-sm-\o-jy
373. ]m-{Sn-kv epw-apw-_ B-cm-Wv- tImw-tKm-bp-sS kzm-X-{y-k-a-c\m-b-I
374. i-I h-j-n-se B-Zy-s am-kw- ssN-{Xw
375. C-tm-\n-jy-bp-sS \m-W-bw- dp-n-b
376. C-y I-d-kn Z-imw-i kw-hn-[m-\-n-te-v am-dn-b h-jw 1957
377. kz-X-{ C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s K-h-W P-\-d- au-v-_m {]-`p
378. ]m-S-e-\-K-cw(]n-v kn-n) F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- P-bv-]q
379. k-Rv-P-b F- Xq-en-Im-\m-a-n A-dn-b-s--Xv- Fw.cm-apn \m-b
380. A-m-cm-jv-{S-\o-Xn-\ym-b tIm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w- tl-Kv
381. _w-Km-fn-s Zpx-Jw F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-Zn- Zm-tam-Z
382. c-mw tem-I a-lm-bp-w A-h-km-\n- Xo-b-Xn- 1945 sk-]vXw-_ c-v
383. ]n-b-dn Iyp-dn-bv-sm-w td-Un-bw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- ta-cn Iyq-dn
384. C-cp- `q-J-Wv-Uw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B-{^n-
385. m-kn bp-w \-S- h-jw 1757
386. ]-Wv-Un-v c-hn-i--dp-am-bn _--s- kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-Ww-
kn-Xm
387. am-en F- km-ln-Xy-Im-c-s b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- am-[-h-\m-b
388. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS \n-t-i-{]-Im-cw ssh-w k-Xym-{K-l- k-a-bv \n-co--I-\m-bn F-n-b-Xv- hn-t\m-_m `m-sh
389. kzm-X-{y-Km-Y c-Nn--Xv- Ip-am-c-\m-im
390. A-ym--bp-w c-Nn--Xv- hm-Kv-`-Sm-\-
391. s]-cn-\m-Sv k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- A--m-fn
392. ]m- e n- s Kp- W - \ n- e - h m- c w A- f - m- \ p- ] - t bm- K n- p- - X v -
em-Iv-tSm-ao-
393. tI-c-f Im-fn-Zm-k F--dn-b-s--Xv- tI-c-f-h-a h-en-b tImbn--p-cm

48

CONFUSING FACTS
{]m-No-\ tI-c-f-n-se Pq-X hym-]m-cn-I-fp-sS kw-L-am-bncp-p A-p-h-w. {]m-No-\ tI-c-f-n-se kn-dn-b {Inkv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS kw-L-am-bn-cp-p a-Wn-{Km-aw.
tI-c-f I-em-a-Wv-U-ew m-]n-X-am-b h-jw 1930. tI-c-f
I-em-aW
- U
v- e
- s
- tI-cf
- k-m G-s-Sp- h-jw 1957.
B-n- I-em-]w \-S--Xv 1721. a-e-_m I-em-]n-s `m-K-am-b hm-K {Sm-P-Un \-S--Xv 1921
tem-I-v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X t]-cn Im-W-s-Sp- c-{Kq-v H t]m-kn-o-hpw G--hpw Ip-d-p-t]-cn Im-W-s-Sp-Xv F._n. s\-K-o-hp-am-Wv.
kq-cy I-gn-m `q-an-tbm-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p- \-{Xw t{]m-Ik
v- n-am sk-tm-dn-bm-Wv. A-Xp I-gn-m B^m sk-tm-dn.
394. bq-tdm-n-s I-fn--ew F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- kzn-v-ke-Uv
395. B-hn b-{w I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sP-bnw-kv hm-v
396. s]-\n-sk-en I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- A-e-Iv-km- ^v-f-anw-Kv
397. hm-l-\--fp-sS th-Kw A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- kv-]o-tUm-ao-
398. tI-c-f C-_v-k F--dn-b-s--Xv- F Ir-jv-W-]n-
399. _v-fq au--kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- \o-e-Kn-cn
400. cw-K-kzm-an I-v F-p-am-bn _--s--Xm-Wv- tlm-n
401. _p--\v Zn-hy-m-\w e-`n- -ew- t_m-[v-K-b
402. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se B-sI Aw-K-- 141
403. {]-Im-iw H-cp h-jw-sIm-v k--cn-p- Zq-c-am-Wv {]-Im-ih-jw
404. G--hpw- ]p-cm-X-\-am-b th-Zw- E-tKz-Zw405. C-y B-Zy Ir-{Xn-tam-]-{K-l-am-b B-cy-`- hn-t-]n- Xo-bXn- 1975G-{]n 19
406. _-ln-cm-Im-i-p-t]m-b B-Zy C-y-m-c- cm-tI-jv i-a
407. kn-Jp a-Xw m-]n--Xv- Kp-cp \m-\m-v
408. a-lm-Xv-am-Km-\v-[n h-[n--s--Xv- 1948 P-\p-h-cn- 30
409. tUm. sI.F.cm-Pv G-Xv \n-e-bn-em-Wv {]-kn-- C--tWman-kv-v
410. sIm--h-jw- Xp-S-n-b-Xv- F.Un-. 825
411. N-cn-bp- tKm-]p-cw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--]n-k
412. {Km-Uv Im-\y G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- bp-F-kv-F
413. tkm-Um-sh--n D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hm-X-Iw- Im-_ Utbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
414. {io-i--cm-Nm-cy P-\n- -ew- Im-e-Sn
415. cm-{Xn-bp-sS-bpw ]-I-en-s-bpw \o-fw Xp-ey-am-Ip--Xv kq-cy
......... tc-J-bv-v ap-I-fn h-cp-tm-fm-Wv- `q-a-[y-tc-J
416. G--hpw h-en-b Zzo-]v- {Ko-e-Uv
417. ]-d-p- k-kv-X-\w- -h-m418. _-ln-cm-Im-i k-m-cn-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X- hm-eo-\ sX-c-jvtIm-h
419. _m-tcm-ao- I-p]n-Sn--Xv- tSm-dn-skn
420. te h-te-k G-Xv cmPy-m-c-\m-Wv- t]mf-v
421. bq-dn K-Km-dn G-Xv
cm- P y- m- c - \ m- W v -
ap tkm-hn-b-v bqWn-b
422. _--^v-ssf kv-t{SmC-y B-Zy Ir-{Xn-tam-]-{K-l-am-b
v G-Xv Im-bn-I-C-\B-cy-`- hn-t-]n-
hp-am-bn _--s-nXob-Xn- 1975G-{]n 19
cn-p-p- \o-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

423. s]-\m-n Inv G-Xv Im-bn-IC


- \
- h
- p-am-bn _-s
- -n-cn-pp
--^p-Sv-t_m
424. \n-im--X-bp-m-Ip--Xv G-Xv hn-m-an-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-am-Wv hn-m-an F
425. kz--am-bn ssl-tm-S-Xn-bp- tI-{-`-c-W-{]-tZ-iw- U-ln
426. sk-{S Syq-_ t{Im-]v-kv dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS nXn sN-p-p- {io-Im-cyw
427. c- R v - P n t{Sm- ^ n G- X p I- f n- b p- a m- b n _- - s - n- c n- p- p {In--v
428. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-s Du-jv-am-hv F-{X ^m-c-lo-m-Wv- 98.4
429. a-v ]-c-p- Po-hn- Iyq-e-Iv-kv sIm-Xp-Iv
430. _- n- q \m- j - W ]m- v G- X p kw- m- \ - v I-Wm-S-Iw
431. kp-h-W-t-{Xw F-hn-sS--bm-W v- A-ar-
432. H-tc D-b-c-n-ep- -e--sf _-n-n-p-sIm-v `q-]-Sn h-c-bv-p- tc-J- tIm-q tc-J
433. I-enw-K ss{]-kv G-Xv cw-K-s an-I-hn-s\ Aw-Ko-I-cn-m-\mWv \-Ip--Xv- im-kv-{X-s P-\-{]n-b-am-p--Xn-\v
434. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv ]q-W-kz-cm-Pv {]-ta-bw ]mkm-n-b h-jw- 1929(em-tlm)
435. ]n--c-kw D-ev-]m-Zn-n-p- {K-n- I-c
436. km-tc P-lmw tk A-Ov-Om.... c-Nn--Xv- ap-l--Zv C-Iv-_m
437. C-y-bn-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- a-e-\n-c- B-c-h-n
438. {]m-No-\ C-y-bn-se {]-i-kv-X-\m-b \n-b-a-Zm-Xm-hv- a-\p
439. C-y Un-ssh-U-Uv (hn-`- `m-c-Xw) B-cp-sS Ir-Xn-bm-Wv-
tUm. cm-tP-{ {]-km-Zv
440. sN-kn {Km-Uv am- ]-Z-hn t\-Sn-b B-Zy C-y Xm-cw-
hn-iz-\m-Y B-\-v
441. a-lm-_-en-]p-cw G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
442. ]m-Wv-U-h-am-cp-sS aq- k-tlm-Z-c- bp-[n-jvTn-c
443. tI-c-f-n-s ]-Sn-m-dv `m-K-s I-S- A-d-_n--S
444. 1956\p-ap-v tI-c-f-n-ep-m-bn-cp- aq-v L-S-I-- Xn-cphn-Xmw-Iq, sIm-n, a-e-_m
445. Im-kn-cw-K \m-j-W ]m-v G-Xp kw-m-\-v- A-kw
446. bp-s\-kv-tIm-bp-sS B-m-\w- ]m-co-kv
447. kv-I-hn- F- tcm-Kw G-Xp hn-m-an-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-am-Wv D-mIp--Xv- hn--an kn
448. cm-Py-k-`-bp-sS A-[y-- D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn
449. A-n-p-S-h k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- B-dm-p-]p-g th-em-bp-[ ]-Wn-
450. Pm-Xn-\n-W-bw c-Nn--Xv--{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
451. Kp-cp-hm-bq k-Xym-{K-l I-n-n-bp-sS A-[y--\m-bn-cp--Xv-
a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
452. B-\--Pm-Xn F- B-i-b-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- {_-m-\-in-h-tbm-Kn
453. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s B-tm-]-tZ-i-i-X-Iw Cw-Kv-fo-jn-tev ]-cn-`m-j-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- \-S-cm-P-Kp-cp
454. ssX-m-Sv A- P-\n- -ew- \-I-e-]p-cw
455. kv-sX-X-kv-tIm-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sse-\m-Iv
456. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s s]m-Xp Xn-c-s-Sp-v \-S- h-jw-
1952 (1951 XpSn)
457. I-m-w G-Xv \n-e-bn {]-kn-w- A-Wp-i-n-\n-e-bw
458. ]m-Xn-cm kq-cy-s \m-Sv- t\m-th
459. kzm-X-{yw A-[-cm-{Xn-bn F- ]p-kv-X-Iw F-gp-Xn-b-Xv-
sUm-an-\n-Iv em-]n-b-dpw em-dn tIm-fn-kpw
460. tdm-v Km-U F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
461. C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ]p-jv-]w- Xm-a-c
462. C-y-bp-sS ]-Sn-m-dv `m-K-p- I-S- A-d-_n--S
463. B-cp-sS P-Z- n-\a
- m-Wv in-ip-Zn-\a
- m-bn B-Nc
- n-p-X
- v- P-hm-lem s\-{lp
464. N-{-\n-en-d-n-b B-Zy _-ln-cm-Im-i k-m-cn- \o Bw-kvt{Sm-Mv
465. G--hpw `m-cw Ip-d- hm-X-Iw- ssl-{U-P
466. {_--k-am-Pw m-]n--Xv- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdm-bv
467. C-y B-Zy-am-bn hn-t-]n- D-]-{K-lw- B-cy-`-
468. a-lm-m-Km-n P-\n- -ew- t]m-_-
469. tI-c-f I-em-a-Wv-U-e-n-s B--m--\w- sN-dp-Xp-cp-n

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

tem-Iv-k-`-bn-te-v F-{X Bw-tm C-y Aw-K--sfbm-Wv {]-kn-U v \m-a-\n-t-iw sN-p--Xv


`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s `m-K-n-em-Wv (]m-v) ]uc-Xz-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
G--hpw sN-dn-b A-`m-Py kw-Jy
F-{Xm-as
- ]-h
-
- c
- ]-X
- n-m-e
- m-Wv Jm-Zn B v
hn-t-Pv C-U-kv-{So-kv I-n-j cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn--Xv
D-]-{K-l--fn-m- F-{X {K-l--fm-Wv ku-c-bq-Y-n-ep-Xv
tem-I a-lm-bp-- F-{X-sb--am-Wv \-S-n-p--Xv
{]m-No-\ C-y-bn ssP-\-a-X-n-s F-{X a-lm-k-tf-\- \-S-n-p-v
_o-v thm-fn-t_m-fn H-cp So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
F-{_-lmw en- F-{X {]m-h-iyw A-ta-cn- {]-knUm-bn Xn-c-s-Sp--s-n-p-v
tem-I-cm-Py--n-S-bn P-\-kw-Jy-bn C-y-bp-sS
m-\w
C-y ]m-e-san-\v F-{X k-`-I-fp-v
H-cm-v ]-c-am-h-[n F-{X {]m-h-iyw A-ta-cn- {]-knUm-Imw
tUm. cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zv F-{X {]m-h-iy-am-Wv C-y-bp-sS {]kn-Um-b-Xv
A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fn-se sk-\-n H-cp t-n-s\
F-{X t]-cm-Wv {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w sN-p--Xv
C-c- kw-Jy-bm-b G-I A-`m-Py kw-Jy
{In--v am-n ^o-Un-se A--b-am-cp-sS F-w
cm-Py-s ]-Z-hn--n-I-bn-se {I-a-n ssh-kv {]-knU v F-{Xm-a-Xm-Wv
470. kq-v-a h-kv-Xp--sf h-ep-Xm-bn Im-Wp-hm-\p- D-]-I-c-Ww-
ssa-t{Im-kv-tIm-v
471. ssh-w k-Xym-{K-lw \-S- h-jw - 19241925
472. ]-cn-Wm-a-kn-m-w B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv- Nm-kv Um-hn
473. K-h-W-sd \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv- {]-kn-U v
474. H-cp S F-{X In-tem-{Kmw- 1000
475. F-h-d-v Io-g-S-n-b B-Zy C-y h-\n-X- _-tN-{n-]m
476. C-y-bn \n-an- B-Zy-s kw-kv-Ir-X kn-\n-a- B-Zn-i-cm-Nm-cy
477. \m-j-W C-n-yq-v Hm-^v \yp-{Sn-j F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sslZ-cm-_m-Zv
478. Hm C-ym C-n-yq-v Hm-^v sa-Un- k-b-k-kv F-hnsS-bm-Wv- \yq-U-ln
479. sk-{S {U-Kv-kv e-t_m-d--dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm--
480. tI-c-f-n do-Pn-b-W d- dn-k-v C-n-yq-v n-Xn
sN-p- -ew- tIm--bw
481. tI-c-f sk-dm-an-Iv-kv en-an--Uv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Ip--d
482. tI-c-f t^m-d-v dn-k-v C-n-yq-v -]o-n
483. ssk-e v hm-en G-Xv Pn--bn- ]m-e-m-Sv
484. C-cp-]-Xn-\-]-cn-]m-Sn-I B-hn-jv-I-cn-v cm-Py-n-s km--nI-]p-tcm-K-Xn-v B-w Iq-n-b C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- C-n-cmKm-n
485. k-thm-Z-b {]-m-\-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- P-b-{]-Im-iv \mcm-b
486. `q-an-tbm-Sv G--hp-a-Sp-p- {K-lw- ip-{I
487. B--n-se E-W-(s\-K-o-hv) Nm-Pp- I-Ww- C-e-Iv-t{Sm
488. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-s Du-jv-am-hv- 36.9 sk-jy-kv
489. d-{^n-P-td--dn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hm-X-Iw- {^n-tbm
490. C-y A-Wp-]-co--Ww \-S-p- -ew- s]m-Jv-cm
491. t^m-th-Uv _v-tfm-v cq-]-h--cn--Xv- kp-`m-jv N-{-t_mkv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

49

492. a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- F-gp--


493. Iyq-_ I-s-n-b-Xv- sIm-fw-_-kv (1492)
494. A-Xn-n Km-n F--dn-b-s--Xv- Jm A-_v-Zp Km-^
Jm
495. hn-th-Im-\- sa-tm-dn-b F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
496. a-te-dn-b ]-cm-Z-Po-hn-sb I-s-n-b-Xv- sdm-Wm-Uv tdm-kv
497. G--hpw Xn-f--ap- {K-lw- ip-{I
498. A-Wp-kw-Jy-bpw A-Wp-`m-c-hpw Xp-ey-am-b aq-e-Iw- ssl-{UP
499. C-y-bp-am-bn \m-hn-I-am-Kw hm-Wn-Py-_-w m-]n- BZy-s bq-tdm-]y cm-Pyw- t]m-p-K
500. ]-Zm-Y-n-s \m-em-a-s A-h-- m-kv-a
501. knw-e I-cm-dn H-p-sh--Xv- kp-^n- A-en `q-tm-bpw Cn-cm-Km-n-bpw
502. G-jy-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- bm-Mv-kn
503. in-em-t-{X--p {]-kn--am-b X-an-gv-\m-n-se Xo-c-]--Ww a-lm-_-en-]p-cw
504. C-y-m ssk-a I-n-j-s\ _-ln-jv-I-cn-m Im-c-Ww Aw-K--fn C-y-m C-m--Xn-\m
505. B-Zw-kv {_n-Uv-Pv G-sXm-s cm-Py--n-S-bn- C-y-bpw
{io-e--bpw
506. ^n-\m-kv I-n-j sN-b-am-s\ \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv- {]-knU v
507. C-y-bn km-bp-[-tk-\-I-fp-sS k-h ssk-\ym-[n-] Bcm-Wv- {]-kn-U v
508. m-\-]oT-n-\-l-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X- B-im-]q-Wm-tZ-hn
509. tem-I-n-se G--hpw sN-dn-b ]-c-am-[n-Im-c cm-jv-{Sw h-nm
510. Um-Pn-enw-Kv G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-n-a _w-Km
511. Kp-am-Kv kp-J-hm-k-tI-{w G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- P-p
I-ia
-v o
512. dn-thm-h I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- km-ap-h tIm-v
513. B-h-Kw {]-k-hn-p- Po-hn- I-S-p-Xn-c
514. tI-{ In-g-p-hn-f K-th-j-W-tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--{io-Im-cyw
(Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw)
515. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS B-m-\w- \yq-tbm-v
516. aq-p X-h-W D-h-in A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b-Xv- im-c-Z
517. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn Hm-kv-I A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b-Xv- `m-\p
A--
518. am-m-Wv-U-h-a F- t\m-h-se-gp-Xn-b-Xv- kn.hn.cm-a ]n
519. R-c-p-I-fp-sS ]T-\w kw-_-n- im-kv-{X-im-J- \yq-tdm-f-Pn
520. a-e--\n-v Im-c-W-am-b sIm-Xp-Ip-h-Kw- A-t\m-^n-e-kv
521. ]p-I-bn-e-bn Im-Wp- {]-[m-\ hn-j-h-kv-Xp- \n-tm-n
522. C-y kz-X-{-am-Ip-tm {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a-{n- -a v Bv-en

knw-e I-cm-dn H-p-sh--Xv-


kp-^n- A-en `q-tm-bpw C-n-cm-Km-n-bpw

50

CONFUSING FACTS
B-c
- y-aR
- vP
- c
- n c-Nn-X
- v Ip-et- i-Jc
- B
- g
- vh
- m B-Wv. B-cy-Nq-Vm-a-Wn c-Nn--Xv i-n-`-{Z. hn-th-I-Nq-Vm-a-Wnbp-sS I-m-hv i--cm-Nm-cy.
C-\m-j-W ^n-enw s^-n-h Hm-^v C-y-bn anI- Nn-{X-n-\p \-Ip- ]p-c-kv-Im-c-am-Wv kp-h-W-abq-cw . tI-c-f-n-se C-\m-j-W ^n-enw s^-n-hen an-I- Nn-{X-n-\p \-Ip- ]p-c-kv-Im-c-am-Wv kph-W N-tIm-cw.
Z-n-tW-y-bp-sS A-cn-n-w F-v Ir-jv-Wm--tKm-Zm-hcn U--bpw Z-n-tW-y-bp-sS [m-\y-p-c F-v X-mhq-cpw A-dn-b-s-Sp-p.
tI-c-f-n \n-v ]m-e-saw-K-am-b B-Zy h-\n-X B\n a-kv-{Io. tI-c-f-n-\n-v cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-b BZy h-\n-X `m-c-Xn D-Z-b-`m-\p.
523. C-y-bn-se \q-dp-cq-]m t\m-n Im-Wp- H-v B-cp-tS-Xm-Wv-
dn-k-hv _m-v K-h-W
524. Cw-Kv-fo-jv Nm-\ \o-n--S- B-Zy-s C-y-m-c- anln-sk
525. ssS t{_- G-Xv I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ^p-Svt_m
526. C-y-bn ap-K `-c-W-n-\v A-Sn--d ]m-In-b bp-w H-mw ]m-\n--v bp-w(1526)
527. C-{K tIm-v ^m-Iv-S-dn F-hn--s-Sb
-- m-Wv- s]-c-q- (sN-ss)
528. C-y-bn kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w- \yq-U-ln
529. A-P-m- Kp-l-I- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p- kw-kv-Ym-\w- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
530. D-Sp--tNm-e G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv- C-Sp-n
531. hn-iz-`m-c-Xn k-h-I-em-im-e m-]-I- Sm-tKm
532. _p- P-\n- -ew- epw-_n-\n
533. P-bv P-hm P-bv In-km F- ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-n-s D-]-mXm-hv- em _-lm-Zq im-kv-{Xn
534. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sa-Un- tIm-tf-Pn-s m-]-I-
hn-eyw s_n-Iv
535. B-cp-sS Im-e-m-Wv lyp-bm km-Mv C-y-bn h--Xv- lj
536. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bp-sS kz-W-sa-U- t\-Sn-b B-Zy- a-e-bm-f-Nn-{Xw sN-o537. kq-cy-\n-\n-v G--hpw A-I-se-bp- {K-lw- s\-]v-yq
538. tem-Iv-am-\y F--dn-b-s--Xv- _m-e-Kw-Km-[-c Xn-e-Iv
539. C-y-bn-se B-Zy {In-kv-Xy ]--n m-]n- -ew- sImSp--q
540. _-ln-cm-Im-i-K-th-j-W tI-{w tI-c-f-n-se G-Xv Pn--bn-emWv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
541. t-{X-{]-th-i-\-hn-fw-_-c-n H-p-sh- cm-Pm-hv- {io-Nn-nc-Xn-cp-\m
542. ]-Xn-t\-gmw-hb
-
- n-\p-ti-jw hn-Zym-`ym-kw-t\-Sm-\m-cw-`n- \-thmm-\ \m-b-I--hn.Sn.`--Xn-cn-m-Sv
543. G-Xv h-ja
- m-bn-cp-p hn.Sn.`-X
- n-cn-m-Sn-s bm-N\
- m-bm-{X- 1931
544. km-[p-P-\-]-cn-]m-e-\ kw-L-n-s ap-J-]-{X-am-bn 1913 Bcw-`n--Xv- km-[p-P-\-]-cn-]m-en-\n
545. a-e-_m I-em-]w ]-m--e-am-n Ip-am-c-\m-im c-Nn- IrXn- Zp-c-h-
546. G-Xp {K-n-bp-sS {]-h--\ ssh-I-eyw aq-e-am-Wv {]-ta-lw
D-m-Ip--Xv- B-t-b-{K-n
547. hm-Xw _m-[n-p- i-co-c-`m-Kw- k-n-I
548. B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f ]-{Xw- cm-Py-k-am-Nm-cw
549. m-Nyp Hm-^v en-_-n- G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv kv-Ym-]n-n-cn-p-Xv- bp.F-kv.F.
550. C-y-bn Cu-n-ym---\n-bp-sS `-c-Ww A-h-km-\n- hjw- 1858

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

551. i-I-h-j-n-se B-Zy-am-kw- ssN-{Xw


552. C-kp-en-\n-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-ap-m-Ip- tcm-K-ta-Xv- U-b-_-nkv sa-en--kv
553. tXm-a-kv I-v G-Xp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- _m-Uv-an
554. Im-em-h--sb-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- sa-n-tbm-tdm-f-Pn
555. hm-p-I-fp-sS D-Zv-`-h-s-bpw hn-Im-k-s-bpw Ip-dn-p- ]T\w- F-n-tam-f-Pn
556. ap-tm-pw ]n-n-te-pw ]-d-m I-gn-hp- ]-n- l-n-Mv
]-n
557. kv-{Xo-I-v \n-_-n-X ssk-\n-I tk-h-\w hy-h- sNp- G-I cm-Pyw- C-{k-tb
558. ss{U sF-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- J-cm-h--bn-ep- Im_ U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
559. H-cp Ip-cp-hn-bp-sS ]-X-\w B-cp-sS B--I-Y- k-enw A-en
560. _n-Kv s_- tm-v F-hn-sS m-]n-n-cn-p-p- e-
561. A-tcm-hn-s F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]p-Xp-t-cn
562. s{Iw-en F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- tam-kv-tIm
563. A-kzm Umw G-Xv cm-Py-v- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
564. sP-p-hn-am-\w ]-d
- n-b B-Zy C-y h-\n-Xm I-am-U- kuZm-an-\n tZ-iv-ap-Jv
565. t_m-tem-Kv A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bn \-Ip-p- Ir-jn
566. ^-t-]q kn-{In \n-an- ap-K N-{I-h-n- A-Iv-_
567. k-am-[m-\-n-s a-\p-jy F--dn-b-s-n-cp- C-y {]-[m\-a-{n- em _-lm-Zq im-kv-{Xn
568. G-Xv aq-e-Iw tN- tem-l k--c-am-Wv A-am-Kw- sa-p-dn
569. J-cm-h--bn-\n-pw {Zm-h-I-am-Im-sX t\-cn-v hm-X-I-am-Ip-
{]-{In-b- k-n-ta-j
570. G-X-h-b-h-s _m-[n-p- tcm-K-am-Wv {S-tm-a- I-v
571. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h-\-{]-tZ-i-ap- C-y kw-m-\w-
a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
572. X-t-m-Sv G-Xp \n-e-bn {]-kn-w- ]-n k-t-Xw
573. A-Pp-\ A-hm-Uv G-s-Sp-n-b h-jw- 1961
574. bq-tdm-n-se tcm-Kn F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Xp-n
575. hn-Zq-c ku--cy-n-s \-K-cw- hm-jn-Mv-S Un.kn.
576. t{K-v Un-Iv-tS- F- N-e-n-{X-n-s kw-hn-[m-b-I- Nmfn Nm-]v-fn
577. H-cp C-y kw-m-\-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm K-h-W-
k-tcm-Pn-\n \m-bn-Up
578. {]nnw-Kv {]-kv I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm Kp--_-Kv
579. tem-I-s G--hpw sN-dn-b I-c-_--cm-Pyw h-n-m
580. U-b-_-n-Iv-kv \n-b-{n-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- C-kp-en
581. E-tKz-Z-Im-e-s G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- C{
582. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B---m-\w- Xr-q
583. Ip-t{Z-ap-Jv A-b Hm t{]m-P-Iv-Sv n-Xn-sN-p- kw-m\w- I-Wm-S-Iw
584. Ip-n-p-Un G-Xp kw-m-\-s \r--cq-]w- B-{m-{]-tZiv
585. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ImTn-\y-ap- ]-Zm-Yw- h-{Pw
586. B-kv-]n-cn B-Zy-am-bn th-Xn-cn-s-Sp--Xv- tlm-^v-am
587. C-y l-cn-X-hn--h-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- Fw.F-kv.kzm-an-\m-Y
588. C-y _n-kv-am-v F--dn-b-s--Xv- k-Zm ]-t
589. ln-v-e ^yq-d (k-hm-[n-Im-cn) F- m-\-t-cp kzo-I-cn-
h-jw- 1934
590. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b Kp-cp- tKm-J-se
591. sj-e-Iv-tlmw-kv F- I-Ym-]m-{X-s kr-jv-Sn--Xv- B-X
tIm-\ tUm-b
592. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b cm-Pyw- d-jy
593. tem-I-s- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn--ss\
594. ln-p-m sa-jo Sq-kv n-Xn-sN-p--Xv.......... Pn--bnem-Wv- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
595. A-ta-cn--bn A-Sn-a-w \n-tcm-[n- h-jw- 1863
596. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` Hu-tZym-Kn-I-am-bn \n-e-hn h--Xv- 1945 HIv-tSm-_ 24
597. C-ybpsS B-Zy Am-n- ]-cy-S-\w ey-n-senb
h-jw- 1982

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp F-{X {]m-h-iyw {io-e- k--in-np-v


I-d-kn t\m-p-I-fn dn-k-hv _m-v K-h-W-dp-sS H-v
F-{X `m-j-I-fn-em-Wv Im-W-s-Sp--Xv
tem-Iv-k-` h-j-n Np-cp-n-b-Xv F-{X {]m-h-iyw kt-fn-n-cn--Ww
a-y-n-s lr-Z-b-n-se A-d-I-fp-sS F-w
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv a-l-e-t\m-_n-kv
am-Xr-I F--dn-b-s--Xv
B-n-n 356 {]-Im-cw kw-m-\-v A-Sn-b--cm-h {]-Jym-]n-m F-{X am-k-n-\-Iw ]m-e-sa v B
\-S-]-Sn Aw-Ko-I-cn-n-cn--Ww
A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fn F-{X X-cw ]u-c-Xz-ap-v
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv h-In-S hy-h-kmb--v Du- \-In-b-Xv
cm-Py-k-`-bp-sS aq-n-sem-v Aw-K- F-{X h-jw IqSp-tm-fm-Wv hn-c-an-p--Xv
c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--n P-m-\n F-{X {]m-h-iyam-Wv A-Wp-t_mw-_n--Xv
C-y \m-hn-I-tk-\-bv-v F-{X ^v-fo-p-I-fp-v
598.
599.
600.
601.
602.
603.
604.
605.
606.
607.
608.
609.
610.
611.
612.
613.
614.
615.
616.
617.
618.
619.
620.
621.
622.
623.
624.
625.

tKm-Uv tIm-v F--dn-b-s-n-cp- cm-Pyw- Lm-\


{S-tm-a F-n-s\ _m-[n-p- A-kp-J-am-Wv- I-v
G--hpw sN-dn-b `q-J-Wv-Uw- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
C-y-bn kz-Ww G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-Xe
- p- kw-m-\w- I-WmS-Iw
B-cp-sS Ir-Xn-bm-Wv I-p-\o-p-n- \m-e-m-v \m-cm-b-Wta-t\m
tI-c-f-n-s h-S-t-b--s Pn-- Im-k-tIm-Sv
a-e-p-g A-W-s-v G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv- ]m-e-m-Sv
C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ]-n- a-bn
Im-m-ar-K-n-s sIm-v F-n-s cq-]m--c-W-am-Wv-
tcm-aw
In-g-n-s Hm-Iv-kv-^-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]q-s\
in-h-Pn-bp-sS hm- `-hm-\n
tem-Iv-k-`-bn-epw cm-Py-k-`-bn-epw {]-Xn-]--t\-Xm-hm-b G-Ihy-n- F.sI.A-Zzm-\n
sP-bnw-kv t_m-v F- I-Ym--]m-{X-s kr-jv-Sn--Xv- C-bm
^v-sf-an-Mv
ss]-tdm-ep-ssk-v G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- amw-K-\o-kv
tm-Wnw-Kn-eq-sS ]n-d- B-Zy-s F-cp-a-p-n- kw-cq-]
I- ]m-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- _mw-q
Ip- \-ym P-\n- -ew- In-n-p-dn-n aw-K-ew
Ip--e-X F-gp-X-s- h-jw- 1887
Ip--e-tm-\m-Xn-cn F- m-\-t-cp kzo-I-cn-n-cp- cm-Pmhv- tIm-gn-tm-Sv cm-Pm-hv
tI-c-f-ssl-tm-S-Xn-bn-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm No-^v P-n-kv--P-nkv kp-Pm-Xm a-t\m-l
tI-c-fw B-Zy-am-bn k-tm-jv t{Sm-^n t\-Sn-b h-jw- 1973
`m-c-n-s A-Sn-m-\-n P-e-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv
Hm-Iv-kn-P- 89
Pn--bp-sS i-h-Ip-So-cw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--I-dm-n
Ip-m-b-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- Im-kyw ssl-t{Um-Iv-ssk-Uv
Iq-Sp \n-an-p- G-I ]m-v- cm-P-sh-m-e
Iq-Sp-X A-f-hn F-Y-t\m I-gn-m tI-Sp-h-cp- A-h-bhw- hr-
I-S-P-e-n-e-en-p tN-n-p- ]-Zm-Y--fn i-X-am-\mSn-m-\-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep--Xv- tm-dn
I-Sp-, Xm-n-, s\-n- C-Xv aq-n-\pw Iq-Sn-bp- t]-cv-
{Xn-^-e

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

51

626. `m-c-X c-Xv-\ t\-Sn-b C-y-m-c-\-m- B-Zy hy-n- Jm


A-_v-Zp Km-^ Jm
627. k-c-kz-Xn k-m-\w e-`n- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X--_m-em-a-Wnb-
628. K-co-_n lTm-thm F-v B-lzm-\w sN-bv-X C-y {]-[m-\-a{n- C-n-cm-Km-n
629. K-cp-V- G-Xp cm-Py-n-s F-b-e-kv B-Wv- C-sm-\n-jy
630. I-Sp-h C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ar-K-am-Ip--Xn-\p-ap-v- tZ-io-b-ar-Kw-kn-w-lw631. Iw-]yq- F- hm-n-s D--hw G-Xp `m-j-bn \n-m-Wv-
em-n
632. Po-h-im-kv-{X-n-se \yq- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xm-cv- -Nm-kv
Um-hn
633. tNm-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- Im-kyw Im-_-tW-v
634. Iw-]yq- k-b-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv- A-e Syq-dn-Mv
635. I-Wz-hw-i-n-se A-h-km-\-s cm-Pm-hv- kp-i-a
636. jn-bm ap-n--fp-sS ]p-Wy--e-am-b I-_m-e- G-Xp cm-Pym-Wv- C-dm-v
637. Jn-e-^-v {]-m-\-n-\v t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- A-en ktlm-Zc
- -am
638. k-ap-{Z-n-se k-{Xw F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-K-cw- tI-]v Su
639. km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS a-{n A-dn-b-s-n-cp- t]-cv- a-m--
640. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS H-mw t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS Iq-n-- ]-n-I-
H--Xmw ]-n-I
641. kn- \n-th-Zn-X-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- am-K-c-v F-en-k-_-v
t\m-_n
642. C-y-bn Im-bn-I-cw-K-v \-Ip- G--hpw D-b- _-lp-aXn- cm-Po-hv-Km-n tJ-c-Xv-\
643. b-lq-Z-cp-sS-bpw ap-n--fp-sS-bpw {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS-bpw ]-hn{X-\-K-cw- P-dp-k-tew
644. {^m--kn-se- B-Zy- dn--n-Iv- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-b- h-jw- 1792
645. Kq-J-I- G-Xp-cm-Py-s P-\-hn-`m-Kw- t\-m
646. Kp-]v-X-hw-i-n-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I Nn-w- K-cp-V
647. sS-kn-Mv t\m-sK-bp-sS B--I-Y- ssS-K Hm-^v kv-t\m-kv
648. kw-m-\-\n-b-a-k-`-I-fn-se G--hpw Ip-d- Aw-K-kw-Jy F{X-h-sc-bm-Imw- 60
649. Kq-Wn- F- Nn-{Xw h-c--Xv- ]n-m-tkm
650. kq-b-kv I-\m \n-an- F-n-\o-b- s^-Un-\m-Uv seko-]v-kv
651. k-tX sd-bn-th-bp-sS B-m-\w- sN-ss
652. ku-v sh-v B-{^n--bp-sS C-tm-g-s t]-cv- \-ao-_n-b
653. kq-b-kv I-\m tZ-i-km--cn- (1956)Cu-Pn-]v-jy {]-knU v- A-_v-Zp \m-k
654. ku-c-bq-Yw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tIm--\n--kv
655. Ku-fo-Km-{Xw- G-Xp Im-jn-I hn-f-bp-sS C-\-am-Wv- sX-v
656. ku-tcm-Pw `q-an-bn-se-p- co-Xn- hn-In-c-Ww
657. km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS \m-hn-I-tk-\m-ta-[m-hn- Ip-m-en a-c-bv-m
658. kv-s\--kv Nm-v- F-p ]-cn-tim-[n-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p-p-Im-gvN
- i
-
- n
659. P-e-n-s \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sh-\o-kv
660. kz-X-{ C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-y-m-c-\m-b K-h-W
P-\-d- kn.cm-P-tKm-]m-em-Nm-cn
661. Sm-_v-e-v cq-]-n hn--s- B-Zy-s a-cp-v- B-kv-]ncn
662. P-e-tZm-j-n-\p Im-c-Ww- ssh-d-kv
663. kv-s{S-bv-v {^w Z lm-v B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- I-]n-tZhv
664. tIcf {Km-ao _m-n-s B-m-\w- a-e-p-dw
665. kv-ss]-k-kv t_m-Un-s B-m-\w- sIm-n
666. kw-m-\-n-se G--hpw D-b- D-tZym-K-- No-^v sk{I--dn
667. kz-X-{ C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s {]-Xn-tcm-[-a-{n- _-tZ-hv
kn-Mv
668. ku--cy-ap--sX-pw B-m-Z-Zm-b-Iw F-p ]-d--Xv- Io-vkv
669. kz-X-{ hn-b-v-\m-an-s in-]n- tlm-Nn-an

52

CONFUSING FACTS
`q-an-bn-\n-v t\m-n-bm G--hpw h-ep--n ImWm I-gn-bp- \-{- Xw kq-cy-\m-Wv. kq-cy I-gn-m
`q-an-bn-\n-v t\m-n-bm G--hpw h-ep--n ImWm I-gn-bp- \--{Xw kn-dn-b-km-Wv.
ku-c-bq-Y-n-se G--hpw h-en-b D-]-{K-l-am-Wv Km-\n-aoUv. G--hpw km-{-X-Iq-Sn-b D-]-{K-l-am-Wv A-tbm.
ssZ-h-tm-Sp- t]-Sn Xn-tbm-t^m-_n-b F-pw sN-Ipm-t\m-Sp--Xv sU-a-t\m-t^m-_n-b F-pw A-dn-b-sSp-p.
th-Wm-Sp cm-Pm--am-cp-sS _n-cp-Z-am-Wv Ip-e-ti-J-c-s-cpam. sIm-n cm-Pm--am tIm-bn-e-[n-Im-cn-I F-
_n-cp-Z-am-Wv kzo-I-cn--Xv.
670. l-cn-X-hn--h-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn cm-Pyw- sa-Iv-kn-tm
671. N-e-\w sIm-v H-cp h-kv-Xp-hn-\p
e-`n-p- Du-Pw- K-Xn-tIm-Pw
672. P-hm-l-em s\-{lp \n-b-a-]-co P-bn-v _m-cn--dm-bn C-ybn Xn-cn-s-n-b h-jw- 1912
673. sN-tKz-c P-\n- cm-Pyw- A-Po\
674. ssk-_-\n-b-a- \-S-m-n-b
B-Zy G-jy cm-Pyw- knw-K-q
675. {]m-No-\-Im-e-v _m-Iv-{Sn-b F-dn-b-s-n-cp- {]-tZ-iw C-tm
kv - s {S- b v - v {^w Z lm- v
G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- A-^v-Km-\n-kvB- c p- s S B- - I - Y - b mXm
Wv - I- ] n- t Z- h v
676. _w-m-tZ-in-s kzm-X{- y-n-\mbn t]m-cm-Sn-b P-\-Io-b-tk-\- apn-_m-ln-\n
677. {]-_p--tI-c-fw F- {]-kn-o-I-c-Ww B-cw-`n--Xv- B-K-am-\
678. B-cp-sS h-k-Xn-bm-bn-cp-p km-ln-Xy-Ip-So-cw- ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp
679. G-Xv sXm-gn-en-em-Wv a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-` Hu-tZym-Kn-I Po-hn-Xw
B-cw-`n--Xv- A-[ym-]-\w
680. F-{X Zn-h-kw-sIm-m-Wv hn.Sn.`--Xn-cn-m-Sv bm-N-\-bm-{X ]qn-bm-n-b-Xv-7
681. Nm-kv F-tUz-Uv Po-s\-v G-Xp t]-cn-em-Wv {]-kn--\m-b-Xv eo I-_yq--kn-b
682. Nn-{X-tIm-v sh--m-w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- O-n-kv-KVv
683. Nn- t]m-Iv-kn-\p Im-c-W-am-Ip- tcm-Km-Wp- ssh-d-kv
684. C-y-bn Im-W-s-Sp- B-p-c-am --- C-\-ns--h-bm-Wv- Kn-
685. 1956 H-Iv-tSm-_- 14\v- B-bn-c--W-n-\v- A-\p-bm-bn-I-smw- \m-K]
v- q-cn-h
- v- _p-a
- X
- w- kzo-Ic
- n- t\-Xm-hv- _
- n.B.Awt_-Zv-I
686. H-mw tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se Xn-c-s-Sp--s- Aw-K- 126
687. Nn-e
- X
- n-Im-c
- n-se {]-[m-\I
- Y
- m-]m-{X--t- Im-he
- \
- pw I-In-bpw
688. Np-h- c-m-Wp- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv cq-]w sIm-p--Xv- An-a--bn
689. I-S-sh--cn--bn k-ar--am-bn A-S-n-bn-p- tem-lw h-t\-Un-bw
690. Nm-kv Um-hn-s ]-cy-th-jW
-
- -p-]t- bm-Kn- B-a- lmcn-b-v
691. C-y-bn l-cn-Xh
- n-h
-
- n-eq-sS G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X t\-a
- p-mb Im-jn-I hn-f- tKm-X-v

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

692. sN--S-en-s\ sa-Un--td-\n-b-\p-am-bn _-n-n-p- tXm-Sv- kqb-kv


693. Sn-p kp-m A-Sp- _-w ]p-e-n-bn-cp- {^-v `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- s\-tm-fn-b
694. {]-kn-Up Xn-c-s-Sp-n F.]n.sP.A-_v-Zp I-em-an-s\-Xnsc a-k-cn--Xv- e-v-an sk-Km
695. Kp-cp \m-\m-n-s Po-hn-X Im-e-L-w- 14691539
696. Nu-Xv-,- k-tZ-iv-ap-Jn- F-o- \n-Ip-Xn-I- \-S-n-em-n-b a-dmm- `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn--in-h-Pn
697. \- Im-\ _-tbm-f-Pn- ]m-v G-Xp kw-m-\-mWv- H-Un-j
698. ]--bp-sS Zm-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Ip--\m-Sv
699. ]--h cm-Pm--am-cp-sS hm-kv-Xp-in-ev-]-I-e-bp-sS {]-[m-\-tIw- a-lm-_-en-]p-cw
700. \-m-tZ-hn tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- D--cmJ-WvU
- v
701. \-p-sS Po-hn-X
- n-\n-v {]-Im-iw a-d
p-t]m-bn-cn-p-p.Fhn-sS-bpw C-cp-m-Wv G-X-h-k-c-n-em-Wv s\-lv-dp C-{]-Im-cw
]-d--Xv- Km-n-Pn A--cn--tm
702. \--hw-i-n-s `-c-Ww A-h-km-\n-n--Xv- N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cy
703. kw-m-\-\n-b-a-k-`-I-fn-se G--hpw Iq-Sn-b Aw-K-kw-Jy F{X-h-sc-bm-Imw- 500
704. B-Zm-an-s sIm-Sp-ap-Sn G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- {io-e-
705. ]p--bq-p-fw B-cp-sS P--tZ-i-am-Wv- am-[-hn-p-n
706. ]p-Xp-Xm-bn cq-]w-sIm-p- F--a-v- Jm-Z
707. ^m-v Sm-Iv-kv G-s-Sp-n-b B-Zy cm-Pyw- sU-m-v
708. _-tbm-f-Pn- tm-v D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- kz-`m-h {I-ao-I-cWw
709. A-h-km-\-s se-\n ]o-kv ss{]-kv t\-Sn-b-Xv--s\-ka-t-e
710. k-Xym-{K-lw F- hm-v B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv- Km-n-Pn
711. _w-m-tZ-iv kz-X-{-cm-jv-{S-am-b h-jw- 1971
712. \--]m-Z-\m-b Nn-{X-Im-c F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Fw.F-^v. lpssk
713. ]-d-p- a-y--fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- _m_-tUm-kv
714. \-a-Z-bv-pw X-]v-Xn-bv-pw C-S-bn--ep- ]-h-X-\n-c- km-Xv-]p-c
715. \--fw Xm-]-\n-e-bw G-Xp Pn--bn- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
716. ]q-h-Zn-n-se G-e-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tI-c-fw
717. \-f- k-h-I-em-im-e ]p-Xp-n--Wn-X ]p-jy-`q-Xn hw-i-nse N-{I-h-n- l-j-h-[-\
718. _-ln-cm-Im-i
- v Po-hs
- Aw-ia
- p-tm F-X
- n-s\-p-dn-v ]Tnp- im-kv-{X-im-J- F-Iv-tkm-_-tbm-f-Pn
719. \-f-N-cn-Xw B---Y-sb tI-c-f im-Ip--fw F-p hn-ti-jn-n-Xv- tPm-k-^v ap--t-cn
720. _m-_s
- d U-ln B-{I-an-m -Wn-X
- v- Zu-eX
- v Jm temZn
721. l-cn-X-I-ap- H-cp P-p- bq-n-\
722. Pm-en-b-hm-em-_m-Kv Iq--sm-e-bv-p {]-Xn-Im-c-am-bn ssa H U-b-dn-s\ h-[n--Xv- D-w kn-Mv
723. Pn- C-\m-j-W F-b-t]m-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -I-dm-n
724. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b B--cm-h-b-hw--I-c
725. Am-n-, sX-t A-ta-cn- h-I-c-I-sf th-Xn-cn-p-
I-S-en-Sp-v- t{U-v ]m-tk-Pv
726. ]-cn-n-Xn kw-c--Ww `-c-W-L-S-\-bn D-s-Sp-n-b BZy cm-Pyw- \-ao-_n-b
727. _p-Pv J-eo-^-bp-sS Un-ssk-\- A-{Un-bm kv-an-v
728. A-am-K-n-se {]-[m-\ tem-lw- sa-p-dn
729. A-an-{X-Lm-X(i-{Xp--fp-sS Lm-X-I) F--dn-b-s- au-cy-`c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- _n-p-km-c
730. A-n-n-d-Ip-I B-cp-sS B--I-Y- F.]n.sP.A-_v-Zp Iemw
731. F-kv.sI.s]m--m-n-s\ m-\-]oT-n-\-l-\m-n-b Ir-Xn H-cp tZ-i-n-s I-Y
732. C-y-bpw d-jy-bpw tN-v hn-I-kn-n-s-Sp- Bn jn-v anssk- {_-tm-kv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

kq-cy-\n-\n-p- A-Ie
- w A-\p-kc
- n-v `q-an-bp-sS m-\w
F-{Xm-aX
- m-Wv
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ F-{X co-Xn-bn t`-Z-K-Xn sN-mw
C-y-bp-am-bn _--s-v F-{X h--ta-i k-t-f-\- e-\n \-S-n-p-v
H-cp hn-j-b-n-se s\m-t_ k-m-\w ]-c-am-h-[n F-{X
t]-v ]-n-Smw
a-\p-jy-\v H-cp sN-hn-bn F-{X A-n-I-fm-Wp--Xv
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn au-en-Im-h-Im-i--sf-p-dn-v {]Xn-]m-Zn-p-X
- v F-{Xm-as
- `m-K
- n-em-Wv
Hm-tkm X-m-{X-bn F-{X Hm-Iv-kn-P B---fm-Wp-Xv
m-\-{I-a-n kq-cy-\n-\n-v F-{Xm-a-s {K-l-am-Wv
`q-an
H-cp bm-Uv F-{X A-Sn-bm-Wv
F-{X N-e-\ \n-b-a--fm-Wv \yq- B-hn-jv-I-cn-n-p--Xv
tem-Ivk
- `
- b
- v
- v H-cp h-jw F-{X sk-j\
- p-If
- p-v
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- ]-n-Ib
- m-Wv {]-Xn-I
- s
- fp-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-X
- v
\n-b-a-k-`mw-Kw A-h-X-cn-n-p- _n F-{X hm-b-\-bn-eqsS I-S
- p t]m-Ip-p
tI-cf
-
- n In-gt- m-sm-gp-Ip- \-Zn-I F-{X-sb-a
- m-Wv
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ {]-Im-cw H-cp ]u-c-\v F-{X co-Xn-bn
]u-cX
- zw \-jvS- s
- -Smw

733. A-Xve
- mn-Iv Nm-d
- n H-p-sh- A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v- {- ^mv-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
734. _n-Fw-U-_v-fyp Im \n-an-p--Xv G-Xv cm-Py-v- P-a-\n
735. A-am-hm-kn, ]u-W-an Zn-h-k--fn D-m-Ip- th-en-tb-w
A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- kv-{]n-Mv ssS-Uv
736. _o-a F- ]-Zw G-Xv I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- {In-v
737. a-Yp-c G-Xv \-Zo-Xo-c-m-Wv--b-ap-\
738. Cw-o-jv A--c-am-e-bn-se F-kv- B-Ir-Xn-bn Im-W-s-Sp-
k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
739. B-Zy-am-bn hn-t-]n- a-\p-jy-\n-an-X D-]-{K-lw- kv-]p-Sv-\n-Iv
740. A-[:- kvY
- n-Xc
- p-sS D-a
- \
-
- n-\m-bn- _-ln-jvI
- r-X ln-XI
- m-cn-Wnk-`- kv-Ym-]n--Xv -_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
741. 2018se tem-I-I-v ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-s B-Xn-tY-b--d-jy
742. C-y c-m-a-s A-Wp-hn-kv-t^m-S-\w (Hm--td-j i-n)
\-S-n-b-sX-tm- 1998 sa-bv 11, 13
743. {^m--kn-se- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- tem-bn
744. D-an-bmw X-Sm-Iw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
745. cm-Py-m-Zy-am-bn B-`y--c A-Sn-b--cm-h- {]-Jym-]n--XvG-Xv- {]-[m-\-a-{n-bp-sS Im-e-v- C-n-cm Km-n
746. D-c-K--fn-m- h-I-c--Am-n-
747. I-]S- t- em-I
- n-em-m-Ya
- m-sbm-cp lr-Zb
- a
- p-m-bX
- m-sW ]cm-P-bw F-p ]m-Sn-b-Xv- N--p-g
748. F-hn-S-s kn-\n-am hy-h-km-b-am-Wv tem-fn-hp-Uv F--dn-b-sSp--Xv -em-tlm
749. hw-i-\m-i-`o-j-Wn- t\-cn-Sp- Po-hn-I-fp-sS t]-cp-hn-h-c-- AS-n-b _p-v- -sd-Uv- Um- _p-v750. hn-t\m-Z
- n-\m-bn a-p-Po-hn-Is
- f sIm-p- G-I Po-hn-a
- \
- p-jy
751. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b B--dn- A-tbm-
752. A-m-a-s th-Zw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-lm-`m-c-Xw
753. _m-v Hm-^v kzo-U ss{]-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv G-Xv hn-jb-n-se s\m-t_ k-m-\-am-Wv- C--tWm-an-Iv-kv
754. e--Zzo-]v {Kq-n-s- Zzo-]p-I-sf an-\n-tm-bv Zzo-]p-I-fn\n-v th-Xn-cn-p- Nm-\- 9 Un-{Kn Nm-\

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

53

755. I-kv-Xq-_m Km-n F-hn-sS-h-m-Wv A--cn--Xv- B-K-Jm


]m-e-kv P-bn
756. Im-\n-Mv {]-`p-hn-s Im-e-v 1860 C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s
_-P-v A-h-X-cn-n--Xv- k sP-bnw-kv hn-k
757. \-f-N-cn-Xw In-fn-m-v c-Nn--Xv- Ip- \-ym
758. k-Xy-tim-[-Iv k-am-Pw cq-]-h--cn--Xv- tPym-Xn-_ ^q-se
759. kz-w cm-Py-s kv-t]m-Sv-kv a-{n-bm-b ^p-Sv-t_m Xm-cw-
s]-se
760. _w-Km D--S G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-s `m-K-am-Wv--C-y-alm-k-ap-{Zw
761. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS Io-gn hn-Zym-`ym-kw, im-kv-{Xw,kw-kvIm-cw F-o ta-J-e-I-fn h-f- t\-Sm {]-h-n-p- Hcp G-P-kn- bp-s\-kv-tIm
762. {_n-o-jv cm-Pm-hv C-y C-Un-s]-U-kv _n-n H-psh- Xo-b-Xn- 1947 Pq-sse 18
763. {io-]-Zv-a-\m-`-kzm-an t-{X-n ap-d-P-]-hpw `-{Z-Zo-]-hpw Bcw-`n- cm-Pm-hv- am-m-Wv-U-h-a
764. {Kn-tKm-dn-b I-e--dn-se B-Zy-s am-kw- P-\p-h-cn
765. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b t]-in- q-n-b-kv am-Iv-kna-kv
766. N--n-kzm-an-I-fp-sS \n-cym-W-n A-\p-tim-Nn-p-sIm-v kam-[n k--]w c-Nn--Xv- ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp-
767. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s B-Zy-s bq-tdm-]y in-jy- GW-v In-Iv
768. B-cp-sS _m-ey-Im-e-\m-a-am-Wv Ip-am-cp- Ip-am-c-\m-im
769. G-Xv \-thm-m-\ \m-bI
- s
- a-I\
- m-Wv \-Sc
- m-PK
- p-cp- tUm.]]p
770. {Sm-h-Iq ssS-m-\n-bw ^m-Iv-S-dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
771. -a v B-v-en C-y-bp-sS kzm-X-{yw kw-_-\v-[n- Xo-cp-am\w {]-Jym-]n- Xo-b-Xn- 1947 s^-{_p-h-cn 20
772. A-\-tIm- F--bn-\w- ]m-v- Im-W-s-Sp- h-I-c sXt A-ta-cn-
773. C-n-am-Zv D-Zv Zu-f-bp-sS i-h-Ip-So-cw \n-an--Xv- \q-P-lm
774. tJ-c-Xv-\ ]p-cv-kv-Im-cw t\-Sn-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn Xm-cw-
sI.Fw._o-\m-tam
775. sh--n-\-Sn-bn In-S-p- km-[-\--sf I-p-]n-Sn-p-Xn-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- tkm-Wm
776. A-\v-[-p-th-n-bp-- en-]n- I-p-]n-Sn-- {^-p-Im-c- eqbn- {_-bv777. a-\- x-im-kv{- X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v- kn-
- v t{^mbv-Uv
778. A-\y-Po-hn-bp-sS Iq-n ap--bn-Sp- ]-n- Ip-bn
779. a--gn-bp-sS tam-N-\-n-\m-bn {]-h-n- kw-L-S-\- am-ln alm-P-\-k-`
780. a-dm- am-Iy-sh-n F--dn-b-s--Xv- _m-em-Pn hn-iz-\m-Yv
781. a-m-t-cn-bn b-lq-Z--n m-]n--s- h-jw- 1567
782. A--[mw-t-{Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-n-em-Wv- Kp-P-dm-v
783. _w-Km hn-`-P-\-s C-y-bn-se ln-p--ap-nw sF-Iy-ns ta-ho-W t_mw-_v F-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xm-cv -kp-tc-{\m-Yv _m-\-Pn
784. A-m-a-s kn-Jv-Kp-cp-hm-b A-Pp tZ-hn-s\ h-[n- ap-K
N-{I-h-n- P-lmw-Ko
785. a-c-n G--hpw h-en-b Iq-Sp-sI-p- ]-n- _m-Uv CuKn
786. a-lm-`m-cX
-
- n-s A-hk
- m-\s
- ]-hw- kz-Km-tcm-lW
- ]hw
787. {Sn-n- B-dn-P-h-gn- {]-Xn-tcm-[n--s-Sp- tcm-K--
Un-^v-Xo-cn-b, hn--Np-a,- sS--\-kv788. a-lm-`m-c-X-n-se `o-a-s hn-Nm-c- A-h-X-cn-n-p-
Fw.Sn.bp-sS Ir-Xn- c-m-aq-gw
789. A-c-hn-m-{i-a-n-se A--bp-sS b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- ao-c dn-m-Uv
790. tem- I v - k - ` m sk- { I- - d n P- \ - d - e n- s \ \n- b - a n- p- - X m- c v -
kv-]o-
791. tI-c-f-n-se G-Xp Pn--bn-em-Wv \m-hn-I A-m-Z-an n-Xn
sN-p--Xv- I-q

54

CONFUSING FACTS

C-y-bn X--c-ln-X {]-tZ-i-s G--hpw D-b- `mKw kn-n-an-se Im--Pw-K-bpw G--hpw Xm-gv- `m-Kw
tI-c-f-n-se Ip--\m-Sp-am-Wv.
N-en-p- Im-hyw `-c-X \m-Syw, N-en-p- in-]w H-Uokn.
tem-I-{]-kn--hn--h-Im-cn-bm-b sN-tKz-c(1928-67) P-\n-Xv A-Po-\-bn-em-Wv. 1954 s_m-fo-hn-b-bn-se-n-b
A-t-lw A-hn-sS-\n-v sa-Iv-kn-tm-bn-epw F-n. Iyq_ hn-h
-
- n Im-ktv- {Sm-bs
v- m-w tXm tN-p-s]mcp-Xn-b sN-tKz-c ]n-o-Sv Iyq-_ hn-Sp-I-bpw s_m-fn-hn-b
a-e-\n-c-I-fn hn--h-{]-h--\- \-S-p-I-bpw sN-bvXp. C-hn-sS-h-v F-Xn-cm-fn-I-fp-sS ]n-Sn-bn-em-b A-t-lw
h-[n--s-p.

792. t\m-l-bp-sS t]-S-Iw D-d-p-\n ]-h-Xw- A-cm-d-v (Xpn)


793. A-d-_n-hym-]m-cn- kp-sse-ams tI-c-f k--i-\w G-Xp
h-j-n- F.Un.851
794. a-d-p-S-bv-p-n-se a-lm-\-cIw- c-Nn--Xm-cv- Fw.B._n.
795. A-c-hn--tLm-jv c-Nn- C-Xnlm-kw- km-hn-{Xn
796. a-cn-h
- c
- p-sS Ip-v Im-Ws
- -Sp kn-p kw-kv-Im-c-tI-{w sam-l-sPm-Zm-tcm
797. A-]-I-j-Xm t_m-[w F-
kz-`m-h-s-p-dn-v B-Zyw
Nn-n--Xv- B-{^-Uv B-Uv- tJ- c - X v - \ ]p- c v - k v - I m- c w t\e
Sn- b B- Z y a- e - b m- f n Xm- c w-
798. a-gh
- n-n G-h
- pw ]p-d
- m-bn
sI.Fw._o- \ m- t am
Im-W-s-Sp- \n-dw- Np-h-v
799. lm-en kv-{So-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- e-
800. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-kw-L-S-\ F- t]-cp \n-t-in--Xv- {^m-v-fn
dq-kv-sh-v
801. A-c-hn-Sp hw-iw m-]n--Xv- Xn-cp-a-e \m-b-Iv
802. sIm-n-bn-se U-p-sIm-m-cw \n-an--Xv- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im
803. sIm-p-am-bn P-\n-p- G-I ar-Kw--Pn-dm-^v
804. \--\m-cp-sS b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- ]n.kn.tKm-]m-e
805. a-g-hn-n G--hpw A-I-m-bn Im-W-s-Sp- \n-dw- h-b-e-v
806. sIm--h-jw B-cw-`n--sX-v- F.Un.825
807. A- _ n- k o- \ n- b C- t m F- p- t ]- c n A- d n- b - s - S p- p-
F-tXym-]y
808. A-`n-[-a-]n-S-Iw F-n-s\-p-dn-p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-p- _p--Xz--fp-sS hn-i-I-e-\w
809. m-kn- `m-jm ]-Zh
- n \-Is
- - B-Zy C-y `m-jXan-gv
810. 1993se apw-ss_ I-em-]w A-t\z-jn--Xv- {io-Ir-jv-W I-nj
811. m-\n-Mv I-n-j, \m-jW
- U-he
- ]
- s
v- a v Iu-kn, C
t-v Iu-kn F-n-hb
- p-sS F-Ivk
- v H-^o-tjym A-[y- {]-[m-\-a-{n
812. n-tbm-]m-{S G-Xp cm-Py-s a-lm-dm-Wn B-bn-cp-p- Cu-Pn]vX
- v
813. 1936 m-\-Xym-Kw sN-bv-X {_n-o-jv cm-Pm-hv- F-tUz-Uv
F-m-a
814. ln-p- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- h-I-c--G-jy
815. a-g-hn-n \-Sp-v Im-Wp- \n-dw- ]-
816. Km-n-ssa-Xm F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--]m-v-\

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

817. kn.hn.cm-a-\v s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-sm-Sp- I-p-]n-Snw- cm-a C-^-Iv-Sv


818. kn.Sn.kv-Im I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tKm-Uv-s{^ lu-kv-^o-Uv
819. 1979 G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-h-m-Wv jn-nw-Kv tIm--td-j-s
ssI-c-fn F- I- Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv- C-y a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
820. a-\p-jy-\-Jw F--Xv------ B-Wv- t{]m-o
821. tI-c-f-n h-\-an-m- G-I Pn---B-e-p-g
822. ln-p-m tkm-jy-en-v dn-
- n- A-tkm-kn-tb-j\
- v t\Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv -`-K-Xv kn-Mv
823. bq-dm \-Zn ]-Xn-p- X-Sm-Iw- Im-kv-]n-b I-S
824. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B-Zy P-bn-hm-kw A-\p-`-hn- -ew- sPml-m-kv-s_-Kv
825. ap-K ]q-tm- \n-am-W ]m-c--cy-n-\v Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xv-_m-_
826. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS D-]-tZ-i-a-\p-k-cn-v Kp-cp-hm-bq k-Xym-{K-l-Ime-v \n-cm-lm-cw A-h-km-\n-n- t\-Xm-hv- sI.tI-f-
827. B-cy-am-cp-sS kz-tZ-iw a-t[y-jy-bm-sW-v A-`n-{]m-b-s-
P-a K-th-j-I- am-Iv-kv ap-
828. kn-n-an-t\m-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p n-Xn-sN-p- ]-n-a _wKm-fn-se hn-am-\-m-h-fw- _m-Kv-tUm-{K
829. `m-jm-im-kv-{Xw (enw-Kzn-n-Iv-kv) D-cp-n-cn- cm-Pyw- C-y
830. {]-hm-kn-I-fp-sS Po-hn-Xw B-kv-]-Z-am-n _-\ym-an c-Nn- IrXn- B-Sp-Po-hn-Xw
831. A-d-_n-Iv sh-n-\m-W-b- C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn A-Sn-n-d-nb kp-m- C-p-an-jv
832. kw-m-\ im-kv-{X ]-cn-n-Xn Iu-kn sN-b-am--ap-Jya-{n
833. ]p-cp-j-\m-a-ap-, h-S-p In-g-t C-y \-Zn- {_--]p-{X
834. A-[n-Im-cw ssI-b-S-S-m 1923 ln-v-e \-S-n-b A-n-a-dn
{i-a-n-s t]-cv- _o lm ]p-jv
835. a-[p-c G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- ssh-K
836. a-\p-jy-\v B-sI F-{X t]-in-I-fp-v- 639
837. ap-Sn-bn-e-n-bn-cn-p- amw-kyw- sI-cm-n
838. ap-tm-fn-\n `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp- cm-Pyw- C--en
839. \-_m-Uv \n-e-hn-h- h-jw- 1982
840. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn \-S-n-b {]-kw-K-n-eq-sS {i-t-b\m-b a-e-bm-fn- hn.sI.Ir-jv-W-ta-t\m
841. _w-Km hn-`-P-\w d-m-n-b {_n-o-jv cm-Pm-hv- tPm-Pv Am-a
842. t]-jy-\p-]-I-cw Cw-o-jv C-y-bp-sS Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j-bmbn kzo-I-cn- `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- hn-eyw s_n-Iv
843. tkm-jy-en-k-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- tdm-_-v Hm-h
844. A-Pv-ao m-]n--Xv- A-P-b-cm-P
845. a-Pv-en-kv F- t]-cp- \n-b-a-\n-am-W-k-`-bp- km-v cmPyw- am-en-Zzo-]v
846. apw-ss_ \-K-c-n-ep- H-cp {]-ik
-- v-X-am-b h-\w C-tm
tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\a
- m-Wv. G-Xm-WX
- v- k-RvP
- b
- v Km-n \m-jW
-
]m-v
847. a-\p-jy-\v F-{X A-n-I-fp-v-206
848. tbm-K k-{-Zm-b-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- ]-X--en
849. tc-h-Xn ]--m-\-n-s th-Zn- tIm-gn-tm-Sv X-fn t-{Xw
850. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn a-c-o-\n Ir-jn t{]m-m-ln-n- cm-Pm-hv-hn-im-Jw Xn-cp-\m
851. Sm-tKm-dn-s\ Km-n-Pn kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-Xn-cp--Xv- Kp-cp-tZ-hv
852. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- A-Sn-a-I-v- tam-N-\w- \-In-b-Xv- G-Xv hj-n-
F.Un.1853
853. t]- B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- kw-kv-Im-cw (cm-Pyw) ssN-\
854. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp H-Sp-hn ]-s-Sp- F-kv-F-Un-]n tbmKw hm-jn-Im-tLm-jw \-S- -ew- ]-p-cp-n
855. Sm-tKm-dn-s tI-c-f k--i-\-th-f-bn A-t-l-s {]-Ion-v Ip-am-c-\m-im c-Nn- Zn-hy-tIm-In-ew B-e-]n--Xm-cv-
kn.tI-i-h
856. A-Jn-e Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq ap-nw a-lm-P-\-k-`-bp-sS m-]-I-
h-w au-e-hn
857. \m-j-W A-kw-_v-fn Hm-^v ]o-n-kv ]-h F-hn-S-s
\n-b-a-\n-am-W-k-`-bm-Wv--Iyq-_

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

a-\p-jy-\v F-{X tPm-Sn D-an-\o {K-n-I-fm-Wp--Xv


F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-m-e-m-Wv 1962 Cym--ssN-\ bp-w \-S--Xv
C-y `-cW
- L
- S- \
- F-{X X-cw A-Sn-b
- c
- m-h
I
- hyh- sN-bv-Xn-p-v
D-`-b Po-hn-I-fp-sS lr-Z-b-n-\v F-{X A-d-I-fm-Wp--Xv
kq-cy-\v F-{X ]m-fn-I-fm-Wp--Xv
2013 G-{]n H-p-ap-X sN-n-s Im-em-h-[n F-{X amk-am-Wv
`q-an-bp-sS ap-gp-h {]-X-e-hpw ]-cn-[n-bn h-cp-m-\m-bn
F-{X `q-n-c D-]-{K-l--fm-Wv th--Xv
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw s\m-t_ k-m-\-n-\l-am-b-Xv sd-Uv t{Im-kv F- kw-L-S-\-bm-Wv. F-{X {]mh-iyw
cm-Py-s ]-Z-hn--n-I-bn-se {I-a-n {]-[m-\-a-{n F{Xm-aX
- m-Wv
C-y-bn tI-{ a-{n-k-`-bn F-{X X-cw a-{n-am-cmWp-X
- v
tI-c-f-n F-{Xm-a-s Xn-c-s-Sp-n-em-Wv (1965) Hcp I-n-pw hy--am-b `q-cn-]-w e-`n-m--Xn-\m
\n-b-a-k-` cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn-m I-gn-bm-sX t]m-b-Xv
hm-ktv- Im U Km-a F-{X {]m-hi
- yw tI-cf
-
- n h-n-p-v

858. {]n-kv Hm-^v sh-b


v k
- v ayqkn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- apwss_
859. G- X v k- a p- { Z- n- e m- W v
s_-Kzo-e {]-hm-lw--A-Xvemn-Iv
k-ap-{Zw
860. {]m-Xn-\n-[y-an-m-sX \n-IpXn-bn-- C-Xv G-Xp-am-bn _-s-n-cn-p-p- A-ta-cn kzm-X-{y-k-a-cw
861. G-Xv cm-Py-n-s tZ-io-bKm-\-am-Wv an-n X-cm-\--A^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm
862. t\-Xm-Pn kp-`m-jv C-nyq-v Hm-^v kv-t]m-Sv-kv Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- ]m-Sym-e
ap-tm-fn-\n
863. ssh-v tIm F--dn-b-s`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp-
Sp--Xv- P-e-ssh-Zyp-Xn
cm- P yw- C- - e n
864. G-Xv ar-K-n-s ]m-en-\mWv ]n-v \n-d-ap--Xv- bm-Iv
865. B-Xn-c--n sh--m-w G-Xp \-Zn-bn- Nm-e-p-Sn-p-g
866. G-Xv ar-K-n-s {]n-b-s- `--W-am-Wv tX- I-c-Sn
867. tem- I v - X - I v P- e - s sh- Z yp- X ]- - X n G- X p kw- m- \ - v -
a-Wn-q
868. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn-te-p- B-Zy C-y kw-L-s \bn- a-e-bm-fn- k-Zm sI.Fw.]-Wn-
869. a-\p-jy-s G--hpw h-en-b t]-in--q-n-b-kv am-Iv-kn-a-kv
870. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS {]-Y-a sk-{I--dn- ]m-em \mcm-b-W \m-b
871. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- B-bn-eyw- Xn-cp-\m- cm-Pm-hn-s-d kv-Ym-\mtcm-l-Ww G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1861
872. tIm--\n--kv G-Xp-cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- t]m-f-v
873. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv Km-e-m-tKm-kv Zzo-]p-I--]-k-^n-Iv kap-{Zw
874. Xn-anw-Kn-e-n-s i-co-c-n-ep- sIm-gp-p-]m-fn- -

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

55

875. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv Cw-Kv-fo-jv Cu-nym---\n-v C-y-bn ^m-Iv-S-dn \n-an-m A-\p-a-Xn
e-`n--Xv- P-lmw-Ko
876. X-z-Nn--I-s I-n-fn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- kn-v Hm-Iv-sskUv
877. G-Xv ar-K-n-s {]n-b-s- `--W-am-Wv A-t-jy C-e-I-Pn-dm-^v
878. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-sb-p-dn-m-Wv Po-hn-X-Im-ew ap-gp-h
D-cp-p a-dn-p \-S-p-I-bpw Po-hn-X-n-\n-v D-cp-p a-dnp t]m-Ip-Ib
- pw sN-bvX
- p F-v N-cn-{X-Im-c\
- m-b se-bv]
- q
hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- lp-a-bq
879. th-gv-km-bv D-S--Sn- {]-Im-cw A-h-km-\n- bp--ta-Xv- H-mw
tem-I-bp-w
880. thm-K \-Zn G-Xp I-S-en ]-Xn-p-p- Im-kv-]n-b I-S
881. G-Xv A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Un-s\-bm-Wv eo lm-hn Hm-kv-hmUv sIm-e-s-Sp-n-b-Xv--tPm F-^v. sI--Un
882. B-Xp-ci
- p-{iq-jm-cw-K
- v hn-h
- I
- c
- a
- m-b am-
- h-cp-n-b hyn- ^v-tfm-d-kv ss\-n-tM
883. B-Zn-Im-hyw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- cm-am-b-Ww
884. am-Pn-Iv tPm-k-Wp-am-bn _--s- kv-t]m-Sv-kv- _m-kv-I-v_m
885. A-\n-n-X-Xz kn-m--n-s B-hn-jv-I-m--hv- ssl-k_-Kv
886. G-Xv A-Sn-a-kp-m-s Im-e-m-Wv sN-n-jv-Jm-s B-{I-aW-`o-j-Wn t\-cn--Xv- C-p-an-jv
887. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS A-\p-t-Zw 352 {]-Im-cw {]-kn-U v B-Zy-ambn A-Sn-b--cm-h- {]-Jym-]n- h-jw- 1962
888. A-`n-\h
- `- m-cX
- skm-ssk-n-bp-sS m-]I
- - hn.Un.
khm-
889. B- k q- { Xn- X - a m- b C- y kw- m- \ X- e - m- \ - -
N-WvU
- n-KV
- v, Km-n-\K
-
890. B-Zy-am-bn t]m- m-v ]p-d-n-d-n-b h-jw- 1840
891. C-y-bn Im-em-h-[n ]q-n-bm-n-b, tIm-{K-kp-Im-c-\m- G-I {]-[m-\-a-{n- F._n.hm-Pv-t]-bn
892. H-mw tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy k-t-f-\w \-S--Xv- 1957
G-{]n 27-\v
893. ]-cn-Wm-aw F- t\m-h-en G-Xv ar-K-am-Wv {]-[m-\-I-Ym-]m{Xw- \m-b
894. _m-_-s b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- D-ep-Lv-Jm
895. Xp-I-sf A-a- sN-bv-X K-h-W P-\-d hn-eyw s_nIv {]-`p
896. th-hn-m \-jv-S-s-Sp- hn-m-an- hn-m-an kn
897. sh-s-gp-v F- t\-{X-tcm-K-n-s im-kv-{X-\m-aw- ssl-sa-t{Sm-n-b
898. bp-ssW--Uv t\-j-kv ssl--o-j-W t^m sd-^yq-Pokn-s B-m-\w--P-\o-h
899. Pw-j-Uv-]q G-Xp hy-h-km-b-n-\p {]-kn-w- C-cp-p-cp-v
900. C-y-bn F-{X h-jw Iq-Sp-tm-gm-Wv ^n-\m-kv I-n-js\ \n-b-an-p--Xv- A-p-h-jw
901. kw-t-]-th-Zm-Yw 1772 F-hn-sS-\n-p-am-Wv {]-kn--sSp-n-b-Xv- tdmw
902. kn.]n.sF.(Fw) t]m-fn-v-_yq-tdm-bn-se B-Zy h-\n-X- hr-
Im-cm-v
903. C-y-bn G--hpw ]-Sn-m-dm-bn n-Xn-sN-p- Pn-- Iv
904. Km-n-Pn-sb B-Zy-am-bn cm-jv-{S- ]n-Xm-hv F-p hn-fn--Xv-
kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv
905. ap-Jy-a-{n-bp-sS D-]-tZ-i-{]-Im-cw a-{n-am-v h-Ip-p-I
hn-`-Pn-p \-Ip--Xm-cv--K-h-W
906. Kp-]X
v- h
- w-i
- n-se G-h
- pw {]-ik
- X
v- \
- m-b `-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn - N{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
907. sIm- sd-bn-th-bp-sS \o-fw- 760 In.ao.
908. kw-m-\ Zp-cn-X \n-hm-c-W A-tXm-cn-n-bp-sS sN-b-am - ap-Jy-a-{n
909. skn-\ td-v F- ]-h-X-\n-c F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Am-n-bn

56

CONFUSING FACTS
tIcfn Ghpw Dbcnep Pn CSpn. Xmgv
Pn Bepg.
tZiobXen anI Nn{Xn\p shnsaU
t\Snb BZyaebmfNn{Xw \oepbn BWv.
tZiobXen anI Nn{Xn\pkzWsaU
t\Snb BZyaebmfNn{Xw sNo BWv.
Cwojnse {]IrXnbpsS Ihn thUv k v h v ,
aebmfnteXv CStcn.
kzmX{ye_v[nbpsS kabv {_nojv Cybnse
Ghpw henb s{]mhnkv BbncpXv _wKm
Bbncpp. Fm, 1937 Cybn\nv _asb
ths]SppXn\papv _abncpp Ghpw henb
{]hniy.
910. tI-c-f-n Im-em-h-[n(5 h-jw) Xn-I-p `-cn- G-I tIm{K-kv ap-Jy-a-{n- sI.I-cp-Wm-I-c (198287)
911. sN-hn-sb-bpw A-Xn-s\ _m-[n-p- tcm-K--sf-bpw Ip-dn-v
]Tn-p- im-kv-{X-im-J- Hm-tm-f-Pn
912. Sn-jyp I--dn-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tl-_em-Uv
913. sS--\-kn-\p Im-c-W-am-b _m-Iv-So-cn-b- tm-kv-{So-Un-bw sS-\n
914. sX- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se Nm-m kv-{Xo-I-v am-dp-a-d-bvm kzm-X-{yw \-In-b-Xv- D-{Xw Xn-cp-\m
915. \-bp-Zm- A-hm-Uv- G-Xp cw-K-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
im-kv{- X-k
- m-t-Xn-Iw
916. tI-c-f-n Iq-Sp-X-em-bn Im-W-s-Sp- a-v- em--ssd-v
917. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn Aw-K-Xz-ap- G--hpw sN-dn-b cm-Pyw-
sam-Wm-tm
918. tI-c-f-n k-ap-{Z-\n-c-n n-Xn sN-p- h-\y-Po-hn kt-Xw- aw-K-f-h-\w
919. \-_m-Un-s B-m-\w- apw-ss_
920. sk-p-em t^m-Wn-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- am-n
Iq-
921. sXm--ap-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- Un-^v-Xo-cn-b
922. Syq-_-p-tem-kn-kn-\v Im-cW
- a
- m-b _m-ISv- o-cn-b- ssa-tm _mIv-So-cn-bw
923. tcm-K-{]-Xn-tcm-[-n-\m-h-iy-am-b hn-m-an Po-h-Iw kn
924. {^m-kn-se G--hpw D-b- ssk-\n-I _-lp-a-Xn- eo-Pn-b
Hm-^v Hm-W
925. Sm-tKm-dn-s\ t{K-v skn-\ F-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- Km-nPn
926. Kzm--\m-tam P-bn G-Xv Zzo-]n-em-Wv -Iyq-_
927. Zp-Km-q o m v G-Xp cm-Py-n-s-k-l-I-c-W-tm-sSbm-Wv \n-an--Xv- {_n-
928. tI-c-f-n F-v F--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-ev-]m-Zn-n-p- Pn--
sIm-w
929. Zp-jy- F- I-Ym-]m-{Xw Im-fn-Zm-k-s G-Xp \m-S-I-n A-`n-m-\ im-Ip--fw
930. B-Zn-{K-w t{Im-Uo-I-cn- kn-Jv Kp-cp- A-Pp tZ-hv
931. F-kv.F.Un.]n.bp-sS m-]-I sk-{I--dn- Ip-am-c-\m-im
932. I-p-I-sf-p-dn-v ]Tn-p- im-kv-{X-im-J- H-^v-Xm-tam-f-Pn
933. lo-a-q-dn-b F-m-se-v- aq-{X-n c-w Im-W-s-Sp- Ah-
934. B-e-p-g Pn--bn-se {]-[m-\-Im-b-ep-I- th--\m-Spw Im-bwIp-fh
- pw
935. k-Xym-Y {]-Im-iw c-Nn--Xv- Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
936. U-ln m-]n- hw-iw- tXm-am-c-hw-iw
937. tI-c-f-n D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n ]-cm-P-b-s- G-I a-{n-
sI.ap-cf
- o-[c
-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

938. B-Zy-am-bn a-e-bm-fw A--Sn--Xv G-Xv cm-Py-v- tlm-f-v (s\X-e-Uvk


- v)
939. kw-m-\ a-{n-k-`-bn-se H-cp a-{n cm-Pn-h-bv-p--]-w B
h-Ip-v B-cn h-p-tN-cpw--ap-Jy-a-{n
940. lm-Un-b G-Xp \n-e-bn {]-kn-w- F--ip-o-I-c-W-im-e
941. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-W-s-Sp- a-v- em--ssd-v
942. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS lyp-a ssd-v-kv sa-U-en-\v B-Zy-ambn A-l-\m-b-Xv--s\-k-a-t-e
943. kw-m-\ B-kq-{X-W t_m-Un-s A-[y---ap-Jy-a-{n
944. tI-c-f-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- kv-Y-e-v- Ir-jn-sN--s-Sp-
Im-jn-I-hn-f- sX-v945. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X -e-v Ir-jn sN--s-Sp-
[m-\y-hn-f- s\-v
946. kw-km-c-n-eq-sS B-i-b-hn-\n-a-bw \-S-p- G-I Po-hn- a\p-jy
947. I-q k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-m-\w- I-q
948. I-Wm-S-I kw-m-\-v A-tm-an-Iv ]-h m v n-Xn-sNp- -ew- ssI-K
949. A-Iv-_ \n-an- X-e-m-\w- ^-t-]q kn-{In
950. a-p-]-tbm-Kn-m-sX P-e-hpw e-h-W-hpw D-]-tbm-Kn-v k-ky \-p-h-f-p- co-Xn- ssl-t{Um-t]m-Wn-Iv-kv
951. sj-Sv-em-Uv Zzo-]p-I G-Xp cm-Py-n-s A-[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n-bnem-Wv- bp.sI.
952. lm-k-kv tcm-Kw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Ip-jvTw
953. Km-n-\-K cq-]-I-ev-]-\ sN-bv-X-Xv- se tIm-_p-kn-sb
954. jm-P-lm-s\ Hu-dw-K-ko-_v X-S-hn-em-n-b h-jw- 1658
955. hn-h-cm-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-n-s {]m-Y-an-I-cq-]w \n-e-hn-h- BZy cm-Pyw- kzo-U
956. h--e I-\m-en-s-d \n-am-Ww- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1867
957. B-Zy-s B-t{^m--G-jy sK-bnw-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b-Xv- sslZ-cm-_m-Zv
958. {^m-kn-kv-tIm- Un- A-sa-bv-U (t]m-p-Ko-kv-)- I-q-sc-nb-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1505
959. A-k-em-ap A-sse-pw- G-Xp `m-j-bn-se A-`n-hm-Zy-am-Wv- DZp
960. C-y-bn Io-gm-f-h-K ]T-\--v Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xm-cv- cW-Pn-Xv Kp-l
961. A-kv-]r-iy-X \n-e-\n-m ln-p-a-Xw a-cn-pw--F-p ]-d-Xv- Km-n-Pn
962. a-Kv-k-tk A-hm-Upw `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-hpw e-`n- B-Zy hy-n- aZ sX-tc-k (1962, 1980)
963. C-y-bn Im-W-s-Sp- ]-n-I-fn G--hpw sN-dp-Xv- Cn--n ]-n
964. am-_n-fn-s \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- C--en
965. tlmw-dq {]-m-\-n-s {]-[m-\-e-yw- {_n-o-jv km-{amPy-n-\p-n kz-bw-`-c-Ww t\-Sp-I
966. {]m-Wn-I-sf Xn-p- k-kyw- s\---kv
967. tem-I A-Xv-e-n-Iv aon sa-U t\-Sn-b
B-Zy C-y h-\nX--A-Rv-Pp t_m-_n
tPm-Pv
968. {]m-tZ-in-I-`m-jm ]{X \n-b-aw d-m-n-b
ssh- t {km- b n- dn {]-`p
969. _w-m-tZ-in-se \mW-bw- Sm-
970. tdm-a Zm-i\
- n-I\
- mb n-\ n c-Nn- 37
hm-ey-ap- ]p-cm-X\
{K- w- \m- p- d
ln--dn
a- K v - k - t k A- h m- U pw
971. A-e-Iv-km--sd t\- `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-hpw e-`n- B-Zy hy-n-
cn-v- ]-cm-P-b-s- Ca- Z sX- t c- k (1962, 1980)

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

]-n-I-fp-sS lr-Z-b-n-se A-d-I-fp-sS F-w


th-Z--fp-sS F-w
a-\p-jy-lr-Z-b-n-se A-d-I-fp-sS F-w
_p--a-X N-cn-{X-n {]m-No-\ C-y-bn \-S- a-lmk-t-f-\--fp-sS F-w
Xm a-cp-`q-an F-{X kw-m-\--fn-em-bn hym-]n-p In-S-pp
P-e-n-\v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X km-{-X-bpw G--hpw Ip-d-v
hym-]v-X-hp-ap- Du-jv-am-hv
F-{Xm-a-s \n-b-a-k-`-bm-Wv tI-c-f-n B-Zy-am-bn Imem-h-[n ]q-n-bm-n-b-Xv
K-eo-en-b D-]-{K-l- F-{X-sb--am-Wv
]-ip-hn-s B-am-i-b-n-\v F-{X A-d-I-fm-Wp--Xv
`q-an-v H-cp Un-{Kn Xn-cn-bm F-{X an-\n-v k-a-bw th-Ww
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn cm-jv-{S-\-b-\n-t-i-I X-z-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `m-Kw
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- \n-eh
- n-h
- t- i-jw Iq-n-t-s
- - sj-Uyqfp-I-fp-sS F-w
tem-I I-v ^p-Sv-t_m \-S-p--Xv F-{X h-j-n-sem-cn-em-Wv
Xm-dm-hn-s ap- hn-cn-bm F-{X B-gv-N k-a-bw th-Ww
]q-m--bp-sS Po-hn-X N-{I-n-\v F-{X L---fp-v

y- cm-Pm-hv- -t]m-d-kv972. N-c-I-kw-ln-X F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]p-kv-X-I-am-Wv- ssh-Zy-imkv{- Xw


973. Jm-kn `m-j G-Xp kw-m-\-s `m-j-bm-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
974. B-tbm-[-\ I-e-I-fp-sS am-Xm-hv- I-f-cn--b-v
975. P-\-\-k-a-b-v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h-ep--ap- Po-hn- \o-e-nanw-Kn-ew
976. P-\--fp-sS au-en-Im-h-Im-i--fp-sS kw-c--I-\m-Wv- kp-{]owtIm-S-Xn
977. Km-tcm, P-bn-jy,Jm-kn Ip-p-I G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv-
ta-Lm-e-b
978. A-e-l-_m-Zn-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- {]-bm-Kv
979. {]-Im-i-h-W--fn G--hpw X-cw-K-ssZ-Lyw Ip-d--Xv- hb-e-v
980. Kw-K-bp-am-bn tN-v kp--_-kv sU--bv-v cq-]w \-Ip \-Zn- {_--]p-{X
981. {io-\n-tI-X F- {Km-ao-W ]p-\-cp-m-c-W ]--Xn-bp-sS D-]m-Xm-hv- c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-Kq
982. [-h-f ]m-X F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- t{_m-Uv th, \yq-tbm-v
983. Xn-cp-.--sIm-n- kw-kv-Ym-\-n-s-d B-Zy- ap-Jy-a-{n- ]-d-hq SnsI \m-cm-b-W-]n-
984. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS Z-Wv-Un-am-v \-S- Im-ew- 1930 am-v 12 G{]n 6
985. tI-c-f-n a-{n-bm-bn-cn-s hn-hm-ln-X-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X
sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
986. kw-m-\ a-{n-k-`-bn-se H-m-a-\m-bn I-W-m--s-Sp--Xv-ap-Jy-a-{nv
987. C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ F-{X X-cw ]u-c-Xzw hy-h- sN-p-p-
H-v
988. kmw-_-]q- G-Xp [m-Xp-hn-s J-\-\-n-\p {]-kn-w- I-cn
989. G-Xp cm-Py-s tkz-m-[n-]-Xn-bm-bn-cp-p K-m-^n- en-_n-b
990. bq-tdm-n-s a-Z--C--em F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- sU-mv
991. G-Xp cw-K-n-em-Wv G--hp-sam-Sp-hn a-Kv-km-tk A-hm-Uv
G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv--]p-Xp-t\-Xr-Xzw

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

57

992. km-tc P-lmw tk A-Ov-Om F- Km-\-n-\p kw-Ko-Xw \In-b-Xv- ]-Wv-Un-v c-hn-i-


993. kmw-_-kn \-Zn G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv ]-Xn-p--Xv--C-y-alm-k-ap-{Zw
994. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X C-cp-p-\n-t-]ap--Xv- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
995. X-an-gv-\m-n Hm-^v-sk-v A--Sn-p {]-kn--am-b -ew- in-hIm-in
996. t{K-v t-hv X-Sm-Iw G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- Im-\-U
997. {Kn-K sa-U-en-s sXm-gn F-m-bn-cp-p- ]p-tcm-ln-X
998. t]-cn-s D-`-h-n-\v {Ko-v--tdm-a ]p-cm-W--fp-am-bn _-an-m- {K-lw- `q-an
999. {Zm-hn-U ap-t- I-g-Iw m-]n--Xm-cv--kn.F.A-m-Zp-ssc
1000. m-v tlm F-m- a-cn-p-sIm-n-cn-p- \--{Xw
1001. Q-ew \-Zn-bp-sS {]m-No-\-\m-aw- hn-Xm-kv-X
1002. tdm-b G-jym-n-Iv skm-ssk-n Hm-^v _w-Km m-]n--Xv-
hm-d tl-n-Mv-kv
1003. tIm-g-t-cn {]-kw-K tI-kn kn.tI-i-h-\p-th-n hm-Zn- A`n-`m-j-I- Sn.Fw.h-Ko-kv
1004. B-cn-\n-m-Wv N--n kzm-an-I lT-tbm-Kw kzm-b--amn-b-Xv- ssX-m-Sv A-
1005. P-bn-tam-Nn-X-\m-b kn.tI-i-h-s\ B-e-p-g-bn-kw-L-Sn-n kzo-I-c-W-tbm-K-n Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se In-co-Sw h-bv-m cm-Pm-hv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- sI.kn.am- am-n-f
1006. a-e_
- m-dn I-jI
- k
- w-Lw cq-]h
- X
- vI
- c
- n-p-X
- n-\v {]-tNm-Z\
- w
\-In-b \-thm-m-\ \m-b-I- hm-Kv-`-Sm-\-
1007. A-sse Z-hm-k ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn
1008. a-t-cm h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw G-Xp kw-m-\-v- a-lmcm-jv{- S
1009. tkm-Wm D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- k-ap-{Z-n-s B-gw A-dn-bm
1010. \-a-Z-bp-sS Xo-c-p-h-v l-j-s\ ]-cm-P-b-s-Sp-n-b Nm-eqIy-cm-Pm-hv- ]p-en-tI-in c-m-a
1011. Cw-o-jv A--c-am-em-{I-a-n A-h-km-\w-h-cp- X-e-m\w- km-{K-_v
1012. tm-Wn-n-eq-sS kr-jv-Sn--s- B-Zy ]-ip- hn-Iv-tSm-dn-b
1013. tcm-K-{]-Xn-tcm-[-im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- F-tUz-Uv P-
1014. kw-m-\ D--X hn-Zym-`ym-k Iu-kn-en-s hn-kn- ]-Zhn A-e--cn-p--Xv -ap-Jy-a-{n
1015. C-y-p-sh-fn-bn B-Zy-am-bn C-y t]m-tm-^o-kv m]n--sX-hn-sS-bm-Wv--Am-n-
1016. kmw-_m-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Km-an- cm-Pm-dmw
1017. kmw-Jy-Z-i-\-n-s h-m-hv- I-]n-e
1018. G-Xp h-j-s tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\-n-em-Wv P-\-K-W-a\- B-Zy-am-bn B-e-]n--Xv- 1911
1019. lm-Uv tIm F--dn-b-s-Sp- I--cn-bn-\w- B-{mssk-v
1020. tI-c-f-n Im-n-Mv thm-v {]-tbm-Kn- B-Zy-s kv-]o- F.kn.tPm-kv
1021. lm-c- kw-kv-Im-cw \n-e-\n-n-cp- \-Zo-X-Sw--kn-p
1022. lp-a-bq A--cn--sX-tm- 1556 P-\p-h-cn 24
1023. tlm-kv-Zp-Kv tIm- \n-an--Xv- C-t-cn-hw-i-n-se tkm-a-tiJ-c \m-b-Iv
1024. U-b-v G-Xv cm-Py-s ]m-e-sam-Wv- P-m
1025. tem-I hym-]m-c I-cm-dn-s in-]n- B-X U-
1026. se-Uv s]-kn \n-an-m-\p-]t- bm-Kn-p- ]-Zm-Yt- a-Xv- {Kmss^-v
1027. sh-n-tS-iz-c t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp--Xn
1028. tdm-a ]p-cm-W--fn ssZ-h--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv- Pq-n-
1029. P-cn-b J-\n-bn-\n-p e-`n-p- [m-Xp- I--cn
1030. _p--s Kp-cp-- A-em-c, D-{Z-I
1031. ]-Xn-\m-em-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS C-y bqWn-b-t\m-Sv Iq-n-t--s- {]-tZ-iw--]p-Xp-t-cn
1032. ]-Zv-a-`q-j t\-Sn-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn--h--tm \m-cm-b-Wta-t\m
1033. t{K-v _m-v (a-lm kv-\m-\-L-w) F-hn-sS-bm-Wv I-s-nb-Xv- sam-l-sPm-Zm-tcm

58

CONFUSING FACTS
ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bm-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X A-m
Nm-n-bm-Wv. kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bm-b B-Zy a-ebm-fn h-\n-X Fw.F-kv. ^m-n-am _o-hn-bm-Wv.
Pv-Rm-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\n-X B-im-]q-Wm-tZ-hn-bmWv. km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an A-hm-Un-\-l-bm-b B-Zy h\n-X-bm-Wv A-ar-Xm-{]o-Xw.
m-\-]oT-n-\v B-Zy-am-bn A-l-\m-b-Xv a-e-bm-f Ihn-bm-b Pn.i-c
-
- p-dp-m-Wv (1965). F-m m-\]
- oTw
t\-Sn-b B-Zy t\m-h-en-v _w-Km-fn-se Xm-cm-i- _m\-Pn-bm-Wv (1966). m-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy a-e-bm-f
t\m-h-en-v F-kv.sI.s]m--m-m-Wv.
1034. a-n-s \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Im-\-U
1035. A-an-sse-kv F- F-sskw F-n-em-Wv {]-h-n-p--Xv A--Pw
1036. A-an-X-am-bn e-l-cn-]m-\o-b- D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xp-aq-ew G-Xh-b-h-n-\m-Wv Iq-Sp-X \m-i-ap-m-Ip--Xv- I-c
1037. P-dp-k-te-an-se Pq-X-tZ-hm-e-bw- tdm-am-m- \-in-n--Xp-aq-ewb-lq-Z- tI-c-f-n-h- h-jw- F-Un-68
1038. tdm-a I-tm-en- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- cm-Pyw- {_-ko
1039. bq-tdm-n-s ]-Wn-p-c F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- s_-Pn-bw
1040. A--s Hm-a-p-dn-p-I B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- Cu--chm-cy
1041. an-skm-d-an-s ]-g-b t]-cv- ep-jm-bv ln Un-kv-{Sn-Iv-Sv
1042. an-tm--tam-en `-c-W ]-cn-jv-Im-cw G-Xp h-j-n- 1909
1043. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I-S-o-c-ap
--Xv- I-q
1044. 1952 ]m-e-saw-K-am-b {]-i-kv-X `m-c-Xo-b tPym-Xn-im-kv{X-- ta-L-\m-Yv km-l
1045. {In-kv--^ sIm-fw-_-kv P-\n- cm-Pyw- C--en
1046. A-Pp-\ A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy {In--- k-enw Zp-cm-\n
1047. t]m-bn v Im-en-a ]-n k-t-Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-n- Xan-gv-\m-Sv
1048. _w-Km hn-`-Pn--s- h-jw- 1905
1049. tem-Iv-k-`m-Xn-c-s-Sp-n thm-p sN-bv-X B-Zy {]-kn-U v sI B- \m-cm-b-W1050. t]m-p-K-en-se Im-X-dn-s\ hn-hm-lw I-gn--tm Cw--n-se
Nm-kv c-m-a cm-Pm-hn-\v kv-{Xo-[-\-am-bn e-`n- {]-tZ-iw-
t_mw-s_
1051. A-Nyp-X-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS- Im-e-v- hn-P-b-\-K-cw- k--in-- t]mp-Ko-kp-Im-c-\m-b Ip-Xn-c hym-]m-cn- s^-\m-thm \yq-\n-kv
1052. ao-\-n-em G-Xp Pn--bn-se {]-[m-\-\-Zn-bm-Wv- tIm--bw
1053. A-Pv-ao-cn A-lm-bn Zn Im tPm-]-cm ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv-
Ip--_v-o sF-_-Iv
1054. ao-cm-tZ-hn-bp-sS t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Nn-tm-K-Vv
1055. A-n-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- tem-lw- Im-kyw
1056. ap-f-bn-e-I am-{Xw Xn-p Po-hn-p- Po-hn- ]m-
1057. A-tbm-[y G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- k-c-bp
1058. A-td-_y \m-Sp-I-tf-bpw B-{^n- h-I-c-tb-bpw th-Xncn-p- I-S- sN--S
1059. a-Wv-U-cn tcm-K-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b Po-hn- ssh-d-kv
1060. an-tm-s\-v F--dn-b-s-n-cp- Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Zw- thm-fot_m
1061. kn-p-\-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-s G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw -I-dm-n
1062. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X a-g e-`n-p- au-kn-dw G-Xp
kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
1063. ao-kn-kv hm-Iv-kn I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv- tPm F-^v.-F-tUgv-kv(1960)
1064. kn-n-an-t\m-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p n-Xn-sN-p- ]-n-a _wKm-fn-se sd-bn-th t-j- \yq P-bv-]m-Kp-Vn

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1065. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X sN-dp-In-S hy-h-km-b bq-Wn-pI D- kw-m-\w- D--{]-tZ-iv


1066. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B-Zy k-Xym-{K-lw-1907
1067. kn-bm-Mv F- t]-cn A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in {]-th-in-p \-Zn- {_--]p-{X
1068. Lm-{K bp--n (1529) a-q-Zv tem-[n-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-n-ep A-^v-Km-\n-I-sf tXm-]n--Xm-cv--_m-_
1069. lm-Un-L-v bp--n (1576)A-Iv-_-sd F-Xn-p ]-cm-Pb-s- c-P-]p-{X-cm-Pm-hv- dm-Wm {]-Xm-]v
1070. tI-c-f-n A-Sn-a---h-Sw \n--em-n-b `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-
dm-Wn Ku-cn e-v-ao-`m-bn
1071. A-Xm-cy-h-kv-Xp-hn-s\-p-n {]-Im-iw h-f-p k--cn-p- {]Xn-`m-kw- Un-{^m-
1072. C-y dn--n-m-Ip--Xn-\v H-cp Zn-h-kw ap-v A--cn- \-thmm-\ \m-b-I- tUm.]-]p
1073. B-sc k--in--ti-j-am-Wv {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp ap-\n-N-cy-]-Iw c-Nn--Xv- c-a-W a-l-jn
1074. X-s tZ-h-\pw tZ-hn-bpw kw-L-S-\-bm-sW-v {]-Jym-]n- \thm-m-\ \m-b-I- a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
1075. Po-h-Im-cp-Wy-\n-cq-]-Ww c-Nn--Xv- N--n kzm-an-I
1076. aw-K-tfm-Z-b-n-s {]q-^v do-U-dm-bn-cp- \-thm-m-\ t\-Xmhv- hn.Sn.`--Xn-cn-m-Sv
1077. a-Xn-ep-I F- t\m-h c-Nn--Xv- ssh-w ap-l--Zv _-jo
1078. A-Xn-Nm-e-I-X I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv- Im-a-en-Mv Hm-\-kv
1079. Ir-{Xn-a ]-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- d-tbm
1080. l-cn-bm-\-bn-se G-I \-Zn- L-
1081. kz-X-{-C-y-bn-se B-Zy hy-n-K-X H-fn-n-Iv sh-n saU tP-Xm-hv- cm-Py-h-[ kn-Mv dm-tm-Uv
1082. Kw-ssK-sIm--tNm-f-]p-c-v _r-l-tZ-iz-c t-{Xw \n-an--Xv cm-tP-{-tNm-f
1083. B-Zy-s em-n-\-ta-cn- A-d-_v D--tIm-Sn-v (2005) th-Znbm-b \-K-cw- {_-ko-en-b
1084. B-n-tbm-f-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- tXm-a-kv sP-t^-gv-k
1085. a-\p-jy-s C-S-t izm-k-tIm-i-n-s i-cm-i-cn `m-cw-
620 {Kmw
1086. B-n-^n-jy C-en-P-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv- A-e Sq-dn-Mv
1087. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS lr-Z-b-hpw B-m-hpw-F-v tUm.Aw-t_-ZvI- hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- B-n--n 32
1088. B-{^-Uv s\m-t_-en-s {]-[m-\ I-p-]n-Sn-w- ss\-t{Smn-k-dn
1089. B-n-tbm-f-Pn- k-th Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS B-m-\w-
sIm--
1090. A-Xp-e B-cp-sS k-Z-ky-\m-bn-cp-p- h--` c-m-a
1091. B-p-ti-j-am-Wv _m-_ U-ln kp-m-\m-b-Xv- \mkn-dp-o a-lv-aq-Zv
1092. B--tlm-fn-se L-S-I-- Im-_, ssl-{U-P, Hm-Ivkn-P
1093. B-am-i-b-n-s A-Sn-bn n-Xn sN-p- {K-n- ]m{In-bm-kv
1094. Bn sk-]v-n-Iv k-P-dn-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- tPm-k-^v en
1095. B-n-- I-em-]w- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1721
1096. Bn-e-kn-s ap-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Iyq-_
1097. tI-c-f-n-se P-tem-k-h- B-cw-`n-p--Xv G-Xv h-w
I-fn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv- N--p-fw
1098. Bn-P A-S-n-bn-n-m- c--{Kq-v- H
1099. [-\-X-z im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- B-Uw-kv-an-v
1100. Kn-cn P-e-tk-N-\ ]--Xn G-Xv kw-m-\-v -ln-am-N {]-tZiv
1101. k-am-[m-\-n-s \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ln-tcm-jn-a
1102. tem-Iv-k-`mw-K-am-b B-Zy tI-c-fo-b h-\n-X--B-\n a-kv-{Io
1103. `-Ko-c-Yn-bpw A-f-I-\--bpw kw-K-an-p- -ew- tZ-h-{]-bm-Kv
1104. kz-W-n-s em-b-Iw- A-Izm do-Pn-b
1105. Bn-t_m-Un A-S-n-bn-n-m- c--{Kq-v- F _n
1106. b-ap-\-bp-sS D-`-h-m-\w- b-ap-t\m-{Xn

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

B-\-bp-sS ]-p-I-fp-sS F-w


A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U- n-s-d- Im-e-m-h-[n- F-{X h-j-am-Wv
hn-P-b-\-K-c km-{am-Py-n-se cm-P-hw-i--fp-sS F-w
km-[m-cW
- a
- m-bn I-p-hc
- p- {]-[m-\ c-{- Kq-p-If
- p-sS Fw
F-{X h-j-n-sem-cn--em-Wv tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnwkv \-S
- p-X
- v
Im-X-dn sl-]v-t_ (19072003) B-Wv A-`n-\-b-n-\v
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw Hm-kv-I t\-Sn-b-Xv . A-h F{X {]m-h-iyw B Aw-Ko-Im-c-n-\v A-l-bm-bn
F-{Xmw ]--h--c ]--Xn-m-e-m-Wv C-n-cm-Km-n 14
_m-p-I tZ-ik
- m-XI
v- c
- n-X
- v
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- ]-n-Ib
- m-Wv cm-Py-k`
- b
- n-se
ko-I
- f
- p-sS A-tem-vs
- an-s\-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-X
- v
km-c\
- m-Yn-se A-tim-I kvX
- w-`
- n F-{X knw-l
- f
- p-v
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Um-bn Xnc-s-Sp--s--Xv F-^v.Un. dq-kv-sh-m-Wv. F-{X {]m-hiyw
{I-a`
- w-K
- n-\v F-{X L-
- f
- m-Wp-X
- v
Ipw-`t- a-fb
- v
- v th-Zn-bm-Ip- \-Kc
-
- F-{X
t]m-tfm I-fn-bn H-cp So-an F-{X I-fn-m D-m-Ipw
a-\p-jy-cn-se m-\-Z---fp-sS F-w.
F-{X A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Up-am ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s h-[n-s-n-p-v
1976 au-en-I Np-a-X-e-I ]p-Xp-Xm-bn `-c-W-L-S-\-bn
D-s-Sp-n-b-tm A-Xv G-Xv `m-K-n-em-Wv (]m-v) Iqn-t-X
- v

1107. B-ap--am-ey-Z F- km-ln-Xy-Ir-Xn sX-ep-n c-Nn--Xv- Irjv-W-tZ-h-cm-b


1108. B-a-tkm- \-Zn- ]-Xn-p-- k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-em-dn-Iv1109. C-{k-tb-en-s P-\-\-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b {]-m-\w- kn-tbmWn-v {]-m-\w
1110. B-Pn-X C-y ]u-c-Xz-ap-m-bn-cp- B-Zy `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w tPXm-hv- a-Z sX-tc-k
1111. C--tWm-an-Iv ln--dn Hm-^v C-y c-Nn--Xv- B.kn.Z-v
1112. G-Xp tem-l-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv tl-a-ss-v- C-cp-v
1113. B-ss{X-n-kv (hm-Xw) _m-[n-p--Xv- k-n-I
1114. G-Xp th-Z-n-s D-]-th-Z-am-Wv K--h-th-Zw- km-a-th-Zw
1115. B-t\m-Uv jm-kv-s\- P-\n- cm-Pyw- Hm-kv-{Sn-b
1116. l-m _o-v G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv--Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
1117. Bn-t_m-Un-I D-]m-Zn-n-p- c-t- Im-iw- tiz-X c-mWp-
1118. Kw-K-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fn G--hpw ]-Sn-mtd-b--v D-Zv`-hn-p--Xv--b-ap-\
1119. tI-c-f-n B-Zy-am-bn hm-jn-I hn-ti-jm-{]-Xn ]p-d-n-dn-b ]-{Xw- an-X-hm-Zn
1120. ln-am-e-b t^m-d-v dn-k-v C-n-yq-v n-Xn sN-p-sX-hn-sS--jnw-e
1121. tI-c-f-n B-Zy-am-bn Im-em-h-[n ]q-n-bm-n-b \n-b-ak-`--\m-emw \n-b-a-k-` (197077)
1122. H-mw ]--h--c ]--Xn-bn {]m-ap-Jyw \-I-s--Xv -Irjn
1123. Im-\-U G-Xv `p-J-Wv-U-n-em-Wv--h-S-t A-ta-cn-
1124. H-mw ]m-\n--v bp-w \-S--Xv- 1526
1125. kv-t{Smw-t_m-fn sIm-Sp-ap-Sn G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- C--en
1126. tI-c-f-n-- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-b B-Zy- tIm-tf-Pv- kn-Fw-F-kv- tImtf-Pv,- tIm--bw1127. kn.]n.cm-a-kzm-an A- ]-Z-hn-sbm-gn--tm B-Iv-Sn-Mv
Zn-hm-\m-b-Xv- ]n.Pn.F.-D-n-m

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

59

1128. tI- c - f - n kz- W - \ n- t - ] w Iq- S p- X - e p- kv - Y - e w-


\n-e-q
1129. Im-\-U, {Ko-em-Uv {]-tZ-i--n-S-bv-p- I-S-en-Sp-v-
tU-hn-kv I-S-en-Sp-v
1130. tI-c-f-n ln-p- F--n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Pn Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
1131. N-{-{K-l-Ww D-m-Ip--sX-tm- `q-an kq-cy-\pw N-{-ap-an-Sbv-v h-cp-tm
1132. tI-c-f-n ln-p-m \yq-kv {]n v ^m-Iv-S-dn n-Xn sNp--Xv- sh-q
1133. C-y ^p-Sv-t_m Sow B-Zy-am-bn H-fn-n-Iv-kn ]-s-Sp h-jw- 1948
1134. tI-c-f-n ln-p-m em--Iv-kv ^m-Iv-S-dn F-hn-sS n-Xn
sN-p-p- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
1135. ln-n-bn-epw a-v C-y `m-j-I-fn-epw ln-v a-lm-km-K-cw F-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv--C-y-a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
1136. G-Xp tk-\-bp-sS X-e-h-\m-Wv A-Uv-an-d- -\m-hn-I-tk-\
1137. _p--s h-f--- Ku-X-an
1138. C-n-lm-Zv F-b-sse-kv G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- bp.F.C.
1139. G-Xp-\-Zn-bn-em-Wv A-cp-hn--c Umw--I-c-a-\-bm
1140. C-p-n-s cm-k-kq-{Xw- s]m-m-kyw tm-ssd-Uv
1141. Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-v cm-Pv-`-h-\p-ap-n-ep- {]-Xn-a G-Xp cm-jv-{Sob-t\-{Xn-bp-tS-Xm-Wv- A-- sN-dn-bm
1142. cm-P-X-cw-Kn-Wn c-Nn--Xv- I-l-W
1143. C-y `-cn- B-Zy-s A-^v-Km hw-i-P- _-lv-ep temZn
1144. C-y `-cn-m {_n-o-jp-Im kzo-I-cn- X-{w- `n-n-n-p `cn-
1145. Kw-ssK sIm- tNm-f F--dn-b-s--Xv- cm-tP-{ H-m-a
1146. C-y-bn tZ-io-b-]m-n-bm-bn Aw-Ko-Im-cw e-`n--W-sa-n
Ghpw Ip-dXv F-{X kw-m-\--fn Aw-Ko-Im-cw
e-`n- ]m-n-bm-bn-cn--Ww- 4
1147. Ip-f- Xp-d-ap-Jw G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
1148. B-[p-\n-I P-\m-[n-]-Xy kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy-cmPyw- {_n-
1149. Kn- \m-j-W- ]m-v- G-Xv- kw-kv-Ym-\-v- Kp-P-dm-v1150. C-y-bn-se G--hpw D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b sh--m-w- tPm-Kv sh-m-w
1151. cm-j{v- S-Iq-Sh
- w-i
- n-se-G
- h
- pw-{]-Ke
- `v- - tKm-hn-, A-tam-Lh
- j
1152. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Xp-c-w- Im-_p-sU S-W
1153. a-Z C-y F- Nn-{X-n {]-[m-\ I-Ym-]m-{X-s A-h-Xcn-n- \-Sn- \-Ko-kv
1154. B-[p-\n-I C-y-bp-sS {k-jv-Sm-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv- U-lukn {]-`p
1155. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn \n-b-a-_n-cp-Zw t\-Sn-b h-\n-X- tIm-tWen-b tkm-dm-_v-Pn (1894)
1156. I-ayp-Wn-kw sIm-Sp-ap-Sn A-Y-hm C-kv-am-bn k-am-\n sIm-Spap-Sn n-Xn sN-p- cm-Pyw- X-Pn-n-m
1157. Xn-an-cw I-n-s G-Xp `m-Ks
- _m-[n-p- tcm-Ka
- m-Wv- sekv
1158. tIm-m-cn I-n-j-s {Xn-`m-jm ]--Xn-bn \n-t-in--s `m-j-I- ln-n, Cw-o-jv, {]m-tZ-in-I `m-j
1159. tlm-K-\- sh--m-w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
1160. B-Zn-{K--n-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- Kp-cp-{K--km-ln-_v
1161. ]p-cm-W{- ]-Im-cw, ]-ci
- p-cm-a tKm-I-W
- p-\n-v F-dn- a-gph-p-]-Xn- -ew -I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
1162. _w-m-tZ-in-s cm-jv-{S-in-ev-]n- ap-Po-_p d-lv-am
1163. sa-e-t\m-a F- Iym-k i-co-c-n-s G-Xp `m-K-s-bmWv _m-[n-p--Xv- Xz-v
1164. {]m-No-\I
- m-e
- v ap-kn-cn-kv F-dn-bs
- -n-cp- Xp-da
- p-Jw- sImSp--q
1165. \--{X- Xn-f-m Im-c-Ww- dn-{^m-
1166. tI-c-f-n Nm-cm-b \n-tcm-[-\w sIm-p-h- ap-Jy-a-{n-F.sI. B-Wn

60

CONFUSING FACTS
1923 {]-h--\w B-cw-`n- kz-cm-Pv ]m-n-bp-sS m]-I kn.B.Zm-kpw tam-n-em s\-lv-dp-hpw. 1934
tIm-{K-kv tkm-jy-en-v ]m-n m-]n-m ap-ssIsb-Sp-X
- v B-Nm-cy \-tc-{-tZ-hpw P-b{- ]-Im-iv \m-cm-bW
- pw.
a-{Zm-kv \-K-c-n-s m-]-I {^m-kn-kv tU B-Wv.
{^m-kn-kv am-n B-Wv t]m-n-t-cn (]p-Xp-t-cn) m]n-X
- v.
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm K-h-W tPym-Xn shn-Sm-N-e-am-Wv. F-m K-h-W ]-Z-hn-bn-se-n-b BZy tI-c-fo-b h-\n-X P-n-kv Fw.F-kv. -^m-n-am-_o-hnbm-Wv.
Hm-kv-I t\m-an-t\-j t\-Sn-b B-Zy C-y Nn-{Xw a-Z
C-y-bm-Wv. Kp-cp-hm-Wv Cu {]-tXy-I-X-bp- B-Zy a-ebm-f Nn-{Xw.
1167. kn.hn.cm-a\
- v G-Xp hn-jb- n- e m- W v s\mt_ k-m-\w e-`n-Xv- Du-P-X-{w
1168. tI-cf
-
- n Np-m-pI-v Im-Ws
- -Sp- ew- hm-f-bm
1169. lm-tPm F- Xo-YmS-\ tI-{w G-Xv \-Zn-bpsS Xo-c-m-Wv {_-]p-{X
1170. ln-p-m-s X-\-Xmb ^-ew F-v am-sb hn-ti-jn-n-X
- m-cv- _m-_
1171. bq-tdm G-Xv h-Ic
- b
- nse cm-Py--fn-se \m]- Z v - a - ` q- j t\- S n- b
W-b-am-Wv bq-tdm-v
B- Z y a- e - b m- f n- 1172. kn.-F.-Sn. kv-Im-\ Ip-]n-Sn-X
- m-cv- tKm-Uv- h--tm \m-cm-b-W-ta-t\m
{^n lu-kv-^o-Uv
1173. C-y ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-s sa-- sIm--
1174. Km-n-Pn-sb G-sd kzm-[o-\n- A-Sp Zn-kv em-v c-Nn--Xv-
tPm d-kv-In
1175. kw-m-\-v {]-kn-U v `-c-Ww {]-Jym-]n-p-tm tI-{n-\p-th-n kw-m-\ `-c-Ww \-S-p--Xm-cv--K-h-W
1176. Kw-K-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fn G--hpw h-en-b X-S-{]-tZ-i-ap-Xv- -b-ap-\
1177. tI-c-f-n D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS ko-p \n-e-\n-n-b BZy Aw-Kw tdm-k-m ]p-q-kv
1178. kz-X-{ C-y-bn tIm-{K-kv A-[y--]-Z-hn h-ln- hntZ-i hw-i-P--tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
1179. Kw-Km-Xo-c-s G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw--Im-]q
1180. se-]v-, `q-n-b F-n-h G-Xp kw-m-\-s P-\-X-bm-Wv- knnw
1181. sF-Iy-cm-jv{- S k-`b
- p-sS cq-]h
- X
- vI
- c
- W
-
- n-\v ap-ssI-sb-Sp-
A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v--{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
1182. Iq-dp-am- \n-tcm-[\
- \n-ba
- {- ]-Im-cw H-cp Aw-K
- n-s Im-cy-n
Xo-cp-am-\-sa-Sp-m A-[n-Im-c-s--Xm-cv -kv-]o-
1183. Im-_- X-o--Sw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- _o-lm
1184. Im-_p B-m-\-am-bn `-c-W-\n-h-l-Ww \-S-n-b ap-K N{I-h-n--_m-_
1185. H-mw `u-a D--tIm-Sn-bp-sS th-Zn- dn-tbm Un P-\o-tdm ({_ko)

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1186. se-s{]m-an sS-v G-Xp tcm-K-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-


Ip-jT
v w
1187. thm--b G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- {^m-kv
1188. X--in-e C-tm G-Xp cm-Py-v ]m-In-kv-Xm
1189. tkm-]m-\-kw-Ko-X-n-s a-sm-cp-t]-cv- sIm-n-m-Sn tk-h
1190. tKm-_ Kym-kn-s {]-[m-\-L-S-I-ta-Xv- ao-ssY
1191. B-W-h-bp-K-n-s in-ev-]n F-d-- n-b-s-Sp--Xv- F-dn-tm
s^-an
1192. B-kn-Up-ag
- b
- v
- p Im-cW
- a
- m-b {]-[m-\h
- m-XI
- w- k-^ ssU
Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
1193. C-y-bn en-ss-v Im-W-s-Sp- kw-m-\w- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
1194. Xn-tem--a G-Xv hn-f-bp-sS C-\-am-Wv- F-v
1195. B- W n- s D- Z - c n- \ n- v Ip- p- ]p- d - p- h - c p-
Po-hn- I-S-p-Xn-c
1196. Xo I-m k-lm-bn-p- hm-X-Iw- Hm-Iv-kn-P
1197. A-tm hm-n-se t-{Xw G-Xp tZ-h-\v k-a-n-n-cn-p-p-
hn-jvW
- p
1198. Xo _n- K tIm- d n- t Um ]m- - n- \ p hm- n- b cm- P yw-
_w-m-tZ-iv
1199. ssh-dk
- p-I kmw-{I-an-Ia
- m-sW-p I-s-n-bX
- v- sh-U
m-en
1200. {]-Im-i-h-jw F-n-s G-I-I-am-Wv- Zq-cw
1201. a-\p-jy-s G--hpw sN-dn-b A-n--t-n-kv
1202. t]m-_--dn-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- kp-Zm-am-]p-cn
1203. ssk-\n-I-k-lm-b hy-h- B-hn-jv-I-cn- K-h-W P-\-d-
sh--n {]-`p
1204. lm-tam-Wn-bw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- A-e-Iv-km- tZ-s_-bv
1205. km-ln-Xy s\m-t_-en-\-l-\m-b {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a-{n- hn N-n (1953)
1206. ssP-\-a-X-n-se 24m-a-s Xo-Y--c- a-lm-ho-c
1207. A-\-en-n- tPym-a-{Sn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- sd-s\ Z-m-s
1208. am-lm-fn-tcm-Kw G-Xp-k-ky-s _m-[n-p-p- I-hp-v
1209. k-ap-{Z \n-c-n-\n-pw Xm-sg-bm-bn n-Xn sN-p-, tI-c-fn-se -ew- Ip--\m-Sv
1210. am-Pn-\-v sse G-sXm-s cm-Py--n-S-bn-em-Wv- {^mkv, P-a-\n
1211. B-tcm-sSm-w tN-m-Wv Km-n-Pn Jn-em-^-v {]-m-\-n\p t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- ap-l--Z-en-bpw ju---en-bpw
1212. B-Uw-kv-an-v P-\n- cm-Pyw- kv-tIm-Sv-e-Uv
1213. X-z-Nn--I-\m-b Po t]m km-s{X P-\n- cm-Pyw-
{^m-kv
1214. tIm-Wn-b-sb B-h-c-Ww sN-bv-Xn-cn-p- kv-X-cw- I-P-IvSn-h
1215. Bw-\-n C-\m-j-W-en-s m-]-I- ]o- s_-\k(1961)
1216. tIm-bv-\ A-W-s-v G-Xp kw-m-\-n-em-Wv- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
1217. kw-kv-Ir-X km-ln-Xy-n-s A-K- bp-K-am-bn hn-e-bn-cp-s-Sp--Xv G-Xv cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-am-Wv -N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-ZnXy
1218. kw-m-\ `-c-Ww kw-_-n- F-m D--c-hp-I-fpw B-cp-sS
t]-cn-em-Wv ]p-d-s-Sp-hn-p--Xv- K-h-W
1219. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS-`m-cy- I-kv-Xq-_m Km-n
1220. tI-c-f kw-m-\ Po-h-\-m-v D--h _- A-\p-h-Zn- apJy-a-{n--F.sI. B-Wn
1221. tI-c-f-n c-p-{]m-h-iyw D-]-ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b G-I hy-n kn.F-v.ap-l--Zv tIm-b
1222. bq-tdm-]y kv-t]-kv dn-k-v Hm-K-ss\-tk-j-s B-m-\w ]m-co-kv
1223. C-y ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-s sXm-n F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-K-cw-
sIm--
1224. kw-m-\ a-{n-k-`-bp-sS X-e-h--ap-Jy-a-{n
1225. tIm-e-p-\m-n-se cm-Pm-hm-bn-cp--Xv- tIm-e-n-cn
1226. Xo-Y--c-am F- hm-v G-Xp a-X-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- ssP-\-a-Xw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-em-h-[n-bp-m-bn-cp- tem-Iv-k-` F{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv (197177)


F-{X h-jw Iq-Sp-tm-gm-Wv C-y-bn Im-jn-I skk-kv F-Sp-p--Xv
sF-Iy-cm-jv{- S c-m-ka
- n-Xn-bn Xmm-en-Imw-K
- f
- mbn
F-{X B-t{^m--G-jy cm-Py--fm-Wp--Xv
P-\K
- W
- a
- \
- F- Km-\
- n-s B-Zy-Nc
- W
- a
- m-Wv `m-cX
-
- ns tZ-io-b Km-\-am-bn kzo-I-cn--Xv. B-sI F-{X N-c-W-fp-v P-\-K-W-a-\-bv-v
]-Zm-Y
- n-s F-{Xm-as
- A-h
- b
- m-Wv t_m-kv- s
- Fo I--tk-v
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS c-m-k-an-Xn-bn-se n-cmw-K-fp-sS F-w
{K-l--n-S-bn h-ep--n `q-an-bp-sS m-\w
C-y-bn F-{X h-jw Iq-Sp-tm-gm-Wv ^n-\m-kv I-nj-s\ \n-b-an-p--Xv
{Xn-X-e ]-m-b--[y--am-cp-sS Im-em-h-[n F-{X hj-am-Wv
`-c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-am-b ]-cn-lm-c--v C-y `-c-W-L-S\-bn hy-h- sN-bv-Xn-p- dn-p-I-fp-sS F-w
U-ln 1206 ap-X 1526 h-sc `-cn- kp-m-t\-v cm-Phw-i--fp-sS F-w
Km-n-Pn F-{X {]m-h-iyw tI-c-fw k--in-n-p-v
s]m-Xv-tem F-{X a--c-bn-\- D-s--Xm-Wv
_m-lv-an-\n cm-Pyw X-I--tXm-sS Z-n-W-]-Y-n F{X kp-m-t\-p-I-fm-Wv cq-]w-sIm--Xv
1227. tI-c-f-n B-Zy-s {]-kv m-]n--Xv- s_--an s_bv-en
1228. A-k-an-se Im-kn-cw-K tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-Xp ar-K-n-\m-Wp
{]-kn-w- H--sm- Im-m-ar-Kw
1229. a-K-e I-S-en-Sp-v G-sXm-s cm-Py--n-S-bv-m-Wv- APo-\-bv-pw Nn-en-bv-p-an-S-bv-v
1230. `q-an-bp-sS hr--I F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- X-o--S-
1231. _w-m-tZ-in-s cq-]-h--c-W-hp-am-bn _--s- C-y {][m-\-a-{n- C-n-cm-Km-n
1232. tI-c-f-n D-cp \n-am-W-n-\p {]-kn--am-b -ew- t_q
1233. ]q-W-am-bpw k-ap-{Z-\n-c-n-\p-ap-I-fn n-Xn sN-p- h-Ic--Am-n-
1234. kw-m-\ k-h-I-em-im-e-I-fp-sS ssh-kv Nm-k-e-am-sc \nb-an-p-X
- m-cm-Wv- K
- h
- -W
1235. tbm-an-bp-cn jnw-_p G-Xp-cm-Py-s ]-{X-am-Wv- P-m
1236. tlm-gv-kv-en Ip-p-I -G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- B-{m-{]-tZiv
1237. C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hn h-cp-tm D-m-bn-cp- `-c-WL-S-\m sj-Uyq-fp-I-fp-sS F-w- 8
1238. G-Xp cm-Py-s C-y-hw-i-P-cp-sS {]-iv-\--fp-am-bn k-l-Icn--Xn-\m-em-Wv kn.F-^v.B-{Uq-kn-\v Zo-\-_-p F- t]cp e-`n--Xv- ^n-Pn
1239. tI-c-f-n ap-n- F--n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Pn a-e-p-dw
1240. lm-c- I-s-n-b h-jw- 1921
1241. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw ap-Jy-a-{n- sI.I-cpWm-Ic
-
1242. tI-c-f-n G-Xp h-jw \-S- Xn-c-s-Sp-n-em-Wv H-cp In-pw hy--am-b `q-cn-]-w e-`n-m--Xn-\m \n-b-a-k-`
cq-]-h--cn-m I-gn-bm-sX t]m-b-Xv- 1965

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

61

1243. tdm-f-v Km-tcm F--Xv F-n v t]-cv {^-v Hm- sS-okv I-fn--ew
1244. Xn-aq C-y B-{I-an- h-jw- 1398
1245. P-e-n-\-Sn-bn kq-n-p-h-bv-p--aq-e-Iw- sh- t^m-kv^-dk
- v
1246. Xn-aq C-y B-{I-an--tm U-ln `-cn-n-cp- hw-iw-
Xp-I
- v
1247. b-lq-Z tI-c-f-n h- h-jw- F.Un.68
1248. am-m-Wv-U-h-a A--cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1758
1249. 1934 G-Xp--e-p-sh-m-Wv Iu-ap-Zn F- s]-Ip-n Xs B-`-c-W- Km-n-Pn-bv-p \-In-b-Xv- h-S-I-c
1250. tdm-_n-k {Iq-tkm F- I-Ym-]m-{X-s kr-jSv- n-X
- v- Um\n-tb Uo-t^m
1251. Km-n-Pn-sb a-lm-m F-v B-Zy-am-bn kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-XXv- Sm-tKm
1252. tdm--dn C-\m-j-W m-]n--Xv- t]m lm-cn-kv
1253. t{K hn--hw F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- kn-a-dv D-]mZ-\w
1254. tI-c-f \-thm-m-\-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Xv- {io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp
1255. G-Xp hn-m-an-s A-`m-h-n-em-Wv s_-dn s_-dn F- tcm-Kw
D-m-Ip--Xv- hn-m-an _n (X-b-an)
1256. lp-a-bq \m-a c-Nn--Xv- Kp-_-Z _o-Kw (_m-_-dp-sS aI)
1257. tI-c-f-n I-ayp-Wn-v ]m-n 1957 A-[n-Im-c-n h-tm ]m-n kw-m-\ sk-{I--dn- Fw.F.tKm-hn- \mb
1258. tI-c-f-n c-m-a-s Xn-c-s-Sp-p \-S- h-jw- 1960
1259. bq-tdm-n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv ssl-Uv ]m-v- e-
1260. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS ss{]-h-v sk-{I--dn- a-lm-tZ-hv tZ-im-bn
1261. tI-c-f-n D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n-s(1930) {]-[m-\ th-Zn-bmbn-cp--Xv- ]--q
1262. tI-c-f-n G--hpw D-b-c-n n-Xn-sN-p- ]--Ww- aqm
1263. tI-cf
- K-h-W ]-Zw h-ln-t- i-jw cm-j{-v S-]X
- n-bm-bX
- -v hn.hn.Kncn
1264. a-n-s\ i-{Xp-hm-bn I-W-m--s-Sp- Im-jn-I hn-f-
Im-n
1265. G--hpw D-b- c--k---ap- ar-Kw- Pn-dm-^v
1266. t{i-jvT `m-jm ]-Z-hn e-`n- B-Zy-s C-y `m-j- X-an-gv
1267. a-Zyw _m-[n-p- X-e-tm-dn-s `m-Kw- sk-dn-_-w
1268. tI-c-f K-h-W-dm-b G-I a-e-bm-fn- hn.hn-iz-\m-Y
1269. tdm- a ]p- c m- W - n- s e k- t - i - h m- l - I - \ m- b tZ- h -
sa-p-dn
1270. G- - h pw D- - n i- _ v - Z - a p- m- m I- g n- b p- Po- h n-
Xn-anw-Kn-ew
1271. sF-tlm im-k-\-hp-am-bn _--s- ]-Wv-Un-Xv- c-hn-Ion
1272. Pzm-em-ap-Jn G-Xv kw-m-\-s Xo-Ym-S-\ tI-{-am-Wv- lnam-N {]-tZ-iv
1273. tI-c-f-n-se sN-j-b tlmw n-Xn sN-p--sX-hn-sS- Xncp-h-\--]p-cw
1274. G--hpw- D-b-c-n- ]-d-p- ]-n- --I-gp-I1275. tem-ln-Xv G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv- {_--]p-{X
1276. G-Xp ]-n-bp-sS ap--tm-Sm-Wv I-e-lm-cn a-cp-`q-an-bn-se _pjv-sa hn-`m-K-m P-ew-kq-n-p- P-p-I-fm-bn D-]-tbmKn-p-X
- v- H
- - I
-
-
- n
1277. sIm- sd-bn-th _--s-Sp-p- -e-- aw-K-em]p-c-hpw apw-ss_ (tdm-l)bpw
1278. G--hpw D-b-c-n n-Xn sN-p- X-e-m-\ \-K-c-ap-
cm-Pyw- s_m-fo-hn-b
1279. t^m-ap-e h Im-tdm- a-k-c-n a-k-cn-m A-l\m-b B-Zy-s C-y-m-c- \m-cm-b Im-n-tI-b
1280. Xo-Ym-S-\-n-s h-j- B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- cm-Pmcm-a
1281. G-h
- pw D-bc
-
- n-h
- p \-S
- H-fn-n-Ivk
- v- sa-Ivk
- n-tm kn-n

62

CONFUSING FACTS
C-y-bp-sS ]q-tm--\-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv _mwq B-Wv. C-y-bp-sS ]q-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv I-ia
v- o-cm-Wv.
H-cp Pm-Xn H-cp-a-Xw,H-cp ssZ-hw a-\p-jy-\v- F-v ]-d-Xv \m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp. Pm-Xn th-. a-Xw th- a-\p-jy-\vF-p ]-d--Xv k-tlm-Z-c A--.
ap-p-I-fp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv C-y-bn-se
ssl-Zc
- m-_m-Zv. h-fI
- f
- p-sS \-Kc
- w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v ]mIn-m-\n-se ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv.
th-Z-k-am-Pw m-]n--Xv {io-[-c-ep \m-bn-Up. tZ-h-kam-P-n-s m-]-I in-h-\m-cm-b A-n-tlm-{Xn.
P-\-km-{-X Iq-Sn-b G--hpw Iq-Sn-b `q-J-Wv-Uw G-jy.
Ip-d--Xv Hm-kv-t{S-en-b.
1282. Bw-tm C-y k-ap-Zm-b-n-\v {]m-Xn-\n-[y-an-s-n cm-jv{S-]-Xn-v F-{X Aw-K--sf \m-a-\n-t-iw sN-mw-2
1283. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv Xn-cp-n-d--n--Im-th-cn
1284. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn {io-aq-ew {]-Pm-k-` (t]m-p-e A-kw-_vfn) {]-h--\-am-cw-`n- h-jw- 1904
1285. tI-c-f k-h-I-em-im-e-bn-\n-v kw-Ko-X-n B-Zy-am-bn
tUm-Iv-S-td-v t\-Sn-b-Xv- kn.sI.tc-h-
1286. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1956
1287. F.]n.Pn-bp-sS tNm- I-s-m tN-p- ]-Zm-Yw-
sa-m-]v-
1288. tI-c-f-n h-\-hn-kv-Xr-Xn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Pn--
C-Sp-n
1289. G--hpw- D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b k-kv-X-\n- - Pn-dm-^v1290. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS {]-Y-a D-]m-[y-- h-tm \m-cm-b-W-ta-t\m
1291. tcm-K-{]-Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn \-Ip- c-m-Wp- sh-fp- c-mWp
1292. tI-c-f ]-{Xn-I Zn-\--{Xw B-cw-`n--Xv- sN-p-f-v h-en-b Ipn-cm-a \m-b
1293. ssh-cp-[y--fp-sS k--e-\w F--dn-b-s- Xp--Iv-kp-m ap-l--Zv _n Xp--Iv
1294. tI-c-f ]-n-Iv k-ho-kv I-n-j-s B-Zy-s sN-b-am-
hn.sI.th-em-bp-[
1295. t]m-Mv A-W-s-v G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- _n-bm-kv
1296. kw-m-\-n-s \n-h-l-Wm-[n-Im-cw B-cn-em-Wv \n-n-]vX-am-bn-cn-p-X
- v -Kh
- -W
1297. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Ip-d-v I-S-tem-c-ap- Pn-- sIm-w
1298. Km-n-sa-tm-dn-b F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
1299. tI-c-f-n- h-c-bm-Sp-I-v- {]-kn--am-b tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w--Cc-hn-Ip-fw1300. kn-n-an-se {]-[m-\-s- \-Zn- So
1301. tI-c-f-n hm-b-\m-hm-c-am-bn BtLm-jn-p--Xv- Pq 1925
1302. G-Xp cm-Py-am-Wv se-tkm-s-sb
]q-Wa
- m-bpw Np-n n-Xn-sN-p-Xv--Z-n-Wm-{^n-
1303. tI-c-f-n Im-em-h-[n (5 h-jw)
Xn-I-p `-cn- G-I am-Iv-kn-p apJy- a - { n
C.sI.\m- b \m(19962001)
1304. G-Xp h-jw s^-{_p-hc
- n 28-\m-Wv
tI- c - f - n D- ] - X n- c cm-a C-^I
- vS- v kn.hn.cm-a I-ss- S p- n- e q- s S ko- p \nn-b-Xv- 1928
e- \ n- n- b B- Z y Aw- K w
tdm- k - m ]p- q- k v

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1305. kq-b-kv I-\m B-{^n--sb G-Xv h-I-c-bn-\n-m-Wv ths]-Sp-p--Xv--G-jy


1306. tem-I hym-]m-c kw-L-S-\ ap-v F-Xp t]-cn-em-Wv A-dn-b-s-ncp-X
- v- Km-v
1307. X-an-gn cm-am-b-Ww B-Zy-am-bn X-m-dm-n-b-Xv--I-
1308. tZ-hm-\mw {]n-b-Z-in F--dn-b-s-n-cp- au-cy N-{I-h-n-
A-tim-I
1309. {]-Xy--c-m-ssZ-h-k-`-bp-sS m-]-I--s]m-bv-I-bn A-
1310. tIm-gn-tm-v {]o-Xn-t`m-P-\w kw-L-Sn-n--Xv- hm-Kv-`-Sm-\-
1311. Ip-am-c-\m-im G-Xv h-j-am-Wv F-kv-F-Un-]n tbm-Kw {]-knUm-b-Xv- 1923
1312. Nm-hd
- b
-
- s
- `u-Xn-Im-hi
- n-jvS- w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv kq-n-n-cn-p-Xv- am-m-\w
1313. tlmw dq {]-m-\w B-cw-`n--Xv- B-\n _-k v
1314. tN--e-{]-tZ-i-n-s ]-g-b t]-cv -I-c-p-dw
1315. U-ln-bv-p-ap-v ap-K km-{am-Py-n-s X-e-m-\-am-bn-cp-Xv- B-{K
1316. tI-c-f-n I-j-I-Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p-t]m-cp--Xv- Nn-w Hv
1317. lo-tam-^o-en-b-bp-sS {]-[m-\ e--Ww--c-w I- ]n-Sn-m-Xncn-
1318. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew a-{n-bm-b hy-n-
sI.Fw.am-Wn
1319. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s A-n-a-am-b e-yw Cy-bp-sS ]q-W-kzm-X-{y-am-sW-v k-t-f-\w {]-Jym-]n-
em-tlm k-t-f-\-n A-[y--X h-ln--Xv P-hm-lem s\-{lp
1320. tI-c-f-n ap-Jy-a-{n, D-]-ap-Jy-a-{n,kv-]o-,tem-Iv-k-`mwKw Xp-S-n-b ]-Z-hn-I h-ln- G-I hy-n- kn.F-v.ap-l-Zv tIm-b
1321. lo-en-bw, \n-tbm, B-K, {In-]v-tm, kn-t\m, dmtUm F-n-h-bv-v s]m-Xp-hm-bn ]-d-bp- t]-cv- A-]q-hhm-X-I- (t\m-_n hm-X-I-I-)
1322. G-Xp hn-`m-K-n-se s\m-t_ k-m-\-tP-Xm--sf-bm-Wv Hmkv-tem-bn-se I-tcm-en-\m C-n-yq-v Xo-cp-am-\n-p--Xv- sshZy-im-kv-{Xw
1323. lm-c- kw-kv-Im-cw I-s-n-b ]p-cm-h-kv-Xp K-th-j-I-
tPm am-j
1324. tdm-bn- G-Xp cm-Py-s \yq-kv G-P-kn-bm-Wv- {_n-
1325. kmw-_n-b-bp-sS kzm-X-{y-k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- sI-\-Xv Iu-
1326. tdm-v tIm- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B-kv-_-tm-kv
1327. lp-n kz-W-J-\n G-Xp kw-m-\-v- I-Wm-S-Iw
1328. s]-bnn-s {]m-Y-an-I \n-d-- \o-e, a-, Np-h-v
1329. tdm-an-se N-cn-{X-{]-kn--am-b Xo-]n-Sp-w D-m-b h-jw-
F.Un.64
1330. sF.F.F.bp-sS h-\n-Xm sd-Pn-san-s\ \-bn--Xv- Iym-]v-
e-v-an
1331. a-Zy-Zp-c--n-\p Im-c-W-am-Ip--Xv- ao-ssY B--tlm
1332. B-[p-\n-I \m-S-I-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- sl-dn-Iv sP C-_v-k
1333. H-fn-n-Iv-kn ]-s-Sp- B-Zy C-y h-\n-X- ta-cn Un-kqk
1334. \o-e-Kn-cn ]-h-X sd-bn-th Du-n-sb G-Xp -e-hp-am-bn _-s-Sp-p-p- ta-p-m-f-bw
1335. ta-n-Mv Hm-^v a-lm- F- kn-\n-a-bp-sS kw-hn-[m-b-I-
iymw s_-\-K
1336. ]-{X-{]-h--\-cw-K-s Hm-kv-I- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
]p-en-v-k k-m-\w
1337. \o-f-n-s Aw-Ko-Ir-X F-kv.sF.bq-Wn-v- ao-
1338. a-\p-jy-s h-Ip-S-en-s \o-fw- 1.4 ao-
1339. A- h - k m- \ - s {]- X m- ] - i m- e n- b m- b ap- K N- { I- h - n-
Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
1340. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-\v Zn-hy-m-\w e-`n--Xv F-hn-sS-h-v- acp-Xzm-ae
1341. a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`-\pw B.i--dpw tN-v m-]n- kw-L-S-\ ln-p-a-lm-a-Wv-U-ew

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S c-m-k-an-Xn-bn-se F-{X Aw-K--m-Wv


ho-tm ]-h (hn-e--[n-Im-cw) D--Xv
F-{Xm-a-s kn-Jv Kp-cp-hm-bn-cp-p A-P tZ-hv
Km-n-Pn-sb F-{X {]m-h-iyw k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_-en-\v \ma-\n-t-iw sN-bv-Xn-p-v
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s ]-n-I-bm-Wv sj-Uyq-Uv
G-cn-b-I-fp-sS `-c-W-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
{Xn-X-e ]-m-b-w-K- F-{X h-j-t-m-Wv Xn-cs-Sp--s-Sp--Xv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS sk-{I--dn P-\-d-en-s Im-em-h-[n
F-{X h-jw
C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv A-[y--]-Zw h-ln-n-p F-{Xm-a-s h-\n-X-bm-Wv tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
1956 tI-c-f-kw-m-\w \n-e-hn-h--tm F-{X Pn-I-fm-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv (Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw, sIm-w, tIm-bw, Xr-q, a-e-_m)
m- \ - ] oTw t\- S n- b F- { Xm- a - s a- e - b m- f n- b m- W v
H.F.hn.Ip-dp-v
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv sam-dm-Pn tZ-imbn k-m Im-em-h-[n Xo-cpw-ap-v A-h-km-\n-n--Xv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` sk-Iyq-cn-n Iu-kn-en-te-v n-c-am- Aw-K--sf Xn-c-s-Sp-p--Xn-\m-bn tem-I-cm-Py-sf F-{X ta-J-e-I-fm-bn Xn-cn-n-cn-p-p
\n-b-a-k-`-bn A-h-X-cn-n-p- H-cp _n F-{X L--fn-eq-sS-bm-Wv \n-b-a-am-Ip--Xv
sS-v {In--n-s k-a-b-ssZ-Lyw F-{X Zn-h-k-am-Wv
ssP-\-a-n-s F-{Xm-a-s [-a-am-Wv a-lm-ho-c Iq-nt- {_--N-cyw
ku-c-bq-Y-n-se D-]-{K-l--fn h-ep--n N-{-s
m-\w
1342. F-hn-sS-\n-m-Wv bm-N-\m-bm-{X B-cw-`n--Xv- Xr-q
1343. ap- nw F- {]- k n- o- I - c - W w h- w au- e - h n B- c w- ` n-
h-jw- 1906
1344. A-m ssh-Ip-WvT P-\n- -ew- kzm-an-tm-v
1345. _p--a-X-n-se {Xn-]n-S-I- G-sX-mw- hn-\-b-]n-S-Iw,
kq-{X-]n-S-Iw,A-`n-[-a-]n-S-Iw
1346. \-f- k-h-I-em-im-e X-I--Xv- _-n-bm J-Pn
1347. \m-j-W sk-Iyq-dn-n Km-Un-s A-]-c-\m-aw- I-cn-q--I
1348. X-an-gv-\m-Sp-am-bpw I-Wm-S-I-hp-am-bpw A-Xn-n ]-n-Sp- tIc-f-n-se G-I
Xm-eq-v- kp-m _-t-cn
1349. \o-e-kz-Ww F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- P-ew
1350. j-Uv-Z-i-\- G-h- \ym-b, ssh-ti-jn-I,kw-Jy,tbm-K,]qh-ao-amw-k,D-c
- a
- o-amw-k
1351. \-Jw D-n-te-v h-en-m--Xpw am-Pm-c-h-K-n-s--Xpam-b G-I-Po-hn- No-
1352. \m-p-d ln--dn c-Nn--Xv- n-\n
1353. ]p-en-v-k k-m-\w t\-Sn-b G-I A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v-tPm F-^v. sI--Un
1354. ]-g-n cm-Pm-hpw i- X-p-cm-\pw A--cn- h-jw- 1805
1355. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b {]-i-kv-X C-tUm-f-Pn-v- ]n.hn.Im-s\
1356. \m-p-cm-Pm--am-v {]n-hn ]-gv-k-kv F- t]-cn \-In-bncp- B-\p-Iq-ey- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS 26mw-t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS
\n--em-n-b {]-[m-\-a-{n- C-n-cm-Km-n
1357. \m-a- G-Xv hy-h-km-b-n-\p {]-kn-w- ]u-{Sn
1358. Xm-n-bm tXm-n-sb Xq-n-te-n-b h-jw 1859
1359. sk-{S- e-Pn-kv-te-o-hv- A-kw-n-bp-sS kv-]o--dm-bn- Xn-cs-Sp--s- B-Zy-s C-y-m-c- hn--`m-bn- sP
]-t-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

63

1360. t`m-m Zp-c--n-\p Im-c-W-am-b I--\n- bq-Wn-b Imss_-Uv


1361. ]-g-n I-em-]w t\-cn-Sp--Xn-\m-bn \n-tbm-Kn--s- {_n-o-jv
ssk-\n-I ta-[m-hn- tI-W sh--n
1362. th-cn-sk-m ssh-d-kv D-m-p- {]-[m-\ tcm-Kw- Nn--t]mIvk
- v
1363. ]-g-h-K--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- am--gw
1364. \m-j-W Un-^-kv tIm-tf-Pv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--\yq-U-ln
1365. t_m-[-K-b G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- ^-Kp (\n-c-Rv-P-\)
1366. t\m-s{I-Iv tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lme-b
1367. sk-{S- e-Pn-t-o-hv- A-kw-n-bn- B-Zy-s sU-]yq-nkv-]o--dm-bn-cp- hy-Iv-Xn k-n-Zm-\- kn-l (1921 s^{_p-h-cn- aq-n-\v- Xn-c-s-Sp--s-p)
1368. B-[p-\n-I km--n-I-im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-sSp--Xv- B-Uw-kv-an-v
1369. ]-g--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- t]m-tam-f-Pn
1370. m-\ {]-Im-iw F- ]-{Xw \-S-n-b t\-Xm-hv--tKm-]m-e-Irjv-W tKm-J-se
1371. ]-g-b I-- \-K-c-n-s-d kv-Ym-]-I- tPm-_v- Nm-t\m-Iv
1372. ]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Z-n-ep-, A-ta-cn--bp-sS B-W-h ]-co-W tI-{w- _n-n-\n A-tm
1373. \m-p-cm-Py--fp-sS kw-tbm-P-\-n k-Zm ]-t-en-s\ klm-bn- a-e-bm-fn- hn.]n.ta-t\m
1374. i-X-hm-l-\ hw-i-n-se cm-Pm--am-cn G--hpw {]-i-kv-X Ku-Xa
- n-]p-{X i-XI
- -Wn
1375. sI.]n.tI-i-h-ta-t\m-s _n-em-n-hn-ti-jw- F- bm-{Xm-hnh-c-W-n G-Xp cm-Py-s-p-dn-m-Wv hn-h-cn-p--Xv- {_n
1376. ]-\m-a I-\m-en-eq-sS B-Zy-am-bn Hm-Sn- I--en-s t]-cv- Fkv.F-kv. B-
1377. ]-k^
- n-Iv- k-ap-{Z-hp-am-bpw- A-Xe
v- m- -dn-Iv- k-ap-{Z-hp-am-bpw- A-Xnn- ]-n-Sp-- H-tc-sbm-cp- sX-t- A-ta-cn-- cm-Pyw- --sImfw-_n-b1378. B-[p-\n-I Im-e-s A-p-X kw-`-hw F-v Km-n-Pn hn-tijn-n--Xv- t-{X-{]-th-i-\ hn-fw-_-cw
1379. ]-g-n-cm-P-sb tI-c-f-knw-lw F-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- k-Zm
sI.Fw.]-Wn-
1380. ]-hv-\m-dn ]-cw-[m-a B-{i-aw m-]n--Xv- hn-t\m-_m `m-sh
1381. ]-I--hym-[n-I-fp-sS Iq--n G--hpw Ip-d- kmw-{I-an-Ikm-[y-X-bp- tcm-Kw- Ip-jvTw
1382. \o-ew Ir-jn-m-m-bn a-lm-m-Km-n k-a-cw \-S-n-b Nm-c G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- _o-lm
1383. ]-n-hm-k ]--Xn G-Xp-\-Zn-bn- ap-Xn-c-p-g
1384. k-ap-{Z-Kp-]v-X-s ]n-Km-an--N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
1385. hn-I-emw-K-m-bn kw-L-Sn-n-p- H-fn-n-Iv-kv- ]m-cm-enw-]nIvk
- v
1386. k-Zm ]-t A-[y--X h-ln- G-I tIm-{K-kv k-t-f\w (1931) F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \-S--Xv--I-dm-n
1387. ]-g-n I-em-]w A-Sn--a-n-b {_n-o-jv k-_v I-e-Iv-S- tXma-kv lm-th _m-_
1388. \m-K-km-n-bn ho-W t_mw-_n-s t]-cv- ^m-v am
G- - h pw D- - n i- _ v - Z - a p- m- m
I- g n- b p- Po- h n- Xn- a nw- K n- e w

64

CONFUSING FACTS
-b-tcm-Kw-aq-ew A--cn- a-e-bm-f I-hn N--p-g ,t]hn-j-_m-[-tb-v a-cn--Xv Ip- \-ym, t_m-p-ap-n-acn--Xv Ip-am-c-\m-im, B--l-Xy sN-bv-X a-e-bm-f I-hn
C-S--n cm-L-h-]n-.
cm-jv-{Sw, A-Xp Rm-\m-Wv F-p ]-d--Xv {^m-kn-se
eq-bn ]-Xn-\m-em-a. F-\n-p-ti-jw {]-f-bw F-p ]-d-Xv eq-bn ]-Xn-\-m-a.
cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-b m-\-]oT tP-Xm-hv Pn.i--c-p-dp-v.
tem-Ik
v- `- mw-Ka
- m-b m-\]
- oT tP-Xm-hm-Wv F-kv.sI. s]m-m-v.
1389. ]-n-s-p-I-t]m-se B-Im-i-v hym-]n-p-In-S-p- taL-- Iyp-ap-e-kv
1390. k-ap-{Z-P-e-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X A-S-n-bn-cn-p- e-h-Ww tkm-Un-bw tm-ssd-Uv
1391. ]-p-I-fp-sS B-tcm-Ky-n-\v A-Xy-m-t]-n-X-am-b aq-e-Iw-Im-kyw
1392. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e
- m-Wv ]p-Ib
- n-e Ir-jn Bcw-`n--Xv- P-lmw-Ko
1393. ]-c-{o-kp-`m-j F--Xp sIm-v N-cn-{X-Im-c-am D-t-in-p `m-j-tb-Xv- {^-v
1394. K-h-W-dpw a-{n-k-`-bpw X-n-ep- I-n F--dn-b--Sp--Xv-ap-Jy-a-{n
1395. ]-c-a-ho-c-N-{Iw cq-]-I-ev-]-\ sN-bv-X-Xm-cv- km-hn-{Xn J-t\m
1396. \-f- k-h-I-em-im-e kv-Ym-]n- Kp-]v-X cm-Pm-hv- -Ip-am-c-Kp-]vX.1397. H-do-k-bp-sS an-t-\n-bw \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- I--v
1398. H-do-k-bp-sS kmw-kv-Im-cn-I X-e-m-\w- I--v
1399. G-Xp bp-K-n-em-Wv a-lm-hn-jv-Wp Iq-am-h-Xm-cw sN-bv-X-Xv-
k-Xy-bp-Kw
1400. \-f- k-h-I-em-im-e-sb ]p-\-cp-o-hn-n- ]m-e-hw-i cm-Pmhv- [-a-]m-e
1401. H-do-k-bp-sS Zpx-Jw-F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-lm-\-Zn
1402. `nw-t`-Sv-I Kp-l-I G-Xv kw-m-\-v- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
1403. \-f-m k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS-A-h-in-jv-S- G-Xp kw-m-\m-Wv Im-Wm I-gn-bp--Xv- _o-lm
1404. H-fn-n-Iv-kv Nn--n-se \o-e h-f-bw {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w sN-p h-I-c- bq-tdm-v
1405. sk-{S {U-Kv dn-k-v C-n-yq-v C-y-bn F-hn-sS-bmWv- e-Iv-\u
1406. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv _m-_v-dn a-kv-Pn-Zv
\n-an--s--Xv--_m-_
1407. {_n- o- j v - a- e - _ m- \n- e - h n- h - - X v - G- X v h- j - n-
F.Un.1793
1408. `m-K-t[-b-n-s a-\p-jy F--dn-b-s--Xv- s\-tm-fn-b
t_m-W-m-v
1409. Iyq-_ an-ssk {]-Xn-k-n ssI-Im-cyw sN-bv-X A-ta-cn {]-kn-U v--tPm F-^v. sI--Un
1410. ]-c-am-Wp kn-m-w D--bn- ]p-cm-X-\-`m-c-X Zm-i-\n-I- IWm-Z
1411. J-\z-bp--n (1527) B-cm-Wv kw-{Km-a-knw-l-s\ ]-cm-P-bs-Sp-n-b-Xv--_m-_
1412. K-m-^n {In--v t-Un-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--em-tlm
1413. k-h- ln-p--s-Xn-cm-b k-a-c-n-s-d `m-K-am-bn- a-\pkv-ar-Xn- I-n- t\-Xm-hv--_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
1414. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS i-h-Ip-So-c-am-Wv Im-_q-fn-ep--Xv-_m-_
1415. H- f n- n- I v - k v sa- U t\- S n- b C- y sS- o- k v Xm- c w-
en-bm- ]-b-kv

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1416. tI-c-f-n-\n-pw D-`-hn-p- Im-th-cn-bp-sS t]m-j-I\-Zn- I-_-\n


1417. ]-h
-
- c
- ]
-
- X
- n-I-v A-n-a Aw-Ko-Im-cw \-Ip-X
- v- tZio-b hn-I-k-\-k-an-Xn
1418. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv A-e-Iv-km--dpw t]m-d-kpw G-pap-n-b-Xv- Q-ew
1419. \yq-t{Sm I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sP-bnw-kv Nm-Uv-hn-v
1420. ]--kn-m-n-I, _r-l-w-ln-X F-n-h c-Nn--Xv- h-cm-l-anln-c
1421. _p-- k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy C-y hw-i-P hn.Fkv.\-bv-t]m
1422. _n-kv-an-m-Jm A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv G-Xv kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-W-hpam-bn _--s-v- sj-l-\m-bn
1423. \yq-\-]--k-m-cn-s X-e-h-\m-b B-Zy C-y {]-[m-\-a{n- N-c-kn-Mv
1424. \o-e-Kn-cn-bn Im-Wp- tKm-{X-hn-`m-Kw- tXm-U
1425. Hm C-ym td-Un-tbm \n-e-hn h- h-jw- 1936
1426. \yq-n-b ^n-kn-Iv-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv- dp-Y-t^m-Uv
1427. \yq-am-n-Iv S-b I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- U-e-]v
1428. _n-Kv t_m-Uv F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s-Sp- tm-v FIv-kv-tN-v- \yq-tbm-v
1429. ]q-W-am-bn C-y-bn-eq-sS H-gp-Ip- \-Zn-I-fn \o-f-n Hmw m-\-ap- \-Zn -tKm-Zm-h-cn
1430. ]m-In-kv-Xm-s kmw-kv-Im-cn-I B-m-\-am-bn I-W-m--sSp- \-K-cw--em-tlm
1431. {_n-o-jv C-y s{]m-hn-kp-I-fn Zzn-`-c-Ww G-s-Sp-nb h-jw- 1919
1432. sk-{S C-n-yq-v Hm-^v _p-n-v -Uo-kv F-hn-sS-bmWv- P-p I-iv-ao-cn-se te F- -e-v
1433. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv Cu-tdm-Uv \-K-cw n-Xn sN-p-Xv- I
- m-th-cn
1434. `n-em-bv o m v G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- N-o-kv-K-Vv
1435. sk-{S C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv F-n-\o-b-dn-Mv dn-k-v C-nyq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]n-em-\n
1436. `m-Ko-c-Yn-bpw A-f-I-\--bpw kw-K-an-p- -ew- tZ-h-{]-bmKv
1437. G-Xv A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Un-s a-c-W-s-p-dn-v A-t\z-jnm-\m-Wv hm-d I-o-j-s\ \n-b-an--Xv--tPm F-^v. sI-Un
1438. sk-{S km-v B v a-ssd sI-an--kv dn-k-v Cn-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- `m-hv-\-K
1439. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s am-Xm-]n-Xm-- am-S-\m-im-\pw Ip-nb--bpw
1440. sk-{S ln-p tIm-tf-Pv m-]n--s- -ew- hm-cm-Wkn
1441. Xn-cp-h-p-h {]-Xn-a-bp-sS D-b-cw- 133 A-Sn
1442. th-ep--n- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq- Z-f-h-bm-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1802
1443. t-tm-bp-sS Kp-cp- tkm-{I-o-kv
1444. G-Xp tcm-K-s {]-Xn-tcm-[n-m-\m-Wv D-n A-b-Un tNp--Xv- tKm-bn-
1445. `n-m-I-Wn-I I--m-Sv G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- H-do-k
1446. G-Xp tem-l-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv C-a-ss\-v ssS-m-\n-bw
1447. ]-jv-Xq-Wp-I- G-Xp-cm-Py-s P-\-hn-`m-K-am-Wv- A-^v-Km-\n-kvXm
1448. ]-k-^n-n-s ap-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Kp-b-bm-Izn Xp-dap-Jw
1449. _p- k-m-\w e-`n- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X--A-cp--Xn tdmbn
1450. \yq-Iv-fn-b ^n-j I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Hm-tm lm
1450. Ctbm F Im \nn-p I\n lypmbn
1451. \yq-tdm-f-Pn F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- \m-Uo-hyq-lw
1452. A-Sn-a-w \n-dp--em-n-b A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v- F-{_lmw en-
1453. \yq-tbm-v \-K-c-n-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- \yq Bw--Umw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

cm-Py-k-`mw-K-n-s Im-em-h-[n F-{X-h-j-am-Wv


Iw-]v-t{Sm-f B v Hm-Un- P-\-d-en-s Im-em-h-[n F{X h-ja
- m-Wv
]n-tIm-Un-se A---fp-sS F-w
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv C-mw-a-X m-]-I-\m-b ap-l--Zv
\-_n P-\n--Xv
ssP-\-a-X-n-s hn-ip--{K-- t{Im-Uo-I-cn--s-Xv F.Un. F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn-se Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j-I-fp-sS F-w
th-Zmw-K--fp-sS F-w
\n-jv-{In-b hm-X-I- A-Y-hm Ip-eo-\ hm-X-I--fp-sS
F-w
H-cp k-a-N-Xp-c---bp-sS h-i--fp-sS F-w
C-cp-]-n-sbm-]-Xmw h-b-n sIm-m-cw hn-n-d-n-b
kn-m-Y-\v (Ku-X-a-_p-) F-{X h-j-s A-e-pXn-cn-b-en-\p ti-j-am-Wv Zn-hy-m-\w e-`n--Xv
Iv-tfm-n-se an-\n-v kq-Nn H-cp an-\n-v-sIm-v F-{X Un{Kn Xn-cn-bpw
c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-w F-{X-h-jw \o-p-\n-p
C-y {]-kn-U v m-\-t-v H-gn-hp-h-m F-{X
am-k-n-\p-n \n-I-n-bn-cn--Ww
bp-tKm-m-hy-bv-v F-{X L-S-I dn--n-p-I-fm-Wp-mbn-cp-X
- v
]-Zm-Y-n-s F-{Xm-a-s A-h--bm-Wv s^-an-tbmWn-Iv I--tk-v
1454. \-Zn-bn- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p-- C-y-bn-se- G-I- ta-P- Xp-d-ap-Jw-sIm--1455. \-Zn-I-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\- t]m--tam-f-Pn
1456. ]- {K-lw- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- bp-dm-\-kv
1457. \yq-n-b dn-bm-Iv-S-dp-I-fn L-\-P-ew (sl-hn hm-) F-mbn-m-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- tam-U-td-
1458. ]-n-h-K-n-se s]m-eo-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Im--p-cm-n
1459. ]- tem-l--fn-se L-S-I-- kz-Ww,sN-v,sh-n,Cubw,C-cp-v
1460. tm-Wn-n-eq-sS kr-jv-Sn- B-Zy-s ]-n- kv-\q-n
1461. \yq-tbm-v \-K-cw G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- l-Uv-k
1462. tI-c-f-n-te-v sN--S-en-q-Sn-bp- F-fp--h-gn I-p-]n-Sn-Xv- ln-m-e-kv
1463. ]- kz-Ww F-v hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp--Xv- hm-\n-e
1464. ]-n-Wn Pm-Y \-bn--Xv F.sI.tKm-]m-e
1465. \yq-U-ln-bp-sS tbm-P-\m \n-am-Xm-hv- F-Uzn ep-Sy-kv
1466. ]m-en A-S-n-bn-cn-p- ]--km-c- em-Iv-tSm-kv
1467. tP-W-en-kw {In-tb-o-hv I-ayp-Wn--j hn-`m-K-n a-Kvk-tk A-hm-Uv C-y-bn-\n-pw B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b-Xv- Aan-Xm-`v Nu-[-cn(1961).
1468. ]--\n-dw am-{X-ap- tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I G-Xv cm-Py-n-t-Xv- en_n-b
1469. _o-Kw l-{k-v a-l B-[p-\n-I C-y-bn-se G-Xp kw-`-ham-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- 1857-se I-em-]w
1470. ]-m-_n-s\ {_n-o-jv C-y-tbm-Sv tN- K-h-W P-\-d U-lu-kn
1471. C-y `-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- n-se G-Xv en-n-em-Wv hn-Zym-`ym-kw- II-d v
1472. cm-Pm c-hn-h-a A--cn- h-jw- 1906
1473. -]m-en-\v cp-Nn \-Ip--Xv- em-Iv-tSm-kv
1474. cm-P-m-\n-se {]-i-kv-X-am-b ssk--h kw-kv-Im-c-tI-{w-
I-en-_w-K

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

65

1475. {_n-o-jp-Im-s-Xn-sc \m-p-Im- \-S-n-b B-Zy-s kw-LSn-X I-em-]w- B-n-- e-l-f


1476. C-Sp-n A-W-s-v G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- s]-cn-bm
1477. ]m-en-m-\ G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-e-b--p {]-knw- ssP-\
1478. i-co-c-n-se cm-k-]-co--W-im-e- I-c
1479. i-co-c
- n-se Im-h-m F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- tiz-Xc
-
- m-Wp
1480. ]m-en A-S-n-bn-cn-p- amw-kyw- tI-ko
1481. ]m-es
- an-s\ A-`n-ap-Jo-Ic
- n-m- G-I C-y {]-[m-\
a-{n-- N-c-kn-Mv
1482. C-y-bn-se H-tc-sbm-cp tX-v ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-
\n-e-q
1483. {_n--Wn-se G--hpw D-b- ssk-\n-I _-lp-a-Xn- hn-Iv-tSmdn-b t{Im-kv
1484. cm-P-m ssl-tm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w- tPm-[v-]q
1485. C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-bp-sS i--f-hpw B-\p-Iq-ey--fpw \n-bn-p--Xv- ]m-e-sa v
1486. ]m-e-san-se G--hpw h-en-b I-n-n-bm-b F-n-ta-v-kv
I-n-n-bn-se Aw-K-- 30
1487. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b s_m-m-Wn- Km-U-kv- \mj-W s_m-m-Wn- Km-U-kv, sIm--
1488. ]m-e -san-s C- c p- k - ` - I - f p- s S- b pw kw- b p- - k-t-f-\w
hn-fn-p-tN-p--Xv- cm-jv-{S-]-Xn
1489. bq-tdm-n-s tIm-v-]n-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- s_-Pnbw
1490. ]m-e-san-s G-sX-n-ep-sam-cp k-`-bn Aw-K-a-m-sX {][m-\-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hy-n- \-c-knw-l-dm-hp
1491. ]m-en-s\ ssX-cm-p- _m-Iv-So-cn-b- em-Iv-tSm-_m-kn--kv
1492. sXm-q-dm-am-v e-l-f F-pw A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Du-cq---ew
e-l-f
1493. ssX-m-Sv A- P-\n- h-jw-1814
1494. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp 1916 k--in- a-lm- c-a-W-a-l-jn
1495. {]-Xy--c-m-ssZ-h-k-`-bp-sS B-m-\w- C-c-hn-t]-cq
1496. _v-fm-v se-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {Km-ss^-v
1497. I-enw-K-bp--n a-\w-s\m-v _p--a-Xw kzo-I-cn- N-{I-hn- A-tim-I
1498. I-enw-K-bp-w \-S- h-jw- _n.kn.261
1499. _w-m-tZ-in-\m-Np--s-p-In-S-p- C-y kw-m-\w- {Xn]p-c
1500. ]m-gv-kn a-Xw m-]n--Xv- tkm-cm-
1501. ]m-gv-kn-I-fp-sS ]p-cm-X-\ A-n-t-{X--fp- D-Uzm-U G-Xp
kw-m-\-m-Wv- Kp-P-dm-v
1502. ]m-h--fp-sS Xm-Pv-a-l F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _n-_n Im a-Jv_-c
1503. ]m-In-kv-Xm-\n-\n-p- \p-g-p-I-b--m-sc ]p-d-m-m
Im-Kn-en \-S-n-b ssk-\n-I \-S-]-Sn- Hm--td-j hn-P-bv
1504. ]m-N-I-hm-X-I-n-se {]-[m-\-L-S-Iw- _yq-t
1505. C-y am-n-bs
- h-n F-p hn-ti-jn-n-s
- -X
- v- Nm-WI
- y
1506. A-hn-hm-ln-X-\m-b- G-I- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-v- sP-bnw-kv_p-m-\1507. ]m-h--fp-sS a-kyw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Nm-f
1508. ]-k-^n-n-s I-hm-Sw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-\m-am I-\m
1509. `-b-s-Sp-tm i-co-c-n D-]m-Zn-n--s-Sp- tlmtam--A-{Un-\m-en
1510. ]m-en-s a--\n-d-n-\p Im-c-Ww F-n-s km-n-[y-am-Wv-
I-tcm-n
1511. _m-e-N-{-ta-t\m-s\ `-c-Xv A-hm-Un-\-l-\m-n-b Nn-{Xw- kam-c
-
-
1512. ]m-v-\ \-K-c-n-s ]-g-b t]-cv- ]m-S-eo-]p-{Xw
1513. tIm--td-j-\n {]-Y-a-m-\w h-ln-p- hy-n- ta-b
1514. k-th Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS B-m-\w--sU-dm-Uq
1515. ]m-en-e-S-n-bn-cn-p- em-Iv-tSm-kn-s\ Z-ln-n-m i-co-cw
D-]m-Zn-n-p- F-sskw- em-Iv-tS-kv
1516. C-y an-en--dn A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sU-dm-Uq
1517. ]m-In-kv-Xm-\n-se- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- -kn-\v-[p-

66

CONFUSING FACTS
B-[p-\n-I P-\m-[n-]-Xy-n-s kp-hn-ti-jw F--dn-b-sSp--Xv dq-tm c-Nn- tkm-jy tIm-{Sm-Iv-Sv B-Wv. B[p-\n-I P-\m-[n-]-Xy-n-s B-Wn--v F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv am-m Im--bm-Wv (Corner stone of modern democracy). Cw-Kv-f-n-se tPm cm-Pm-hv P-\--fp-sS A-h-Imi- \n-h-Nn-p-sIm-v d-n-ao-Uv F- -e-p-h-v
1215 C-Xn H-n-p.
C-y-bn kzm-X-{y-tPym-Xn sX-fn-bn-n-cn-p--Xv B-am \n-tm-_m Zzo-]p-I-fn-se sk-p-em P-bn-en-emWv. A-a tPym-Xn Pm-en-b-hm-em _m-Kn-epw A-a Phm tPym-Xn \yq-U-ln-bn-se C-ym tK-n-ep-am-Wv.
X-an-gv I-e--dn-se B-Zy-am-kw Nn-n-c-bpw A-h-km-\-amkw ss]-p-\n-bp-am-Wv.
1518. ]-lm-cn `m-j G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv D-]-tbm-K-n-ep--Xv-
ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv
1519. C-y an-ssk ]--Xn-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- F.]n.sP. A_v-Zp I-emw
1520. ]m-en-b-tm-f-Pn F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- t^m-kn
1521. C-y A-Wp-t_mw-_v ]-Zv-[-Xn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- cm-P cm-a-
1522. ]m-In-kv-Xm-s tZ-io-b Km-\w- Izm-an X-cm-\
1523. `-c-W-L-S-\-{]-Im-cw C-y-bn \n-h-l-Wm-[n-Im-cw B-cn
\n-n-]v-X-am-bn-cn-p-p- {]-kn-U v
1524. I-_-Un-bp-sS P--\m-Sv- C-y
1525. ]m-e-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- tKm-]m-e
1526. i-_v-Z-a-en-\o-I-c-Ww A-f-p- bq-Wn-v- sU-kn-_
1527. ]m-m-Kp-fn-I-bm-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- \m-^v-X-eo
1528. ]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Z-n-\v B t]-cp \-In-b-Xv- a-K-
1529. hp-Uv kv-]n-cn-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ao-ssY B--tlm
1530. hr--bp-sS L-S-\m-]-c-hpw [-a-]-c-hp-am-b A-Sn-m-\ L-S-Iw-s\-t{^m
1531. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew Fw.F.F.B-bn-cp--Xv-
kn.l-cn-Zm-kv
1532. sk v tXm-a-kv C-y-bn h- h-jw- F.Un.52
1533. kz-X-{ C-y-bn tIm-{K-kv A-[y--bm-b c-m-a-s
h-\n-X--tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
1534. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X sXm-gn c-ln-X D- Pn--
Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
1535. tI-c-f-n H-Sp-hn cq-]w sIm- Pn-- Im-k-tIm-Sv
1536. G-Xp D-S--Sn {]-Im-c-am-Wv {_n-o-jp-Im-v Sn-p-hn-\n-v ae-_m e-`n--Xv- {io-cw-K-]--Ww D-S--Sn
1537. tI-c-f-n I-ayp-Wn-v
]m-n \-S-n-b G--hpw hen-b k-a-cw- ]p--{]--h-b-em
1538. lo-en-bw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- cmw-tk
1539. N-c-I G-Xp \n-e-bn-em-Wv {]-kn--\m-bn-cp-p- `n-j-Kz-c
1540. B-[p-\n-I ]m-m-Xy Nn--bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv sd-s\ sZ-m-s
1541. X-m-hq-cn-se _r-l-Zo-iz-c-t-{Xw- (cm-P-cm-P-t-{Xw) ]-WnI-gn-n--Xm-cv - cm-P-cm-P-tNm-f-H-m-a
1542. Xn-aq B-{I-an-p-tm U-ln kp-m-\m-bn-cp--Xv- \mkn-dp-o a-l-q-Zv
1543. \m-Km-Pp km-K Umw G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- B-{m-{]tZ-iv sX-em-\ A-Xn-n-bn
1544. ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- tkm- (A-tkm-kn-tb-j
^p-Sv-t_m)
1545. ]n-n-te-p ]-d-m I-gn-hp- ]-n- l-n-Mv ]-n
1546. t\m-v Hu-v- G-Xp-Im-bn-I-C-\-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
t_m-Iv-kn-Mv

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1547. Km-n-bpw tKm-Uv-sk-bpw F- I-hn-X c-Nn--Xv- F.hn.IrjvW


- h
- m-cy
1548. k-ap-{Z-\n-c-n-\n-p-ap- D-b-cw I-W-m-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p D-]-I-c-Ww- B-n-ao-
1549. jm-P-lm-s aq--]p-{X- Zm-c
1550. a-\p-jy-s G--hpw h-en-b A-n--^o-a
1551. ]n--Wn Km-bn-I-sb- \n-e-bn {]-i-kv-X-bm-b `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w
tP-Xm-hv- e-Xm-at- -jvI
-
1552. ^n-tdm-kv-]q G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- k-Xv-e-Pv
1553. ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-se I-dp- ap-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- s]-se
1554. _-ln-cm-Im-i-bm-{Xn-I-bm-b B-Zy C-y hw-i-P- I-]-\m
Nu-f
1555. \m-j-W sl-dm-Uv F-hn-sS \n-p-am-Wv {]-kn-o-I-cn--Xv-
e-Iv-\u
1556. 1964 km-ln-Xy s\m-t_ \n-cm-I-cn- {^-p X-z-Nn-I- Po t]m km-{X v
1557. C-y-bn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv {^-v C-n-yq-v m-]n-n-cn-p-Xv- ]
- p-Xp-t-cn
1558. H-cp sS-v am-n ]-p-hn--s-Sp- B-Zy {In--- Pnw
te-
1559. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]m-Zn-n--s-Sp- kp-K-
hy-RvP
- \
- w- Ip-cp-ap-fI
- v
1560. {^m-kn-se- F-{Xm-a-s- dn--n-m-Wv- C-tm- \n-e-hn-ep-Xv- A-m-a-s
1561. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew \n-b-a-k-`mw-K-am-b h-\nX sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
1562. G-Xp hw-i
- m-cp-sS kw-`m-h\
- b
- m-Wv Km-m-cI
- e
- - C-tm-{- Kop-Im
1563. H-cp ssa F-{X A-Sn-bm-Wv- 5280
1564. G-Xp hy-n-bm-Wv B-Zy-am-bn lr-Z-b-am--i-kv-{X-{In-b-bn-eq-sS
lr-Z-bw kzo-I-cn--Xv- eq-bn-kv hm-jv-Im-kv-In
1565. H-cp sS-v am-n ]-p-hn--s-Sp- B-Zy C-y {In-- A-\n Ipw-s
1566. kv-Im-Un-t\-hn-b cm-Py- G-Xv h-I-c-bp-sS `m-K-am-Wv-
bq-tdm-v
1567. tI-cf
-
- n G-h
- pw Ip-d
- p-Im-ew a-{n-bm-bn-cp-X
- -v Fw.]n.hotc-{-Ip-am
1568. _p--a-X-m G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- C-y kw-m-\w- alm-cm-jv-{S
1569. 1966 P-\p-h-cn 10\v D-kv-_-n-m-\n-se Xm-jv-sIn-h-v ]mIn-kv-Xm {]-kn-U v A-bq-_v-Jm-\p-am-bn Xm-jv-sI v I-cmdn H-p-sh--Xv- em _-lm-Zq-im-kv-{Xn
1570. \m-j-W t]m-eo-kv A-m-Z-an B-cp-sS t]-cn \m-a-I-c-Ww
sN-bv-Xn-cn-p-p- k-Zm ]-t
1571. H-cp t\m-n- ssa F-{X ao--dm-Wv- 1852
1572. tI-c-f-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- sIm-tm,- hm-g--gw- F-n-h
D-]m-Zn-n-p- Pn-- tIm--bw1573. lo-tam-Kv-tfm-_n-\n-ep- tem-lw--C-cp-v
1574. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X tX-bn-e D-]m-Zn-n-p-
Pn-- C-Sp-n
1575. kw-m-\ Xn-c-s-Sp-v I-n-j-W-sd \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv-K-h-W
1576. G-Xp h-j-am-Wv tem-I-P-\-kw-Jy B-dp _ney Xn-I--Xv 1999
1577. kz-X-{ C-y-bn tIm-{K-kv A-[y--]-Z-hn h-ln- BPn-X C-y ]u-c-Xz-ap- G-I hy-n--tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
1578. tI-c-f-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- Xm-eq-p-I-fp- Pn-- F-d-WmIp-fw1579. kw-m-\-s {]-Y-a ]u-c F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv--K-h-W
1580. tI-c-f-n hn-tam-N-\ k-a-cw- \-S- h-jw- 1959
1581. \-h-Pm-X-in-ip-hn-s A-n-I-fp-sS F-w- 300
1582. th-Uv ssh-Uv ^-n-s Nn-w- `o-a ]m-
1583. t]- i n- I - f p- s S N- e - \ w \n- b - { n- p- a- k v - X n- j v - I - ` m- K w-
sk-dn-_-w

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

kw-m-\ \n-b-a-k-` /]m-e-sa v F-{X am-k-n-semcn- k-t-fn-n-cn--Ww


Hm-Un-\-kn-s Im-em-h-[n km-[m-c-W-am-bn F-{X amk-am-Wv
kw-m-\ \n-ba
- k
- `
- b
- p-sS Im-em-h[
- n A-p-h-ja
- m-Wv.
F-m, P-p I-iv-ao-cn-se \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS Im-em-h-[n
F-{X h-ja
- m-Wv
sF-kv tlm-n-bn H-cp So-an F-{X I-fn-m D-m-Ipw
{_-bv en-]n-bn F-{X Ip-p-I D-]-tbm-Kn-m-Wv
B-i-b-hn-\n-a-bw km-[y-am-p--Xv
F-{X hn-jb
-
- f
- n-em-Wv s\m-t_ k-m-\w \-Ip-X
- v
B-W-h-i-n-bm-b F-{Xm-a-s cm-Py-am-Wv C-y
{In--n H-tcm-h-dn A-Sn-m I-gn-bp- ]-c-am-h-[n
kn-Iv-k-dp-I-fp-sS F-w
F-{X ta-Je
- I
- f
- n-em-Wv am-Kvk
- t- k A-hm-Uv \-Ip-X
- v
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ B-n-n 19 hy-h- sN-p kzm-X-{y--fp-sS F-w
I-Se
- n-s B-gw A-f
- p- bq-Wn-m-Wv ^m-w. H-cp ^mw F-{X A-Sn-bm-Wv.
D-dp-n-s Im-ep-I-fp-sS F-w
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn C-tm D- au-en-Im-h-Imi- F-{X-sb--am-Wv
H-mw tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn (195759) F-{X h-\n-Xm
Aw-K--fm-Wv D-m-bn-cp--Xv
Iq-dp-am- \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-a {]-Im-cw A-tbm-Ky-X I-]n-s-Sp--Xv A--s\ Xo-cp-am-\n- Xo-b-Xn ap-X F{X h-j-t-m-Wv
No-^v C-e- I-n-j-W-dp-sS-bpw C-e- I-n-jW-am-cp-sS-bpw Im-em-h-[n F-{X h-j-am-Wv
1584. jn-\-h-{X k-tlm-Z-c {]-[m-\-a-{n-amcm-b cm-Pyw-X
- m-bve
- Uv
1585. \m-Km-Pp-\,h-kp-an{X,kp-{ip-X F-nh B-cp-sS k-Z-nem-bn-cp-p- I-\n-jvI
1586. Iym-k _m-[n-m i- c o- c m- h - b - h w-
lr-Z-bw
1587. J-Pp-cm-tlm t-{X-fp-am-bn _--s- H- f n- n- I v - k v sa- U t\- S n- b Ca-X-- ssP-\-a-Xy sS- o- k v Xm- c w-
hpw ssi-h-a-X-hpw
en- b m- ]- b - k v
1588. I-Ym-k-cn-Xv-km-K-cw cNn--Xv- tkm-a-tZ-h
1589. \m-j-W tkm-jy-en-kw B-cp-sS {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-am-bn-cp-p ln-v-e
1590. ]n--hm-X-n-\p {]-Xn-tcm-[ Nn-In- I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm-\mkv km-v
1591. A-ta-cn--bn-se ]n-v-kv-_-Kv G-Xp hy-h-km-b-n-\p {]-knw- o
1592. k-Zm ]-t \m-j-W C-n-yq-v Hm-^v sS-Iv-t\m-f-Pn Fhn-sS-bm-Wv -kq-d-v
1593. ]n-bm- F- in-ev-]w \n-an--Xv- ssa--em--tem
1594. sk-{S- Sp-_m-tm- dn-k-v- C-kv-n-yq-v- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- cm-P-ap-{n-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

67

1595.
1596.
1597.
1598.
1599.
1600.
1601.
1602.
1603.
1604.
1605.
1606.
1607.
1608.
1609.
1610.
1611.
1612.
1613.
1614.
1615.
1616.
1617.
1618.
1619.
1620.
1621.
1622.
1623.
1624.
1625.
1626.
1627.
1628.
1629.
1630.
1631.
1632.
1633.
1634.
1635.
1636.
1637.

68

]n-c-an-Up-I G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv ss\


kp-Jv-\ X-Sm-Iw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
\m-Km-em-Un-se Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j- Cw-o-jv
1930 tI-c-f I-em-a-Wv-U-ew #m-]n--Xv- h--tm \mcm-b-W-ta-t\m
]n-im-Nn-s lr-Z-b-ap- ]p-Wy-hm-f F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s U-ln kp-m- ap-l--Zv _n Xp--Iv
\m-hn-I-cp-sS t-Kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- kv-Ihn
]n-k-bn-se N-cn- tKm-]p-c-n-s in-]n- _-\m-\-kv
]n-Xr-l-Xy-bn-eq-sS knw-lm-k-\w ssI-b-S-n-b C-ym-N-cn-{Xn-se B-Zy-s cm-Pm-hv- A-Pm-X-i-{Xp
cm-a-N-cn-X-am-\-kw a-e-bm-f-n hn-h--\w sN-bv-X-Xv- shn-p-fw tKm-]m-e-p-dp-v
]n-c-an-Up-I-fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
]--S-bv- a-n-c- G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- I-Wm-S-Iw
\m-ev Im-ep-I-fp-sS-bpw ap-p-I H-cp-t]m-se a-S-m I-gn-bp-
ar-Kw- B-\
{]n-hn- ]-gv-k-kv- (\m-p-cm-Pm--m-v- \-In-h-n-cp- B-\pIq-eyw)- \n--em-n-b {]-[m-\-a-{n- C-n-cm-Km-\v-[n_p--a-X-m-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-e-bw- ]-tKm-U
\m-hm-ap-Ip--t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-\m-hm-b
1893 Nn-m-tKm-bn \-S- a-X-k-t-f-\-n ]-s-Sp-
`m-c-Xob- kzm-an hn-th-Im-\-
{]-Pm-aW
- U
v- e
-
- n-s m-]I
- - hn.B.Ir-jW
-v s
- \-gp-
-
_m-em-aW
- n-b
- b
- v
- v tI-{ km-ln-Xy A-m-Za
- n A-hm-Uv t\Sn-sm-Sp- Ir-Xn- ap--n
\m-hn-I ]-cn-io-e-\ tI-{-am-b sF.F.F-kv.sh-p-cp-n Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-n
\m-j-W ^n-enw B-t-hv-kn-s B-m-\w- ]q-s\
^yq-kv h-b G-sX-mw tem-l--fp-sS k--e-\-am-Wv- Sn-pw
se-Upw
_-{k G-Xp cm-Py-s Xp-d-ap-J-am-Wv- C-dm-v
_p--a-X-{K-- c-Nn--s- `m-j- ]m-en
_-nw-N-{-Nm--Pn-bp-sS B-Zy-s t\m-h- Zp-tK-i-\-n-\n
_-a-bp-sS t]-cv aym-am F-m-n-b h-jw- 1989
a-e-bm-f-a-t\m-c-a-bp-sS kv-Ym-]-I- I--n- h-dp-Ko-kv- amn-f
\m-j-W ^n-kn- e-t_m-d--dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \yq-Uln
]m-p-I-fp-sS cm-Pm-hv- cm-P-sh-m-e
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tZ-io-tbm--Zym-\w- C-c-hn-Ip-fw
k-]v-X-i-X-Iw c-Nn- i-X-hm-l-\-cm-Pm-hv- lm-e
_-\n-bm-a-cw F- t]-cn-q-Sn A-dn-b-s-Sp- hr-w- t]cm
k-_-a-Xn-bn-se k-\ym-kn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-lm-m-Kmn
_-o-lm P-e-ssh-Zyp-X-]--Xn G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- P-p-Ii
- a
v- o
K-{_n-tb Km-ky am-t-kv G-Xp cm-Py-m-c- sIm-fw_n-b
k-m-\-tKm-]m-ew c-Nn- `--I-hn- ]q-m-\w
^p-Uv B v A-{Kn-I- Hm-K-ss\-tk-j-s- B-m-\w-
tdmw
G--hpw ]-g--ap- s^-U-d `-c-W-L-S-\-bp- cm-Pyw- bp.
F-kv.F.
G-h
- pw ]-g
- a
- p- tZ-io-bK
- m-\w G-Xp cm-Py-n-t-Xv- P-m
Iv-\m-bn- sXm--s t\-Xr-Xz-n- H-cp- kw-Lw- {In-kv-Xym-\nI- tI-c-f-n- h- h-jw- F.Un. 345
A-hn-hm-ln-X-\m-b G-I C-y {]-kn-U v--F.]n.sP. A-_vZp I-emw
A-Iv-_ \n-tcm-[n- P-kn-b \n-Ip-Xn ]p-\-m-]n- ap-K N{I-h-n- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
sb-Im-Sv G-Xp kw-m-\-s hn-t\m-Z-k-m-c tI-{-am-Wv-
X-an-gv-\m-Sv
Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS k-Z--e--cn-n-cp- A-jv-S-Zn-zn-P--fpsS X-e-h- A--km-\n s]-U-

tNmZyw; Dcw P a
P- a- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv n-Xn-sN-p--Xv? ]p-kv-X-I-fn U-ln, P-bv-]q F-n--s\ hy-Xy-kv-X-am-bn Im-Wpp?
= U-ln.P-b-]q, hm-cm-W-kn, D--bn, a-Yp-c F-n--s\
5 -e--fn P- a- \n-an-n-p-v.
1727 \pw 1734 \pw a-t[y cm-Pm k-hm-bv P-bv-knw-Kv B-Wv Ch ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv. Bw-_ cm-Py-s `-c-W-I-m-hm-bncp-p A-t-lw.
"Instrument and formula- F-m-Wv P- a- F- ]-Zn-\-Yw.
1638. tkm-Un-bw th- em-v G-Xp-\n-d-n {]-Im-in-pw--a-
1639. G--hpw h-en-b em-n-\-ta-cn- cm-Pyw- {_-ko
1640. _p--a-X-m-cp-sS G--hpw h-en-b B-cm-[-\m-e-bw- C-tm-\ojy-bn-e t_m-tdm-_p-Zq
1641. G--hpw h-en-b enw-^v {K-n- kv-o
1642. G--hpw h-en-b Ip-n-s\ {]-k-hn-p- P-p- \o-e-n-anwKn-ew
1643. ssX-m-Sv d-kn-U-kn-bp-sS am-t\-Pc
- m-bn-cp- \-thm-m-\ \mb-I- ssX-m-Sv A-m-Kp-cp
1644. tI-c-f Z-fn-X F- B-i-bw ap-tm-p-h- \-thm-m-\ \mb-I--s]m-bv-I-bn A--
1645. Ip-am-c-\m-im-s \-fn-\n F- Ir-Xn-v A-h-Xm-cn-I F-gp-Xn-bXv- F
- .B.cm-Pc
- m-Ph
- -a
1646. I-p-am-e k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- A--m-fn
1647. X-s B-i-b- {]-N-cn-n-m km-c-{Km-ln F- {]-kn-oI-c-Ww B-cw-`n- \-thm-m-\ \m-b-I- {_-m-\--in-h-tbmKn
1648. ]- C-e Np-h-p-{]-Im-i-n F-p \n-d-n Im-W-s-Spw I-dp-v
1649. \o-e-{K-lw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- `q-an
1650. ^n-t\m-fn-s cm-k-\m-aw- Im-t_m-fn-Iv B-kn-Uv
1651. H-fn-n-Iv-kn ]-s-Sp- B--Zy a-e-bm-fn- kn.sI.e-v-aW
--
1652. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- D-]-{]-[m-\-a-{n- k-Zm ]-t
1653. ^n-Zu-kn c-Nn- {]-[m-\-Ir-Xn- jm-\m-a
1654. th-Uv ssh-Uv sh-_v {]-h-n-n-p--Xn {]-ap-J ]-v hln- im-kv-{X-- Snw s_-W-kv en
1655. X-]m-m-v B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
1656. -tcm-K--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv---bw
1657. ^n-enw B v sS-en-hn-j C-n-yq-v Hm-^v C-y F-hn-sSbm-Wv- ]q-s\
1658. _p--a-X-n-s G-Xp hn-`m-K-s-bm-Wv I-\n-jv-I t{]mkm-ln-n--Xv- a-lm-bm-\w
1659. ^n-t\m-^v-X-en-\v B-kn-Un-ep- \n-dw- \n-d-an-
1660. e-Pn-t-o-hv Iu-kn-D- Z-n-tW-y kw-m-\-I-Wm-S-Iw,B-{m-{]-tZ-iv, sX-em-\
1661. _n-em-n hn-ti-jw F- bm-{Xm-hn-hc
- W
- w c-Nn-X
- v- sI.]n.tIi-h-ta-t\m
1662. ]-m-_n-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw h-ep-Xv- k-Xv-e-Pv
1663. -hm-kv-Xp-hn-Zym-Kp-cp-Ip-ew n-Xn sN-p--Xv- B-d-p-f
1664. _p--s I-kn- tZ-h-Z-
1665. Hm-l-cn hym-]m-cw G--hpw Iq-Sp-X \-S-p- C-y \-K-cw-
apw-ss_
1666. _n-kn.6mw i-X-I-n D--tc-y-bn-ep-m-bn-cp- 16 a-lmP-\-]-Z--fn G--hpw {]-_-ew- a-K-[
1667. Hm-Mv km kp Nn G-Xp cm-Py-s t\-Xm-hm-Wv- aym-am
1668. _p- C-l-tem-I-hm-kw sh-Sn- \-K-cw- Ip-in-\-K-cw
1669. Hm-S-p-g A-hm-Uv \-Ip--Xv- Kp-cp-hm-bp-c- {S-v
1670. \m-j-W Pp-Uo-jy A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- t`m-m
1671. Hm-S-p-g A-hm-Uv G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- Pn. i--c-p-dp-v

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1672. ]-m-_v knw-lw F--dn-b-s- t\-Xm-hv- em-em e-Pv-]-Xv-dmbn


1673. Hm-Sn-hn-fb
- m-Sp-]m- F- tZ-i`
-
- n-Km-\w c-Nn-X
- v- kp-{_-aW
- y`m-cX
- n
1674. Hm-t m-t a--U v sS- sa- jo- (F.Sn.Fw) I- p-] n-SnXv
tPm sj-t^-Uv _mc
1675. Hm-tcm-cp--cn-\n-pw A-h-cp-sS I-gn-hn-\-\p-k-cn-v; Hm-tcm-cp-pw A-h-cp-sS B-h-iy-n-\-\p-k-cn-v- Cu X-zw GXp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- I-ayp-Wn-kw
1676. ]-m-b-v-cm-Pv kw-hn-[m-\-n-\v B t]-cp \-In-b-Xv- Phm-l-em s\-{lp
1677. hn-m-an _n-1 s im-kv-{X-\m-aw- X-b-an
1678. l-cn-X-I-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- tem-lw- a-o-jyw
1679. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ap-nw ]-n- sIm-Sp--q
1680. ]-m-b-v-cm-Pv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv- G{]n 24
1681. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s B-bp-th-Z tIm-tf-Pv- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
1682. l-cn-X-hn--hw- B-cw-`n--Xv G-Xp-cm-Py-m-Wv- sa-Iv-kn-tm
1683. tb-ip {In-kv-Xp P-\n- h-jw- _n.kn-.4
1684. ]--bp-sS ]-X-\-m-\w- th--\m-Sp-Im-b
1685. kz-bw N-en-m- P-p- kv-t]m-v
1686. \m-jW
- sl-dm-Uv F- ]-{Xw B-cw-`n-X
- v- P-hm-l-em
s\-{lp
1687. G--hpw h-en-b k-ap-{Zw- ]-k-^n-Iv
1688. _m-_ J-\z-bp--n(1527) B-sc ]-cm-P-b-s-Sp-n-
dm-Wm kw-{Kmw kn-Mv
1689. kz-W-n-s-bpw h-{P-n-s-bpw \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp-
cm-Pyw- Z-n-Wm-{^n-
1690. _m-_-dn-s-d i-h-Ip-So-cw- Im-_q1691. _o-_-en-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- a-tl-jv Zm-kv
1692. ^v-fq-dn I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Im jo-se
1693. Ipw-`-ta-f \-S-p- -e-- l-cn-Zzm, A-e-l-_m-Zv,
D--bn-\n, \m-kn-Iv
1694. Iq-\-Ip-cn-iv- k-Xyw- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1653
1695. ^v - f q- d n, tm- d n, t{_m- a n, A- b - U n F- n- h - b v - v
s]m-Xp-hm-bn ]-d-bp- t]-cv- lm-sem-P
1696. `-c-W-L-S-\ F- B-i-bw G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv D-cp-n-cn-Xv- {_n-
1697. ^v-tfm-d-kv ss\-nw-tK-ep-am-bn _--s- bp-w- {In-an-b
bp-w
1698. ]p-cm-W--fn Im-fn-n F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-Zn--b-ap-\
1699. G--hpw ]-g--ap- a-X-{K-w- E-tKz-Zw
1700. _-ln-cm-Im-i-bp-K-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn- Xo-b-Xn- 1957 H-Iv-tSm_ 4 (d-jy kv-]p-Sv-\n-Iv-1 hn-t-]n-p).
1701. _m-v tZ-i-km--c-W-n-\p ap-ssI-sb-Sp- a-e-bm-fn-bmb tI-{-\n-b-a-a-{n- ]-\-n-n tKm-hn--ta-t\m
1702. _m-_,A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn,^n-tdm-kv jm Xp--Iv F-n-hcp-sS c-m-[n-Im-c-n I-gn- ]-Wv-Un-X- A-ao Jp-{kp
1703. tI-c-fw k-q-W km--c-X t\-Sn-b-tm ap-Jy-a-{n-
C.sI.\m-b-\m
1704. _m- _ n- t em- W n- s e Xq- p- ] q- t m- w \n- a n- cm- P m- h v -
s\-_p-I-Zv-s\-k
1705. tI-k-cn ]-{X-n-s m-]-I- _m-e-Ir-jv-W-]n-
1706. ]n-m- k-ap-Zm-b--v
\n-b-a-k-`-bn A-l-am-b
{]m-Xn-\n-[yw t\-Sm Xn-cp-hnXmw-Iq-dn kw-LS- n-n-s
- {]-tm-`-Ww- \n-h-\ {]-tm-`-Ww
1707. X-fn-tm--bp--n-hn-P-b\-Kc
-
- n-s\-Xn-sc H-cp-an- FXn cm-Py-- A-l--Zv \K,_o- P m- q,tKm- s m,_n-Zm
1708. tem-Mv hm-Iv Sp {^o-Uw (kzmX-{y-n-te-p- Zo-L-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

a-\p-jy-n-s I-gp-n-se I-ti-cp--fp-sS F-w


tI-{-`c
- W
- {]-tZ-ia
- m-b U-ln-bn-\n-p- tem-Ivk
- `
- mwK--fp-sS F-w
`-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hn-h--tm \n-e-hn-ep-m-bn-cp- auen-Im-h-Im-i--fp-sS F-w
bp-ssW-U
- v A-d_
- v F-an-td-k
v- n-se F-an-td-p-If
- p-sS F-w
cm-am-b-W-n-se Im-Wv-U--fp-sS F-w
hm- t]m-tfm-bn-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv C-mw-a-Xw m-]n--s--Xv
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv l-j-h-[-\ D--tc-y `-cn-n-cp-Xv
F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv am-en-Iv _n Zn-\m tI-c-f-nse-n-b-Xv
tem-I-cm-Py--n-S-bn hn-kv-Xo-W-n C-y-bp-sS
m-\w
]-_v-fn-Iv A-u-v-kv I-n-n-bn F-{X t]-cm-Wv cm-Pyk-`-bn-\n-p--Xv
sk v tXm-a-kv tI-c-f-n F-{X ]-n-I m-]n-psh-m-Wv hn-izm-kw
Pn-dm-^n-s I-gp-n-se I-ti-cp--fp-sS F-w
F-kv.sF.bq-Wn-n-se A-Sn-m-\ bq-Wn-p-I F-{X-sb-am-Wv
1956 `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s t`-Z-K-Xn {]-Im-c-amWv `m-jm-Sn-m-\-n kw-m-\ ]p-\-w-L-S-\ \-S-nb-Xv
tdm-a A-
- F-gp-Xm D-]t- bm-Kn-p- {]-Xo-I
bm-{X) F- B--I-Y F-gp-Xn-b-Xv--s\-k-a-t-e
1709. jm-P-lm-s i-h-Ip-So-cw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- B-{K
1710. ]n-tIm-Un-\p k-am-\a
- m-bn A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-If
- n-ep-Xv- kn-]v
1711. X-I-gn-bp-sS G-Xv t\m-h-em-Wv B-Zy-am-bn N-e-n-{X-am-b-Xv-
c-n-S--gn
1712. Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-n-\-Sp-p- A-m-cm-jv-{S-{]-i-kv-Xn-bm-Pn hn-t\m-Z-k-m-c tI-{w--tIm-h-fw
1713. _m--kn-se ]m-co-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _p-m-d-v
1714. c-m-a-s- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-v- tPm- B-U-w-kv1715. \o-e-Kn-cn G-Xn-s `m-K-am-Wv- ]-n-a-L-w
1716. _m-an-b _p--{]-Xn-a-I G-Xp cm-Py-m-bn-cp-p- A-^v-Km\n-kv-Xm
1717. G--hpw- h-en-b k-kv-X-\n- Xn-anw-Kn-ew1718. _m-e-Kw-Km-[-c-Xn-e-I a-dm-n `m-j-bn \-S-n-b {]-kn-oI-c-Ww- tI-k-cn
1719. _m-lv-an-\n cm-Pyw m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1347
1720. G--hpw h-en-b I-p- Po-hn- `o-a I-W-h
1721. \m-j-W- Pn-tbm--^n-kn-- dn-k-v- C-kv-n-yq-v- F-hn-sSbm-Wv- - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zn1722. ]n-m- hn-`m-K-n \n-pw cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-b B-Zy hy-n Kym-\n sk-bn kn-Mv
1723. e-Pn-t-o-hv Iu-kn-en G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Aw-K--fp-
kw-m-\w- D--{]-tZ-iv
1724. ^n-tdm-km-_m-Zn-se A-tim-Ik
- vX
- q-]
- n-se en-]n Xn-cn-d
- n-
K-th-j-I- sP-bnw-kv {]n-sk-]v
1725. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy-s C-y ssh-kv {]kn-U v- Ir-j-Im-v
1726. ^n-tdm-kv Km-\v-[n A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bp-am-bn _--s-ncn-p-p- ]-{X-{]-h--\w
1727. ^p-Sv-t_m
a-c-
n-s ssZC-
ykans sk
]- L
- X n-ywbp- s90
S an-\n-v
D- ] - m- X m- h v - F.]n.sP.A- _ v - Z p I- e mw

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

69

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70

\m-Km-Pp-\-km-K Umw G-Xp \-Zn-bn- Ir-jv-W


]--io-e X-z- B-hn-jv-I-cn- k-t-f-\w- _m-q-Mv
i-_v-Z-kp--c F--dn-b-s- a-e-bm-f I-hn- h--tm
B-Zy-s tem-I-I-v ^p-Sv-t_m a-k-c th-Zn- tam-n-hnUn-tbm
]m-e-m-Sv tIm- \n-an--Xv- ssl-Z-c-en
]m-e-cp-hn sh--m-w G-Xp Pn--bn- sIm-w
bq-tdm-n-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- thm-K
]m-e-hw-i-m-t{]m-km-ln-n-n-cp- a-Xw- _p--a-Xw
B-[p-\n-I hn-t\m-Z-k-m-c-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- tXm-a-kv Ip-v
]m-e-san-s C-cp-k-`-I-fp-sS-bpw kw-bp--k-t-f-\-n
A-[y--X h-ln-p--Xv- tem-Iv-k-`m-kv-]o-
k-a-Xm- B-cp-sS k-am-[n-bm-Wv- P-Kv-Po-h dmw
]m-e-sa v \-S-]-Sn {I-a--fn iq-\y-th-f F- k-{-Zm-bw
C-y-bn B-cw-`n- h-jw 1962
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ]-n-Iv sse-{_-dn--Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
]-n-Iv sse-{_-dn
C-y-bp-tS-Xm-b H-cp tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I P-a-\n-bn-se -Uv-Kn D-b-n-b-Xv- am-Uw `n-m-Pn Im-a
C- y {]- k n- U m- b G- I im- k v - { X- - - F .]n.sP.
A-_v-Zp I-emw
{_n--Wn-se-n-b B-Zy {_m--W- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l
tdm-bv
cm-jv-{S-Iq-S-hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- am-\y-tJ-X
X-an-gv-\m-n kn.cm-P-tKm-]m-em-Nm-cn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-n \-S D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n ]-s-Sp- a-e-bm-fn--Pn.cm-a-N-{
tIm-ssh F-Iv-kv-{]-kv sN-ss-sb G-Xp \-K-c-hp-am-bn _-nn-p-p--tIm-b--q
C ]m-e-sa-dn bq-Wn-b-s B-m-\w- P-\o-h
tI-W- tPm- a-tdm- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-epw- sIm-n-bn-epw- dUn-U-dv- B-b-Xv G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1810
B-[p-\n-I Im-q-Wn-s ]n-Xm-hv- hn-eyw tlm-Km-v
]m-e-hw-i-n-se G--hpw a-lm-\m-b cm-Pm-hv- [-a-]m-e
bq-tdm-n-se G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw- tam-kv-tIm
]m-v-\ \-K-cw m-]n--Xv- tj-j
B-Zy-s tem-I-I-v tlm-n \-S- -ew- _m-kn-tem-W
]m-Y-km-c-Yn t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- B-d-p-f
B- Z y- s tIm- { K- k n- X - c {]- [ m- \ - a - { n- sam- d m- P n
tZ-im-bn
]m--bp-sS P--tZ-iw- ssN-\
]m-c--cy Kp-W--sf A-Sp- X-e-ap-d-bn-te-v ]-I-cm
k-lm-bn-p--Xv- Po-\p-I
_p--a-X-n-se {Xn-c-Xv-\-- _p-w, [-aw, kw-Lw
A-h-km-\-s ap-K `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- _-l-Zq-jm c-m-a
`-c-W-L-S-\-{]-Im-cw C-y-bn b-Ym-Y \n-h-l-Wm-[n-Im-cw
\n-n-]v-X-am-bn-cn-p--Xv- Iym-_n-\-n
]-d-bn-s]- ]-o-cp-Ip-e-n-se G-I h-\n-X- Im-c-bv--e-
`m-c-Xo-b `m-j-I-fn B-Zy-am-bn a-lm-Im-hyw cq-]w-sIm-
`m-j- kw-kv-Ir-Xw
\o--I-c ^n-jn-Mv lm-_ G-Xp Pn--bn- sIm-w
]m- Y n- b `- c - W m- [ n- I m- c n- I - f n G- - h pw {]- i - k v - X -
tKm-tm-s^-W-kv
\o-Xn-bp-sS N--e- kv-Ym-]n- ap-K- N-{I-h-n--P-lmw-Ko]m-e-sap-I-fp-sS am-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {_n-
]-dp-Zo-k-bn-se hn-v F--dn-b-s--Xv- G-e-m-bv
\q-a-Xn F--ip-o-I-c-W-im-e G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv-
A-kw
H-fn-n-Iv-kn ]-s-Sp- B-Zy-s a-e-bm-fn-bm-b \o-Xm-cw- sk-_m-y tk-hy
\q-P-lm F- hm-n-\-Yw- tem-I-n-s {]-Im-iw
Hm C-ym hm sa-tm-dn-b C-tm F-p-t]-cn-e-dn-bs-Sp-p- C-ym-tK-v
C- y- b p- s S ss_- k n- n \- K - c w F- - d n- b - s - S p- - X v -
ep-[n-bm-\
{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s Po-hn-Xw B-kv-]-Z-am-n Kp-cp F-
t\m-h c-Nn--Xv- sI.kp-tc-{

CONFUSING FACTS
tI-c-f Im-fn-Zm-k F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv tI-c-f-h-a h-enb tIm-bn--p-cm-\m-Wv. ss{I-kv-X-h Im-fn-Zm-k F-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv I---bw sN-dn-bm am-n-f-bm-Wv.
Ip-am-c-\m-im P-\n--Xv Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw Pn--bn Imbn--c-bn. t_m-p-ap-n a-cn--Xv B-e-p-g Pn--bn ]-\-bm-n (Ip-am-c-tIm-Sn).
C-y-bn tem-Iv-k-`m Xn-c-s-Sp-n thm-p sN-bv-X
(1998) B- Z y {]- k n- U v sI.B.\m- c m- b - W - \ m- W v .
F.]n.sP.A-_vZ- p I-em-am-Wv A-kw-n Xn-cs
- -Sp-n
thm-p sN-bv-X B-Zy {]-kn-U v.
1774.
1775.
1776.
1777.
1778.
1779.
1780.
1781.
1782.
1783.
1784.
1785.
1786.
1787.
1788.
1789.
1790.
1791.
1792.
1793.
1794.
1795.
1796.
1797.
1798.
1799.
1800.
1801.
1802.
1803.
1804.

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

{_-m-\--in-h-tbm-Kn P-\n- h-jw- 1852


A-ssZz-X-Nn-m-]--Xn c-Nn--Xv--N--n-kzm-an-I
_m-em-I-te-iw c-Nn--Xv--]-Wv-Un-v I-dp-
`-c-W-L-S-\m hy-h- {]-Im-cw cm-Py-k-`-bp-sS ]-c-am-h-[n AwK-kw-Jy- 250
tjm-fm-q G-Xp hy-h-km-b-n-\p {]-kn-w- ]-cp-n-p-Wn-c
-
cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-bn-cn-t tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b c-m-a-s
hy-n--F.sI. B-Wn
c-mw ssP-\-a-X k-t-f-\w \-S- h-jw- F.Un.512
\q-P-lm-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- sa-l-dp-n-k
tkm-Wn--v F- -ew F-n-\m-Wp {]-kn-w- ssk-n
cm-Py-k-`mw-K--fp-sS F-
-- n c-mw m-\w- a-lm--cm-jv{S (19)
tlm-an-\n-tU Ip-Spw-_-n-se hw-i-\m-i-`o-j-Wn t\-cn-Sm-
G-I Po-hn -a-\p-jy
\q-dm-a-s km-ln-Xy s\m-t_ tP-Xm-hv- sP.Fw.Iq-v-tk
G--hpw h-en-b km-v cm-Pyw- C-y
C-y-bn-se-G--hpw {]m-bw Iq-Sn-b {]-[m-\-a-{n- sam-dm-Pn
tZ-im-bn
_-ln-cm-Im-i-p-t]m-b B-Zy ap-nw- {]n-kv kp-sse-am
A a-kq-Zv
irw-tK-cn aTw m-]n--Xv- i--cm-Nm-cy
_-ap-U- G-Xv- cm-Py-n-s-d- B-{in-X- {]-tZ-i-am-Wv- --bp-ssW-Uv- In-Mv-UwC- y- b n- t e- - h pw Ip- S q- X Im- n D- ] m- Z n- n- p-
kw-m-\w- I-Wm-S-Iw
_-a-sb C-y-bn-\n-p th-s]-Sp-n-b \n-b-aw- 1935-se
K-h.Hm-^v C-ym \n-b-aw
cm-tI-jv i-a _-ln-cm-Im-i-p-t]m-b t]-S-Iw- tkm-bp-kv Sn11
_-cm-a-Xn t-Un-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- I--v
c-mw Pn-\ F--dn-b-s--Xv- B-cy-kp-[-a
{_m--W- F-m- th-Z-hym-Jym-\-
_-Iv-km bp--n(1764) {_n-o-jp-Im ]-cm-P-b-s-Sp-nb-Xv- an Im-knw
_-ln-cm-Im-i hm-l-\w hn-t-]n- B-Zy-s G-jy cm-Pyw ssN-\
]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy-s tI-c-f K-h-W-
kn-- `-v
`m-c-X-n {]-tXy-I \n-tbm-P-I a-Wv-U-e kw-hn-[m-\w \-Sn h-cp-n-b \n-b-a-]-cn-jv-Im-cw- C-y Iu-kn
\n-b-aw-1909
]--km-c-bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- aq-e-I-- Im-_,
ssl-{U-P, Hm-Iv-kn-P
]m-thm {In-m--kv G-Xp ]-n-bp-sS im-kv-{X-\m-a-am-Wv-
a-bn
Im--i-n ssh-Zyp-X-i-n-bm-n am-m-sa-p-I-p-]n-Sn--Xv-
ssa- ^m-c-sU
tJ-{Xn J-\n-bn \n-v e-`n-p- tem-lw--sN-v

1805.
1806.
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1836.
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1846.

tlm-K-\- sh--m-w G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv--Im-th-cn


im-n-h- B-cp-sS k-am-[n-kv-Y-ew- s\-lv-dpIm-n-se F-n-\o-b- F--dn-b-s-Sp- P-p- --_o-h]m-Wn-\n G-Xp \n-eb
- n-em-bn-cp-p {]-ik
- X
v- - kw-kI
v- r-X sshbm-Ic
- W
-
hr--I-fn-ep-m-Ip- I-v cm-k-]-c-am-bn F-m-Wv- Im-kyw
Hm-Iv-k-te-v
]m-In-kv-Xm-\n-se G--hpw h-en-b Xp-d-ap-Jw- I-dm-n
]-g-n-cm-Pm ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS n-Xn sN-p-p- tIm-gn-tmSv
]m-In-kv-Xm A-Wp-hn-kv-t^m-S-\w \-S-n-b -ew- N-Km-bv
Ip-p-I
`m-cX
-
- n ap-K km-{am-Py-n-s D-Zb
-
- n-\v b-Ym-Y
- n
Im-c-W-am-b bp-w- c-mw ]m-\n--p-bp-w
]-g-n-cm-Pm-hn-s b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- tIm--bw tI-c-f-h-a
]m-In-kv-Xm F- hm-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- d--v A-en
hr--sb-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- s\-t{^m-f-Pn
{In-an-b bp-w F-tm-gm-bn-cp-p- 185456
]m-]-\m-iw kv-Iow G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- Xm-{a-]-Wn
\o-p-I--bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- {]-[m-\ cm-k-h-kv-Xp- Imkyw Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
]m-In-kv-Xm-s B-Zy {]-[m-\-a-{n- en-bm-J-v A-en Jm
A-ta-cn--bn- B-Zy-am-bn- sk-k-kv- \-S-- h-jw- 1790
]-n-I-fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-cp-v (Cu-Kn)
G-jy-bn-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- F-n-\o-b-dn-Mv tIm-tf-Pv
dq-n
]m-In-kv-Xm-s B-Zy K-h-W P-\-d- ap-l--Z-en Pn-
a-te-dn-bb
- v
- p Im-cW
- a
- m-b kq-va
- P
- o-hn- m-kvt- am-Un-bw sshhm-Iv-kv (t{]m-tm-tkm-h)
A-tem--Xn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- ln-tm-{Im--kv
]--io-e-X-X-z--fn H-n--Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp-hpw
Nu F em-bn-bpw
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ]-{X-am-b -cm-Py-k-am-Nm-cw- - tUm.Kp--v- {]-kn-o-I-cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1847
{In--^ do-hv Po-h \-In-b A-am-\p-j I-Ym-]m-{Xw- kq-am
B-{m-{]-tZ-iv K-h-W-dm-b a-e-bm-fn- ]-w Xm-Wp-]n-
]-h-Xm-tcm-l-I-\m-bn-cp- F-Uv-a-v ln-em-cn G-Xp cm-Py-mc-\m-bn-cp-p- \yq-kn-e-Uv
sk-{S a-ssd ^n-j-do-kv dn-k--v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS--bmWv- sIm-n
]m-Iv I-S-en-Sp-v G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv--C-y-a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
sIm-n tIm-b
-
-v v t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im \-In-b t]-c-v am\p-h tIm-
]n-m-e-v (1952) h-tUm-Z-c-bn-te-v am-n-b sd-bn-th m^v tIm-tf-Pv 1930 F-hn-sS-bm-Wv m-]n--Xv-sUdm-Uq
G-Xp tem-l
- n-em-Wv ap-l
- Z- v _n Xp-
- v tSm-
Id-kn \-S-m-n-b-Xv- sN-v
sk-{S C-n-yq-v Hm-^v ^n-j-do-kv sS-Iv-t\m-f-Pn F-hnsS n-Xn sN-p-p- sIm-n
A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fp-sS tZ-io-b-Km-\w- m kv-]mwKn-Uv _m-\
G-Xp tem-l-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv kn-m-_m- sa-p-dn
{io- ] - - \ m- ` - k zm- a n- t - { X- n- s e B- c m- [ - \ m- a q- n-
a
- l
- m-hn-jvW
- p
G- X p tem- l - n- s A- b n- c m- W v t_m- I v- s sk- v
A-ep-an-\n-bw
{_n-o-jv C-y-bn-se A-h-km-\-s ssh-t{km-bn- au-v_m- {]-`p
sk-{S e-X dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sN-ss
{_n-o-jv F--b sK-bnw-kv F--dn-b-s-n-cp- Im-bn-I hnt\m-Z-n-s C-tm-g-s t]-cv- tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kv
G-Xp-\-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fn \n-p-am-Wv ]-m-_n-\v t]cp e-`n--Xv--kn-p
sk-{S em-Iv dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- dm-n

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

ip--P-e-n-s ]n-F-v aq-eyw


lm-Uv _m So-an F-{X I-fn-m-cp-m-Ipw
Xp-S--bm-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X _-Uv-P-p-I A-h-X-cn-nn-p- tI-{ [-\-a-{n kn.Un.tZ-iv-ap-Jm-Wv. A-t-lw A{]-Im-cw F-{X _-Uv-P-p-I A-h-X-cn-n-n-p-v
I-_-Un So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
tUm.Aw-t_-Zv-I A-[y--\m-bn cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn--s- `-cW-L-S-\-bp-sS {Um-^v-nw-Kv I-n-n-bn B-sI F-{X AwK--fp-m-bn-cp-p
km-v F- kw-L-S-\-bp-sS m-]-I Aw-K-_-ew F-{Xbm-bn-cp-p
kz-X-{ C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s sk-k-km-Wv 2011
\-S
- X
- v
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s sk-{I--dn P-\-d-em-Wv
tIm-^n A-m
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-bn-cp-p lyp-bm km-Mn-s C-ym k-i\
- w
{Kn-tKm-dn-b I-e--dn-se G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv ln-Pv-d Ie- B-cw-`n--Xv
B-h--\ ]-n-I-bn F-{X ]o-cn-b-Up-I-fp-v
1928 C-y k--in- ssk-a I-n-j-\n F-{X AwK-f
- m-Wp-m-bn-cp-X
- v
Nm-W-Iy-s kn-m--{]-Im-cw cm-Py-n-s A-Sn-m-\
L-S-I- (Aw-K-) F-{X-sb--am-Wv
F-{Xm-a-s B-W-h-i-n-bm-Wv ]m-In-kv-Xm
apw-ss_-bn-se {]-[m-\-Zzo-]p-I F-{X
t]-jzm hw-i-n B-sI `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I F-{X t]
1847. G-Xp-h-am-Wv -kw-t-]-th-ZmYw-{]-kn--s-Sp-n-b-Xv- 1772
1848. {In-kv-Xp-a-X-s t{]m-m-ln-n B-Zy N-{I-h-n tIm-ss
1849. G-Xp-hw-i-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p-_m_- Nm-K-m-bv Xp-v
1850. sk-{S ssa-\n-Mv dn-k-v tj F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- [-_m-Zv
1851. G-Xp tcm-Kw \n-W-bn-m-\m-Wv
F-en-k sS-v \-S-p--Xv- Fbv-Uv-kv
1852. \-h-km-c-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- Atam-Wn-bw Iv-tfm-ssd-Uv
1853. G-Xp-cm-Py-n-s hn-am-\ k-hoI- p- a m- e k- a - c w
km-Wv K-cp-U- C-sm-\o-jy
\-bn--Xv- A--m-fn
1854. \-hm-K-X kn-\n-am-kw-hn-[m-b-Ip- \m-j-W A-hm-Uv- Cn-cm-Km-n A-hm-Uv
1855. {Ko-kn-s I-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- G-Y-kv
1856. `q-an-bp-sS G--hpw km-{-X-tb-dn-b `m-Kw- A-I-m-v (tIm)
1857. G-Xp tem-l-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv K-eo-\ se-Uv
1858. {K--p-c-bp-sS tIm-Wn--Sn-bn-\n-p ho-Wp-a-cn- ap-K N{I-h-n- lp-a-bq
1859. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s-d P--kv-Y-ew- sN--g-n1860. B-{Km-\-K-cw- kv-Ym-]n--Xv.--kn--- tem-[n1861. {l-kz-Zr-jv-Sn-v ]-cn-lm-c-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- se-kv-
tIm-tI-hv
1862. G-Xp-h-j-am-Wv Km-n-Pn c-m-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn A-Jn-te-ym
{Km-ao-W hy-h-km-b kw-L-S-\ B-cw-`n--Xv-1934
1863. {l-kz-Zr-jv-Sn-bp-sS ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-]-c-am-b t]-cv- a-tbm-n-b

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

71

1864. B-{m {]-tZ-in-s in-]n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- t]m-n {iocm-ae


- p
1865. \-ho-I-c-W {]-m-\-n-\p Xp-S--an--Xv- am-n eq-X
1866. \m-W-b-n Nn-{Xw ap-{Z-Ww sN--s- B-Zy C-y {][m-\-a-{n- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
1867. ]-Xn-t\-gp-X-h-W C-y B-{I-an- ap-nw `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- a-laq-Zv K-kv-\n
1868. ]-n-a L--n-se G--hpw h-en-b a-e-m-X- ]m-e-m-Sv Npcw
1869. Ip-am-c-\m-im kv-am-c-Iw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--tXm--bv-
1870. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn-, tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s \n-b-ak-`mw-Kw- tUm.F.B. ta-t\m
1871. ]-Zm-Y-n-s A-m-a-s A-h-- t_m-kv I--tk-v
1872. ^-dm-m _m-tc-Pv G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- Kw-K
1873. ]p-cp-j-am-cn ao-i h-f-p- tlm-tam- sS-tm-stdm
1874. Im-I-Xo-b hw-i-n-s-d X-e-kv-Ym-\-am-bn-cp- \-K-cw- hm-d1875. Im-kn F- ]-Z-hp-am-bn _--s- I-fn- sN-kv
1876. ]p-cp-j-s\ h-o-I-cn-p- i-kv-{X-{In-b-bp-sS t]-cv- hm-k-Iv-San
1877. ]p-en-v-k ]p-c-kv-Im-cw \-Ip- A-ta-cn--bn-se k-h-I-emim-e- sIm-fw-_n-b
1878. \yp-n-b ^n-kv-Iv-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv- G-W-v dp-Y-t^m-Uv
1879. \o-e-hn--hw G-Xp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- a-tm-]m-Z-\w
1880. ]-cn-n-Xn kw-_-n- B-Zy-s sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S D--tIm-Snv th-Zn-bm-b-Xv- tm-v-tlmw
1881. ]m-e-sa v a-n-c-n {]-Xn-a n-]n--s- B-Zy I-ayp-Wnv t\-Xm-hv- F.sI.tKm-]m-e
1882. C-y-bn-se h-{P-\-K-cw kq-d-v
1883. C-y {]-kn-Um-b aq-m-as
- ap-nw-F
- .]n.sP. A-_vZ- p
I-emw
1884. ]p-cn-bn-se P-K-m-Y t-{Xw ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- B-\--h-a
tNm-U-Kw-K(10761148)
1885. ]p-cp-j-]p-c-n-s C-tm-g-s t]-cv- s]-j-hm
1886. \m-kn-Iv G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- tKm-Zm-h-cn
1887. C-y-bn-se Hm-l-cn hn-]-Wn \n-b-{n-p- m-]-\w- sk_n
1888. \m-Sy-{]-[m-\w \-K-cw Z-cn-{Zw, \m-n-]p-dw \--I-fm k-ar-w
F- h-cn-I c-Nn--Xv- Ip-n-p-d-p tI-i-h \m-b
1889. C-y-bn-se hn-Zym-`ym-k am-[y-aw Cw-Kv-fo-jv B-m-\p- in]m-i sN-bv-X-Xv- sa-m-sf {]-`p
1890. \m-W-b-\n-am-Xm--fp-sS cm-P-Ip-am-c F--dn-b-s--Xv- ap-l-Zv _n Xp--Iv
1891. \m-Sy-im-kv-{Xw c-Nn--Xv- `-c-X-ap-\n
1892. B-{m-{]-tZ-iv kw-kv-Ym-\-s G--hpw- h-en-b ip--P-e-X-SmIw-- sIm-t-cp1893. ^m-kn-kw F- {]-m-\w B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- C--en
1894. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v-
hn-eyw sl-dn lm-cn-k
1895. C-y-bn-se jn lp-hm-Mv Xn F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- N{-Kp-]vX
- a
- u-cy
1896. ^m-ln-bm C-y-bn-se-n-b Im-e-L-w- F.Un.A-mw \qm-v
1897. ]--\w-Xn- Pn--bn {]-kn--am-b ln-p-a-X-k-t-f-\w \-Sp- -ew- sN-dp-tIm-p-g
1898. ]p-I-bn-e-s-Sn-bp-sS G-Xv `m-K-m-Wv \n-tm-n \n-n-s-Sp--Xv- C-e
1899. `q-an-bn-se ip--P-e-n-s 70 i-X-am-\-hpw sF-kv cq-]-n
D-sm-p- h-I-c--Am-n-
1900. ]-Xn-s\m-mw i-X-I-n tkm-a\m-Y-t-{Xw B-{I-an- apnw B-{I-a-W-Im-cn- ap-l--Zv K-kv-\n
1901. B--am \n-tm-_m Zzo-]-k-aq-lw G-Xv ]-h-X-\n-c-bp-sS
Xp-S--bm-Wv- A-c- tbm-a
1902. ^m-Z Hm-^v tkm-Um t]m-v F--dn-b-s--Xv- tPm-k-^v
{]o-v-en

72

CONFUSING FACTS
tZ-io-b-Km-\-n G--hpw ]-g--ap- hm-p-I D-
cm-Pyw P-m-\m-Wv. G--hpw ]-g--ap- ayq-kn-Iv D- tZio-b-Km-\w s\-X-e-Uv-kn-s-Xm-Wv.
ap-n-cn-bp-sS \-K-cw \m-kn-Iv. Hm-d-p-I-fp-sS \-K-cw \m-Kv]q.
h-m-en-s\-tm-se, F-tm-sem-t-j X-zw {]-tbmP-\-s-Sp-p- k-ap-{Z k-kv-X-\--fm-Wv Xn-anw-Kn-e-hpw
tUm-^n-\pw.
Xn-anw-Kn-e-s-tm-se, i-co-c-n - F- sIm-gpp-]m-fn-bp- Po-hn-bm-Wv {[p-h--c-Sn.
1903. ]p-cp-j-kq- G-Xp th-Z-n-s `m-K-am-Wv- E-tKz-Zw
1904. H-n-e-[n-Iw cm-Py--fp-sS {]-Y-a h-\n-X ]-Z-a-e--cn- G-I h\n-X-bm-Wv t{K- am-tj. A-Xn H-cp cm-Pyw sam-kmw-_nm-Wv. a-t cm-Py-ta-Xv--Z-n-Wm-{^n-
1905. 874 Zn-h-kw sIm-v a-lm-`m-c-Xw a-e-bm-f-n-te-v ]-cn-`m-js-Sp-n-b-Xv- sIm-Sp--q Ip-n-p- X-p-cm
1906. ]p-I-h-en B-tcm-Ky-n-\p lm-\n-I-cw F-v kn-K-c-p-I-h-dn
tc-J-s-Sp-n-b B-Zy cm-Pyw- bp.F-kv.F.
1907. B-Zy-am-bn I-p-]n-Sn- Bn _-tbm-n-Iv Hu-j-[w- s]-\nsk-en
1908. ^m-cn-Zn-\v sj-jm F- _n-cp-Zw \-In-b, _o-lm-dn-se `-cWm-[n-Im-cn- _-l-Jm tem-lm-\n
1909. ]p-cp-j-am am-{Xw ssI-Im-cyw sN-p- tI-c-fo-b hm-Zy-kwKo-Xw- tkm-]m-\-kw-Ko-Xw
1910. ^m-t A-hm-Upw `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-hpw t\-Sn-b {]-Y-a hy-n-
k-Xy-Pn-Xv td
1911. hn-j--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F-p hn-ti-jn--s-Sp--Xv- B-gv-sk\n-Iv
1912. ]--{io t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s a-e-bm-fn Im-bn-I Xm-cw- ]n.Sn. Dj
1913. {io-`-m-c-I F--dn-b-s--Xv- N--n-kzm-an-I
1914. Xn-cp--sIm-n-bn a-{n-bm-b \-thm-m-\ \m-b-I- k-tlmZ-c A--
1915. _mw-q-cn-epw sIm---bn-epw ]T-\w \-S-m Ip-am-c-\mim-\v km--n-I k-lm-bw \-In-b-Xv- tUm.]-]p
1916. kzm-an hn-th-Im-\--\v tI-c-f k--i-\-th-f-bn Nn-p-{Z-sbp-dn-v Xr-]v-Xn-I-c-am-b hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww-\-In-b-Xv- N--n kzman-I
1917. {io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp-hn-s A-hk
- m-\s
- k-\ym-ki
- n-jy- B\--Xo-Y kzm-an-I
1918. ]-tm-fn F-Iv-kv-{]-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]n.Sn.D-j
1919. ]-{- io, ]-`
- q-j, ]-h
- n-`q-j, `m-cX
- c
- X
- v\
- w F-n-ht- \Sn-b B-Zy hy-n- k-Xy-Pn-Xv td
1920. ]n-n-v _w-m-tZ-in-se-p-tm Kw-K F-p-t]-cn-e-dn-b-sSp-p- ]-Zv-a
1921. ]-tbm-dn-b _m-[n-p- A-h-b-hw- tam-W
1922. ]-p-cm-W--fn- X-a-k- F-- t]-cn- A-dn-b-s-Sp-- \-Zn- tSm-kv1923. ]p-ssc-Sv-Nn X-sse-h F--dn-b-s--Xv--Fw.Pn. cm-a-N-{
1924. B--am \n-tm-_m Zzo-]p-I ]n-Sn--S-n-b-tm kp-`mjv N-{-t_m-kv \-In-b t]-cv- j-lo-Zv kz-cm-Pv Zzo-]p-I
1925. ]q--fp-sS Xm-gv-h-c G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- D--cm-J-Wv-Uv
1926. in-em-en-Jn-X--fn-eq-sS X-s B-i-b- P-\--p ]-I B-Zy `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- A-tim-I
1927. ]p-jv-]n-m hn-f-hp Ip-d-bp- k-kyw- I-cn-v
1928. In-fn-m-p-{]-m-\-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- F-gp--
1929. ]q- h-K-n-se G--hpw h-ep-w Iq-Sn-b kzm-`m-hn-I Po-hn-
ssk-_o-cn-b I-Sp-h

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

1930. cm-Py-k-`mw-K--sf Xn-c-s-Sp-p--Xv- kw-m-\ \n-b-a-k`mw-K


-
1931. ]q--fp-sS Xm-gv-h-c I-s-n-b Cw-o-jv ]-h-Xm-tcm-l-I-
{^m-v kv-an-v
1932. cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-b B-Zy tI-c-fo-b h-\n-X- `m-c-Xn D-Z-b-`m-\p
1933. ]m-es
- a v a-n-cw cq-]I
- e
- v]
- \
- sNbvXX
- v- sl-_-v t_-
1934. Cw-o-jv Cu-n-ym---\n C-y-bn B-Zy-s ^m-Iv-S-dn
B-cw-`n- -ew- kq-d-v
1935. ]q-\ sK-bnw-kv F--dn-b-s-n-cp- Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Zw- _m-Uvan
1936. cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-bn-cn-s {]-[m-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hy-n- Cn-cm Km-n
1937. ^-e- ]-gp-m k-lm-bn-p- tlm-tam- F-Yn-en
1938. ^-v m-kv {In--n H-tcm-h-dn-se F-m ]-pw kn-Iv-k-d-Sn C-y-m-c- c-hn im-kv-{Xn
1939. cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-bn-cn-s tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hy-n kn.A-Nyp-X ta-t\m
1940. `m-c-Xo-bm k-am-[n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--]p-Xp-t-cn
1941. ]q-h Nm-eq-Iy-cp-sS X-e-m-\w- sh-n
1942. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s e-b-kv -_v 1956 m-]n-X-amb-sX-hn-sS--apw-ss_
1943. hn-j-ap- G-I k-kv-X-\w- B m-n--kv
1944. ]-co-W
- m-Yw tem-I
- m-Zy-am-bn A-Wp-t_mw-_v s]m-n- cmPyw- bp.F-kv.F.
1945. ]-cp-n G-Xp k-ky-Ip-Spw-_-n-s-Sp-p- am-th-ky
1946. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s d- A-W-s-v \n-an- kw-m\w--B-{-{]-tZ-iv
1947. ]m-e-sa v F-m tem-Iv-k-`-bpw cm-Py-k-`-bpw ----- Dw
tN--Xm-Wv- {]-kn-U v
1948. ]-cp-n-Ir-jn-bv-v G--hpw A-\p-tbm-Py-am-b a-v- I-cn-a-v
1949. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm a-Pn-kv-t{S-v- Hm-a-\
-- p--
1950. B--am Zzo-]p-I-tfm-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-m-bn n-Xn sN-p-
cm-Pyw- aym-a
1951. ]-cp-jv-Wn F--dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv G-Xp \-Zn-bm-Wv- c-hn
1952. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s F-Iv-kv-{]-kv ssl-th G-Xp kw-m\-m-Wv- Kp-P-dm-v
1953. ]-d-pw kn-Jv F--dn-b-sSp-Xv- an-m-kn-Mv
1954. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s F-n-\o-bd
- n-Mv tIm-tf-Pv- dq-n (1847)
1955. \mw-cq-]v, N-{-q Xm-]-ssh-Zyp-X-\n-e-b- G-Xv kw-m-\v- A-kw
1956. ]-tY ]m-Rv-P-en F- t\m-h F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- hn-`q-Xn-`q-j
_-tm-]m-[ym-b
1957. bq-t-jy Syq-_v G-sX-mw i-co-c-`m-K--sf X-n _-nn-p-p- sN-hn-bpw sXm--bpw
1958. ]o-c-n B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
1959. \m-Zn-jm-bpw ap-Kf
- c
- pw X-n bp-w \-S
- -ew- I-Wm
1960. ]q-tm-Sv- X-Sm-Iw- G-Xv- Pn--bn- h-b-\m-Sv-

Hm C- ym hm sa- t m- d n- b C- t m
F- p- t ]- c n- e - d n- b - s - S p- p- C- ym- t K- v

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

P-hm-l-em s\-{lp F-{X {]m-h-iyw tIm-{K-kv {]-knUm-bn-p-v


F-{X Hm-kv-I A-hm-Up-I-fm-Wv 1982 Km-n kn-\n-a
t\-Sn-b-Xv
H-cp ]-h kz-Ww F-{X {Km-am-Wv
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn `m-j-I-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-Xv F-{Xm-a-s ]-n-I-bn-em-Wv
I-]m-e-n-se (t{I-\n-bw) A-n-I-fp-sS F-w
F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv C-ym-N-cn-{X-n-se B-Zy-s
ap-nw B-{I-a-Ww D-m-b-Xv
H-cp Iyq-_n-\v F-{X aq-e-I-fp-v
Iw-]yq--dn F-{X _n-p-I tN-m-Wv H-cp ss_-v B-Ip-Xv
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]mh-iyw Im-nw-Kv thm-p-I tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p- kv-]o-
F.kn.tPm-kv B-Wv. A-t-lw F-{X {]m-h-iy-am-Wv Im-nwKv thm-v hn-\n-tbm-Kn--Xv
F-{X {]m-h-iy-am-Wv C-y H-fn-n-Iv tlm-n kz-Ww t\Sn-b-Xv
1935 se K-h.Hm-^v C-y B-Iv-Sv {]-Im-cw {_n-o-jv C-ybn 1937 \-S- Xn-c-s-Sp-n-s\-p-S-v F-{X {]-hniy-I-fn-em-Wv tIm-{K-kv ]m-n A-[n-Im-c-n h--Xv
\o-cm-fn-bp-sS Im-ep-I-fp-sS F-w
in-h-Pn-bp-sS a-{n-k-`mw-K--fp-sS (A-jv-S-{]-[m) F-w
1961. tI-{-`-c-W {]-tZ-i--fn-se se-Pn-kv-tf-o-hv A-kw-n-I-fn
G--hpw ]-g--ap--Xv--]p-Xp-t-cn
1962. C-y-bn {^-p kw-kv-Im-cw \n-e-\n-p- {]-tZ-iw--]pXp-t-cn
1963. bq-Wn-t\m G-Xv cm-Py-s sk-t^m k-ho-kv s{]mssh-U I--\n-bm-Wv--t\m-th
1964. ]p-, ap--I,hn-cn-v F-n-h G-Xn-s Ir-jn-bp-am-bn _-s-n-cn-p-p- s\-v
1965. Ip-am-c-\m-im t_m--]-I-S-n a-cn- -ew--Ip-am-c-tIm-Sn
1966. ]-n-a-_w-Km-fn-se K-h-sa v sk-{I-t-dn-b-v a-n-c-n-s
t]-cv- ssd-t-gv-kv _n-Un-Mv
1967. _p- Nn-cn-p-p F- t]-cp \-In C-y B-W-h ]-co-Ww \-S-n-b kw-m-\w- cm-P-m
1968. ]q-h-ao-amw-k-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- P-an-\n
1969. `m-c-X-n-s 1 cq-] ap-X 10 cq-] h-sc-bp- t\m-p-I A-Sn-p--sX-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \m-kn-Iv
1970. ^m-t A-hm-Upw `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-hpw t\-Sn-b G-I h-\n-X- eXm-at- -jI
v-
1971. ]m-Wv-Uy-am-cp-sS X-e-kv-Ym-\-am-bn-cp--Xv--a-[p-c
1972. {Km-Uv-mw G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s- ]-Z-am-Wv- {_n-UvPv
1973. `q-a-[y-tc-J-sb c-p X-h-W ap-dn-sm-gp-Ip- \-Zn- tImw-tKm
1974. ]m-Xn-cm-a-W Zzo-]v G-Xp Im-b-en-em-Wv th--\m-Sv
1975. ]m-m-Xy m-kn- kw-Ko-X-n-se {Xn-aq-n-I F--dnb-s-Sp--Xv- sam-km-v, _o-tYm-h, _m-Jv
1976. C-y kzm-X-{y k-a-c-n-s \m-bn-I cm-[m-tZ-hn B-cp-sS
`m-cy-bm-bn-cp-p- em-em e-Pv-]-Xv-dm-bn
1977. ]n.hn.kn.I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sl-dn hn-Iv-S sd-Pn-t\m-Uv (1838)
1978. C-y l-cn-X-hn--hw \-S- k-a-b-v tI-{-Ir-jn-a-{n-
kn.kp-{_-a-Wyw
1979. \n-b-a-k-`mw-K--fp-sS F-w G--hpw Ip-d-hp- `-c-W-L-S-Iw-
t]m-n-t-cn (30)
1980. ]-cn-Wm-a-n-s ]-co--W-im-e F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Km-e-mtKm-kv Zzo-]v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

73

1981. ]q-hm-[-tKm-f-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw-


d-jy
1982. ssX-m-Sv A--sb sIm-m-c-n-te-v -Wn-p-h-cp-n-b Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq cm-Pm-hv- kzm-Xn Xn-cp-\m
1983. Ip-am-c-\m-im P-\n- h-jw- 1873
1984. B-\--a-Xw m-]n--Xv- {_-m-\--in-h-tbm-Kn
1985. 1947-se ap-Xp-Ip-fw {]-kw-K-hp-am-bn _--s- \-thm-m-\
\m-b-I- a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
1986. _p- P-\n- I-]n-eh
- k
- vX
- p C-tm G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- t\m
1987. ]-n-am-[-tKm-f-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw Im-\-U
1988. {Km-Uv-{S-v tdm-Uv G-sX-mw -e--sf X-n _-n-np--Xv- tkm-\m- K-thm (sIm--),s]-j-hm
1989. GXv cmPys hml-\-\nmW I-\n-bmWv HuUn
P\n
1990. A-ta-cn--bn-se- P-\-k-w-Jy-bp-sS- `q-cn-`m-K-hpw- F-hn-sS-\n-pwh--h-cm-Wv- t{K-v- {_-n-1991. {In-kv-a-kv Un-ko-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- lo-tam-^o-en-b
1992. ]yq-\n-Iv bp---fn G-p-ap-n-b-Xv- tdm-apw Im-t-Ppw
1993. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy {]-[m-\-a-{n--P-hm-l-em
s\-{lp
1994. Ip-cp-t-{X-bp--`q-an G-Xp kw-m-\-v- l-cn-bm-\
1995. C-y F-b-t^m-gv-kn _m-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp- bp--hnam-\w- an-Kv 29
1996. _p--a-X tI-{-am-b km-n G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-[y-{]tZ-iv
1997. Ip-dn-Ny k-a-cw \-S- h-jw- 1812
1998. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn-, tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s a-{n-
hn.sI.th-e-
1999. C-y-bn G--hpw X-Wp-p-Iq-Sn-b kw-m-\w- P-p I-iv-ao
2000. ]-n-am-[-tKm-f-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- AIzm-Im-Kz
2001. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b bm-{Xm-hn-am-\w- F 380
2002. ]-S-hm-fn-s\-m i-n-bp--Xm-Wv Xq-en-I F-p sX-fn-bn-
hn--hw- {^-p-hn--hw
2003. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm k-h-I-em-im-e-bm-b ]q-s\bn- s e F- k v . F.Un.n. k- h - I - e m- i m- e m- ] n- - X v -
Un.sI.Im-sh
2004. ]q-h Nm-eq-Iy-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- Ip-_v-P-hn-jv-Wp h-[
2005. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm Un.Pn.]n. Im- `-m-Nm-cy
(D--cm-J-Wv-Uv)
2006. G--hpw Ip-d-p Im-ew kn-Jv Kp-cp-hm-bn-cp--Xv- l Inj(16611664)
2007. ]u-\m-dn-se k-ym-kn- F--dn-b-s--Xv- B-Nm-cy hn-t\m-_
`m-sh
2008. D-]-Zzo-]o-b C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- tKm-Zm-hcn
2009. d-_- dn-k-v- C-kv-n-yq-v- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- tIm--bw-

]- n- I - f p- s S cm- P m- h v F- - d n- b - s - S p- - X v ]- c p- v (Cu- K n)

74

CONFUSING FACTS
ku-c-bq-Y-n G--hpw ssZ-Lyw Iq-Sn-b Zn-\-cm-{X-fp- {K-lw ip-{I. G--hpw ssZ-Lyw Ip-d--Xv hym-gw
(9 a-Wn-q 55 an-\n-v).
Pp-\-K-Vv F- -ew Kp-P-dm-n-em-Wv. F-m Pp-\-KVv tIm- cm-P-m-\n-se _n-m-\n F- -e-m-Wv.
1588 cm-bv knw-Kv B-Wv C-Xv ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv.
tZ-io-b im-kv-{X-Zn-\w (National Science Day)^n-{_-h-cn
28 B-Wv . sa-bv 11 B-Wv tZ-io-b km-t-Xn-I-hn-Zym-Zn-\w
(National Technology Day).
2010. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm s]m-eo-kv t-j- tIm-gntm-Sv
2011. ]-X-bp- tkm-^v-v {Un-p-I-fn A-S-n-bn-cn-p--Xv- Imt_m-Wn-Iv B-kn-Uv
2012. G-Xv cm-Py-n-s tZ-io-b Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Z-am-Wv _-kv-Im-jn-A-^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm
2013. ]q-W-am-bpw C-y-bn \n-an- B-Zy-s bm-{Xm-hn-am-\w-
k-ck
- v
2014. D-]-Zzo-]p-I-fp-sS D-]-Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp- `q-J-Wv-Uw- bq-tdmv
2015. ]-X-dm-sX ap-tm-v B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- sI.I-cp-Wm-Ic
2016. C-tm-sem-t-j D-]-tbm-Kn-v ]-d-p- Po-hn -h-m
2017. G--hpw I-n-Iq-Sn-b tXm-Sp- ap--bn-Sp- ]-n--H--I--n
2018. Cw-o-jv Cu-n-ym---\n Z-n-tW-y-bn-se B-Zy-s
^m-Iv-S-dn B-cw-`n- -ew- a-kq-en-]--Ww
2019. B-{-]n-Xm-a-l F--dn-b-s--Xv- Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b
2020. c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--m-e-v t] lm-_ B-{I-an- cmPyw- P-m
2021. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s P-e-ayq-kn-bw- Ip--aw-K-ew
2022. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Hm-W-d-dn tUm-Iv-S-td-p-I e-`n- C-y
{]-kn-U v -F.]n.sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
2023. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bm-Wv U-m Io-g-S-p--Xn BZyw {i- sN-ep-n-b-Xv- A-Iv-_
2024. ]-Xm-Ib
- n `q-]S- w B-te-J\
- w sN-bvX
- n-p- cm-Py-- ssk{]-kv, sIm-tkm-thm
2025. ]p-cm-X-\ \-K-c-am-b t{Sm-bv-bp-sS A-h-in-jv-S- G-Xp cm-Pym-Wv- Xp-n
2026. I-hn-I-fp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tlm-a
2027. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b c-m-a-s Zzo-]-k-aq-lw- ^nen-ss-kv
2028. {_n-o-jn-y-bp-sS th-\-m-e X-e-m-\-am-bn-cp- \-K-cw-
jnw-e
2029. B-n-fn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- B-kn-Uv- am-en-Iv B-kn-Uv
2030. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-I-kn-X cm-jv-{S- D- h-I-c- bq-tdmv
2031. {_n-o-jp-Im- ]m-en-b---s\ sIm-n-bn-\n-v- \m-Sp-I-S-nb-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1809
2032. G-h
- pw h-S
- m-bn n-Xn-sN-p- X-e
m-\a
- p- bq-tdm-]y
cm-Pyw--t\m-th
2033. tem-I-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Py-hpw hn-kvXo-Ww Ip-d- cm-Py-hpw n-Xn sN-p- h-I-c- bq-tdm-v
2034. ]n--f({_m-kv)bn-se L-S-I-tem-l-- sN-v, \m-Iw
2035. G--hpw I-\- t_mw-_n-Mn-\v hn-t[-b-am-bn-p- cm-Pyw- emthm-kv
2036. ]m-eq-p- ]-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {]m-hv
2037. C-y s]m-fn-n-In-kn-s-bpw C--tWm-an-Iv-kn-s-bpw ]n-Xmhv- Zm-Zm-`m-bv \-h-tdm-Pn
2038. G--hpw hym-h-km-bn-I-am-bn ]p-tcm-K-Xn {]m-]n- B-{^n-
cm-Pyw- Z-n-Wm-{^n-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2039. C-y s^-U-d kw-hn-[m-\-n-s kw-c--I F--dn-bs-Sp--Xv- kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn


2040. ]m-m-Xy kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-W--fp-sS dm-Wn F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- h-b-en
2041. ]n.hn.kn.I-p--Xn-s ^-e-am-bn D-m-Ip- hn-j-hm-X-Iw-
U-tbm-Iv-kn
2042. B--am-t\-bpw \n-tm-_m-dn-t\-bpw th-Xn-cn-p- I-S-en-Spv- sS Un-{Kn Nm-\
2043. C-y n-Xn-hn-h-c-im-kv-{X-hn-`m-K-n-s in-ev-]n F--dn-bs-Sp--Xv- ]n.kn.a-l-e-t\m-_n-kv
2044. `m-c-X-p-g-bp-sS D-`-h-m-\w- B-\-a-e
2045. ]n.sI._m-e-Ir-jv-W-s C-\n Rm D-d--s- F- t\m-h-ense {]-[m-\-I-Ym-]m-{Xw- I-W
2046. _p--s tX-cm-fn- N-
2047. \n-ba
- \
- n-am-Wk
- `- b
- p- tI-{-`c
- W
- {- ]-tZ-i
- - U-ln (70),
]pXpt-cn (30)
2048. C-y-bn {]-kn-Up-`-c-Ww \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy kw-m\w- ]-m-_v
2049. C-tm--t\m-ho-Pn-b ^n-j-do-kv I-yp-Wn-n-t{]m-P-Iv-Sv \-Sm-n-b -ew- \o--I-c
2050. ]q-Pyw B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- C-y
2051. C-y-bn {]-`m-X kq-cy-s In-c-W- B-Zyw ]-Xn-p-
kw-m-\w- A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-iv
2052. \n-b-a-]T-\-n-\p-ti-jw Km-n-Pn C-y-bn {]m-Iv-So-kv \-Sn-b -e-- t_mw-s_-bn-epw cm-Pv-tIm-n-epw
2053. ]n.sP.B-Wn an-I- \-S-\p- tZ-io-b A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b hjw- 1973
2054. ]-Xn-aq-mw i-X-I-n tI-c-fw k--in- am-tm t]m-tfm
G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- C--en
2055. ]p-en-v-k ]p-c-kv-Im-cw t\-Sn-b B-Zy C-y-m-cn- Ppw-_m
em-ln-cn
2056. bq-tdm-n-se I-iv-ao F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- kzn-v-k-eUv
2057. C-y-bn- `m-jm-Sn-kv-Ym-\-n- cq-]w-sIm- B-Zy- kw-kvYm-\w- B-\v-{[ (1953 H-Iv-tSm-_- 1)2058. ]p-fn-bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- B-kn-Uv- Sm-Sm-dn-Iv B-kn-Uv
2059. ]p-I-bn-e-bn-se hn-jmw-iw- \n-tm-n2060. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn \n-hm-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
2061. ]o-n--hm-gm-\n A-W-s-v G-Xp Pn--bn- Xr-q
2062. G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X I-p-]n-Sn-
- -v t]- v t\-Sn-bX
- v- tXma-kv B-hm F-Un-k
2063. _n.-kn.Pn. hm-Iv-kn G-Xp tcm-K-s-bm-Wv {]-Xn-tcm-[n-p-Xv- -bw
2064. {Km-Uv Im-\y G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv--h-S-t A-ta-cn-
2065. _n-p-km-c-s ]n-Km-an- A-tim-I
2066. ]-Xn-s\--c--hn-I B-cp-sS k-Z-n-s\-bm-Wv A-e--cn-n-cp-Xv- am-\-hn-{I-a-tZ-h
2067. ]p-cm-W--fp-sS F-w- 18
2068. {io-]-Zv-a-\m-`-kzm-an t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2069. ]q-W-am-bpw hn-Zym-`ym-km-h-iy-n-\m-bn C-y hn-t-]n-
B-Zy D-]-{K-lw- F-Uyp-km-v
2070. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn `-h-s ]-g-b t]-cv- ssh-kv-do-K ]m-e-kv
2071. ]q-W-am-bpw Z-n-Wm-{^n--bm Np--s- cm-Pyw- sem-tkmtm
2072. C-tm--_m-Iv-{Sn-b cm-Pm--am-cn G--hpw {]-kn-- sa\m-U
2073. ]q-Pyw D-]-tbm-Kn-m- H-cp kw-Jym-k-{-Zm-bw tdm-a kwJy
2074. I-p-]n-Sn---fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s- im-kv-{X--
F-Un-k
2075. ip-{I-s A-c
- o-
- n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-Xe
- p- hm-XI
- w- Im_ U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
2076. ]p--{]--h-b-em k-a-cw \-S- h-jw- 1946
2077. ]n.Sn.D-j tIm-n-Mv sk F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2078. {io-e--bp-sS Hu-tZym-Kn-I Sn.hn.Nm-\- cq-]-hm-ln-\n

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hn-h--tm sj-Uyq-fp-I-fpsS (]-n-I-I) F-w


F-{X h-ja
- m-Wv jm-Pl
- m N-{I-h-n X-Sh
- n-n-S
- X
- v
F-{X h-i--fp- Pym-an-Xo-b cq-]-am-Wv H-Iv-S-K
ku-c-bq-Y-n-se {K-l--fp-sS F-w
a-\p-jy-]n-Wv-U-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv c-w
\-ck
- nw-ld
- m-hp a-{n-k`
- b
- n [-\a
- {- n-bm-bn-cp- a-taml-knw-Kv C-y km--n-I-cw-K-v D-Zm-c-h-Xv-I-c-Ww
B-cw-`n--Xv F-{Xmw ]--h--c-]--Xn-m-e-m-Wv
D-c
- m-b\
- tc-J (t{Sm-n-Iv Hm-^v Im-k) F-{X C-y
kw-m-\--fn-eq-sS I-S-p-t]m-Ip-p
kq-cy-{]-Im-i-n-\v `q-an-bn-se-m F-{X an-\n-v k-a-bw
th-Ww
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s sk-{I--dn P-\-d-emWv _m In aq
U-ln-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s \-K-c-am-Wv \yq-U-ln
H-cm-v ]-c-am-h-[n F-{X h-j-am-Wv A-ta-cn- {]-knU v ]-Z-hn h-ln-m hy-h--bp--Xv
Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS ]-Wv-Un-X k-Z-m-b A-jv-S-Zzn-n-P-fn-se Aw-K-
km-v F- kw-L-S-\-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s Aw-K-am-Wv
A-^v-Km-\n-m
sN-kv I-fn-bn H-cp I-fn-m-c-\v F-{X Im-em-fp-I-fm-Wp-Xv
`q-h-Xv-I-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv A-ep-an-\n-bw
{]-Y-a tem-I I-v {In--v a-k-c-n F-{X cm-Py-fm-Wv ]-s-Sp--Xv
2079. ]r-Yzn F-p X-cw an-ssk-em-Wv- I-c-bn-\n-pw I-c-bn-tep-X
- v
2080. ]n--c-kw F-hn-sS kw-`-cn-p-p- ]n-m-i-b-n (Km
m-U)
2081. ]-sm-]-Xmw \q-m-n X-an-gv-\m-n P-\n- hn-Jym-X KWn-X im-kv-{X-- cm-am-\p-P
2082. A--co--n-se G-Xp ]m-fn-bn-em-Wv Hm-tkm D--Xv- kv{Sm-tm-kv-^n-b
2083. \m-Wb
-
- p-p-If
- n-m-- sX-t- A-ta-cn-- cm-Pyw- - ]
- c
- m-tKz2084. {Km-Uv {S-v tdm-Uv \n-an--Xv- sj-j
2085. B-{-kw-kv-Ym-\-s G--hpw- \o-fw-Iq-Sn-b \-Zn-- tKm-Zm-h-cn2086. ]p-cm-W--fn- Im-fn-n- F-- t]-cn- ]-cm-ar-jv-S-am-bn-p-- \Zn- -b-ap-\2087. C-y-bn C-n-yq-v Hm-^v t^m-d-v am-t\-Pv-sa v F-hn-sSbm-Wv- t`m-m
2088. A-k-an-s m-kn- \r--cq-]w- km-{Xn-b
2089. am-p-fw hn-jv-Wp-\-q-Xn-cn G-Xv I-em-cq-]-hp-am-bn _--s-ncn-p-p- I-Y-I-fn
2090. C-y-bn C-m k-{-Zm-b-n-s\ km-{-Zm-bn-I-co-Xn-bn-emn-b-Xv- Ip--_v-o sF-_-Iv
2091. tI-{ tXm--hn-f K-th-j-W-tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--]m-tem-Sv
2092. am-\h
- n-I hn-Ik
- \
- kq-Nn-I cq-]s
- -Sp-n-bX
- v- sa-l_
- q-_v D
l-v
2093. j-lo-Zv C A-kw F--dn-b-s--Xv- `-K-Xv kn-Mv
2094. _p- F- hm-n-\-Yw- P-Rm-\w kn-n--bm
2095. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-s A--cn- B-Zy-s tem-Iv-k-`m kv-]o--
Pn.hn.am-hv-e-
2096. `q-an-bp-sS Kp-cp-Xzm-I-j-W-n-s F-{X a-S-m-Wv N-{-s-Xv-
B-dn-sem-v
2097. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s _-tbm Uo-k m v m-]n-X-am-b
kw-m-\w- B-{-{]-tZ-iv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

75

2098. `m-c-X tI-k-cn F-p hn-fn--s--Xv- a--p ]-Zv-a-\m-`


2099. ]p-n-cn-bp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Xm-bv-e-Uv
2100. ]-n-Iv A-u-v-kv I-n-n-bp-sS sN-b-am-\m-bn km-[m-c-W
\n-b-an-X-\m-Ip--Xv- {]-Xn-]--t\-Xm-hv
2101. ]-n-Iv k-ho-kv hn-`m-K-n a-Kv-k-tk A-hm-Uv C-ybn-\n-pw B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b-Xv- P-b-{]-Im-iv \m-cm-b
(1965)
2102. ]p--{]--h-b-em k-a-c-n-\p Im-c-Ww- A-ta-cn- tam-U
`-cW
- ]
- c
- n-jvI
- m-cw
2103. ]-n--\n-bv-p Im-c-W-am-b A-Wp-Po-hn- ssh-d-kv
2104. G--hpw- h-en-b I-S--n- -B-_-t{Sm-kv2105. C-y-bn Cu-n-ym---\n-bp-sS `-c-Ww \n--em-n-b
\n-b-aw- 1858-se \n-b-aw
2106. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b D-`-b-Po-hn- P-m-\o-kv P-b v
km-e-am-U
2107. {_n-o-jp-Im a-{Zm-kn ]-Wn-I-gn-n- tIm-- sk v tPm-Pv
tIm-
2108. ap-Ip--am-e c-Nn--Xv- Ip-e-ti-J-c B-gv-hm
2109. {Km-ss\-v \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-_-Uo
2110. C-y hn-I-kn-n-s-Sp- ss]-e-n-m- sN-dp-hn-am-\w-
t\-{X
2111. B-e-p-g Xp-d-ap-Jw hn-I-kn-n- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq Zn-hm-
cm-Pm tI-i-h-Zm-kv
2112. ]m-en-s-bpw tX-\n-s-bpw tZ-iw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Im-\
2113. G--hpw h-en-b I-S- sX- No-\m I-S
2114. _m-lv-an-\n-hw-i-n-se lp-a-bq-Wn-s {]-K-ev-`-\m-b {]-[m-\-a{n- ap-l--Zv K-hm
2115. {Km-a-k-`-I- \n-e-hn-h- `-c-W-L-S-\m- t`-Z-K-Xn- 73
2116. _m-W-`-- B-cp-sS B-kv-Ym-\ I-hn-bm-bn-cp-p- l-j2117. \m-j-W ^n-em--en-Iv ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \yq-U-ln
2118. c-p kw-kv-Ym-\--fp-sS X-e-m- \-am-b \-K-cw- N-Wv-Un-KVv
2119. C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-m-n-s-d- B-cw-`-n- Cw-o-jv- A--c-am-em{I-a-n- B-Zy-s- cm-Py-am-bn-cp-p- A-_v-ko-\n-b.- Cu- cmPy-n-s-d- C-tm-g-s- t]-cv--F-tXym-]y2120. c-p tem-I-a-lm-bp---fn-epw ]-cm-P-b-s- cm-Pyw- P-a-\n
2121. _m-W-`--s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- hn-jv-Wp-tKm-]
2122. _p--a-X-n-se B-Zy-s k-\ym-kn-\n- Ku-X-an
2123. C-y-bn B-Zy-s sd-bn-m-X- apw-ss_--Xm-s\
2124. _mw-q-cn-se {]-i-kv-X-am-b t-Un-bw--Nn--kzm-an t-Un-bw
2125. _n._n.kn.cq-]-h--cn--s- h-jw- 1927
2126. G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew tI-cf
- K-h-Wd
- m-bX
- v- hn.hn-iz-\m-Y
2127. G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- Im-ew- tI-c-fw- `-cn- ap-Jy-a-{n- C sI \mb-\m2128. {io-l-cn-tm- G-Xp \n-e-bn {]-kn-w- D-]-{K-l hn-t-]Ww
2129. A-ta-cn--bn-se- {]-ap-J- cm-jv-{So-b- ]mnI- d-n--n-]mn-bpw- sU-tam-{Im-n-Iv- ]mn-bpw2130. C-y-bn B-Zy-s sk-k-kv \-S--sX-hn-sS- Xn-cp-hn-XmwIq
2131. {Km v {S-v tdm-Uv \n-an--Xm-cv- sj-j
2132. ]n-m- hn-`m-K-n \n-pw {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hyn- tUm.a-tam-l kn-Mv
2133. ]p-en-v-k ]p-c-kv-Im-cw G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- tPm-k-^v ]p-en-vk
2134. _n-bm-kv \-Zn-bp-sS ]-g-b-t]-cv- hn-]m-k
2135. G-Xp `m-j-bm-Wv Iym-v emw-tKz-Pv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- D-Zp
2136. C-cp-]-Xmw \q-m-n-se Xm-k F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv Ip--em ssk-Km
2137. C-m-n \m-j-W ]m-v G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- \m-Kmem-Uv
2138. G-Xp `m-j-bn-em-Wv D-tm-n-b c-Nn--s--Xv- em-n
2139. _p--a-X-s tem-I-a-X-am-n h-f-n-b au-cy N-{I-h-n-
A-tim-I
2140. B-bv cm-Pm--am-cp-sS Hu-tZym-Kn-I Nn-w G-Xv ar-K-am-bn-cpp B-\

76

CONFUSING FACTS
A-h-km-\-s A-m-gw F- s]-bnnw-Kv h-c--Xv enbm-\m-tUm Um-hn-n-bm-Wv. ssa--em--tem-bm-Wv Ay-hn-[n c-Nn--Xv.
G--hpw Ip-d- {]m-b-n `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-bv-v A-l-\mb-Xv k-n sS-Up- (2013) 40 mw h-b-n. G-hpw Ip-d- {]m-b-n `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-bv-v A-l-X-t\-Snb- h\nX C-n-cm-Km-n (19171984)bm-Wv. 1971 _-lp-aXn e-`n-p-tm A-h-v 54 h-b-m-bn-cp-p.
C-y-bp-sS X- F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s--Xv Aao Jp-{kp B-Wv. C-y-bp-sS hm-\-m-Sn F-p hn-fn-Xv k-tcm-Pn-\n \m-bn-Up-hn-s\-bm-Wv.
2141. Jn-Pn hw-i-n-se G--hpw {]-kn--\m-b cm-Pm-hv- A-em-hpo Jn-Pn
2142. _p-s
- \ G-jy-bp-sS sh-fn-w F-p hn-ti-jn-n-X
- v- F-Uzn
B-t\m-Uv
2143. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- Nn-
2144. tem- I - a - l m- b p- - - p {]- [ m- \ - t h- Z n- b m- b h- I - c -
bq-tdm-v
2145. C-y-bn B-Zy-s k-h-I-em-im-e \n-e-hn-h- h-jw 1857
2146. C-y-bn-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b Pn-- e-Um-v (Bm-\w--te)
2147. tI- c - f \n- b - a - k - ` - b n _- U v - P - v A- h - X - c n- n- p- - X v -
[-\-a-{n
2148. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Hm-^o-kv a-n-cw- s]-K
2149. B-Zy I-Wm-Sn-Iv bp-w A-h-km-\n-n- k-\v-[n- A-bn-Iv-kv-em Nm-t
2150. _p--s _m-ey-Im-e-\m-aw- kn-m-Y
2151. C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b-hr-w- B
2152. \m-emw _p-Zv-[-a-X k-t-f-\-n A-[y--X h-ln--Xv- hkp-an-{X
2153. _m-_ F-hn-sS-h-m-Wv A--cn--Xv- B-{K
2154. C-y-bp-sS X-]m m-n-epw \m-W-b-n-epw C-Sw ]n-Sn-
B-Zy tI-c-fo-b -{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
2155. _m-_-dp-sS i-h-Ip-So-cw C-tm F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Im-_q
2156. A-Sn-a, ssk-\n-I, a-{n, cm-Pm-hv C-h-sb-m-am-bn-cp- sUln kp-m- _m-_
2157. am-am-s
- -p-dn-v hn-iZ- a
- m-bn {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- Ir-Xn-bm-Wv amam-w In-fn-m-v. C-Xv c-Nn--Xm-cv- Im-Sm-t-cn \-q-Xn-cn
2158. \m-ev B-cy-k-Xy- G-Xp a-X-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
_p-a
- X
- w
2159. 1931 s^-{_p-h-cn 27\v A-e-lm-_m-Zn-se B-{^-Uv ]m-nsh-v t]m-eo-kp-Im-tcm-tS-p-ap-n a-cn- hn-h
- I
- m-cn- N-{-ti-J
B-km-Zv
2160. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn, cq-]-bp-sS ap-Km-an-sb A-h-X-cn-n- `-cWm-[n-Im-cn- sj-jm
2161. \m-j-W A-m-Z-an Hm-^v A-Uv-an-\n-kv-t{S-j F-hn-sS-bmWv- a-kq-dn
2162. ]p--{]--h-b-em k-a-c-Im-e-v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq Zn-hm-
kn.]n.cm-a-kzm-an A-
2163. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-bv-v A-l-bm-b {]-Y-a-h-\n-X C-n-cm-Km-n
2164. ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp--\v hn-Zzm _-lp-a-Xn \-In-b-Xv- tI-c-f-h-a
h-en-b-tIm-bn--p-cm
2165. A--m-fn A--cn- h-jw- 1941
2166. hn-Zym-t]m-jn-Wn F- kw-LS- \
- m-]n-X
- v- k-tlm-Zc
- A-
2167. {io-\m-cm-bW
- -Kp-cp c-Nn- \-ha
- R
- vP
- c
- n B-m-Wv k-a-n-n-cnp--Xv- N--n kzm-an-I-v
2168. N--n-kzm-an-I-fp-sS sN-dp--n-se Hm-a-\-t-cv- Ip- (bYm-Y t]-cv A--)

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2169.
2170.
2171.
2172.
2173.
2174.
2175.
2176.
2177.
2178.
2179.
2180.
2181.
2182.
2183.
2184.
2185.
2186.
2187.
2188.
2189.
2190.
2191.
2192.
2193.
2194.
2195.
2196.
2197.
2198.
2199.
2200.
2201.
2202.
2203.
2204.
2205.
2206.
2207.
2208.

m-p-I-fn kp-thm-an F---Sn-p- cm-Pyw- ^n-e-Uv


Im ^n-enw s^-n-h G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- {^m-kv
]p-p h-K-n-se G--hpw h-en-b k-kyw- ap-f
B-Wt- hm-Pw sIm-v k-c
- n-p- tem-I
- n-se B-Zy-s
ap-n--- t\m-n-e-kv
]p-cm-hk
- X
-v p-s
- f-p-dn-v ]Tn-p- im-k{-v X-im-J- B-n-tbmf-Pn
C-y-bp-sS-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm-s-bpw ]-c-tam--X _-lp-a-Xn t\Sn-b B-{^n--m-c- s\-k a-t-e
_p-a
- X
- s
- -p-dn-p- G-h
- pw k-a{- K-am-b hn-m-\{- K-w a-lm-hn-`m-jw(c-Nn--Xv h-kp-an-{X)
G-Xp `m-j-bn c-N-\-\-S-p--h-m-Wv C-Iv-_m k-m-\w
\-Ip--Xv- D-dp-Zp
_p-n-am-\m-b hn-Uv- -Vn-,- ]n-im-Nn-s-d lr-Z-b-ap- ]p-Wy-hmf,-ssh-cp-[y--fp-sS k--e-\w- F-n--s\ A-dn-b-s-Sp-
U-ln-kp-m.--ap-l--Zv-_n- Xp--Iv_p--N-cn-Xw, ku--cm-\-w,kq-{Xm-e-m-cw F-n-h c-Nn--Xm-cv A-iz-tLm-j
C-y-bn-se G-Xp {]-tZ-i-am-Wv ap-l--Zv _n Im-knw B-{Ian--Xv- kn-v
C-y-bp-sS X- F-p hn-fn--s--Xv- A-ao Jp-{kp
cm-Pm tI-i-h-Zm-k-s ]--W-sa--dn-b-s-Sp- -ew- B-ep-g
cm-jv-S-]-Xn m-\w H-gn-hp-h-m D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-v B ]-Zhn F-{X Im-ew A-e--cn-mw- 6 am-kw
cm-Pm--am-cp-sS Xm-gv-h-c F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Xo-_v-kv
C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b hn-t\m-Zw- tlm-n
cm-P-ap-{n G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv -tKm-Zm-h-cn
C-y-bp-sS-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm-s-bpw ]-c-tam--X _-lp-a-Xn t\Sn-b G-I C-y-m-c- sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
Cw-o-jv A--c-am-e-bn-se Un B-Ir-Xn-bn Im-W-s-Sp-
k-ap-{Zw- B-n-Iv k-ap-{Zw
C-y-bn-se B-Zy ]p-I-bn-e hn-ap- \-K-cw- N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
Cu- Zzo-]v G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv--]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Zw
C-y-bn-se kp-K--hy-Rv-P-\ kw-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- tI-c-fw
D-c
- h
- m-Z{- ]-tm-`W
- I
- m-e
- v a-e_
- m-dn-\n-v Pm-Y \-bn-sn-b F.sI.tKm-]m-e F-hn-sS h-m-Wv A-d-v sN--s-Xv- B-ep-h
C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b h-cp-am-\w B-Zy-am-bn I-W-m-n-b-Xv- ZmZm-`m-bv \-hv-tdm-Pn
]p-cm-W--fn B-{-P-am F- t]-cn A-dn-b-s--Xv-
i-Xh
- m-l\
- -am
]q-Pyw I-p-]n-Sn- cm-Py-m- C-ym-m
_p--s ]n-Xm-hv- ip-tm-[-\
D--c-hn-b-v-\m-apw Z-n-W-hn-b-v-\m-apw Iq-Sn-t- h-jw-
1976
]p-cm-X-\ kn-p-]m-X I-S-p-t]m-Ip- Np-cw- \m-Yp-e
\n-m H-cp -e-hpw i-n-bp- H-cp tIm-epw X-m
Cu `q-an-sb X-s Rm s]m-n-am-mw F-p ]-d
X
- v- Bn-an-Un-kv
{Kn-tKm-dn-b I-e--dn-se A-h-km-\-s am-kw- Un-kw-_
C-y-bv-pw ]m-In-kv-Xm-\pw C-S-bv-v k-ho-kv \-S-p- Xoh-n- kw-tQm-X F-Iv-kv-{]-kv
{Ko-p ]p-cm-W--fn-se B-Im-i-tZ-h-s t]-cn A-dn-b-s-Sp {K-lw--bp-dm-\-kv
C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I cq-]-I-]-\ sN-bv-X ]nw-K-en sh- G-Xv kw-m-\-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p--B-{-{]-tZ-iv
A-ta-cn--bn-se- G--hp-w- h-en-b- \-K-cw- \yq-tbm-v{io-i--cm-Nm-cy-cp-sS Kp-cp- tKm-hn--]m-Z
\n-an-Xn-I-fp-sS cm-P-Ip-am-c F--dn-b-s--Xv- jm-P-lm
]p-cm-X-\ tem-I-s N-{I-h-n-\n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tdmw
_p--a-Xm-\p-bm-bn-o- `m-c-X N-{I-h-n- A-tim-I
\m-W-b--fn _p--s cq-]w ap-{Z-Ww sN-bv-X B-Zy cm-Pmhv- I-\n-jv-I

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw


*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

_n-tYm-h c-Nn- knw-^-Wn-I-fp-sS F-w


F-{Xmw ]--h--c ]--Xn-m-e-m-Wv tI-c-f k-m
P-\-Io-bm-kq-{X-Ww sIm-p-h--Xv
]-ip-hn-s K-`-Im-ew F-{X am-k-am-Wv
c-mw tN-c km-{am-Pyw F--dn-b-s-Sp- Ip-e-ti-J-c km{am-Pyw m-]n-X-am-b-Xv F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv
tX-Pv _-lm-Zq (1621--.1675) F-{Xm-a-s kn-Jv Kp-cp-hm-Wv
C-ym-N-cn-{X-n-se B-Zy-s Xq-p-]m-e-sa v F-{Xma-s ]m-e-sam-bn-cp-p
t_-kv _m So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
{Xn-tIm-W kv-Xq-]n-I-bp-sS h-p-I-fp-sS F-w
A-m-cm-jv-{S-\o-Xn \ym-b tIm-S-Xn-bn-se P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS Imem-h-[n F-{X h-jw
tI-c-f-n-se cm-Py-k-`m ko-p-I-fp-sS F-w
kq-cy-\pw {K-l--fpw D-s-sS ku-c-bq-Y-n F-{X AwK-f
- p-v
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS H-mw t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS Iq-n-t--s-
]-n-I
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- `m-K
- n-em-Wv (]m-v) ]-mb-p-I-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
C-y-bn-se G--hpw sN-dn-b Pn--bm-b am-ln-bp-sS hn-kvXo-Ww F-{X N-Xp-c-{i In-tem-ao--dm-Wv

2209. C-tm-f-Pn F- ]-Zw B-Zy-am-bn {]-tbm-Kn--Xv- G-W-v sl


2210. \n-b-a-n-\p-ap-n F-m-h-pw Xp-ey-X D-d-p-h-cp-p- `c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-Ov-tO-Zw- B-n-n 14
2211. ]--\w-Xn--bp-sS kmw-kv-Im-cn-I X-e-m-\w- B-d-p-f
2212. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`mw-K-am-bn B-Zyw Xn-c-s-Sp--s--Xv- Fw.Dta-jv dm-hp
2213. \n-f,- t]-cm- F-o- t]-cp-I-fn-epw- A-dn-b-s-Sp-- \-Zn- -`m-c-Xp-g2214. {_n-o-jn-y-bn-se Hu-dw-K-ko-_v F--dn-b-s--Xv- I-gv-k
{]-`p
2215. \n-e--S-e Ir-jn-bn ap-n-p \n-p- tI-c-f-n-se Pn- ]m-e-m-Sv
2216. C-y-bn ]-Sn-m-tdm-sm-gp-Ip- \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw h-epXv- \-a-Z
2217. tI-c-f `m-jm C-n-yq-n-s B-Zy U-b-d-Iv-S- F.hn.
Ir-jvW
- h
- m-cy
2218. \m-ep sh--m-- tN--Xm-Wv tPm-Kv sh--m-w. A-h
G-sX-mw- cm-P, dm-Wn, tdm--v, tdm-d
2219. ]- X-I-p-ho-Wp a-cn- Xp-I
- v kp-m- Kn-bm-kp-o
Xp-I
- v
2220. ]-n-I-Pm-Xn P-\-kw-Jy G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- kw-m-\w- D {]-tZ-iv
2221. {io-s]-cpw-]p-Xp-cn P-\n- ssh-jv-W-h B-Nm-cy cm-am-\pP
2222. \n-Ip-Xn-io-v B-hi
- y-am-bn h-cp-n-S
- f
- n lm-Pc
- m-p-X
- v GXp X-cw \n-Ip-Xn A-S--Xn-s c-ko-Xm-Wv- `q-\n-Ip-Xn
2223. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Ip-cp-ap-f-Ip--]m-Zn-n-p- Pn-- C-Sp-n
2224. ]n-Sn-s-Sp- cm-Pyw F-Xn-cm-fn-tbm-Sv a-Xn-v-tXm-n Xn-cn-sI
\-In-b B-{I-a-W-Im-cn--A-e-Iv-km- N-{I-h-n
2225. G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- I-S-o-c-ap-- cm-Pyw- --Im-\-U2226. \n-b-a-k-`m kv-]o- cm-Pn k-a-n-t--Xm-v- U-]yq-n
kv-]o-
2227. {Ko-v Zp-c--\m-S-I--fp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- C-kv-In-e-kv
2228. a--n-w {]-[m-\-am-bpw G-X-h-b-h-s-bm-Wv _m-[n-p-Xv- I-c

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

77

2229. \n-jv-{In-b hm-X-I- A-Y-hm Ip-eo-\ hm-X-I- F--dn-bs-Sp- 6 F-w- lo-en-bw. \n-tbm,B-K, {In-]vtm,kn-t\m,dm-tUm
2230. a-w (\yq-n-b-kv) I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tdm-_-v {_u
2231. A-a-\m-Yn-se B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- in-h
2232. A-ta-cn-b
- n-se kp-h-Wk
- w-m-\w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- Imen-t^m-Wn-b
2233. {Iq-v-kv m-kv F-n-s\ {]-Xn-tcm-[n-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p-p-
A-{Sm-h-b-e-v In-c-Ww
2234. \n-b-a-kw-hn-[m-\-n-s Cu-n-w F--dn-b-s-Sp- ]p-cm-X-\
\-K-cw- tdmw
2235. \n--l-I-c-W {]-m-\w ]n-h-en-m Km-n-Pn-sb t{]-cnn- kw-`-hw- Nu-cn--Nu-cm kw-`-hw(1922)
2236. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se \n-h--\ {]-tm-`-W-n-s {]-[m-\t\-Xm-- F.hn.tPm-k-^v, kn.tI-i-h, ]n.sI.Ip-v
2237. \n-ln-en-kw F- hm-v cq-]-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- C-hm S-P-t\-hv
2238. ]m-e-sa v k-t-fn-m--tm {]-kn-U v ]p-d-s-Sp-hn-p D--c-hv- Hm-Un-\-kv
2239. ]-cn-n-Xn kw-c--W-s kq-Nn-n-p- \n-dw- ]-
2240. C-y-bn _m-p-I-fp-sS tZ-i-km--c-Ww \-S- h-j- 1969,1980
2241. \n-tm-_m Zzo-]p-I-tfm-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-m-bn n-Xn sN-p cm-Pyw- C-sm-\o-jy
2242. {Ko ]m-v t-Un-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- -Im-]q
2243. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-sb A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-X B-Zy {]-knU v -sI.B.\m-cm-b-W
2244. \n-h--\-{]-tm-`-W-n ]-s-Sp- k-ap-Zm-b-- Cug-h, {In-kv-Xym-\n-I, ap-n-
2245. {]m-No-\ tI-c-f-n ar-Xm-h-in-jv-S- A-S-w sN-bv-Xn-cp-Xv- \--m-Sn-I-fn
2246. C-y-bn {^-p-`-c-W-n-\v A-yw Ip-dn- bp-w- hm-nhm-jv
2247. {Ko-kn-\pw Xp-n-p-an-S-bv-p- a-[y-[-c-Wym-gn-bp-sS `m-Kw
A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- Cu-Pn-b I-S
2248. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-sb A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-X B-Zy {]-[m-\a-{n- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
2249. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I-S-o-c-ap- C-y kw-m-\w- Kp-Pdm-v
2250. \m-j-W- C-kv-n-yq-v- Hm-^v- dq-d- sU-h-e-]v-sa-dv- F-hn-sSbm-Wv- - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zn
2251. \n-d--fp-sS D-k-hw F--dn-b-s-Sp- B-tLm-jw- tlm-fn
2252. {Iq-Uv Hm-bn-en-\n-v hn-hn-[ s]-t{Sm-fn-bw D-]-- thXn-cn-s-Sp-p- {]-{In-b- {^m--W Un-n-te-j
2253. \m-j-W- dn-tam-v- sk-kn-Mv- G-P-kn-bp-sS B-kv-Ym-\w- Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- - - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zn2254. {Sq-jy- kv-t-p-I- F- t]-cn- A-dn-b-s-n-cp-- `q-hn-`m-Kn-s-d- C-tm-g-s- t]-cv- --bp-ssW--Uv- A-d-_v- F-an-td-v-kv2255. \n-b-a-hn-cp--am-b \-S-]-Sn-I I-m kz-bw tI-sk-Sp-m
a-Pn-kv-t{S-n-\v A-[n-Im-cw \-Ip- h-Ip-v- kp-thm-tam-tm
2256. ]-cn-Wm-a-{]-{In-b-bn-se A-h-km-\-s P-p hn-`m-Kw- k-kvX-\n-I
2257. H-c--ew \-in-m A-{X-bpw A--hn-izm-kw \-in-pw F-
hn-hm-Z-{]-kv-Xm-h-\ \-S-n-b t\-Xm-hv- kn.tI-i-h
2258. C-\n \-ap-v A--e--p Xo sIm-fp-mw F- e-Lp-teJ-bp-am-bn _--s- km-aq-ln-I ]-cn-jv-I-m-hv- hn.Sn.`-Xn-cn-m-Sv
2259. {_--{io {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s Po-h-N-cn-{X-kw-{K-lw c-Nn-Xv- Ip-am-c\
- m-im
2260. Ip-am-c\
- m-im-s\ hn-h
-
- n-s I-hn F-p hn-ti-jn-n-X
- v- Xmbm-v i--c
2261. \n-b-a-k-`m-[y-, ap-Jy-a-{n, K-h-W F-o ]-Z-hn-I-fn-sen-b a-e-bm-fn- F.sP.tPm
2262. ]--\w-Xn- Pn--bn-se {]-kn--am-b \m-S-I-em-cq-]w- ]-S-bWn

78

CONFUSING FACTS
Koala bp-sS C-jv-S-`--Ww bq-m-en-]v--kv C-e-I-fm-Wv.
Pn-dm-^n-\p {]n-bw A-t-jy-bn-e-I-fm-Wv.
a-y--sf im-kv-{Xo-b-am-bn h-f-p- co-Xn-bm-Wv ]nkn-I-. a-y--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv C-n-tbmf-Pn.
au-em-\m A-_p I-emw B-km-Zn-s P--Zn-\-am-b \hw-_ 11 tZ-io-b hn-Zym-`ym-k Zn-\-am-bpw (National Education Day)tUm. km-enw A-en-bp-sS P--Zn-\-am-b \-hw_ 12 tZ-io-b ]-n Zn-\-am-bpw (National Bird Day)BN-cn-p-p. ]n.kn. a-le
- t- \m-_n-kn-s P-Z- n-\a
- m-b Pq
29 m-n-n-Iv-kv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p-p.
2263. ]-Xn-aq-mw \q-m-n A-kw
Io-g-S-n-b A-tlmw hw-i-P `c-W-n-\m-bn \n-tbm-Kn- ssht{km-bn-am- `--am
2264. \m- j - W F- h - t bm- s as F-n-\o-b-dn-Mv dn-k-v
C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \mKv]
- q
2265. G-Xv- Kp-]X
v- c
- m-Pm-hn-s-d k-Z
- ns\-bm-Wv- \-hc
- X
- v\
-
- - A-e
- cn-n-cp-X
- v- N
- {- -Kp-]vX
- - c-ma2266. ]-h-X--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- G- - h pw- Iq- S p- X - Im- e w Hm-tdm-f-Pn
tI- c - f w- `- c n- ap- J y- a - { n-
2267. _o-lm-dn-s-d- Zpx-Jw- F--dn-bC sI \m- b - \ ms-Sp-- \-Zn- tIm-kn2268. tI-cf
- \n-ba
- k
- `- b
- n-te-v G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X {]m-hi
- yw Xn-cs
- Sp--s- h-\n-X -sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
2269. H-km-a _n em-Z G-Xp \m-p-Im-c- ku-Zn A-td-_y
2270. hm- Kym-kv F-n-s-sbm-s an-{in-X-am-Wv- ssl-{U-P,
Im-_ tam-tWm-Iv-ssk-Uv
2271. _o-P-Iv c-Nn--Xv- I-_o
2272. _p-[ F-{X Zn-h-kw-sIm-m-Wv kq-cy-s\ {]-Z-n-Ww sNp--Xv- 88
2273. G-jy-bn-se- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- bm-Mv-kn- In-bm-Mv2274. _p- k-m-\w c-p {]m-h-iyw t\-Sn-b B-Zy hy-n-
sP.Fw.Iq-v-tk
2275. {Ko-p tZ-h-s t]-cp- G-I {K-lw--bp-dm-\-kv
2276. t-{X--fp-sS D-S-a--X-bn-ep-m-bn-cp- `q-an-bp-sS t]-cv- tZh-kzw
2277. {Um-p-f t\m-h-en-\p ]-m--e-am-b Im-m-n-b a-e-\nc-I G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- sdm-am-\n-b ,sm-hm-Iy, t]m-f-v
F-o cm-Py--fn
2278. {Xn-]p-c kw-m-\-hp-am-bn A-Xn-n ]-n-Sp- cm-Pyw- _wm-tZ-iv
2279. _o-lm Km-n- F--dn-b-s--Xv- cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zv2280. _p- B-Zy-am-bn a-X-{]-`m-j-Ww \-S-n-b km-c-\m-Yv G-Xp
kw-m-\-v- D- {]-tZ-iv
2281. \o--p-f- A-Wp-hn-ap--am-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hmX-Iw- tm-dn
2282. A-e-p-Im-c-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- tkm-Un-bw Im-_-tW-v
2283. A-e-am-n Umw G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- Ir-jv-W
2284. ^-t-]q kn-{In-bp-sS I-hm-Sw- _p-e-v Z-hm-k
2285. ^v-fo-v kv-{So-v G-Xp \-K-c-n-em-Wv e-
2286. Iw-]yq--dn-s\ kw-_-\n-[n-n-S-tm-fw hn-h-c-ti-J-c-W-n-s
G--hpw sN-dn-b L-S-Iw- ss_-v
2287. k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_ k-m-\-Zm-\w \-S-p- \-K-cw- Hm-kvtem

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2288. Im-bn-I-tem-I-s Hm-kv-I F--dn-b-s-Sp- A-hm-Uv- temd-kv A-hm-Uv


2289. Cu-Un--kv cm-Pm-hv F- {Ko-p \m-S-Iw c-Nn--Xv- tkm-t^mo-kv
2290. c-v- `q-JW
- vU
-
- f
- n- kvY
- n-Xn-sN-p- \-Kc
- w- C-kvX
- m-_p2291. hm--m-kn-s cm-k-\m-aw- tkm-Un-bw kn-en-t-v
2292. Iw-]yq--dn-s ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Nm-kv _m-t_-Pv
2293. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw A-hn-izmk {]-ta-bw t\-cn- ap-Jy-a-{n- sI.I-cp-Wm-I-c
2294. I-b-^m-Iv-S-dn-I G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Pn---B-e-p-g
2295. C-y-bn bp--`q-an-bn ]o-c-n--S B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-Xv--_m-_
2296. tem-I-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b a-cw- sd-Uv-hp-Uv
2297. C- y- b n bq- t dm- ] y- a m \n- a n- B- Z y- s tIm- sImn tIm-
2298. I- g p- v {]- X n- t cm- [ - n- \ v D- ] - t bm- K n- p- k- k v - X - \ w-
-Pn-dm-^v
2299. Cw-]o-v-san-\v hn-t[-b-\m-b K-h-W P-\-d- hm-d tln-Mv-kv
2300. I-c-bn-se k-kv-X-\--fn \o-f-n c-mw m-\-ap--Xv-Pn-dm-^v
2301. G--hpw \o-f-ap- ]m-v- sd-n-p-te--Uv ss]-
2302. Im-gv-N sIm--m-sX h-gn-b-dn-bp- k-kv-X-\n- h-m
2303. Im-in-bp-sS ]p-Xn-b-t]-cv- hm-cm-W-kn
2304. `q-an-bp-sS km--]n-I A-w- ew-_-n-\n-v- F-{X Un-{KnN-cn-m-Wv- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p--Xv- 23.-5 Un-{Kn2305. Cw-]o-cn-b _m-v Hm-^v C-y C-tm A-dn-b-s-Sp-
t]-cv- t-v _m-v Hm-^v C-y
2306. ayq-t-j kn-m--n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- lyq-tKm Uo-{hnkv
2307. A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fp-sS kzm-X-{y {]-Jym-]-\w
X-m-dm-n-b-Xv- tXm-a-kv sP-t^-gv-k
2308. G-Xp \-K-c-n-em-Wv ssSw kv-Iz-b- \yq-tbm-v
2309. {In--n-s ss_-_n F--dn-b-s-Sp- am-kn-I- hn-kv-U
2310. `q-an-bp-sS Im-n-I-i-n-bv--\p-k-cn-v k--cn-m I-gn-hp Po-hn- H-v
2311. A-h-\-h-\m--kp-J-n-\m-N-cn--h-b-]-c-p kp-J-n-\m-bn htc-Ww- C-{]-Im-cw D-Zv-t_m-[n-n--Xv- {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
2312. `m-hn-bp-sS tem-lw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ssS-m-\n-bw
2313. bm-N-I-cp-sS cm-P-Ip-am-c F--dn-b-s--Xv- a-Z tam-l am-fhy
2314. D-dq-kv- G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS H-cp B-tIm-j-am-Wv- C-mw
2315. C-y-bp-sS Nm-b-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-kw
2316. b-Mv C--en {]-m-\-s \-bn--h- Km-cn-_m-Un-bpw
a-o-\n-bpw
2317. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-t-Pp-I D- kw-m-\w- D--{]-tZiv
2318. F-Uzn B-t\m-Un-s Zn sse-v Hm-^v G-jy F- Ir-Xnbn-se {]-Xn-]m-Zyw B-cp-sS Po-hn-X-am-Wv- {io-_p-
2319. e-Lp-`m-kv-I-co-b-n-s I-m-hv- i--c-\m-cm-b-W
2320. F-m {Km-a--fn-epw ssh-Zyp-Xn e-`y-am-n-b B-Zy kw-k-Ym\w- l-cn-bm-\
2321. In-g-n-s Hm-Iv-kv-^-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp- C-y \-K-cw- ]qs\
2322. cm-Pyw \n--p-th-n F-p-sN-pw F--, cm-Py-n-\pth-n \n--v F-p-sN-m-\m-hpw F-m-Wv Nn-n-t-Xv- C-{]-Im-cw ]-d- A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v tPm F-^v.
sI--Un
2323. tem-I-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b c-m-a-s sIm-Sp-ap-Sn-
tKm-Uv-hn Hm-n
2324. C-y-bn b-Ym-Y \n-h-lW
-- m-[n-Im-cw hn-\n-tbm-Kn-p--Xv
tI-{ a-{n-k-`
2325. I-b-s^Un-s B-m-\w -B-e-p-g
2326. tI-cf
- \n-ba
- k
- `- b
- n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew Bw-tm-C
-
- y
{]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-bn-cp--Xv- o-^ ]m-Zp-h

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

10

C- y {]- k n- U m- b F- { Xm- a - s hy- n- b m- W v


sI.B.\m-cm-b-W
ssZ-hw tam-i-bv-v F-{X I-ev-]-\-I-fm-Wv sIm-Sp--Xv
hn-h-cm-h-Im-i \n-b-a-{]-Im-cw hn-h-cw e-`n-m F-{X cq-]bm-Wv ^o-skm-Sp-t--Xv
Pm-Xn-hy-h
b
- p-sS D-Zv`
- h
- s
- -p-dn-v ]-cm-a-in-p- ]pcp-j-kq-w E-tKz-Z-n-se F-{Xm-a-s a-Wv-U-e-n-emWv
F-{Xm-a-s hm-jn-I-am-Wv Sn B-\n-th-gv-k-dn
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{X-am-s ]-n-I-bn-em-Wv Iqdp-am- \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-aw D-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S c-m-k-an-Xn-bn-se Xm-Xv-Im-en-I Aw-K-fp-sS F-w
E-tKz-Z-n-\v F-{X a-Wv-U-e- D-v
F-{X Izn-em-Wv H-cp S
F-{X h-j-s C-S-th-f-bn-em-Wv C-y-bn sk-kkv F-Sp-p--Xv
H-cp {In--v am-n F-Sp-m I-gn-bp- ]-c-am-h-[n hn-p-I-fp-sS F-w
F-{Xm-a-s kn-Jv-Kp-cp-hm-bn-cp-p A-h-km-\-s kn-JvKp-cp-hm-bn-cp- tKm-_n-v kn-Mv
2327. cm-ta-iz-cw Zzo-]n-s\ C-y D-]-Zzo-]p-am-bn th-Xn-cn-p--Xv-
]m- Nm-\
2328. am-hn-s P--tZ-iw- C-y
2329. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\n-X- C-n-cm Km-n
2330. _p---ssP-\-a-X- C-y-bn D-S-se-Sp--Xv- _n.kn.Bdmw i-X-I-n
2331. I-c-_--cm-Py--fn-m- G-I h-I-c--h-S-t A-ta-cn-
2332. m-c-]-Zm-Y- en-v-a-kn-s \n-dw Np-h-n-\n-pw --- Bp-p- \o-e
2333. hn-im-JZ-
- s
- ap-{Zm-cm-k
-
- n-se {]-[m-\ I-Ym-]m-{Xw- NmW-Iy
2334. o-c-]-Y-tI-{-s H-cp {]m-h-iyw h-ew-h-bv-m kq-cy-s\Sp-p- k-a-bw A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- tIm-kv-an-Iv C-b
2335. {Xn-]p-c-kp--cn-t-{Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-v- {Xn-]p-c
2336. \m-j-W t]m-eo-kv A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_mZv
2337. G-Xv kw-bp--am-Wv ssl-tm F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tkm-Unbw X-tbm-k-t^-v
2338. G-Xv kw-m-\-n-se k--Zv hy-h--bm-Wv a-Wn-tbm-U
k--Zv hy-h- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- D--cm-J-Wv-Uv
2339. C-y-bn ap-nw `-c-W-n-\v A-Sn--d ]m-In-b-Xv- ap-l--Zv
tKm-dn
2340. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`mw-K-am-bn B-Zyw k-Xy-{]-Xn- sN-bv-X hyn- tdm-k-m ]p-q-kv
2341. ]m-]n-I-fp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _m-tm-v
2342. ]--h-am-cp-sS X-e-kv-Ym-\-am-bn-cp--Xpw- ]-p-hy-h-km-b-n-\pt]-cp- tI--Xp-am-b \-K-cw--Im-o-]p-cw2343. B-Zy sS-en-hn-j kw-t{]--Ww sN-bv-X-Xv- _n._n.kn.
2344. tI- c - f ]- n- I v k- h o- k v I- n- j - s B- m- \ w- -
-Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2345. C-y-kw-m-\--fn G--hpw P-\-km-{-X Ip-d--Xv- Acp-Wm-N {]-tZ-iv
2346. G-Xv m-]-\-n-\n-m-Wv Km-n-Pn \n-b-a-_n-cp-Zw t\-Snb-Xv- e--\n-se C- sS-n
2347. ]n--c-k-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- ]n-sp-I- _n-en-dq_n, _n-en-sh-Un
2348. ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy tI-{-a-{n- k-Zm ]-t

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

79

2349. \n-b-aw ]m-h-s--h-s\ I-i-p-p, ]-W-m-c \n-b-a-s-bpw


F-p ]-d--Xv- H-fn-h-tKm-Uv-kv-an-v
2350. G-Xv ssZ-h-s-bm-Wv \m-b-\m-am B-cm-[n-p--Xv- in-h
2351. \m-j-W ln--dn ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- U-ln
2352. `m-c-n c-mw m-\-ap- ]-n- Im-tkm-h-cn
2353. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-hpw Hm-W-d-dn Hm-kv-Im-dpw t\-Sn-b B-Zy hy-n- kXy-Pn-Xv td
2354. G--hpw- h-en-b hm-bv- D- k-kv-X-\w- ln-tm-s]m-m-a-kv2355. sX-v tIm-h-fw ap-X h-S-v Im-k-tIm-Sv h-sc A-d-_n--Sen-\v k-am--c-am-bn \o-fp- {]-[m-\ P-e-]m-X- sh-v tIm-kvv I-\m
2356. ]-Xm-I-I-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- sh-Iv-kn-tm-f-Pn
2357. {Sm-h-Iq- kn-a-dv-kv- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \m--Iw2358. ]m-_v-tfm s\-cq-Z P-\n- cm-Pyw- Nn-en
2359. ]--bp-sS D-Zv-`-hw- ]p-en-a-e
2360. _-tZm-fn k-Xym-{K-lw \-bn--Xv- k-Zm ]-t
2361. ]--h hw-i-n-se cm-Pm--am-cn G--hpw {]-i-kv-X-
\-ck
- nw-lh
- -a H-m-a
2362. ]-h-X--fp-sS I-S F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {_n-o-jv sIm-fw_n-b
2363. \yq-kv t]- t_m-bv F- a-e-bm-f kn-\n-a kw-hn-[m-\w sNbv-X-Xv- ]n.cmw-Zm-kv
2364. \yq-t{Sm C-m- aq-e-Iw- ssl-{U-P
2365. ]--h-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- knw-l-hn-jv-Wp
2366. \o-e-Kn-cn-bp-sS dm-Wn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- D-Z-I-a-Wv-U-ew
2367. \yq-t{Sm t_mw-_v I-p-]n-Sn- A-ta-cn- im-kv-{X- km-ap-h tIm-l (1958)
2368. {Ko-p-Im km-t{Um-tIm-q-kv F- t]-cv N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cys\ kq-Nn-n-m-\m-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn--Xv F-v B-Zy-am-bn sX-fnbn--Xv- hn-eyw tPm-kv
2369. hn-ip- ]-h-Xw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ^yq-Pn-bm-a
2370. Km-\-K--h F--dn-b-s-Sp- Km-b-I- tb-ip-Zm-kv
2371. {Xn-]p-c-bn {_n-o-jv C-y-bn-se-t]m-e-s `-c-W-kw-hn-[m\w G-s-Sp-n-b cm-Pm-hv- a-lm-cm-P am-Wn-Iy _-lm-Zq
2372. tI-c-f-n-se C-n K-th-j-W tI-{-n-s-B-m-\w- A-e-h-b
2373. tI-c-f ]-cm-a-i-ap- B-Zy-s in-em-tc-J- A-tim-I-s
2374. I-c-`m-Kw ap-gp-h k-\-K F- cm-Py-m Np--s- cm-Pyw Kmw-_n-b
2375. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew kv-]o-- hw ]p-cp-tjm--a
2376. {Xn-aq-n-I B-sc-mw- {_-m-hv, hn-jv-Wp, in-h
2377. G-Xp ssh-t{km-bn-m-Wv 1900 se Cu-g-h sa-tm-dn-b ka-n--Xv- I-gv-k-{]-`p
2378. tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-Im-ehnZym-eb
-
- A-dn-bs
- -n-cp-X
- v- IpSn--n-q-S-
2379. _p--v {]q-^v h-kv-{X- \n-an-p--Xn-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-p-
h-kv-Xp- sI-hv-em
2380. G-Xp -e-n-s ]-g-b t]-cm-Wv sh--S-tIm-- tIm--bv-
2381. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS G-Xv- A-\p-Nv-tO-Zw- {]-Im-c-am-Wv- cm-Py-k-`b
-- nte-v- km-ln-Xyw,- im-kv-{Xw,- I-e,- km-aq-ln-I {]-h--\w- Fo- cw-K--fn- {]-K-`-cm-b 12t]-sc cm-jv-{S-]-Xn- \m-a-\n-tZiw- sN-p--Xv 80mw- A-\p-Nv-tO-Zw2382. Z-n-W-{[p-hw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- A-ap-v-sk
2383. bp-td-\n-b-n-s in-Yn-eo-I-c-Ww-aq-ew A-h-km-\w e-`n-p-Xv- I-dp-o-bw
2384. G-Xp-hw-i-P-cm-bn-cp-p A-Sn-a kp-m-am- Xp-n
2385. C-y-bn `q-]-S- X-m-dm-p- G-P-kn- k-th Hm-^v
C- y
2386. G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv Nw-_--b-ap-\
2387. F-m B-kn-Up-I-fn-epw A-S-n-bn-cn-p- aq-e-Iw- ssl-{UP
2388. G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv Xo-kv-X--{_--]q-{X
2389. G-Xp h-K-m-cp-sS B-{I-a-W-am-Wv Kp-]v-X-`-c-W-s -bnn--Xv- lq-W-am
2390. Hm- lm-Uv tam-Wp-sa v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv N-Wv-Un-K-Vv

80

CONFUSING FACTS
Fw.hn-tiz-iz-c--bp-sS P--Zn-\-am-b sk-]v-Xw-_ 15 BWv C-y-bn F-n-\o-tb-gv-kv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p-Xv. tUm._n-[m N-{ tdm-bn-bp-sS P--Zn-\-am-b Pq-em-bv
H-v B-Wv tUm-Iv-tS-gv-kv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv.
D-c-K--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv sl--tm-f-Pn. ]m-pI-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w Hm-^n-tbm-f-Pn.
N-cn-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-sh--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv {Ko-v ]-Wv-UnX-\m-b sl-tdm-tUm--kv (_n.kn.484425) B-Wv . Atem--Xn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-sh--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv {Ko-v `n-j-Kz-c\m-b ln-tm-{Im--kv B-Wv. B-[p-\n-I N-cn-{X-n-s
]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv en-tbm-t]m-Uv thm dms B-Wv.
2391. Z-n-W {[p-hw n-Xn-sN-p- h-I-c--Am-n-
2392. t{_m-Uv _m-Uv C-s\-v A-Iv-k-kv \n-b-a-]-c-am-b A-h-Imi-am-n-b B-Zy cm-Pyw- ^n-e-Uv
2393. Z-n-W ssN-\m--S G-Xv Zzo-]n-s `m-K-am-Wv--]-k-^n-Iv kap-{Zw
2394. B-Zy- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-v- tPm-Pv- hm-jn-Mv-S2395. C-y-bn-se [m-Xp ]-cy-th-j-W-n-\v Np-a-X-e-s-Sp-n-bn-p k-m m-]-\w- Pn-tbm-f-Pn- k-th Hm-^v C-y
2396. C-y-bn-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw A-]-I-S-Im-cn-sb-p hn-ti-jnn--s-Sp--Xv- tIm-kn
2397. C-y-bn \-Zn-bn-ep- G--hpw \o-fw-Iq-Sn-b ]m-e-am-b a-lmm-Km-n tk-Xp (5575 ao.)F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -]m-v-\
2398. G-Xp cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-Wv B m-\-s-pw-ap-v tI-c-f K-hW-dm-bn tk-h-\-a-\p-jvTn-n-p--Xv- hn.hn.Kn-cn
2399. A-m ssh-Ip-WvT-cp-sS _m-ey-Im-e-\m-aw- ap-p-p-n
2400. h-w au-e-hn A--cn- h-jw- 1932
2401. {_-m-\--in-h-tbm-Kn-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- Im-cm-v tKm-hn-Ip-n-ta-t\m
2402. 1928 bp-n-hm-Zn am-kn-I-bp-sS ]-{Xm-[n-]-cm-b-Xv- k-tlm-Zc A--
2403. Ip-am-c-\m-im F-hn-sS h-m-Wv ho-W-]q-hv c-Nn--Xv- ssP-\nta-Sv
2404. C-y-bn ]m-gv-kn-I B-Zy-am-bn Xm-h-f-a-Sn- -ew- kmw
2405. I-S-en-se Zq-cw A-f-m-\p- G-I-Iw- t\m-n- ssa
2406. C-y-bn \n-e--S-e K-th-j-W-tI-{w F-hn-sS n-Xn sNp-p- Pp-\-K-Vv
2407. F-m cm-K--fpw hm-bn-m I-gn-bp- C-y kw-Ko-tXm-]I-c-Ww- km-cw-Kn
2408. I-c-bm-sX I-o-scm-gp-p- Po-hn- ko
2409. tI-p-I-fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- kv-tIm-Sv-e-Uv
2410. B-Zy H-fn-n-Iv sK-bnw-kv \-S--Xv- _n.kn.776
2411. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n-se ]m-km-b G-I A-hn-izmk {]-ta-bw A-h-X-cn-n--Xv- ]n.sI.Ip-v
2412. B-Zy tem-I-I-v ^p-Sv-t_m-fn-se B-Zy tKm t\-Sn-b {^-pXm-cw- eq-kn-b tem-d-Mv
2413. Hm--td-j q m k-a-b-v I-c-tk-\m--e-h-\m-bn-cp--Xv P-\-d F.F-kv ssh-Zy
2414. tI-c-f {]-kv A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-m-\w- Im--\m-Sv
2415. G-Xp t\-Xm-hn-s D-]-tZ-i-{]-Im-c-am-Wv sI.tI-f- Kp-cp-hmbq-cn-se k-Xym-{K-lw A-h-km-\n-n--Xv- Km-\v-[n-Pn
2416. in-h-Pn-sb kzm-[o-\n-p-I-bpw B-bp-[m-`ym-kw ]-cn-io-en-n-pI-bpw sN-bv-X {_m--W- Zm-Zm-Pn sIm--tZ-hv
2417. G-Xv- \-Zn-bp-sS- Xo-c-m-Wv- Cu-^- S-h- sk-bv2418. G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv tem-ln-Xv {_-lv-a-]p-{X
2419. G-Xp t]-cn-em-Wv kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv th-j-{]---\m-bn Cy-bn-\n-p I-S--Xv- au-e-hn kn-bm-hp-o

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2420. em a-dm-_v-se F- {^-p-t\m-h a-e-bm-f-n-te-v hn-h-\w sN-bv-X-Xv- \m-e-m-v \m-cm-b-W-ta-t\m


2421. c-p th-en-tb---n-S-bn-ep- C-S-th-f- 12 a-Wn-q 25
an-\n-v
2422. G-Xv- \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- tIm--bw- ao-\-n
2423. c-p-{]m-h-iy-n-Iq-Sp-X A-ta-cn--bn {]-kn-Um-bn Xnc-s-Sp--s- G-I hy-n--{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
2424. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b kv-tm-v F-Iv-kv-tN-v- apw-ss_
2425. G-Xp tcm-K-am-Wv ep-o-an-b- F-pw A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- c-m_p-Zw
2426. in-h-tk-\ G-Xp kw-m-\-s cm-jv-{So-b I-n-bm-Wv -a-lmcm-jv{- S
2427. Z-n-W Kw-tKm-{Xn, ssa-{Xn, `m-c-Xn F-o K-th-j-W tI-{ C-y F-hn-sS-bm-Wv m-]n--Xv--Am-n-
2428. C-y-bn {]-`m-X kq-cy-s In-c-W- B-Zyw ]-Xn-p-
kw-m-\w- A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-iv
2429. G-Xp ssi-en-bn-em-Wv A-P-m Kp-l-I-fn-se Nn-{X- h-c-ncn-p--Xv- s{^-kv-tIm
2430. C-y-bn {]-kn-Up-`-c-Ww \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy kw-m\w- ]-m-_v
2431. bp-td-\n-bw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- am-n m t{]m-v
2432. {Xn-c-Xv-\- G-Xp a-X-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ssP-\-aXw
2433. hr-m-h Km-U G-Xv A-W-s-n-\p k-ao-]-am-Wv- Ir-jv-Wcm-P-km-K
2434. G-Xp t-{X-n-en-cp-m-Wv ta--q \m-cm-b-Wo-bw c-Nn-Xv- Kp-cp-hm-bq
2435. hr--Kw-K- F-p- hn-fn--s-Sp-- \-Zn--tKm-Zm-h-cn2436. I-gp-n-s \o-fw G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Po-hn- Pn-dm-^v
2437. {Xn-tIm-Wm-Ir-Xn-bn-ep- k-ap-{Zw--]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Zw
2438. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s tIm-{K-kn-X-c D-]-{]-[m-\-a-{n-
N-c-kn-Mv
2439. kq-cy-t\m-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p n-Xn sN-p- \--{Xw t{]mIv-kn-a sk-tm-dn
2440. hm-kv-tIm- U Km-a ssh-t{km-bn- B-bn- tI-c-f-n- F-n-b
h-jw- F.Un.1524
2441. C-y \-thm-m-\-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv- cm-Pmdmw tam-l tdm-bv
2442. km-h-tZm Zm-en-bp-am-bn _--s- I-e- Nn-{X-I-e
2443. {io-cmw km-K ]--Xn G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv -tKm-Zm-h-cn
2444. A--co--an-m-sb-n B-Im-i-n-s \n-d-sa-m-bn-cn-pw- I-dp-v
2445. a-c-Wm-\--c _-lp-a-Xn-bm-bn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w {]-Jym-]n--ti-jw
]n-h-en--Xv B-cp-sS Im-cy-n-em-Wv- kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv
2446. {io-aq-ew {]-Pm-k-` m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1904
2447. k-ap-{Z-\n-c-n-\n-pw Xm-sg-bm-bn n-Xn sN-p- X-e-m\ \-K-cw G-Xp cm-Py-n-t-Xm-Wv- s\-X-e-Uv-kv
2448. ap--bn-Sp- k-kv-X-\--sf km-[m-c-W-am-bn Im-W-s-Sp- hI-c- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
2449. C-n-cm-Km-n-h-[w A-t\z-jn- I-n-j- Xm- I-o-j
2450. dq-t-e o ]v-fmn-s \n-am-W-n k-l-I-cn- cm-Pyw P-a-\n
2451. 1292- tI-c-fw- k--in- C-m-en-b- k-m-cn- am-mt]mtfm
2452. {io-aq-ew- Xn-cp-\m- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq- cm-Pm-hm-b-Xv- G-Xv h-jn- F.Un.1885
2453. {Ko-v ]p-cm-W--fn ssZ-h--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv- ko-bp-kv
2454. A-ta-cn- N-cn-{X-n-se G--hpw ssZ-Ly-ta-dn-b an-en--dn
t]m-cm-w- hn-b-v-\mw bp-w
2455. cm-jv-So-b kzm-X-{y-am-Wv H-cp cm-Py-n-s Po-h-izm-kw Fp ]-d--Xv- A-c-hn--tLm-jv
2456. C-y \n-an-X-am-b B-Zy-hn-am-\w(1951) ln-p-m s{Sbn-\
2457. kq-cy-s Xm-]-\n-e A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- ss]-tdm-lo-en-tbmao-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

10

Um-\yq-_v \-Zn F-{X bq-tdm-]y cm-Py--fn-eq-sS H-gp-Ipp


F-{X an-o-ao--dm-Wv H-cp sko-ao-
tem-Iv-k-`-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X _-Uv-P-v A-h-X-cn-n-np- [-\-a-{n sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn-bm-Wv .F-{X _-Uv-Pp-I-fm-Wv A-t-lw A-h-X-cn-n-n-p--Xv
A-ta-cn--bn sk-k-kv \-S-p--Xv F-{X h-jw IqSp-tm-fm-Wv
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- `m-K
- n-em-Wv (]m-v) ss{S_ G-cn-b-I-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
F-{X Un-{Kn Nm-\-em-Wv Zzo-]-k-aq-l--fm-b B--am-t\bpw \n-tm-_m-dn-s\-bpw th-Xn-cn-p--Xv
F-{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-m-e-m-Wv tI-c-f hnI-k-\ ]--Xn \-S-m-n-b-Xv
t_m-Iv-knw-Kn C-Sn-tb-p ho-gp--bm F-{X sk-pI--Iw F-gp-t-v a-k-c-n-\v X-m-dm-bn-s-n-em-Wv
t\m-u-m-Ip-X
- v
R-n-\v F-{X Im-ep-I-fm-Wp--Xv
2458. cm-P-m-\n-se {]-kn--am-b H-cp X-Sm-Iw- ]p-jv-I X-Sm-Iw
2459. {_n-o-jp-Im-v Zn-hm-\n A-\p-h-Zn- ap-K N-{I-h-n- jm
B-ew
2460. cm-P-m-\n-se G-I ln-t-j- au-v A-_p
2461. C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b ti-jw {]-Xn-]--t\-Xm-hm-b BZy hy-n- cm-Po-hv Km-n
2462. s\-n--bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- Po-h-Iw- Po-h-Iw kn
2463. km-kv tcm-Kw _m-[n-p- A-h-b-hw- izm-k-tIm-iw
2464. C-y \yq- F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp--Xv- B-cy-`-
2465. H-mw `u-a D--tIm-Sn-bp-sS th-Zn- dn-tbm Un P-\o-tdm ({_ko)
2466. {io-cw-K-]--Ww- D-S--Sn- {]-Im-cw- Cw-o-jv- Cu-kv-v- C-ym-I-\n-v- e-`n- a-e-_m- {]-tZ-i-s `-c-Ww- Nn--s-Sp-m- Io-j-W-am-- F-n-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1792
2467. cm-k kq-cy F--dn-b-s-Sp- tem-lw- a-o-jyw
2468. dq-tm G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv P-\n--Xv- kzn-v-k-e-Uv
2469. bm-Z-h hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- tZ-h-Kn-cn
2470. am-l- ]--Xn-bv-v t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- Hm--ssl-a
2471. 99se sh--sm-w F- {]-kn--am-b sh--sm-w D-mb-sX-tm- 1924
2472. `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS Ggmw t`Z-KXn {]Imcw B-Zy-am-bn kw-m\ ]p-\-w-L-S-\ \-S- h-jw- 1956
2473. a-\p-jy a-X--sf kr-jv-Sn-p F- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv- h-b-em
cm-ah
- -a
2474. H-mw h--ta-i k-t-f-\w \-S-p-tm ssh-t{km-bn- Chn {]-`p
2475. H-cp A-[-hr-w F-{X Un-{Kn-bm-Wv- 180
2476. {io-e--bp-sS ]-Xm-I-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn-n-p- ar-Kw- knw-lw
2477. 134245Im-e-v tI-c-fw k--in- C-_v _-p- G-Xp-cmPy-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- sam-tdm-tm
2478. kz-X-{-C-y-bn-se B-Zy H-fn-n-Iv sh-n sa-U tP-Xm-hv cm-Py-h-[ kn-Mv dm-tm-Uv
2479. s]m-Xp-[-\-n-s Im-h-\m-b F-p hn-ti-jn-n-p--Xm-sc Iw-]v-t{Sm-f B v Hm-Un- P-\-d
2480. s]m-Xp-a-cm-a-v h-Ip-v \-S-m-n-b K-h-W P-\-d- Ulu-kn
2481. hm--eq bp---fw G-Xp cm-Py-v- s_-Pn-bw
2482. Km-n-P n-bpw tKm-Uv-sk-bpw F- I-hn-X F-gp-Xn-b -Xv -
F.hn.Ir-jvW
- h
- m-cy
2483. tem-I-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- F-h-d-v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

81

2484. i-I-am-cp-sS `-cW


-
- n-em-bn-cp- am-hb
- pw ku-cm-j{-v S-hpw (KpP-dm-v) Io-g-S-n-b Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv--N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
2485. C-y-bn B-Zy sd-bn-th sse t_mw-s_ ap-X Xms\ h-sc m-]n- h-jw- 1853
2486. tem-I-n-se G--hpw- h-en-b \-Zn- B-a-tkm-2487. lo-{_p Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j-bp- cm-Pyw- C-{k-tb
2488. P-\k
- w-Jym hn-ktv- ^m-S\
- k
- n-m-
- n-s D-]
m-Xm-hv- amq-kv
2489. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` C-S-s]- B-Zy-s bp-w- sIm-dn-b bpw
2490. sh--kv-en- {]-`p-hn-s-d ssk-\n-I-k-lm-b hy-h-kv-Y-bn- Hp-sh- B-Zy-s \m-p-cm-Pyw- - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv2491. tcm-K--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- ]m-tXm-f-Pn
2492. sh-m-\-I-fp-sS \m-Sv- Xm-bv-e-Uv
2493. ssa ssSw-kv- B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- sP._n.Ir-]-em-\n
2494. ssX-m-Sv A-m-kzm-an t-{X-n-se B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- inh
2495. km-[p-P\
- ]
- c
- n-]m-e\
- k
- w-Lw m-]n-m A-
- m-fn-v {]-tNmZ-\-am-b kw-L-S-\- F-kv-F-Un-]n-tbm-Kw
2496. a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-` P-\n- -ew- s]-cp-
2497. sS--\-kn-\p Im-c-W-am-b tcm-Km-Wp- tm-kv-{So-Un-bw
2498. tl-_n-b-kv tIm--kv F-m A-Yw- i-co-cw lm-P-cm-pI
2499. s]m-Xp-am-v sIm-Sp-m cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-v A-[n-Im-cw \-ev-Ip-Xv- B-n-n 72
2500. ssa-{Xm-I-hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- h--`n
2501. sS-v {In--n {Sn-n sk-z-dn A-Sn- B-Zy C-y Xmcw- ho-tc- sk-hm-Kv
2502. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s \n-b-a-Zm-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
l-p-dm-_n
2503. tKm-bn--dn-s a-sm-cp-t]-cv- t{K-hv-kv tcm-Kw
2504. tkm-dn-bm-kn-kv _m-[n-p- i-co-c-`m-Kw- Xz-v
2505. C-y {]-kn-Un-s\ X-m-\-p-\n-pw \o-p- `-c-WL-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw- 61
2506. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-kv-n-Mv thm-v {]-tbm-Kn-
kv-]o-- F.kn.tPm-kv
2507. kz-X-{-C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s ^o-Uv am-j- F-kv.Fv.F-^v.sP.a-t\-m
2508. K-Zy-cq-]-n-ep- G-I-th-Zw- b-Pp-th-Zw
2509. ssI-Im-ep-I-fn-se B-sI A-n-I- -- 126
2510. hm--m-kn-s cm-k-\m-aw- tkm-Un-bw kn-en-t-v
2511. s]m-m-kyw s]-amw-K-t\-v Nq-Sm-p-tm D-m-Ip- hm-XIw- Hm-Iv-kn-P
2512. ssa--em--tem A-y-hn-[n F- Nn-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv h-cn-cn-p--Xv- kn-ss Nm--en-s A-m-c-bn
2513. s]m--tm Cu-t-gv-kv F- Nn-{Xw c-Nn--Xv- hm-tKm-Kv
2514. C-y-bn-se G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- dm-_n hn-f- tKm-X-v
2515. i-co-c-h-ep--hp-am-bn Xm-c-X-ayw sN-p-tm G--hpw sN-dn-bap--bn-Sp- ]-n--H--I--n
2516. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn {]-[m-\-a-{n-]-Zw cm-Pn-h--Xv- sam-dmPn tZ-im-bv
2517. i-co-c-hp-am-bn Xm-c-X-ayw sN-p-tm G--hpw h-en-b a-kv-Xnjv-I-ap- P-e-Po-hn- tUm-^n
2518. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b \-Zo-P-\y I--m-Sv- kp-_-kv
2519. i-I h-j-n-se A-h-km-\-s am-kw- ^m-Kp-\w
2520. C-y-bn-se G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- Jm-cn-^v hn-f- s\-v
2521. s]m-p-Sn a-e-tbm-c hn-t\m-Z k-m-c tI-{w G-Xp Pn--bn-emWv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2522. tem-I-s B-Zy ]p-I-bn-e ap- cm-Pyw- `q-m
2523. Nn-{U-kv _p-v {S-v m-]n--Xv- Im-q-Wn-v i-
2524. lp-a-bq m-]n- \-K-cw- Zn-]-\
2525. cm-jv{- S-]X
- n-kvY
- m-\t- -v- ho-pw- Xn-cs
- -Sp-s
- - G-I hyIv-Xn- tUm.- cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zv2526. in-h-Pn A--cn- h-jw- 1680
2527. lp-a-bq-Wn-s\ tXm-]n- A-^v-Lm ho-c- sj-jm

82

CONFUSING
FACTS
CONFUSING FACTS
P-bv P-hm, P-bv In-km F- ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-n-s D-]m-Xm-hv em _-lm-Zq im-kv-{Xn-bm-Wv. A-S _nlm-cn hm-Pv-t]-bn-bm-Wv P-bv P-hm, P-bv In-km, P-bv
hn-m F- ap-{Zm-hm-Iyw B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv.
_p--a-X-n-se a-lm-bm-\ hn-`m-K-am-Wv C-y-bn A-`nhr-n {]m-]n--Xv. A-b cm-Py--fn lo-\-bm-\-hpw.
\m-j-W C-n-yq-v Hm-^v dq-d U-h-e-]v-sa v ssl-Zcm-_m-Zn-em-Wv. tI-c-f-n-se t-v C-n-yq-v Hm-^v dqd U-h-e-]v-sa v sIm-m-c--c-bn-em-Wv.
\yq-a-tdm-f-Pn kw-Jy-I-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv. \yq-tdm-fPn \m-Uo-hyq-l-s-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv.
2528. Nn-cn-p- a-yw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tUm-^n
2529. km-{^m-kn-kv-tIm-bn K- ]m-n-p cq-]w \-In-b-Xv-
em-em l-Z-bm
2530. Nn-cn-n-p- hm-X-Iw (em-^n-Mv Kym-kv) F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
ss\-{S-kv Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
2531. cm-jv-{So-bm-[n-Im-cw tXm-n-Ip-g-en-eq-sS F-p ]-d- t\Xm-hv- am-thm tk-Xp-Mv
2532. In-g- ]m-In-kv-Xm _w-m-tZ-iv F- kz-X-{-cm-Py-am-bno- h-jw- 1971
2533. km-^v sK-bnw-kn-s ]p-Xn-b t]-cv- ku-v G-jy sK-bnwkv
2534. In-g-n-s ]-dp-Zo-k F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tKm-h
2535. In-g-n-s ap-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- {io-e-
2536. km-{am-Py-n-s A-Xn-n a-t[y-jy h-sc hym-]n-n- C-y
`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- I-\n-jv-I
2537. in-h-Ip-am i-a-bp-am-bn _--s- kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-Ww- kq
2538. C-y-bv-p sh-fn-bn I-_-d-S--s- ap-K N-{I-h-n-am _m-_-dpw P-lmw-Ko-dpw
2539. im-k{v- X--am-cp-sS h-Ic
- F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- A
- m-n-
2540. In-g-n-s sh-\o-kv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv--B-e-p-g
2541. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s X-]m m-v (kn-v [m-v) ]p-dn-d--s- \-K-cw- I-dm-n
2542. C-e-Iv-{Sn-Iv ]-h A-f-p--Xn-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-p- bq-Wn-v- hmv
2543. c-k-X-{-n-\pw k-am-[m-\-n-\pw s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\Sn-b hy-n- en-\-kv t]m-fn-Mv
2544. Im-fn-Zm-k k-m-\w \-Ip--Xv G-Xv kw-m-\ k-m-cmWv- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
2545. km-h-{Xn-I em-b-Iw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- P-ew
2546. In-g- ]m-In-kv-Xm-\v _w-Kv-fm-tZ-si--t]-cn kz-X-{-cm-Pyam-bn-o-cm-\m-h-iy-am-b k-lm-b- \-In-b C-y {][m-\-a-{n- C-n-cm-Km-n
2547. km-n-s B-Zy D--tIm-Sn-p-th-Zn-bm-b-Xv- [m-
2548. In-g-n-s Hm-Iv-kv-^-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp- C-y \-K-cw- ]qs\
2549. -in-h-Kn-cn-v B t]-cp \-In-b-Xv--{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
2550. Ip--_v-an-\m-dn-s \n-am-Ww ]q-n-bm-n-b-Xv- C-p-anjv
2551. C-y-bv-p-sh-fn-bn-h-v A--cn- G-I {]-[m-\-a-{n- em
_-lm-Zq-im-kv-{Xn
2552. In-g- bq-tdm-n-se tkm-hn-b-v ta-[m-hn-Xzw D-t-in-v Ab I- F- {]-tbm-Kw B-Zy-am-bn \-S-n-b-Xm-cv--k
hn- N-n
2553. C-y-bv-p-th-n {_n-o-jv ]m-e-sa v ]m-km-n-b A-h-km\-s \n-b-aw- C-y C-Un-s]-U-kv B-Iv-Sv
2554. km-m-{Iq-kv hn-am-\-m-h-fw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- apw-ss_
2555. Im-c-n [m-cm-f-am-bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- hn-m-an- Po-h-Iw
F

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2556. ssl-{U-P, lo-en-bw F-o-h I-gn-m {]-]--n G-hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- aq-e-Iw- Hm-Iv-kn-P
2557. Im-d am-Iv-kn-s\ a-d-hp-sN-bv-X -ew- e-
2558. km--c-X G--hpw Ip-d-, tI-c-f-n-se Pn-- ]m-e-m-Sv
2559. In-gm-s\-n G-Xv tcm-K-n-s\-Xn-cm-b Hu-j-[-am-Wv- a--nw
2560. km-v te-v t-Un-bw (^p-Sv-t_m) F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-
2561. in-h-k-ap-{Zw, {io-cw-Kw F-o Zzo-]p-I G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv--Imth-cn
2562. km-n kv-Xq-]w G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
2563. tdm-t_m-v F- hm-v B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn--Xv- Im sNt-v
2564. in-h-Pn \-S-m-n-b {]-[m-\ \n-Ip-Xn-I- Nu-Xv, k-tZ-iv-ap-Jn
2565. km-n-kv-Xq-]w \n-an--Xv- A-tim-I
2566. km-n-s B-m-\w- ImTv-a-Wv-Up
2567. Ip- m- e n- \ m- e m- a - s \- t ]m- p- K o- k p- I m- - h - [ n- - h - j w- F.Un.1600
2568. Ip--_v-o sF-_-n-s i-h-Ip-So-cw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -emtlm
2569. C-bm ^v-sf-an-Mn-s B-Zy t\m-h- Im-kn-t\m tdm-b
2570. 11 Hm-kv-Im-dp-I In-n-b Nn-{X-- s_-l, ssS-m-\n-Iv,
tem-Uv Hm-^v Z dn-Mv-kv
2571. im- k-ap-{Z-s-bpw A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Z-s-bpw _-n-np- I-\m- ]-\m-a I-\m
2572. ]--bpw Np-h-pw tN-m e-`n-p- h-Ww- a-
2573. bp-td-\n-bw B-Zy-am-bn th-Xn-cn--Xv- bp-Pn s]-en-tKm-v
2574. {]-kn--am-b hm kv-{So-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- \yq-tbm-v
2575. B-cp-sS A-]-c-\m-a-am-Wv I-sse---I-cp-Wm-\n-[n
2576. {]-kn--am-b sK-n-kv-_-Kv {]-kw-Kw \-S-n-b-Xv- F-{_-lmw
en-
2577. `m-c-Xo-b P-\-kw-L-n-s m-]-I- iym-a-{]-km-Zv ap-JPn
2578. 1924 ssh--p-\n-v Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-t-v k-h-W-Pm-Ybv-v t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
2579. B-{^n--bn-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- In-fn-a-mtcm (Xm-km-\n-b)
2580. `m-c-Xv `-h F- a-n B-v sk n-Xn-sN-p- \-K-cw t`m-m
2581. {In--n-s sa- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- e--\n-se tem-Uv-kv
t-Un-bw
2582. A-Xy-[n-Iw Xm-gv- Du-jv-am-hn-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- {I-tbmP-\n-Iv-kv
2583. ayq-d ]-tKm-U F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp- sIm-m-cw- ]-Zv-a\m-`-]p-cw
2584. I-c-bn-se I-ti-cp-In-I-fn G--hpw h-en-b I-p- Po-hn- H-I--n
2585. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-te-v B-Zy D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-v \-S- a-WvU-ew- tZ-hn-Ip-fw
2586. Hm- Xp--en-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- Ip- \-ym
2587. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`m-kv-]o- ]-Z-hn kz-X-{mw-K-sa- \n-e-bn
h-ln- G-I hy-n- kn.F-v.ap-l--Zv tIm-b
2588. I-eym-Wn F.Un.973 ]-n-a Nm-eq-Iy-hw-iw m-]n--Xv ssX-e
2589. B-cp-sS a-{n-k-`-bm-bn-cp-p A-jv-S-{]-[m- in-h-Pn
2590. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I-p-Im-en-I D- kw-m-\w D- {]-tZ-iv
2591. kq-cy-s Xm-]w `q-an-bn-se-p--Xv- hn-In-c-Ww h-gn
2592. Kym-e-]v t]m- F- k-t-X-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xv G-Xp
cm-Py-m-Wv- bp.F-kv.F.
2593. kz-]v-\-irw-K--fp-sS \-K-cw- Hm-Iv-kv-t^m-Uv
2594. tem-I-s B-Zy sS-e-t^m F-Iv-kv-tN-v \n-e-hn-h-
cm-Pyw- bp.F-kv.F.
2595. s]m-fn-n- k-b-kn-s\ am- Hm-^v k-b-kv F-p hnfn--Xv- A-cn-tm-n

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

11

C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw-Iq-Sn-b Xp-c--am-b ]o ]-Rv-Pen-s \o-fw F-{X In-tem-ao--dm-Wv


G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Hm-kv-I A-hm-Up-I t\-Sn-b kn-\n-aI-fm-Wv s_-l, ssS-m-\n-Iv, tem-Uv Hm-^v Z dnw-Kv-kv
F-n-h. C-h Hm-tcm-n-\pw F-{X Hm-kv-I-dm-Wv e-`n--Xv
^p-Sv-t_m So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv a-lv-aq-Zv K-kv-\n tkm-a-\m-Y-t{Xw B-{I-an--Xv
tlm-n So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
ku-c
- m-p-I D-m-Ip-X
- v F-{X h-j
- n-sem-cn-e
- mWv
]-m-b-v `-c-W-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-LS-\m sj-Uyq
100 In-tem-ao--dn Iq-Sp-X \o-fa-- p- F-{X \-Zn-I tI-cf-n-ep-v
B-Zy G-jy sK-bnw-kn (1951) F-{X cm-Py--fm-Wv ]s-Sp--Xv
{In--v-So-an-se I-fn-m-cp-sS F-w
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv \q-m-p bp-w F--dn-b-s-Sp-
tN-c--tNm-f kw-L--\w A-c-t-dn-b-Xv
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv Cw-Kv-f-n ]m-e-sa v ]n-d-hnsb-Sp--Xv
2002 se `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS C-y `-c-W-LS-\-bn-se au-en-I Np-a-X-e-I-fp-sS F-w F-{X-bm-bn
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS 73mw t`-Z-K-Xn F-{Xm-a-s sj-Uyq-fnem-Wv D-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s a-{n-k-`-bn F-{X Aw-K-fp-m-bn-cp-p
1935 se K-h.Hm-^v C-y B-Iv-Sv {]-Im-cw {_n-o-jv C-ybn-se F-{X {]-hn-iy-I-fn-em-Wv 1937 Xn-c-s-Sp-v \S-X
- v
2596. tX-fn-s hn-j-ap- A-h-b-hw- hm
2597. {io-i
- c
- kw-kvI
- r-X k-hI
- e
- m-im-eb
- p-sS B-Zy ssh-kv Nmk-e- B.cm-a-N-{ \m-b
2598. 1871 A-hn-`- ]-m-_n-s X-e-m-\-am-b \-K-cw--jnw-e
2599. tZ-h-`q-an-sb--dn-b-s-Sp- C-y kw-m-\w- D--cm-J-WvUv
2600. {I-tbm-sse-n-\n-pw e-`n-p- {]-[m-\ tem-lw- A-ep-an\n-bw
2601. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- ]--Ww- sP-dn-tm
2602. tZ-h-cm-b H-m-a-s Im-e-v hn-P-b-\-K-cw k--in- C--enm-c- \n-tm-tfm tIm-n
2603. {Km-q-hn-s \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- a-U-K-kv-I
2604. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- cm-P-hw-iw `-cn-p- cm-Pyw P-m
2605. m-\-m-\ c-Nn--Xv- ]q-m-\w
2606. Um--Wn-kw F--dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- h-Wm--X
2607. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se B-Zy-s Zn-hm--cm-Pm tI-i-h-Zm-kv
2608. t^m-v F-t-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-{X-am-[y-a-
2609. t_m-[-K-b G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- _o-lm
2610. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- F-b-sse-kv G-Xp cm-Pyn-t-Xv- s\-X-e-Uv-kv
2611. tIm-h-e-s-bpw I--In-bp-sS-bpw {]-W-bw {]-Xn-]m-Zy-am-b IrXn- Nn-e--Xn-Im-cw
2612. Un.F.F.bp-sS L-S-\ I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- hm-Sv-k-Wpw {In-pw
2613. tIm-i-n-s Du-P-kw-`-c-Wn- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ssa-tmtIm-{Sn-b
2614. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- knw-lm-k-\w P-m

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

83

2615. Xo-Ym-S-I-cn cm-P-Ip-am-c F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- lypbm km-Mv


2616. Xp--Iv hw-i-n-s m-]-I- Kn-bm-kp-o Xp--Iv
2617. sd-Uv en-n _p-v c-Nn--Xv- am-thm tk Xp-Mv
2618. Z-n-W-]q-th-jy-bn-se G-I I-c-_- cm-Pyw- em-thm-kv
2619. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- kzm-Xn-Xn-cp-\m-fn-s-d knw-lm-k-\m-tcm-lWw- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1829
2620. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-W-s-Sp- a-v- em--ssd-v
2621. Xo-h-n B-Zy-am-bn B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
2622. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn ssl-tm-S-Xn m-]n-X-am-b h-jw-1881
2623. tI-c-f-n-se H-mw \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se B-sI Aw-K-- 127
(126+1)
2624. cm-jv-S-X-{-im-kv-{X-]-c-am-bn {Ko-em-Uv G-Xv h-I-c-bp-sS
`m-K-am-Wv- bq-tdm-v
2625. tI-c-f t-v _mw-_p tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w- A--am-en
2626. 1876 B-\- tam-l t_m-kp-am-bn tN-v C-y \m-jW A-tkm-kn-tb-j cq-]h
- X
- vI
- c
- n-X
- m-cv -kp-tc-{-\m-Yv _m\-Pn
2627. Zn _w-Km-fn F- ]-{Xw 1879 B-cw-`n--Xm-cv -kp-tc-{-\m-Yv
_m-\-Pn
2628. tIm-gn-tm-Sv B-m-\-am-bn 1923 B-cw-`n- ]-{Xw- am-Xr`q-an
2629. sj-jm-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- ^-co-Zv
2630. Um-t_m-fnw hn-am-\-m-h-fw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- tKm-h
2631. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s ]-{Xw G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- ssN-\
2632. Un-k v Hm-^v am c-Nn--Xm-cv--Nm-kv Um-hn
2633. v X-an-gv-\m-n-se {]-[m-\ \-Zn -Im-th-cn
2634. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- dn--n-Iv- km am-dn-t\m
2635. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-\v e-`n- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS Nn-Xm-`-kv-a-n-s `mKw k-ap-{Z-n \n-a--\w sN-p--Xn-\p-ap-v kq-n-n-cp -ew F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
2636. X-a-km A-Y-hm tSm-kv G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv-b-ap-\
2637. cm-jv-{S-sa--Xv Rm-\m-Wv F-p ]-d--Xv- eq-bn ]-Xn-\m-ema
2638. ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS hn-c-an- {]m-bw- 62 h-b-v
2639. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]-tbm-Kn-p- th-Z-\-kw-lm-cn- B-kv-]ncn
2640. cm-P tI-kv aq-ew ap-Jy-a-{n-m-\w \-jv-S-s- t\-Xm-hv-
sI.I-cp-Wm-Ic
-
2641. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Po-hn-X-ssZ-Ly-ap- k-ky- G-Xv hn`m-K-n-s-Sp-p- Pnw-t\m-kv-t]w-kv
2642. tI-c-f k-h-I-em-im-e tUm-Iv-S-td-v \-In B-Z-cn- B-Zy hyn--kn.]n.cm-a-kzm-an A-
2643. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- B-Zy-am-bn- Im-t\-jp-am-cn- G-Xv h-j
- n F.Un.1834
2644. ssU-\m-tam- I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- ssa-- ^m-c-tU
2645. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n-se G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d-
Aw-Kw- B._m-e-Ir-jv-W-]n-
2646. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn m-n-Iv \n-tcm-[n- kw-m-\w- lnam-N {]-tZ-iv
2647.s]m-Jv-cm G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- cm-P-m
2648. I-c-bn-se k-kv-X-\--fn G--hpw \o-fw-Iq-Sn-b \-s-p--Xv-Pn-dm-^v
2649. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n m-\m-Yn F-Xn-cn-m-sX
Xn-c-s-Sp--s- G-I a-Wv-U-ew- a-t-iz-cw
2651. I-c-bn-se k-k v- X - \ - - f n G- - h pw B- b p- v Iq-Sn-b-Xv-
a
- \
- p-jy
2652. \-s-n a-cp-p Ip-n-h
- t- i-jw F-Sp-p- F-Ik
v- tv- d- ssatem-{Kmw
2653. ]-w Xm-Wp-]n- cq-]-h--cn- ]m-n- U-tam-{Im-n-Iv tkmjy-en-v ]m-n
2654. 1896 s^-{_p-h-cn 29\v Kp-P-dm-n-se `-tZ-\n {Km-a-n P-\n,\m-ep-h-j-n-sem-cn- ]n-d-m-fm-tLm-jn-n-cp- {]-[m\-a-{n- sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
2655. ap-Sn \n-an-n-cn-p- t{]m-o- sI-cm-n

84

CONFUSING FACTS
Pmenbhmem_mKv Iqsmebvv t\XrXzw
\InbXv P\d UbdmWv. AXn\p {]XnImcambn
B kabv ]m_v KhWdmbncp ssa
HUbdns\ 1940 amv 13\v e\nhv DwknMv F
knpbphmhv shSnhpsImp.
KZyhpw ]Zyhpw CSIenbp kmlnXycq]amWv
Np. aebmfhpw kwkvIrXhpw CSIenbp
cN\mcoXnbmWv aWn{]hmfw.
tXSnbpsS IhmSw Ipafnbpw ssltdntep
IhmSw tImXaKehpamWv.
2656.
2657.
2658.
2659.
2660.
2661.
2662.
2663.
2664.
2665.
2666.
2667.
2668.
2669.
2670.
2671.
2672.
2673.
2674.
2675.
2676.
2677.
2678.
2679.
2680.
2681.
2682.
2683.
2684.
2685.
2686.

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

aq-o-tZ-hn A-hm-Uv G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- m-\-]oTw {S-v


G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b ]-n- H--I--n
C-y {]o-an-b eo-Kn-s B-m-\w--apw-ss_
{]-[m-\-a-{n-bp-sS kp-c--bp-sS Np-a-X-e-bp- G-P-kn- kvs]-jy s{]m-- {Kq-v
A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-v m-Nyp Hm-^v en-_-n k-m\n- cm-Pyw- {^m-kv
{]-]--n-s C-jv-Sn-I-I F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- X-m-{X-I
1940 Km-n-Pn B-cw-`n- hy-n-k-Xym-{K-l-n hn-t\m_m-`m-sh-bv-p-ti-jw A-Sp- k-Xym-{K-ln-bm-bn A-d-kv-p-hcn-v P-bn-en-em-b-Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ {Iqin a-e-ap-I- Km-Kp-
_w-Km-fn Zzn-`-c-Ww \-S-m-n-b-Xv- tdm-_-v ss-hv
sa-lv-tdm-fn kv-Xq-]-n G-Xp Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hn-s\-p-dn-m-Wv
hn-h-cn--cn-p--Xv- N-{-Kp-]v-X c-m-a
B-Zy-s ^p-Sv-t_m tem-I-I-v hn-P-bn- D-dp-tKz
A-Wp-t_mw-_n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Hm--ssla
Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn D-m-bn-cp- a-Wv-U-]-pw-hm-Xn-en-\p Xpey-am-b C-tm-g-s `-c-W-L-S-Iw- Xm-eq-v
sam-km-v P-\n- cm-Pyw- Hm-kv-{Sn-b
ap-K km-{am-Py-n-s X-e-m-\w U-ln-bn-te-v am-n-bXv- jm-P-lm
B-m-hn-te-p- Pm-e-Iw F--dn-b-s-Sp- i-co-c-`m-Kw- Iv
a-Wv-U I-n-j dn-tm-v X-m-dm-n-b-Xv- _n-t-iz-cn {]km-Zv a-Wv-U
bm-{Xn-I-v- {]n-b-s-- cm-Pyw- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {^m-kvC-y \m-jW
- tIm-{K-kn Aw-KX
- z-sa-Sp- B-Zy-s
Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dp-Imc- Pn.]n.]n-
C-y-bn-se {]-[m-\ h-{P J-\n- ]-
Zn-h-k-n \m-ep-X-h-W th-en-tb-w kw-`-hn-p- tem-In-se G-I -ew- Cw--n-se k-Xmw-]v-S
Zn-Kv-t_m-bv F-n-\m-Wp {]-kn-w- F--m-Sw
C-y X-t-io-b-am-bn \n-an- B-Zy D-]-{K-lw- C-km-v 2F
{In-kv-Xy- sa-Un-- tIm-tf-Pv- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- --sh-q{io i--cm-Nm-cy Du- \-In-b am-Kw- m-\-am-Kw
`--W-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- H-cp B-kn-Uv- A-sk-n-Iv Bkn-Uv
C-y- \m-j-W- tIm-{K-kn-s-d A-[y--]-Zw- A-e--cn a-e-bm-fn- kn- i--c-\m-b{io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp A-cp-hn-p-dw in-h{- ]-Xn-jvT \-S
- n-b h-jw 1888
G-Xv kw-L-S-\-bm-Wv D-n \-q-Xn-cn F- {]-kn-o-I-c-Ww
]p-d-n-d-n-b-Xv--tbm-K-t-a-k-`
\m-b k-ho-kv skm-ssk-n-bp-sS B-Zy sk-{I--dn- a--v
]-Zv-a-\m-`
1910 Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq k-m I-p-sI-n-b {]-kv h-wau-e-hn-bp-sS A-\--cm-h-Im-in-I-v Xn-cn-p-sIm-Sp-m Xocp-am-\n- tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n- C.Fw.F-kv.

2687. -bt- cm-K


- n-\p Im-cW
- a
- m-b
tcm-Km-Wp- _m-Iv-So-cn-b
2688. _w-Kv-fm-tZ-in-s m-]-I-
ap-Po-_v d-lv-am
2689. m-c]
- Z- m-Y
- en-a
-v k
- n-s
\n-dw Np-h
- n-\n-pw -- - Bp-p- \o-e
2690. C-y kzm-X-{y-n-s kph-W-Pq-_n-en B-tLm-jn-tm
{]- k n- U v-
sI.B.\m-cm-b-W
2691. 1929 sk-{S se-Pn-to-hv A-kw-n-bn t_mw-_v
C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b
s]m-n-m t\-Xr-Xzw \-Inti- jw {]- X n- ]- b-Xv- - `-K-Xv kn-Mv
t\- X m- h m- b B- Z y hy- n-
2692. {io-e- G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wvcm- P o- h v Km- n
- C-y-a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
2693. o-c-]-Y-tI-{-s H-cp {]m-h-iyw h-ew-h-bv-m kq-cy-s\Sp-p- k-a-bw A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- tIm-kv-an-Iv C-b
2694. o-tcm-]---p {]-kn--am-b B-\-v G-Xp kw-kv-Ym--\v- Kp-P-dm-v
2695. 1936 Hm C-y td-Un-tbm F- t]-cp-kzo-I-cn- m-]-\w
B-Im-i-hm-Wn-bm-b h-jw- 1957
2696. `--W-n-e-S-n-bn-cn-p- P-emw-iw B-Kn-c-Ww sN-p-
Z-l-t\-{n-b hy-h--bp-sS `m-Kw- h-Ip-S
2697. {]-]
-
- n-s hn-Im-k
- n-\p sX-fn-hp \-In-bX
- m-cv- F-Uzn
l-_n
2698. _w-Kv-fm-tZ-in-s tZ-io-b Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Zw- I-_-Un
2699. {io-e--bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- kn-tem
2700. Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS a-{n-]-Z-n-se-n-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn-
tIm-m-n cm-a ta-t\m(a-{Zm-kv kw-m-\w)
2701. {Ko-v tdm-a \m-hn-I-\m-b ln-m-e-kv sIm-Sp--q-cn h-
h-jw- F.Un.45
2702. X-cn-km--n im-k-\w ]p-d-s-Sp-hn--Xv- A--\-Sn-I Xn-cp-hSn-I
2703. X-cw-K-ssZ-Lyw Iq-Sp-X-ep- \n-dw- Np-h-v
2704. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn hn-izm-k {]-ta-bw A-h-X-cn-n- G-I
ap-Jy-a-{n- kn.A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
2705. I-co-_n-b Zzo-]-cm-jv-{S--fn P-\-kw-Jy-bn ap-n-ep--Xv
-Iyq-_
2706. tI-c-f `m-jm C-n-yq-n-s B-m-\w- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2707. X-e-ap-Sn-p \n-dw \-Ip--Xv- sa-em-\n
2708. B--I-Y-sb-gp-Xn-b ap-K N-{I-h-n-am- _m-_-dpw P-lmwKo-dpw
2709. ap-K km-{am-Py-n-s X-I--tbm-sS D-b-p-h- {]-hn-iyI-fn G--hpw {]-_-e-i-n- a-dmTn-I
2710. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s kv-t]m-tk-Uv N-e-n-{Xw-
a-I-v
2711. tI-c-f-n-se Nn-dm-]q-n-sb--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- e-n-Sn
2712. Zn-lm-Mv F- t]-cn A-dn-b-s-Sp- \-Zn- {_-lv-a-]p-{X
2713. en-bm- ]-b-kv H-fn-n-Iv-kn sS-o-kn sh--ew t\-Snb h-jw- 1996
2714. F.]n.sP.A-_v-Zp I-emw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-c-\m-Wv- X-an-gv\m-Sv
2715. 1936 ap-X- F-tXym-]y-bp-sS- `m-K-am-bn-cp-- Cu- cm-Pyw- 1993kz-X-{-am-bn.- t]-cv- --F-dn-{Xn-b2716. Zo-\-_-p F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s--Xv- kn.F-^v.B{Uq-kv
2717. 1946 se \m-hn-I I-em-]w G-Xv Xp-d-ap-J-m-Wv B-cw-`n--Xv-
apw-ss_
2718. A-cn-bm-eq Xo-h-n-b-]-I-S(1956)n-s [m-an-I D--c-hmZn-Xzw G-s-Sp-v a-{n-m-\w cm-Pn-h--Xv- em _-lm-Zqim-kv-{Xn
2719. 1744 sIm-n-bn-se t_m-Km-n sIm-m-cw \n-an-X
- -v U-p-Im
2720. F-n-s h-I-t`-Z-am-Wv Nm-tm- Im-_

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

12

1946 sk-]v-Xw-_ c-n-\v A-[n-Im-c-ta- C-S-m-e a-{nk-`-bn D-]m-[y--\m-b P-hm-l-em s\-{lp D-ssS a-{n-am-cp-sS F-w
B-[m \--dn-\v F-{X-b---fm-Wp--Xv
ssP-\-a-X-{K---fm-b Aw-K- F-{X-sb--ap-v
Iw-]yq--dn-se ^-Mv-j Io-I-fp-sS F-w
Bw--Um-an-\n-v tlm-q-kv a-e-_m-dn--kv F-{X
thm-fy--fm-bn-m-Wv {]-kn-o-I-cn--Xv
G--hpw Im-em-h-[n Ip-d- tem-Iv-k-` (413 Zn-h-kw) F{Xm-at- -Xm-Wv
C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s ta-P Xp-d-ap-J-am-Wv F-q
Hu-c-k-I I-ti-cp--fp-sS F-w
C-y ]m-e-sa v k-ap--b-n-\v F-{X I-hm-S--fpv
tKm-h, Zm-a, Zn-bp F-n-h tI-{ `-c-W {]-tZ-i-am-b-Xv
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv
tem-Iv-k-`-bn ko-tdm A-h B-cw-`n-p--Xv F-{X aWn-m-Wv
km-[m-c-W-am-bn H-cp t_m-Iv-knw-Kv a--c-n-s ssZLyw F-{X du-m-Wv
C-y-bn F-{X tPym-Xn-enw-K--fp-v
C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew {]-kn-U v ]-Z-hn
h-ln--Xv tUm. cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zm-Wv. G-I-tZ-iw F-{X Ime-am-Wv A-t-lw B ]-Z-hn h-ln--Xv
20122017 Im-e-b-fn-hn C-y-bn \-S-m-em-p--Xv F{Xm-a-s ]--h--c ]--Xn-bm-Wv
Hm-Sn (t{_m-kv) F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv Sn
2721. 1955\p ap-v t-v _m-v Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS t]-cv- Cw-]o-cn-b
_m-v
2722. H-mw Xm-t\-iz bp--n(1191) hn-P-bn--Xv- ]r-Yzn-cm-Pv Nulm
2723. h-c-bm-Sp-I-fp-sS kw-c--W-n-\v G-s-Sp-n-b tZ-io-tbm[ym-\w- C-c-hn-Ip-fw
2724. H-cp t\m-n- ssa F-{X ao--dn-\p Xp-ey-am-Wv- 1852
2725. Hm-kv-I-dn-\p _-Z-em-bn I-W-m--s-Sp- A-hm-Uv- C-Uns]-U v kv-]n-cn-v
2726. hn-m-an _n-12s im-kv-{X-\m-aw- k-b-t\m-tIm-_m-em-an
2727. hym-h-km-bn-I hn-]v-f-hw B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
2728. I-q k-a-cw \-S- Pn-- Im-k-tIm-Sv
2729. i-n-tb-dn-b t{_-p--Xpw F-Pn C-m--Xp-am-b b-{w
F-v F-n-s\-p-dn-m-Wv P-hm-l-em s\-{lp ]-d--Xv-
1935 se K-h.Hm-^v C-ym B-Iv-Sv
2730. kv-sX-X-kv-tIm-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- sd-s\ sse-s\-Iv
2731. kw-L-Im-e-s G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- X-an-gv hym-I-c-W-{K-w tXm-m-n-bw
2732. C-n-cm-Km-n \m-j-W t^m-d-v A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-sU-dm-Uq
2733. C-S-a-e-bm ]--Xn G-Xp Pn--bn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
2734. C-n-cm-Km-n _m-p-I B-Zy-am-bn tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn- h-jw-
1969
2735. P-lmw-Ko-dn-s B-Zy-Im-e-\m-aw- k-enw
2736. ln-v-e-dp-sS B--I-Y- sa-bv Imw-^v
2737. Nm-kv Un--kn-s F sS-bv Hm-^v Sp kn-o-kv F- t\mh-en-s ]-m--ew- {^-p hn--hw
2738. C-Sn-an--en-s \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- `q-m
2739. Nn-en-bpw- C-Iz-tUm-dpw- H-gn-sI-bp-- F-m- sX-t- A-ta-cn-cm-Py--fp-am-bpw- A-Xn-n- ]-n-Sp-- cm-Pyw--{_-ko2740. P-\m-[n-]-Xy-n-s Im-h-\m-b F-p hn-ti-jn-n-p--Xmsc- ]-{X--sf

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

85

2741. Km-n-Pn Z-Wv-Un bm-{X B-cw-`n- -ew- A-l--Zm-_m-Zv


2742. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w- t\m-v Cuv {Ko-em-Uv \m-j-W ]m-v
2743. C-y-kw-m-\--fn G--hpw P-\-km-{-X Iq-Sn-b-Xv -
_olm
2744. P-p Im-iv-ao-cn-se Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j- D-Zp
2745. s\-Sp-m-t-cn hn-am-\-m-h-fw G-Xp Pn--bn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
2746. s\-t{^m G-Xv i-co-c-`m-K-m-Wv- hr--bn
2747. 1785 `-K-h-Xv-Ko-X Cw-o-jn-te-v hn-h--\w sN-bv-X-Xm-cv-
Nm-kv hn-n-kv
2748. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n c-w I- ]n-Sn-p--Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b h-kvXp \n-an--s-Sp--Xv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- I-c
2749. s]-jz-am-cp-sS `-c-W-tI-{w- ]q-\
2750. Zo-]-hw-iw G-Xp `m-j-bn-se Ir-Xn-bm-Wv- ]m-en
2751. 180 Un-{Kn tc-Jmw-iw A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- A-m-cm-jv-{S Zn-\tc-J
2752. Xn-c-s-Sp--s-Sp- cm-jv-{S--e-h-\p- cm-Pyw F-p t]cn A-dn-b-s-Sp-p dn--n-Iv
2753. C-y-bn-se ]-c-tam--X \o-Xn-]oTw- kp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn
2754. 1946 ap-X- `q-an-]m- A-Xp-ey- tX-Pv- cm-Pm-hv- `-cn-p-- G-jycm-Pyw- --Xm-bv-e-Uv2755. A-S--_n-en-n H-^-k-kv B-Iv-Sv ]m-e-sa v ]m-km-n-b
h-jw- 1955
2756. tKm-h-bn-se hn-am-\-m-h-fw- [-t_m-fnw
2757. a-n-c-bp-sS iz-k-\m-h-b-hw- Xz-v
2758. A--P \n-am-W-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ]-s-Sp-p- L-S-Ih-W-- Np-h-pw ]--bpw
2759. Zo-]n-I am-m-\-p-\n-p- (tIm--bw)- {]-kn-o-I-c-W-am-cw-`n-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un. 1887
2760. A--e-p-g-bp-sS ]-g-b-t]-cv sN--I-t-cn
2761. a-c-Wm-\--c _-lp-a-Xn-bm-bn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\nX- A-cp-W B-k-^v A-en
2762. c-w I--]n-Sn-p--Xn {]-[m-\ ]-v h-ln-p- L-S-Iw- tvs
- e-p-I
2763. C-y-bn-se {]-Y-a ]u-c- F-p- hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp--Xv- Cy- {]-kn-U v
2764. Xn-c-s-Sp-n ]-cm-P-b-s- B-Zy C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-
C-n-cm Km-n
2765. B-Zy-am-bn tdm-_-v F- ]-Zw D-]-tbm-Kn--Xv- Im sN--Iv
2766. 1938 C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv kw-L-Sn-n- \m-jW m-\n-Mv I-n-n-bp-sS A-[y--\m-bn B-sc-bm-Wv Np-a-Xe-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
2767. B-Zy-am-bn- U-ln- ]n-Sn--S-n-b hn-tZ-i B-{I-a-W-Im-cn- apl--Zv- tKm-dn2768. C-y-m-c-\-m- B-Zy-s tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-U v- tPmPv bq
2769. B-Zy-s Kp-]v-X \m-b A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b-Xv- Fw.eo-em-hXn
2770. am-l- ]--Xn-bv-v t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- Hm--ssl-a
2771. A-ta-cn- km-ln-Xy-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- hmjn-Mv-S C-hn-Mv
2772. a-cW
- m-\
- c
- _
- l
- p-aX
- n-bm-bn B-Zy-am-bn Hm-kvI
- A-hm-Un-\l-\m-b-Xv- kn-Uv-\n tlm-hm-Uv (1939)
2773. C-y-bn-se I-Sp-hm kw-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-[y-{]tZ-iv
2774. C-y {In--v A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -_mw-q
2775. 1922 tdm-b C-y an-en--dn tIm-tf-Pv (C-tm cm-jv-{Sob C-y an-en--dn tIm-tf-Pv ) F-hn-sS-bm-Wv m-]n--Xv--sUdm-Uq
2776. C-y an-en--dn A-m-Z-an ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-W--sU-dmUqv
2777. cm-P-Io-b tcm-Kw (tdm-b Un-ko-kv) F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- lotam-^o-en-b
2778. c-Rv-Pn-Xv kn-Mn-s X-e-m-\w- em-tlm
2779. G--hpw hn-c-f-am-b c--{Kq-v- F _n {Kq-v
2780. G-Xp a-X-hn-`m-K-n-s B-Nm-c-am-Wv tbmw In-q- b-lq-Z

86

tNmZyw; Dcw

Acbmepw
t]cmepw

C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b hr-w A-cb


- m-em-tWm t]-cm-em-tWm?
= C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b hr-w ss^--kv _w-Km-f-kn-kv
F- k-ky-im-kv-{X-\m-a-ap- t]-cm-em-Wv. C-Xv Banyan
Tree F-pw A-dn-b-s-Sp-p. ss^--kv dn-en-Pn-tbm-k
F-m-Wv A-c-bm-en-s k-ky-im-kv-{X-\m-aw. Pipal, Bodhi
F-o t]-cp-I-fn-epw C-Xv A-dn-b-s-Sp-p. _p--\v Zn-hym-\w kn-n--Xv A-c-bm-p-h-n- h-m-Wv. e-`y-am-b
tc-J-I {]-Im-cw tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- A-cbm {io-e--bn-se A-\p-cm-[-]p-c-bn-em-Wp--Xv. _n.kn.
288 Xn-k F- cm-Pm-hm-Wv A-Xv \--Xv.
2781. Zm-Zm-km-tl-_v ^m-t Ahm-Un-\-l\
- m-b B-Zy a-eb
- mfn- A-Sq tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W
2782. tIm-{K-kn-s {]-Y-a k-t-f\-n B-Zy-am-bn {]-kw-Kn-Xv- F.H. lyqw
2783. C- y- b n
B- Z y- a m- b n
F.Sn.Fw. kw-hn-[m-\w \n-eh
- nh- \-K-cw- apw-ss_
2784. G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X {]m-hi
- yw kn- Nn- { U- k v _p- v {S\n-a-bm-n-b C-y t\m-hv m- ] n- - X v -
tZ-h-Zm-kv
Im- q- W n- v i-
2785. ap-K N-{I-h-n-am-cn B-Zyam-bn h-tXm-Xn a-n-c-\n-amWw \-S-n-b-Xv- A-Iv-_
2786. c-v k-b-kv hn-j-b--fn s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b
G-I hy-n- am-Uw Iyq-dn
2787. A-m-cm-jv-{S kv-t]m-Sv-kv a--c--fn G-sX-n-epw H-cn-\n-\v hy-n-K-X Nm-y-\m-b B-Zy C-ym-m-c hnk tPm-kv
2788. s_-{Sm-Uv d-k-en-\v km-ln-Xy s\m-t_ e-`n- h-jw-
1950
2789. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X-ep- aq-e-Iw--Hm-Iv-kn-P2790. k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_ t\-Sn-b c-m-a-s kw-L-S-\- s]-a\ v C-\m-j-W ]o-kv _yq-tdm (1910)
2791. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n H-cp Zn-h-kw D-]m-Zn-n--s-Sp- aq-{Xn-s A-f-hv- 1.5 en- ap-X 1.8 en- h-sc
2792. A-m-cm-jv-{S kn-hn thym-a-bm-\ kw-L-S-\-bp-sS B-m\w- tam-{Sn-b
2793. a-Kvk
- t- k A-hm-Uv tP-Xm--v k-a-n-p- Xo-bX
- n- BK-kv-Xv 31
2794. s]-cp-am Xn-cp-sam-gn F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- Ip-e-ti-J-c B-gv-hm
2795. 1927 {_--kn \-S- -a-n-X P-\-X-I-fp-sS tem-I-k-tf-\-n tIm-{K-kv {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-bn ]-s-Sp--Xv- P-hml-em s\-{lp
2796. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS kv-]o--dm-b B-Zy-s ]n.F-kv.]n.t\Xm-hv- Un.Zm-tam-Z-c t]m-n
2797. I-c-bn-se Po-hn-I-fn G--hpw h-en-b hm-bv D--Xv- ln-tms]m-m-a-kv
2798. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-te-v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw a--cn h-\n-X -sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
2799. i-cm-i-cn D-b-cw G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- h-I-c--Am-n-
2800. G--hpw km-[m-c-W-am-b I-c tcm-Kw- a--n-w
2801. I-c-fn kw-`-cn-n-cn-m-hp- hn-m-an- hn-m-an F
2802. G-jym-n-Iv sK-bnw-kn-\v G-jy sK-bnw-kv F- t]-cp \In-b-Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
2803. s\-k a-t-e `m-c-X c-Xv-\ _-lp-a-Xn-v A-l-\m-b hjw- 1990

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2804. C-y-bn 1946 sk-]v-Xw-_ c-n-\p cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn--s- CS-m-e a-{n-k-`-bp-sS D-]m-[y- ]-Z-hn h-ln--Xv- P-hm-lem s\-{lp
2805. C-y \m-hn-I tk-\-bp-sS B-m-\w- \yq-U-ln
2806. {]-bp- P-p-im-kv-{X-n-s (A-ss-Uv kp-thm-f-Pn) ]n-Xmhv- tIm-dm-Uv P-kv-\
2807. B-Zy-s km-^v sK-bnw-kv th-Zn- ImTv-a-Wv-Up
2808. s{^-jv-^p-Uv hn-m-an F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- hn-m-an kn
2809. A-ta-cn- kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-s kzm-[o-\n- A-n tSmwkv Iym-_n c-Nn--Xv- lm-cn-b-v _o- tm-hv
2810. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s P-\-Io-b I-hn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv Ip- \-ym
2811. C-y-m-c-\m-b B-Zy C-y {In--v Sow Iym-]v-- hn-P-bv
l-km-sc
2812. A-m {Zm-hn-U ap-t- I-g-Iw m-]n--Xm-cv- Fw.Pn. cm-a-N{
2813. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s sa-Km-ln-v kn-\n-a- Po-hn-X-\u-I
2814. am--g--fn cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp- C-\w- A-t^mtkm
2815. A-m F--dn-b-s--Xv- kn.F.A-m-Zp-ssc
2816. am- Im- H-p-sh- -ew- d-n-ao-Uv
2817. am- Im--bn H-p-sh- cm-Pm-hv- tPm cm-Pm-hv
2818. _yq-t^m-v kv-sI-bn F--f-m-\m-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv-
Im-n-s th-Kw
2819. ap-K ta-tm-bv-a Aw-Ko-I-cn- B-Zy-s c-P-]p-{X cm-Pyw-
Bw-_
2820. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s i-_v-Z-kn-\n-a- _m-e
2821. A-ta-cn- B-`y--c-bp--n h-S- kw-m-\--sf
\-bn--Xv- F-{_-lmw en-
2822. _-Z s\m-t_ k-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ssd-v ssehv-en-lp-Uv A-hm-Uv
2823. B-Zy-s k-c-kz-Xn k-m-\w e-`n--Xm-v- lcn-hw-ivdmbn
_
2824. bm-n-s\ Im-Wp--Xv G-Xv h-I-c-bn- G-jy
2825. ap-K in-ev-]-hn-Zy-bn \n-an- G--hpw D-Ir-jv-S-am-b a-ncw- Xm-Pv-a-l
2826. bm-N-I-cp-sS cm-P-Ip-am-c F--dn-b-s--Xv- a-Z tam-l am-fhy
2827. b-Mv C--en {]-m-\-s \-bn--h- Km-cn-_m-Un-bpw a-o\n-bpw
2828. A-p-sX-n- tIm- \n-an-m- B-n-- dm-Wn- Cw-ojp-Im-sc A-\p-h-Zn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1684
2829. a-\p-jy-t\-{X-n \n-d
- Xn-cn-d
- n-bm k-lm-bn-p- tImi--p ]-d-bp- t]-cv- tIm tIm-i-
2830. a-\p-jy-t\-{X-n {]-Xn-_nw-_w D-m-Ip- -ew- sd-n-\
2831. 1492- A-ta-cn--bn-se-n-b- B-Zy- bq-tdm-]y- \m-hn-I-
{In-kv--^- sIm-fw-_-kv2832. bm-an-\n Ir-jv-W-aq-n, cp-Iv-an-Wo-tZ-hn F-o-h G-Xv \r-cw-K-m-Wv {]-h-n--Xv- `-c-X-\m-Syw
2833. 1510 _o-Pm-q kp-m-\n-\n-v tKm-h ]n-Sn--S-m
A-_p--n-s\ k-lm-bn- {]m-tZ-in-I t\-Xm-hv- Xn--
2834. bp- F- sk-{I--dn- P-\-d-em-bn-cp-- Ip-v- hm-Uv- sslw- ]no-Sv- kz-cm-Py-v- {]-kn-U-m-bn-.- c-m-Py-ta-Xv- --Hm-kv-{Sn-b2835. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm No-^v sk-{I--dn--]-m cm-a-N-{
2836. bm-Z-h hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- tZ-h-Kn-cn
2837. 1936 I-q-cn-\n-v a-{Zm-kn-te-v ]-n-Wn-Pm-Y \-bn--Xv-
F.sI.tKm-]m-e
2838. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm ssh-kv Nm-k-e--tUm.Pm-kn
sP-bnw-kv
2839. a-c-Wm-\--c _-lp-a-Xn-bm-bn k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_-en-\-l-\mb bp.F.sk-{I--dn P-\-d- Um-Kv lm-a-tjm-Uv(1961)
2840. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy- h-\n-Xm- tIm-tf-Pv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-v2841. ap-K- km-{am-Py- kv-Ym-]-I- _m-_2842. B-I
- Y
- m-Im-c-am-cn cm-PI
- p-am-c F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v- _m-_
2843. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy No-^v P-n-kv- sI.Sn.tIm-in

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

12

H-cp hym-g-h-w F-{X h-j-am-Wv


C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-gp-]-n-\m-emw t`-Z-K-Xn F{Xm-a-s sj-Uyq-fn-em-Wv D-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv
sS-dn-tm-dn-b hm- F--Xv H-cp cm-Py-n-s A-Xn-nbn-\n-v F-{X t\m-n- ssa A-I-se-h-sc-bp- Zqc-am-Wv
H-cp U-k F-{X F--am-Wv
H-cp t{Km-kn F-{X U-k A-S-n-bn-p-v
C-Xp-h-sc F-{X-t] N-{-\n C-d-n-bn-p-v
F-{X h-j-n-sem-cn--em-Wv \o-e-p-dn-n ]q-p--Xv
F-{X h-j
- n-sem-cn-e
- m-Wv ]q-WI
- pw-`t- a-f \-S
- p-X
- v
F-{X ]q-W Ipw-`-ta-f Iq-Sp-tm-fm-Wv A-e-l-_m-Zn Hcp a-lm-Ipw-`-ta-f \-S-p--Xv
F-{X h-jw Iq-Sp-tm-fm-Wv am-am-w \-S-n-cp--Xv
{In-kv-Xp-in-jy-am-cp-sS F-w
ap-\n-kn- `-c-W-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-L-S\m sj-Uyq
a-\p-jy-\v F-{X tPm-Sn in-tcm-\m-Un-I-fp-v
I-Wm-SI
-
- n-se {im-hW
- _
- e
- t- Km-fb
- n F-{X h-j
- nsem-cn--em-Wv a-lm-a-kv-X-Im-`n-tj-Iw \-S-p--Xv
a-\p-jy-\v F-{X tPm-Sn hm-cn-sb-p-I-fp-v
`q-a-[y-tc-J-bn ]-I-en-s ssZ-Lyw F-{X a-Wn-q-dm-Wv
2844. C-y kz-X-{-am-Ip-tm {_n--Wn A-[n-Im-c-n-em-bn-cp-Xv- te-_ ]m-n
2845. 1931 am-v 23\v cm-Pv-Kp-cp, kp-Jv-tZ-hv F-n-h-sm-w Xq-nte--s--Xv - `-K-Xv kn-Mv
2846. C-ayp-tWm-f-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- F-tUz-Uv sP-
2847. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy a-{n-k-`-bn ap-`-c-W-]-cn-N-bw D-mbn-cp- G-I hy-n- tUm.F.B.ta-t\m
2848. Zn-hm-c t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- au-v A-_p
2849. C-y kz-X-{-am-Ip-tm tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-Um-bn-cp--Xv sP._n.Ir-]-em-\n
2850. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy sU-]yq-n kv-]o-- A-bn-jm `m-bn
2851. Zn-n N-tem F-p ]-d--Xv- kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv
2852. C-y-bn-se {]-[m-\ th-en-tb- Xp-d-ap-Jw- Kp-P-dm-n-se Iv-e
2853. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy t]- an- ]p-\-eq
2854. c-w I- ]n-Sn-m-Xm-Ip- tcm-Kw- lo-tam-^o-en-b
2855. tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy hn-I-kz-c cmPyw- P-ssa- (1966)
2856. A-p h-jw Xn-I-p `-cn- B-Zy-s tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-
kn.A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
2857. tI- c - f - n- s e B- Z y- a - { n- k - ` - b n- s e B- t cm- K y- a - { n
tUm.F.B.ta-t\m
2858. tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-s \n-ba
- k
- m-c
- hy-hl
- m-c hn-ap- {Kmaw- H-q--c(Xr-q)
2859. A-m-cm-jv-{S sXm-gn kw-L-S-\-bp-sS B-m-\w P-\o-h
2860. a-kq- Im-p-I-fp-sS K-Xn- I-p-]n-Sn- ln-m-e-kv- tI-c-fn- F-n-b h-jw F-Un-45
2861. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s te-_ _m-v- A-I-t--d (]m-em-Sv)
2862. A-lm-n C-y c-Nn--Xv- em-em e-Pv-]-Xv dm-bn
2863. A-p-\-Zn-I-fp-sS- \m-Sv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-m-_v2864. C-m-\-K G-Xp kw-kv-Ym-\-n-s X-e-m-\w- A-cp-Wm-N
{]-tZ-iv
2865. 1947 Hm-K-v 16-\v C-y-bp-sS K-h-W P-\-d B-bn-cp--Xv au-v-_m- {]-`p
2866. C-m-en-b k-m-cn \n-tm-tfm tIm-n hn-P-b-\-K-cw k-in--tm cm-Pm-hm-bn-cp--Xv- tZ-h-cm-b H-m-a

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

87

2867. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tIm--td-j--Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw


2868. tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kn-\p Z-n-Wm-[-tKm-f-n BZy-am-bn th-Zn-bm-b \-K-cw- kn-Uv-\n (1938)
2869. tI-c-f-n-se C-s\-v tK-v th- sIm-n
2870. A-p-X-cw dn-p-I-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv- B-n-n
32
2871. tI-c-f-n-se c-m-a-s kv-]o-- ko-Xn km-ln-_v
2872. tI-c-f-n-se kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Xv- ap-l--Zv A-_v-Zp d-lv-am
2873. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s Un.Pn.]n. Sn.A-\--i--c A-
2874. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn ]-cp-n--cn-a-v Iq-Sp-X Im-W-sSp- Pn-- ]m-e-m-Sv
2875. A-p-sX-p-tIm- \n-an--Xm-cv--{_n-o-jp-Im
2876. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn ]p-I-bn-e G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]mZn-n-p--Xv- Im-k-tIm-Sv
2877. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s t{S-Uv bq-Wn-b t\-Xm-hv- Pq-_m-cma-Ir-jvW
- ]
- n-
2878. C-y-bn-se {]-Y-a Iw-]yq- km--c-Xm ]-m-b-v- N-{a-hw
2879. B-Zy-s \-gv-k-dn hn-Zym-e-b-n-s m-]-I- a-cn-b tam-ntm-dn
2880. 1939 tIm-{K-v {]-kn-Up m-\-t-v Xn-c-s-Sp-v
\-S--tm Km-n-Pn ]n-p-W- m-\m-Yn- ]-m-`n ko-Xmcm-a-
2881. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn A-d-_n--S-ep-am-tbm A-\y kw-m\--fp-am-tbm A-Xn-n ]-n-Sm--Xv tIm--bw
2882. C-y-bn-se {]-Y-a h-\n-Xm-k-h-I-em-im-e m-]n- `m-c-X-cXv-\w tP-Xm-hv- Un.sI.Im-th
2883. am-_n-fn-s-d cm-k-\m-aw- Im-kyw- Im-_-tW-v2884. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s N-e-n-{X \m-bn-I--tdm-kn (Nn-{Xw-hn-KX
- I
- p-am-c)
2885. c--s-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- lo-a-tm-f-Pn
2886. tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy G-jy \K-cw- Ip-em-ew-]q (1998)
2887. C-Sp-n Pn--bn C-tm--kzn-kv t{]m-P-Iv-Sv m-]n--s-
-ew- am-p-s-n
2888. C-y-bn-se ]m-e-sa-dn kw-hn-[m-\w G-Xp cm-Py-t-Xn-t\mSm-Wv km-Zr-iyw- {_n-
2889. D--{]-tZ-in-\p ]p-d-p-P-\n- B-Zy C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-
sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
2890. C-y X-t-io-b-am-bn \n-an- B-Zy-s an-ssk t_m-v-
sF.F.F-kv.hn-`q-Xn
2891. A--m-fn-sb ]p-e-b cm-Pm-hv- F-v- hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- Km-\v-[nPn2892. a-c-Wm-\--cw s\m-t_ k-m-\-n-\v B-Zy-am-bn A-l-\mb-Xv- F-dn-Iv Im-s^-v (1931-kzo-U)
2893. A-d-_n--S-en-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- e--Zzo-]v I-S
2894. ap-K N-{I-h-n-am-cn km-ln-Xy-n A-`n-cp-Nn G--hpw
Iq-Sp-X-ep-m-bn-cp--Xv _m-_
2895. a-c-X-I-Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- A-b-e-Uv
2896. c--k--Zw Ip-d- A-h-- ssl-tm-sS-j
2897. B--l-Xy sN-bv-X km-ln-Xy s\m-t_ tP-Xm-- G-Wv sl-an-Mv-th, bm-kp-\m-cn I-hm-_-
2898. c--kw-N-c-Ww (-Uv {Sm-kv-^yq-j) I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Po
_m-]v-n- sU-\n-kv
2899. 1937 C-y-bn-\n-p th-]n-cn- `q-hn-`m-Kw- _-a(ayma)
2900. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X-ep- tem-lw- -Im-kyw2901. A-m {Zm-hn-U ap-t- I-g-I-n-s Nn-w- c-n-e
2902. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s I-f kn-\n-a- I-s s_- tIm-v
2903. c--km-n-Xzw h-cn- B-Zy kn-Jp Kp-cp- A-Pp tZ-hv
2904. C-y kzm-X-{y-n-s c-P-X-Pq-_n-en B-tLm-jn--tm
{]-kn-U v- hn.hn.Kn-cn
2905. X-e-Io-gm-bn a-c-n-\n-n-d-m I-gn-bp- G-I k-kv-X-\n-
A-m

88

CONFUSING FACTS
B-kq-{X-W I-n-j-s B-Zy-s A-[y- P-hm-lem s\-{lp-hpw D-]m-[y- Kp-k-cn-em \--bp-ambn-cp-p.
sk-{S ssd-kv dn-k-v C-n-yq-v H-do-k-bn-se I-v F- -e-v. C-\m-j-W ssd-kv dn-k-v kvt-j ^n-en-ss-kn-se a-\n-e-bn-em-Wv.
a-e-bm-f `m-j-bn-se B-Zy-s N-p D-n-b-o-N-cn-X-hpw
k-t-i-Im-hyw D-p-\o-eo-k-t-i-hp-am-Wv.
G--hpw h-ep--ap- ]-n-bpw G--hpw `m-cw-Iq-Sn-b ]n-bpw H--I--n-bm-Wv.
2906. 1864 {_n-o-jv C-y-bp-sS th-\-m-e X-e-m-\-am-b \K-cw--jnw-e
2907. a-{Zm-kv (sN-ss) \-K-c-n-s m-]-I- {^m-kn-kv tU
2908. A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fn-se B-Zy {]-kn-U v- tPm-Pv
hm-jn-Mv-S
2909. B--l-Xy-{]-h-W-X-bp- P-p- se-n-Mv
2910. A-Wp-t_mw-_m-{I-aW
-
- n-\p-hn-t[-ba
- m-b B-Zy cm-Pyw- P-m
2911. ap-K- Nn-{X-I-e A-Xn-s-d ]m-c-ay-X-bn-se-n-b-Xv- G-Xv- N-{Ih-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv--P-lmw-Ko2912. th-fn Sq-dn-v hn-t-Pv G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv--Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
2913. Km-n-Pn-v kn-hn Un-kv-H-_o-Un-b-kv F- B-i-bw Bcn-\n-m-Wv e-`n--Xv- sl-dn tU-hn-Uv tXm-tdm
2914. thm-K \-Zn H-gp-Ip- `q-J-Wv-Uw- bq-tdm-v
2915. B-Zy-am-bn t{Zm-Wm-Nm-cy A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b-Xv H.Fw.\-ym
2916. c-p h-en-b P-e-k-Rv-P-b--sf X-n _-n-n-p- C-Spn-b P-e-`m-Kw- kv-{S-bn-v
2917. _w-Km-fn im-iz-X `q-\n-Ip-Xn hy-h
\-S
- m-n-bX
- v- tImhm-en-kv
2918. {]-h-n-p-I A-s-n a-cn-p-I F-v Km-n-Pn ]-d-
A-h-k-cw- Izn-n-ym k-a-cw
2919. B--I-Y-bn C-y-m-sc C-jv-S-a- F-p sh-fn-s-Sp-p ap-K N-{I-h-n- _m-_
2920. 1940 B-_-v sF-ss-\v G-Xp cm-Py-s ]u-c-Xz-amWv kzo-I-cn--Xv- bp.F-kv.F.
2921. _-Z-co-\m-Y-t-{X-n-se B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- a-lm-hn-jv-Wp
2922. a-{Zm-kv- d-_- ^m-Iv-S-dn- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- h-S-hm-Xq2923. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s hn-em-] Im-hyw- H-cp hn-em-]w
(kn.F-kv.kp-{_-a-Wy t]m-n)
2924. A-Wp-kw-Jy 100 B-b aq-e-Iw- s^-an-bw
2925. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n G--hpw Iq-Sn-b A-f-hn A-S-n-bn-cn-p kw-bp-w- P-ew
2926. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-\v B t]-cp \n-t-in--Xv-
Zm-Zm-`m-bv \-h-tdm-Pn
2927. c-p h-en-b I-c-`m-K--sf X-n _-n-n-p- C-Sp-n-b
I-c`
- m-Kw- C-kvX
- p-ak
- v
2928. _w-Kv-d G-Xp kw-m-\-s \r--cq-]-am-Wv- ]-m-_v
2929. _-Z-co-\m-Y-t-{Xw m-]n--Xv- B-Zn-i--c
2930. A-tim-I-s km-{am-Py-n Im--lm {]-tZ-i-s in-emim-k-\--fn D-]-tbm-Kn-n-cp- `m-j- A-cm-a-bn-Iv
2931. `--W-n-\m-bn a-sm-cp Po-hn-sb B-{i-bn-p- Po-hn- ]tcm-]-Po-hn
2932. C-m-a-_m-Zn-\p ap-v ]m-In-kv-Xm-s X-e-m-\-am-bn-cp--Xv-
dm-h-]n-n
2933. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-sb ]-Z-hn-bn-\n-pw \o-w sN-m-\p- \-S-]-Sn{I-aw- Cw-]o-v-sa v
2934. cm-Po-hv Km-n tJ c-Xv-\ A-hm-Un-\-l-bm-b B-Zy h-\nX- I-Ww a-t-iz-cn
2935. C-y-bp-sS h-y-h-tbm-[n-I F--dn-b-s--Xv- Zm-Zm-`m-bv \h-tdm-Pn

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

2936. aq-m-dn kw-K-an-p- \-Zn-I- ap-Xn-c-p-g, \--X-n,


Ip-f
2937. A-tam-Wn-b \n-an-p- {]-{In-b- tl-_ {]-{In-b
2938. D--{]-tZ-in-\p ]p-d-v kw-kv-I-cn--s- B-Zy {]-[m-\-a-{n sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
2939. B-Zy-s Ir-{Xn-a-am-bn \n-an--s- {Sm-kv- bp-dm-\n-Iv aq-eIw- s\-]v-yq-Wn-bw
2940. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS ]-{Xm-[n-]-Xz-n b-Mv C-y-bp-sS B-Zy ew C-d-n-b-Xv- 1919
2941. D--c-cm-a-N-cn-Xw c-Nn--Xv- `-h-`q-Xn
2942. a-t-e X-S-h-\p-`-hn--sX-hn-sS- tdm-_ sF-e-Uv
2943. C-y-bn-se tI-{o-b _m-n-s t]-cv- dn-k-hv _m-v Hm-^v
C- y
2944. A-tim-I-s\ G--hpw a-lm-\m-b cm-Pm-sh-p hn-ti-jn-n--Xv-
F-v.Pn.sh-kv
2945. a-te-dn-b ]-c-p--Xv- A-t\m-^n-e-kv s]-sIm-Xp-Iv
2946. aq-mw ]m-\n--v bp--n a-dm- ssk-\y-n-s X-e-h k-Zm-in-h-dm-hp
2947. c-p hn-c-ep-I-fp- ]-n--H--I--n
2948. a-te-dn-b _m-[n-p- A-h-b-h-- kv-o (o-l), I-c
2949. A-tem-l--fn ssh-Zyp-Xn-bp-sS G--hpw \- Nm-e-Iw-
{Km-ss^-v
2950. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn- F-kv- cm-[m-Ir-jv-W2951. C-y-bn-se-n-b B-Zy-s bq-tdm-]y B-{I-a-W-Im-cn-
A-e-Iv-km-
2952. c-mw-tem-I-a-lm-bp--n-\p-ti-j-ap-- 55 h-j--fn- 57 a{n-k-`-I-fp-sS- `-c-W-n-\p- hn-t[-b-am-b- bq-tdm-]y- cm-jv-{Sta-Xv- --C--en2953. aq-{X-n-s a- \n-d-n-\p Im-c-Ww- bq-tdm-t{Imw
2954. tI- { km- l n- X y A- m- Z - a n sk- { I- - d n- b m- b B- Z y- s
Z-n-tW-y-m-c- sI.k-nZm-\-
2955. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tIm-tf-Pm-b kn-Fw-F-kv- tIm-tf-PvtIm--b-v- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1860
2956. in-ip-hn-s ]n-Xr-Xzw sX-fn-bn-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p- ssh-Zyim-kv-{X co-Xn- Un.F.F.^nw-K-{]nnw-Kv
2957. Ip-m-ew sh--m-w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
2958. tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw- \o-fw- Ip-d- \-Zn- a-t-iz-cw- ]p-g
2959. i-X-k-l-{k-kw-ln-X F- t]-cn-e-dn-b-s-Sp- Ir-Xn- a-lm`m-cX
- w
2960. tI-c-f-n-se- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- -s]-cn-bm2961. Izo-kv-s_-dn \n-b-a- G-Xv Im-bn-I C-\-hp-am-bn _-s-n-cn-p-p- t_m-Iv-kn-Mv
2962. 1947 Hm-K-kv-Xv 15\v A--cn- kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-tk-\m-\n- A-PnXv kn-Mv
2963. 1948 sIm-n \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS {]-Y-a Xn-c-s-Sp--s- kv]o--dm-b-Xv- F.Fw.ss]-en
2964. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s Xp-d- P-bn--Im-m--S
2965. 1950 ssSw am-K-kn t]-gv-k Hm-^v lm-^v sk-z-dn Bbn Xn-c-s-Sp--Xm-sc-bm-Wv- N-n
2966. 1611- Cw-o-jp-Im- ^m-Iv-S-dn- kv-Ym-]n- kv-Y-ew-- - a-kq-en-]-Ww2967. k-^yq-cn-Iv B-kn-Uv \n-an-p- {]-{In-b- k-- {]-{Inb A-s-n tIm-Sm-Iv-Sv {]-{In-b
2968. Km-\v-[n-Pn B-sI F-{X Zn-h-kw P-bn-hm-k-a-\p-`-hn-n-p-v-
2338
2969. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS h-[-tm-sS \n-tcm-[n--s- kw-L-S-\-
B.F-kv.F-kv.
2970. Km-Ym-k-]v-X-i-Xn c-Nn--Xm-cv- lm-e
2971. kn- \n-th-Zn-X B-cp-sS {]-kn--in-jy-bm-Wv- kzm-an
hn-th-Im-
2972. C-Sn-ta-L
- F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp- ta-L
- f
- p-sS t]-cv- Ip-ap-tem\nw-_-kv ta-L-
2973. C-\m-j-W A-tm-an-Iv F-\-Pn I-n-j-s B-m-\w-
hn-b-
2974. C-\m-j-W ssd-kv dn-k-v t-j F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-
a-\n-e

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

13

A-ta-cn- tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I-bn Ip-dp-sI-bp- h-c-I-fpsS F-w


C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b F-{Xm-a-s hy-n-bm-Wv (BIv-Snw-Kv {]-[m-\-a-{n-sb H-gn-hm-n) a-tam-l knw-Kv
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv A-ta-cn-bn A-Sn-a-w \n-tcm-[n--Xv
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- m-\n-am-W k-`b
- v
- v F-{X I-n-n-If
- m-Wv D-mbn-cp-X
- v
Pq-X-a-X-hn-izm-k-{]-Im-cw H-cp B-Ip-n-sb ap-Xn- Bfm-bn I-W-m-p- {]m-bw
t_-t-gv-kv U-k F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv F-{X-sb--am-Wv
\m-Km-em-Un-s kw-m-\ ]-Z-hn-bp-am-bn _--s- `c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn
U-ln-bn-\n-p- G-gp-t] D-s-sS tI-{-`c
- W
- {]-tZi-f
- n-\n-v B-sI F-{X tem-Ik
v- `- mw-K
- f
- m-Wp-X
- v
A-ta-cn--bn-se F-{X tIm-f-\n-I tN-m-Wv {_n--Wv
F-Xn-sc kzm-X-{y-k-a-cw \-S-n-b-Xv.
C-y {]-kn-Um-bn Xn-c-s-Sp--s- F-{Xm-a-s
hy-n-bm-Wv {]-W-_v ap-J-Pn
Ip-e-ti-J-c km-{am-Pyw F-{X \m-Sp-I-fm-bn-m-Wv hn-`-Pn-s-n-cp--Xv
So-t\-Pv Xp-S-p--Xv F-{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv
{In-kv-Xp-hn-s A-h-km-\-s A-m-g-n-\v F-{X t]cm-Wv ]-s-Sp--Xv
F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv U-ln-bn kp-m-t\-v hwi- `-cW
- a
- m-cw-`n-X
- v
C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s ta-P Xp-d-ap-J-am-Wv t]m-v b
F-{Xm-a-s A-tim-I im-k-\-n-em-Wv I-enw-K-bp--sp-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
2975. k-RvP
- b
- v Km-n tZ-io-b ]m-v G-Xp kw-m-\
- m-Wv- alm-cm-jv-{S
2976. tI-c-f-n-s G--hpw sX-t-b--s A-kw-n a-Wv-U-ew-
s\-m-n-I-c
2977. tKm-h-bn-se X-t-io-b-sc {In-kv-Xp-a-X-n-te-v ]-cn-h--\w
sN-n-m {In-kv-Xy an-j-\-dn-am kzo-I-cn- \-S-]-Sn- CIzn-kn-j
2978. kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kn-s cm-jv-{So-b-Kp-cp- kn.B.Zm-kv
2979. C-y-bn-se ]n-v-kv-_-Kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Pw-j-Uv-]q
2980. X-e-bn-se A-\-m I-gn-bp- G-I A-n- Xm-Sn-sb-v
2981. C-y kz-X-{-am-Ip-tm {_n-o-jv cm-Pm-hm-bn-cp--Xv- tPmPv B-dm-a
2982. Km-n-Pn, P-hm-l-em-s\-lv-dp-hn-s\ cm-jv-{So-b ]n-Km-an-bmbn {]-Jym-]n- h-jw 1942
2983. amw-k-\n-_--a- cm-Kw F-p-Zv-tLm-jn-p- Ip-am-c-\m-im-s
c-N-\- eo-e
2984. \n-g-X- F-p t]-cp- B-cm-[-\m-e-b- m-]n--Xv-A-m ssh-Ip-WvT
2985. j-ap-J-Zm-k F-p-a-dn-b-s- \-thm-m-\ \m-b-I-
N--n kzm-an-I
2986. G-Xv `m-j-bn-em-Wv {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp B-tm-]-tZ-i-i-X-Iw
c-Nn--Xv- a-e-bm-fw
2987. C-y-kw-m-\--fn kv-{Xo ]p-cp-j A-\p-]m-Xw G--hpw
Ip-d--Xv- l-cn-bm-\
2988. tI-c-f-n-se P-em-K-Xm-K-X-h-Ip-n-s B-m-\w- B-e-p-g
2989. kp-h-W \-K-c-I-hm-Sw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- km-{^m-kn-kvtIm
2990. C-y tlm-n tem-I-I-v t\-Sn-b h-jw- 1975

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

89

2991. A--\-Sn-I- Xn-cp-h-Sn-I- X-cn-km--n- sN-t-Sv- F-gp-Xn-sImSp- h-jw- - F.Un.849


2992. a--gn Km-n F--dn-b-s--Xv sF.sI.Ip-am-c am-
2993. c--Nw-{I-a-Ww I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- hn-eyw lm-hn
2994. ap-K km-{am-Py-X-e-m-\w U-ln-bnte-v am-n-b-Xv
jm-P-lm
2995. a-dm- hw-i-am-b kn-y F-hn-sS-bm-Wv `-cn--Xv- Kzm-fn-tbm
2996. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s e--W-sam- t\m-h-em-b -C-pte-J- - H N-p-ta-t\m- {]-kn-s
- -Sp-n-bX
- v- G-Xv h-j
- n F.Un.1889
2997. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s N-cn-{Xm-Jym-bn-I- am-m-Wv-U-ha
2998. a--gn-bn- {^-p-Im- Xm-h-f-ap-d-n--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1725
2999. 1734 sIm-m-c--c ]n-Sn-s-Sp-v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn e-bn-n-Xv- am-m-WvU
- h
- -a
3000. I-cn-Im-e H-mw i-X-I-n Im-th-cn-bn ]-Wn-I-gn-n- I-ssW B-Wv C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s A-W-s-v. G-Xv \-Znbn-em-W-Xv--Im-th-cn
3001. a-{Zm-kv- kw-kv-Ym-\-n-s-d t]-cv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv- F-m-n-am-n-b
h-jw- 1969
3002. c-mw- Xm-t\-iz- bq--n- (1192)- ]r-Yz-n-cm-Pv- Nu-lm-s\
tXm-n-v- U-ln-bn- ap-nw- `-c-W-n-\v- A-Sn--d-bn- B{I-a-W-Im-cn- - ap-l--Zv- tKm-dn3003. A--Sn B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3004. aq-h-_n ssS-p-]-tbm-Kn-v A--Sn-b-{-n-eq-sS A--Sn Bcw-`n- cm-Pyw- P-a-\n
3005. 1940 ssSw am-kn-I t]-gv-k Hm-^v Z C-b B-bn Xn-cs-Sp--Xm-sc-bm-Wv -k hn- N-n
3006. C-y-bp-sS c-m-a-s Ir-{Xn-tam-]-{K-lw- `m-kv-I-c--c-v
3007. tI-c-f-n-se ]-n k-t-X-- X-t-m-Sv ,aw-K-f-h-\w
3008. A-tim-I-N-{I-h-n-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- _n-p-km-c
3009. A-tam-Wn-b hm-X-Iw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm-k-^v {]o-v-en
3010. C-y-bp-sS G-Xv A-b cm-Py-m-Wv Zn-th-Kn `m-j kw-km-cnp--Xv- am-en-Zzo-]v
3011. A-tkm-kn-tb-v t-v ]-Z-hn-bp-m-bn-cp- C-y kw-m\w- kn-nw
3012. C-y-bn kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-W--p {]-kn--am-b \-K-cw-
X-m-hq
3013. aq-mw _p--a-X-k-t-f-\-n-s c-m-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp--Xv-
A-tim-I
3014. tI- c - f - n- s e B- Z y a- { n- k - ` - b n- s e B- t cm- K y- a - { n-
tUm.F.B.ta-t\m
3015. C-y-bp-sS D-Zym-\w F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp- \-K-cw- _mwq
3016. A-tim-Ik
- vX
- w-`
- n-se en-Jn-X
- G-Xp en-]n-bn-em-Wv- {_mn
3017. tI-c-f-n-se ]-g-\n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv--l-cn-m-Sv kp-{_-a-Wy
t-{Xw
3018. C-y-bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b-Pm-X-Iw F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp- `c-W-L-S-\m-`m-Kw- B-ap-Jw
3019. A-tim-I-N-{I t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\n-X- I-a-te-jv Ip-am-cn
3020. C-y-bn sd-bn-th \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy \-K-cw--apw-ss_
3021. {_-tm-kv F-b-tdm-kv-t]-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
3022. tem-I-a-lm-bp---fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-t]-v Po-h-lm-\n
kw-`-hn- `q-J-Wv-Uw- bq-tdm-v
3023. tI-c-f-n-se ]m-e-sa v a-Wv-U-e--fn G--hpw h-S-t-b-t-Xv- Im-k-tIm-Sv
3024. C-y-bp-sS G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d- {]-[m-\-a-{n -cm-Po-hv-Kmn
3025. aq-mw tem-I-cm-jv-{S- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- hn-I-kz-c cm-Py
3026. C-y-bp-sS G--hpw h-en-b A-b cm-Pyw- ssN\
3027. tIc-f-nse {]-[m-\ \m-Wy-hn-f--d-

90

CONFUSING FACTS
a-lm--Pn X-s cm-jv-{So-b ]n-Km-an-bm-bn {]-Jym-]n--Xv
P-hm-l-em s\-{lp-hn-s\-bm-Wv. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B-ob ]n-Km-an F--dn-b-s--Xv B-Nm-cy hn-t\m-_m `m-sh
B-Wv.
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s t]m-tm-^o-kv B-cw-`n--Xv Xncp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se B-e-p-g-bn (1857). B-Zy kv-]o-Uv
t]m-v sk sIm-n-bn (1986).
]-tY ]m-Rv-P-en F- t\m-h-se-gp-Xn-b-Xv hn-`q-Xn-`q-j
_-tm-]m-[ym-b B-Wv. C-tX t]-cn A-Xv N-e-n-{X-amn-b-Xv k-Xy-Pn-Xv td.
3028. A-tim-I-s in-em-en-Jn-X--fp-sS s]m-cp Xn-cn--dn- K-thj-I- sP-bnw-kv {]n-sk-]v
3029. 1941 P-m-s\-Xn-sc bp- {]-Jym-]-\-n H-p-sh- A-tacn- {]-kn-U v--{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
3030. tI-c-f-n-se {]-kn--am-b X-Sm-I-t-{Xw- A-\--]p-cw
3031. C-y-bp-sS G--hpw sX-t-b--p- Xp-d-ap-Jw--Xq-p-p-Sn
3032. B-cp-sS A-[y--X-bn tN- k-t-f-\-n-em-Wv 1938
Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s im-J
cq-]w-sIm--Xv- ]-m-`n ko-Xm-cm-a-
3033. tI-c-f-n-se {]-Y-a I-ayq-Wn-v Fw.F.F. C.tKm-]m-e- -Irjv-W ta-t\m(1949)
3034. A-tim-I-s km-{am-Py-n h-S-p-]-Sn-m-d-`m-K--fn-ep in-em-en-Jn-X--fn G-Xp en-]n-bm-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-n-p-Xv- J-tcm-jv-Sn
3035. tI-c-f-n-se A--c-\-K-cw- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tIm--bw3036. au-cy km-{am-Py m-]-I N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cy A--cn- ew- {im-h-W-_-e-tKm-f
3037. tI-c-f-n-se a-cp-a--m-b k-{-Zm-b-s-p-dn-v ]-cm-a-inp- B-Zy ]p-kv-X-I-am-b an-dm-_n-en-b Un-kv-{In-]v-jy-c-Nn-Xv -{^-b tPm-Um-\p-kv
3038. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s hm-m-hn-\n-a-b D-]-{K-lw- B-n
3039. au-en-Im-h-Im-i- \-S-m-m kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn F-m-Wv
]p-d-s-Sp-hn-p--Xv- dn-v
3040. 1945 ssh-t{km-bn th-h {]-`p C-y-bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b `mhn kw-_
- n-v tIm-{K-kv t\-Xm--am-cp-am-bn N-\
- S-
- nb \-K-cw--jnw-e
3041. B-cp-sS a-cW
-
- n A-\p-tim-Nn-p-sIm-m-Wv Ip-am-c\
- m-im
{]-tcm-Z-\w- c-Nn--Xv- F.B.cm-P-cm-P-h-a
3042. tI-c-f-n-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw sN-dp-Xv- a-t-iz-cw
3043. -U-m-Wn-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw h-ep-Xv -tKm-Zm-h-cn
3044. Um-Pn-en-Mv ln-am-e-b sd-bn-th m-]n-X-am-b h-jw-
1881
3045. au-kn-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- U--kv Fw-K-_-v
3046. A-Wp-`m-cw G--hpw Iq-Sn-b kzm-`m-hn-I aq-e-Iw- bp-td-\n-bw
3047. a-Wn-ta-J-e c-Nn--Xm-cv- k--\m
3048. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy \n-b-a k-h-I-em-im-e- \p-bm-kv
3049. A-Wp-{]-k-c-Ww A-f-p- D-]-I-c-W-am-Wv- Ko-K Iu-
3050. B-cp-sS {]-kw-K-n \n-m-Wv 1959se hn-tam-N-\-k-a-c-n\v B t]-cp e-`n--Xv--]-\-n-n tKm-hn--ta-t\m
3051. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s hn-hn-t[m-t-iy D-]-{K-lw- C-km-v 1
F
3052. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy {]-Xn-]--t\-Xm-hv- ]n.Sn.Nm-tm
3053. A-Wp-hn-`-P-\-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- Hm-tm-lm
3054. tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw- ]-g--ap- ]-{Xw- Zo-]n-I (1887- kvYm-]n-Xw)3055. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm hn-tZ-i-Im-cy a-{n- e-v-an
F. ta-t\m
3056. tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- A-W-s-v- ap--s-cn-bm
3057. B-cp-sS a-{n-k-`-bm-bn-cp-p A-jv-S-{]-[m- in-h-Pn

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3058. 1945-se {_n-o-jv ]m-e-san-te-p- Xn-c-s-Sp-n


`cWw \jvS-s- {]-[m-\-a-{n--k hn- N-n
3059. A- - t Z- i o- b ^p- S v - t _m Sq- W - s a n--s ssZ- L yw-
90 an-\n-v
3060. U-p-Im-cp-sS B-Zy-s I-- k-aq-lw- sIm-n-bn- F-nb-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1604
3061. B-cp-sS A-Sn-ab
- m-bn-cp-p Ip-_
- v- o sF-_I
- v- ap-l
- Z- v tKmdn
3062. in-h-Pn-sb kzm-[o-\n-p-I-bpw B-bp-[m-`ym-kw ]-cn-io-en-n-pI-bpw sN-bv-X {_m--W- Zm-Zm-Pn sIm--tZ-hv
3063. U-ln G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv--b-ap-\
3064. A-W-en-hn-jw- _m-[n-p- i-co-c-hyq-lw--c-Iv-X-]-cy-b-\ hy-hkv-Y
3065. Aw-K, ]q-h F-n-h G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS {K---fm-Wv-
ssP-\
3066. {im-h-W-_-e-tKm-f-bn-se {]-kn--am-b D--hw- a-lm-a-kv-X-Im`n-tj-Iw
3067. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv h-ln-n-cp- Hu-tZym-Kn-I ]-Z-hn-
t]m-_--dn-se Zn-hm
3068. U-ln-bn-se B-Zy-s (C-ym-N-cn-{X-n-se-bpw)- ap-nw`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- -Ip-Xv-_p-Zo- sF-_-Iv3069. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS {]-h--\-ta-J-e-bm-bn-cp- Z-n-Wm-{^n-
{]-hn-iy- t\-m
3070. {In--v ]-n-s `m-cw- 155.9 {Km-an-\pw 163 {Km-an-\p-an-S-bn
3071. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s D-]-{]-[m-\-a-{n- k-Zm- ]-t3072. a-Wn-q-cn-se m-kn- \r--cq-]w- a-Wn-q-cn
3073. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s Im-em-h-m D-]-{K-lw- sa-v-km-v
3074. U-ln-p k-ao-]w-Im-Wp- {]-i-kv-X-am-b C-cp-v Xq-Wv \nan-X
- v G-Xv `-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn-bp-sS Im-e
- m-Wv- N
- {- -Kp-]vX
- hn-{Iam-Zn-Xy
3075. au-cy-`-c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-n-s am-\z F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s {K-w- A-Y-im-kv-{Xw
3076. A-X
- B-\
- I
- c
- a
- m-Ip-n-S
- v _p-n-am-\m-Im {i-an-p-Xv au-Vy-am-Wv- F-p ]-d--Xm-cv- tXm-a-kv t{K
3077. Aw-_c
- N
- pw-_n-If
- p-sS \-Kc
- w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- \yq-tbm-v
3078. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sS-en-tImw C-Ip-t_-j sk {]h--\-am-cw-`n--Xv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- I-f-a-t-cn-bn
3079. A-Un-k-kv tcm-Kw- G-X-h-b-h-s _m-[n-p-p- A-{Uo\ {K-n
3080. C-ym K-h-san-s [-\-k-lm-b-m \n-an-p- Np-J
t{]m-P-Iv-Sv G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- `q-m
3081. G--hpw In-g-m-bn n-Xn sN-p- cm-Pyw- In-cn-_m-n
3082. au-cy-hw-i-n-se G--hpw- {]-i-kv-X-\m-b `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- Atim-I
3083. Im-t Im-t Iq-sS-hn-sS F- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv- D-q
3084. cm-Py-k-`m D-]m-[y--\m-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- Fw.Fw.tP--v
3085. hn-\m-Kn-cn-bn-se B-kn-Uv- A-k-n-Iv B-kn-Uv
3086. kw-Ko-X-Pv-R-\m-bn-cp- Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv--k-ap-{Z-Kp-]v-X3087. hn-]p-e-am-b-co-Xn-bn \-K-c-`-c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-sam-cp-n-b au-cy
`-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn- N-{-Kp-]vX
- a
- u-cy
3088. cm-Py-k-`mw-K-n-s Im-em-h-[n- B-dp-h-jw
3089. A-n-ia
- \
- n-If
- n D-]t- bm-Kn-p- hm-XI
- w- Im-_ U-tbmIv-ssk-Uv
3090. C-dm-\n-se {Ko km-v t{]m-P-Iv-Sv F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- bp-td-\n-bw kw-kv-I-c-Ww
3091. c-mw ]--h-k-c ]--Xn-bp-sS in-]n- ]n.kn. a-l-e-t\m_n-kv
3092. kw-Ko-X--s\-pw t]-cp-tI- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq cm-Pm-hv- kzmXn Xn-cp-\m
3093. Cw-
- n-se a-X]
- oT-\
- f
- n-\n-v c-s
- -Sm ]-Xn-t\-gmw \qm-n A-ta-cn--bn-te-v Ip-Sn-tb-dm-\m-bn t]m-b ]n-{Knw
^m-tZ-gv-kv k--cn- I--en-s t]-cv- sa-bv-^v-f-h
3094. a-{n-k-`mw-K--fp-sS F--n-s I-W-v \n--bn-p--Xv-
`-c-W-L-S-\
3095. A-{Un-bm-n-n-s dm-Wn sh-\o-kv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

14

tem-Iv-k-`-bp-sS {]-tXy-I k-t-f-\w hn-fn-p-tN-p-Xn-\v ]-n-sem-n Ip-d-bm- Aw-K- tc-Jm-aq-ew


B-h-iy-s-Sp-I-bm-sW-n {]-kn-U v F-{X Zn-h-k-n\p-n k-` hn-fn-p-tN--Ww
tI-c-f-n F-{X Pn-m-k-l-I-c-W _m-p-I D-v
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sSbm-Wv ap-v {^--[o-\-X-bn-em-bn-cp- {]-tZ-i--v bqWn-b sS-dn--dn ]-Z-hn \-In-b-Xv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS 86mw t`-Z-K-Xn {]-Im-cw F-{X h-b-ph-sc-bp- Ip-n-I-m-Wv ku-P-\y-hpw \n-_-n-X-hpam-b hn-Zym-`ym-kw \-tI--Xv
`u-tam-]-cn-X-e-n-se i-cm-i-cn Xm-]-\n-e F-{X Un-{Kn
sk-jy-kv B-Wv
]n.F-v.kv-sI-bn-en-se G--hpw D-b- aq-eyw F-{X-bmWv
A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v m-\m-Yn-bm-bn a--cn--Wsa-n G--hpw Ip-d--Xv F-{X h-j-am-bn A-ta-cn-bn-se n-c-Xm-a-k-m-c-\m-bn-cn--Ww
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ {]-Im-cw F-{X h-b-n-\p Xm-sg-bp Ip-n-I-sf-bm-Wv A-]-I-S-I-c-am-b km-l-N-cy--fn ]Wn-sb-Sp-n-p--Xv \n-b-a-hn-t[-b-a-m--Xv
1969 Pq-em-bv 19-\v C-n-cm-Km-n tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn- _m-pI-fp-sS F-w
3096. H--mw-tem-I- a-lm-bp--Im-e-v- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-m-bncp--Xv- hp-Uv-tdm- hn-k3097. kw-Ko-X-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- th-Zw- km-a-th-Zw
3098. H-n-e-[n-Iw- bq-tdm-]y- cm-Py--fp-sS- X-e-kv-Ym-\--fn-eq-sSH-gp-Ip-- \-Zn- -Um-\yq-_v3099. Im-s^-Un-s m-]-I- ]n.F. ]-Wn-
3100. I-q k-a-cw \-S- h-jw- 1941
3101. Im-]m-Z-n ap--h-v A-S \n-p- ]-n- s]-Kzn
3102. cm-Py-k-`mw-K--fp- tI-{-`-c-W-{]-tZ-i-- U-ln (3),
]pXpt-cn (1)
3103. Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS k-a-Im-en-I-\m-bn-cp- ap-K `-c-Wm-[nIm-cn- _m-_
3104. I-S-em-kv B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3105. {In--n-s D-`-hw G-Xp cm-Py-m-bn-cp-p- Cw--v
3106. C-y-bn C-Jv-Xm k-{-Zm-bw \-S-n-em-n-b-Xm-cv- Xp-n
kp-m-am
3107. ssh-ti-jn-I Z-i-\-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- I-Wm-Z-ap-\n
3108. I-S-en-\-Sn-bn-se sIm-Sp-ap-Sn-I-Iq-Sn I-W-m-p-tm temI-n-se G--hpw h-en-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- au-\m-In
3109. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- hn-im-Jw- Xn-cp-\m- cm-Pm-hm-b-Xv- G-Xv hj-n- F.Un.1880
3110. B-cp-sS B-m-\I
- h
- n-bm-bn-cp-p `-h`- q-Xn- I-\u-Pn-se b-timh-a
3111. G--hp-sam-Sp-hn- cq-]-h-Ir-X-am-b- A-ta-cn- kv-t-v-
l-hm-bv- Zzo-]p-I3112. tI-c-f-n-em-Zy-am-bn lr-Z-bw am-n-h-bv- i-kv-{X-{In-b \-Sn-b m-]-\w- sa-Un- {S-v, Fd-Wm-Ipfw
3113. G-Xp cm-Py-s ssk-\n-I-\m-Wv tSm-an A-v-In-kv F--dn-bs-Sp--Xv- {_n-
3114. B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv Po-hn-X k-a-cw- kn.tI-i-h
3115. tI-cf
-
- n-em-Zy-am-bn sS-en-t^m m-]n-X
- v- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
sIm-m-c-n (1931)
3116. Hm-tm-{K-^n F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- i-cn-bm-b Dm-cW
- w
3117. hm-U-kv s]-\n-kp-e G-Xv `q-J-Wv-U-n-s G--hpw Xm-gv `m-K-am-Wv- sX-t A-ta-cn-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

91

3118. I-m-n-s B-m-\w- \yq-U-ln


3119. I---bw F- Xq-en-Im-\m-a-n A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sN-dnbm am-n-f
3120. kn-Jp-a-X-n-s c-m-a-s Kp-cp- Aw-K-Zv
3121. A-{Uo-\ {K-n n-Xn sN-p--Xv- hr--bp-sS ap-I-`m-Kv
3122. tI-c-f-n-em-Zy-am-bn sam-ss_ tIm-S-Xn-I \n-e-hn h-Xv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
3123. Aw-_m-k-U Im ^m-Iv-S-dn n-Xn-sN-p- D--c-]p-c GXp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-n-a-_w-Km
3124. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Im-jn-I `q-hn-`m-Kw- D--c-Kw-Km
k-a-X-ew
3125. C-y-bn sIm-m-c
- f
- p-sS \-Kc
- w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- sIm-
3126. au-cy-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cy
3127. tI-{-k-m-cn-s \n-a {Km-a ]p-c-kv-Im-cw t\-Sn-b B-Zys ]-m-b-v- ]o-en-tm-Sv (Im-k-tIm-Sv Pn-)
3128. G-Xv kw-L-S-\-bp-sS ap-J-]-{X-am-Wv k-ho-kv- F-F-kv-F-kv
3129. \n-h--\-{]-tm-` I-n-n-bp-sS sk-{I--dn-bm-bn-cp--Xv-
kn.tI-i-h
3130. h-w au-e-hn-bp-sS P---ew G-Xv Pn--bn-em-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
3131. G-Xv kw-L-S-\-bp-sS ap-J-]-{X-am-Wv tbm-K-\m-Zw- F-kv-FUn-]n tbm-Kw
3132. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS -W-{]-Im-cw 1912 Z-n-Wm-{^n- k-in- t\-Xm-hv--tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W tKm-J-se
3133. tI-{-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- tUm.tPm a-m-bn
3134. ssh-P-b-, A-Pp Xp-S-n-b Sm-p-I \n-an--sX-hn-sS-bmWv- B-h-Un
3135. A-Uz-t-v P-\-d-en-s\ \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv- K-h-W
3136. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm hn-tZ-i-Im-cy sk-{I--dn- sNmn-e A-
3137. a-Wn-_n-n-s\-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv- B-n-n 110
3138. d-^v-fo-jy ]q-hv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-Wp- cm-Pyw- a-te-jy
3139. au-cy-km-{am-Py X-e-m-\w ]m-S-eo-]p-{Xw
3140. D-n-bp-sS `-y-tbm-Ky-am-b `m-Kw- Im-WvTw
3141. F-\-Pn B-Iv-Sn-th-j B-Iv-Sv C-y-bn \n-e-hn-h--sXv- 2002 am-v
3142. G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b ]q-hv- ssS- Bw
3143. A-Wp kw-Jy F- B-i-bw B-Zy-am-bn ap-tm-p-h- im-kv{X-- sl-dn tam-kv-en
3144. C-y-bn sF.F.F-kv.D-tZym-K--p ]-cn-io-e-\w \-Ip m-]-\w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- a-kq-dn
3145. en-_n-b-bn-se \m-W-bw- Zn-\m
3146. in-ip-]m-e-h-[w c-Nn--Xm-cv- am-L
3147. In-j-K-Vv s]-bnn-Mv G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv D-`-hn--Xv-
cm-P
m
3148. F-kv.sI. s]m--m-n-s ]q-W-\m-aw- i--c-Ip-n Ip-ncm-a s]m--m-v
3149. Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS B-m-\-I-hn- A--km-\n s]--\
3150. B-cp-sS Aw-_m-k-U-dm-bn-m-Wv tXm-a-kv tdm C-y-bn-se-nb-Xv- sP-bnw-kv H-m-a
3151. A--co- hm-bp-hn B-K-Wn-s A-f-hv- 0.9 i-X-am-\w
3152. A--co--a-Zw A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- _m-tcm-ao-
3153. A-Wp-\m-i-I--fp-sS D-]-tbm-Kw I-s-n-b-Xv- tPm-k-^v en
3154. Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b-cp-sS Im-e-s hn-P-b-\-K-c-s--n {]-Xn-]mZn-p- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im- Zp-hm-s _-t_m-k, sUm-an\n-tKm-kv ]-b-kv
3155. I-S-p-I-b--s X-S- A-tX hn-Im-c-tm-Spw i-n-tbmSpw-Iq-Sn C-\n \- k-am-[m-\-n-\m-bn s]m-cp-X-Ww F-p
]-d--Xv- em _-lm-Zq-im-kv-{Xn
3156. I-S ]n-dt- Im-n-b Ip-p-h F-d
- n-bs
- - cm-Pm-hv- tN-c sNp-p-h
3157. in-h-tk-\ G-Xp kw-m-\-s cm-jv-{So-b I-n-bm-Wv -a-lmcm-jv{- S

92

CONFUSING FACTS
th-Z--fn-te-v a-S-q F-p ]-d--Xv Z-bm-\-v k-c-kzXn-bm-Wv. Ko-X-bn-te-v a-S-q F-v B-lzm-\w sN-bv-X-Xv
kzm-an hn-th-Im-\--\m-Wv.
A-Sp--f-bn-\n-v A-c--t-v c-Nn--Xv hn.Sn.`--Xn-cnm-Sv B-Wv. A-Sp--f-bn-\n-v ]m-e-san-te-v c-Nn-Xv `m-c-Xn D-Z-b-`m-\p B-Wv.
1931 bm-N-\-bm-{X \-bn--Xv hn.Sn. `--Xn-cn-m-Sv. F.sI.
tKm-]m-e ]-n-Wn Pm-Y \-bn--Xv 1936.
3158. I-S-o-c
- n-s-d \o-f
- n- C-y- kw-kvY
- m-\
- f
- n- B\v-{[m-{]-tZ-in-s-d kv-Ym-\w- c-mw-kv-Ym-\w3159. I-S-P-e-n-\n-pw ip--P-ew X-m-dm-p- co-Xn- Un-nte-j
3160. jm-t\m h-cp-W G-Xn-s B-]v-X-hm-Iy-am-Wv- C-y t\-hn
3161. jn-n-km-bn _m-_-bp-sS P---e-am-b jn-n G-Xv kw-m\-m-Wv- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
3162. Jn-Pn hw-iw m-]n--Xm-cv- P-em-ep-o Jn-Pn
3163. G--hpw \o-f-ap- ]m-v- sd-n-p-te--Uv ss]-
3164. Jn-Pn kp-m-am G-Xp hw-i-P-cm-bn-cp-p- Xp-n
3165. tI-{-km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s a-ebm-f t\m-h- sN-o (1957)
3166. ssh-tem-n-n-v h-b-em A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-sm-Sp- Ir-Xn-
a-I-c-sm-bv-v
3167. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn Aw-K-am-bn k-Xy-{]-Xn-Pv-R sN-bv-X BZy h-\n-X -tdm-k-m ]p-q-kv(1957 G-{]n 10)
3168. G--hpw \n-jvTp-c-\m-b ap-K N-{I-h-n F-p hn-ti-jn-n-s--Xv- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
3169. Jn-Pn-hw-i-n-s X-I--bv-p Im-c-W-m-c F--dn-b-sSp- Jn-Pn ssk-\ym-[n-]- am-en-Iv Im-^
3170. Jn-Pn-hw-i-n-se A-h-km-\-s `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- \m-kn-dpo Jp-kv-dp jm
3171. kv-t]-kv j-n A-b- B-Zy G-jy cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3172. kv-t]m-n-sse-n-kv- G-X-h-b-h-s-bm-Wv _m-[n-p--Xv \-s-v
3173. kv - X o- I - s f- m ]p- c p- j - a m F- - n Iq- S p- X - e p-
C-y kw-m-\w- tI-c-fw
3174. K-W-]-Xn D-k-h-s P-\-Io-b-am-n-b kzm-X-y-k-a-c \mb-I- _m-e-Kw-Km-[-c Xn-e-I
3175. kw-_-q G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- a-lm-\-Zn
3176. kv-Im-Un-t\-hn-b F--dn-b-s-Sp- {]-tZ-i-n D-s-Sp cm-Py-- t\m-th, kzo-U, sU-m-v
3177. kw-c--I {]-`p F--dn-b-s--Xv- H-fn-h t{Imw-sh
3178. A--co--an-m-sb-n B-Im-i-n-s \n-d-sa-m-bn-cn-pw- I-dp-v
3179. A-n-bp-sS Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- sF-kv-e-Uv
3180. Kw-K,b-ap-\, k-c-kz-Xn \-Zn-I-fp-sS kw-K-aw G-Xp kw-m-\m-Wv- D- {]-tZ-iv
3181. kw-Ko-Xc
- X
- v\
- m-Ic
- w c-Nn-X
- v- im-Mv[
- c
-
3182. cm-Py-k-`-bv-p Xp-ey-am-b Cw-o-jv t]-cv- Iu-kn Hm-^v
t-v-kv
3183. im-kv-{Xo-b-am-b ap-b h-f- A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- IqWn-I-
3184. -A-m-cm-jv-{S \m-W-b-\n-[n-bp-sS B-m-\w- hm-jn-Mv-S
3185. I-S-en-s B-g-a-f-p- bq-Wn-v- ^m-Xw
3186. A-ap--am-ey-U c-Nn--Xv- Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b
3187. tI-c-f-n-s G--hpw h-S-t-b--s Im-b- D--f-m-b
3188. A- P o- c n- b I- g n- m G- - h pw h- e n- b A- d - _ v cm- P yw
-ku-Zn A-td-_y
3189. m-kn-bp--m-e-v _w-Km-fn-se \-hm-_v- kn-dm-Pv D-Zv Zu-f
3190. tI-cf
-
- n-s G-h
- pw sX-t-b
- s
- ip-P
- e
- X
- S- m-Iw-s
- h-mb-Wn-m-b
3191. Kp-P-dm-n-se {]-[m-\ hn-am-\-m-h-fw- A-l--Zm-_m-Zv

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3192. B-cp-sS h-[-am-Wv Zo-]m-h-en-bn-eq-sS B-tLm-jn-p--Xv- \-cIm-kp-c


3193. tI- c - f - n- s G- - h pw sX- t - b - - s Xm- e q- v-s\-m-n-I-c
3194. C-y- k--in-- B-Zy- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-v- sF-k-t\mh3195. G--hpw \o-f-ap- C-Xn-lm-kw- a-lm-`m-c-Xw
3196. kw- h m- Z v
Iu- a p- Z n
F-
]- { Xw
m- ] n- - X v cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdm-bv
3197. tI- c - f - n- s h- S - t - b - - p- A- k w- _ v - f n a- W v - U - e w a-t-iz-cw
3198. tI- c - f - n- s G- - h pw h- S - t - b - - p- Xm- e q- v Im-k-tIm-Sv
3199. C-y hn-kv {^o-Uw (C-y- kzm-X-{yw- t\-Sp-p-)F- ]pkv-X-Iw c-Nn--Xv- au-em-\m A-_p I-emw B-km-Zv
3200. kw- J y- I tem- I - s `- c n- p- p F- p ]- d - - X v ss]-Y-tKm-d-kv
3201. C-y-bn c-p kw-m-\--fn ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hyn- F.Un.Xn-hm-cn
3202. ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-n B-Zy-am-bn s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Snb-Xv- F-an A-tUm-^v s_-dn-Mv
3203. kw-Jym-Z-i-\-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- I-]n-e
3204. tI-c-f-n-\n-p e-`n-n-p- G--hpw ]-g-b im-k-\w- hm-g-n im-k-\w
3205. m-t-j tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w- tIm--bw
3206. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- Ku-cn-e-v-an-`m-bn- `-c-W-ta-s-Sp--Xv- G-Xv
h-j-n- F.Un.1810
3207. tI-c-f-n-s kmw-kv-Im-cn-I X-em-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv Xr-q
3208. F-m {Km-a--fn-epw ssh-Zyp-Xn e-`y-am-n-b B-Zy kw-m\w- l-cn-bm-\
3209. Hm-Wn-tm-f-Pn F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- ]-n-I
3210. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew a-{n-bm-b h-\n-X
sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
3211. m-kv-- Hm-^v- ]m-co-kn-s-d cm-k-\m-aw- Im-kyw- k-t^-v3212. B-cp-sS hn-Zz-k-Z-m-bn-cp-p Ip--e-tm-\m-Xn-cn-am- kmaq-Xn-cn
3213. cm-Py-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy-s A-[y- tUm. F-kv. cm-[m-IrjvW
-
3214. tI-c-f-n-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X P-e-ssh-Zyp-X ]-Xn-I D--Xv- s]-cn-bm
3215. hm--q kp-thm-f-Pn- ]m-v G-Xp kw-kv-Ym-\-v- Xan-gv-\m-Sv
3216. Kw-K-bp-sS D-`-h-m-\w- Kw-tKm-{Xn
3217. I--Iv \-K-cw G-Xp-\-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- a-lm-\-Zn
3218. Kw-K-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fn G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b-Xv- b-ap-\
3219. m-kn-bp--n hn-P-bn-m tdm-_-v ss-hn-s\ k-lmbn--Xv- an Pm-^
3220. 2002 G--hpw a-lm-\m-b {_n-o-jp-Im-c-\m-bn _n._n.kn. Xnc-s-Sp--Xm-sc-bm-Wv--k hn- N-n
3221. I- c n- n Nm- d n A- S - n- b n- c n- p- ]- - k m- c -
kp-t{Im-kv
3222. 2005 H-Iv-tSm-_-dn hn-h-cm-h-Im-i-\n-b-aw \-S-n h-cm- kwm-\w- P-p Im-iv-ao
3223. I-cn-a-W-en-\n-v e-`n-p- {]-[m-\-[m-Xp- C-a-ss\-v, tamW-ssk-v
3224. hn.sI.Ir-jv-W-ta-t\m ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- tIm-gn-tmSv
3225. Hm-Un-\-kn-s Im-em-h-[n- 6 am-kw
3226. cm-Py-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy-s D-]m-[y-- F-kv.hn.Ir-jv-W-aqn
3227. kv-am t]m-Iv-kv hm-Iv-kn I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- F-tUz-Uv P-
3228. tI-v sI--Un D-]-{K-l-hn--]-W-tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ^vtfm-dn-U (bp.F-kv.F.)
3229. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS kz-w ko-v
\n-e-\n-n-b B-Zy h-\n-X -tdm-k-m ]p-q-kv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

14

kn-en--Wn-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
a-Wn _n F-{X Zn-h-k-n-\p-n-em-Wv cm-Py-k-` Xn-cnsI
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Z-am-Wv \n-b-a-n-\p apn Xp-ey-X-sb-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
kw-m-\ ]p-\-w-L-S-\ \n-b-a {]-Im-cw 1956 \n-ehn-h- kw-m-\--fp-sS F-w
ssP-\-a-X-{K---fm-b ]q-h- F-{X-sb--ap-v
1929- ]m-km-n-b im-c-Zm- B-Iv-Sv-{]-Im-cw- s]-Ip-n-Ifp-sS hn-hm-l-{]m-bw- F-{X-bm-bn D-b-n
{]-kn-Un-s\ Cw-]o-v sN-p--Xn-\p- {]-ta-bw A-h-Xcn-n-p--Xn-\v F-{X Zn-h-k-s ap-Iq t\m-o-km-Wv
\-tI--Xv
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS tIm-dw F-{X-bm-Wv
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Hm-kv-I t\m-an-t\-j-\p-I t\-Sn-b cp Nn-{X--fm-Wv All About Eve (1950), Titanic (1997)
F-n-h. F-{X ho-Xw
B-Zy-s B-[p-\n-I k- H-fn-n-Iv-kn (1896) F-{X
cm-Py- ]-s-Sp-p
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS Xp-S--n F-mw ]-n-I-bnep-m-bn-cp- `m-j-I-fp-sS F-w
C-y ]m-e-san-se (tem-Iv-k-`-bpw cm-Py-k-`-bpw Ds-sS) \m-a-\n-t-iw sN--s-Sp- Aw-K--fp-sS F-w
a-\p-jy-s ap-J-s A-n-I-fp-sS F-w
3230. ssh-Zyp-X {]-hm-l-n-s km-n-yw A-dn-bm-\p- D-]-I-cWw- Km-h-t\m-ao-
3231. kv-am--hn-Nm-cw F-n-\p- hn-Nm-c-W-bm-Wv- k-Zm-Nm-c-ewL-\w
3232. em- _-lm-Zq- im-kv-{Xn- A-y-hn-{i-aw- sIm-p--Xv-
hn-P-bv-L-n3233. hn.Sn.`--Xn-cn-m-Sn-s ]q-W-\m-aw- sh-n-n-cp-n Xm-g-pa-\-bv- cm-a `--Xn-cn-m-Sv
3234. e--Zzo-]v {Kq-n-se G--hpw P-\-kw-Jy Iq-Sn-b Zzo-]v- I-h-cn
3235. H-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-w A-h-km-\n-p-tm {_n-o-jv {]-[m\-a-{n-bm-bn-cp--Xv- tem-bv-Uv tPm-Pv (191622)
3236. h-S-t A-ta-cn--bn-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw Im-\-U
3237. em-kv Kn-_v-kv F- {In-- G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-Wv- sh-v
C-Uo-kv
3238. B-cp-sS i-hI
- p-So-ca
- m-Wv tKm-Kpw-_m-kv- ap-l
- Z- v B-Zn-jm
3239. kv-m-Nyp- Hm-^v- en-_-n-bp-sS- kv-{S-Iv-N-d- F-n-\o-b- Kpkv-Xm-hv- Cu-^3240. a-[y-Im-e-L--n C-y-bn-\n-v l-v bm-{Xn-I ]p-d-sn-cp- Xp-d-ap-Jw -kq-d-v
3241. G-h
- p-sam-Sp-hn Km-n-Pn-sb k--in- {]-ap-Jt- \-Xm-hv- kZm ]-t
3242. kv-ss{X-W-X-bv-p Im-c-W-am-b tlm-tam- Cu-kv-{S-P
3243. C-y k--in- B-Zy-s {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a-{n- lm-tcmUv am-Iv an-
3244. H- mw tI- c - f - \ n- b - a - k - ` - b n C.Fw.F- k v . {]- X n- \ n- [ m- \ w
sN-bv-X a-Wv-U-ew- \o-te-iz-cw
3245. Im-_-Wn-s A-f-hv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- I--cn-bp-sS h-It`-Zw- B-{-ssk-v
3246. h-S-p-In-g- C-y-bn-se k-]v-X-tkm-Z-cn-am F--dn-b-sSp- kw-m-\--fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-kv-Xo-W-ap--Xv-
A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-iv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

93

3247. A-m-a C-Iv-_m C-\m-j-W F-b-t]m-v F-hn-sS-bmWv -em-tlm


3248. h-S-p-t\m-n-b-{w B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3249. H-s-n-s B-m-\w hn-b-
3250. h-S-t A-ta-cn--bn tdm-n ]-h-X-n-\n-p ho-ip-
D-jv-W-m-v- Nn-\q-Iv
3251. Im _m--dn-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- tem-lw- se-Uv (Cu-bw)
3252. km-ln-Xy-n-\p- s\m-t_ k-m-\w e-`n- B-Zy-s CwKv-fo-jv km-ln-Xy-Im-c- dp-Uv-bm-Uv In-n-Mv
3253. I--tem-n-b X-an-g F--dn-b-s--Xv--hn.H.Nn-Zw-_-cw ]n-
3254. h-S-t A-ta-cn--b-sb-bpw sX-t A-ta-cn--sb-bpw thXn-cn-p--Xv- ]-\m-a I-\m
3255. I- o- { U kn- n Hm- ^ v C- y F- - d n- b - s - S p- - X v `p-h-t\-iz
3256. I--am-Kw B-dp {]m-h-iyw C-y-bn h-cn-I-bpw jm-P-lms-bpw Hu-dw-K-ko-_n-s-bpw Im-e-s--n hn-h-cn-s-gp-Xp-Ibpw sN-bv-X {^-p-Im-c- Po- _m-]v-n-v S-th-Wn-b
3257. hn-{I-am--tZ-h-N-cn-Xw c-Nn--Xv- _n-l-W
3258. a-[y-{]-tZ-in-se a-e-v-J-Wv-Uv J-\n G-Xv tem-l-n-\m-Wv {]kn-w--sN-v
3259. A-jn-ta-gv-kv tcm-Kw- G-X-h-b-h-s-bm-Wv _m-[n-p--Xv-
a-kvX
- n-jvI
- w
3260. 1840 se I-dp-v bp--n ssN-\-sb tXm-]n--Xv- {_n-
3261. H-n-e-[n-Iw tem-Iv-k-`mw-K--fp- tI-{-`-c-W-{]-tZ-iw- Uln
3262. h-p I-p Io-g-S-n Cu hm-p-I B-cp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- Pq-en-b-kv ko-k
3263. H-]-Xm-a-s kn-Jv Kp-cp-hm-b tX-Pv _-lm-Zq-dn-s\ h-[n--Xv
(F.Un.1675) Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
3264. kn-Jp-Im-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-e-bw- Kp-cp-Zzm-c
3265. h-I-c hn-m-]-\ kn-m--n-\v cq-]w \-In-b-Xv- B{^-Uv sh-
3266. kp-K--hy-Rv-P-\--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Ip-cp-apf-Iv
3267. A-a-cm-h-Xn-bpw \m-Km-Pp-\-tIm--bpw G-Xp a-X-hp-am-bn _-s-m-Wv {]-kn-w- _p--a-Xw
3268. ln-p-m C-sk-IvS- n-ssk-Uv en-an-U
- n-s B-m-\w-B
- ep-h
3269. K-h-W-dp-sS A-km-n-y-n Np-a-X-e \n-h-ln-p--Xv-
ssl-tm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-kv
3270. k-Jm--tf ap-tm-v F- k-t-iw \-In-b {]-i-kv-X-\m-b
I-ayq-Wn-v t\-Xm-hv- ]n.Ir-jv-W-]n-
3271. A-a-cn-tKm sh-kv-]p-n P-\n- cm-Pyw- C--en
3272. km-ln-Xy-n-\p- s\m-t_-en-\-l-\m-b Cw-o-jv K-Wn-X-imkv-{X-- s_-{Sm-Uv d-k
3273. ln-v-e P-a-\n-bn A-[n-Im-c-n h- h-jw- 1933
3274. kp-K--hy-Rv-P-\--fp-sS D-]m-Z-\-n ap-n-p-\n-p-
tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I- C-Sp-n, h-b-\m-Sv
3275. ln-v-e-dpw ap-tm-fn-\n-bpw a-c-W-a-S- h-jw- 1945
3276. km-ln-Xy-s\m-t_ k-m-\w e-`n- B-Zy d-jy-m-c-
C-hm _p-\n(1933)
3277. K-h-sa v k-ho-kv hn-`m-K-n a-Kv-k-tk A-hm-Uv Cy-bn-\n-pw B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b-Xv- kn.Un.tZ-iv-ap-Jv (1959)
3278. Km-m-c-I-e G-sXm-s I-e-I-fp-sS kw-K-a-am-Wv- {Ko-v-`m-cX
- w
3279. ln-p--ap-nw sF-Iy-n-s ^-e-am-bn cq-]w-sIm- `m-j- DZp
3280. I-co-_n-b cm-jv-{S--fn-h-v G--hpw h-ep-Xv- Iyq-_
3281. i-co-c-n I-gp-n-\p Io-gv-t]m-p- `m-K-s dn-^v-f-I-kv B \n-b-{n-p--Xv- kv-ss]-\ tIm-Uv
3282. k-Zm ]-t C \m-j-W hn-am-\-m-h-fw F-hn-sS-bmWv- A-l--Zm-_m-Zv
3283. kn-p \-Zo-X-S-kw-kv-Im-c-n-s G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- k-hnti-jX
- - \-Kc
- m-kq-{X-Ww
3284. C-\m-j-W ^n-\m-kv tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w- -hmjnw-Kv-S Un.kn.

94

CONFUSING FACTS
cm-Po-hv Km-n h-[-n-\p ]n-n-se kp-c-m ]m-fn--sbp-dn-v A-t\z-jn--Xv P-bn I-o-j-\m-Wv. cm-Po-hv Kmn h-[-n-\p ]n-n-se Kq-Vm-tem-N-\-sb-p-dn-v At\z-jn--Xv h-a I-o-j-\m-Wv .
H-cp cm-Py-p-\n-v a-sm-cp cm-Py-t-v A-b-bv-p- \b-X-{ {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-Wv Aw-_m-k-U. F-m, tIma-sh-v cm-Py- ]-c-kv-]-cw A-b-bv-p- \-b-X{ {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-Wv ssl--o-j-W.
Cw--n-se d-n-ao-Un tPm c-m-a cm-Pm-hv 1215 H-p-sh- am-m-Im--bm-Wv a-\p-jym-h-Im-i- kwc-n-p--Xv `-c-W-Iq-S-n-s _m-[y-X-bm-n-sm-p B-Zy-tc-J. a-\p-jym-h-Im-iw kw-_-n- B-Zy-s
B-tKm-f-tc-J 1945 Pq 26-\v km-{^m-kn-kv-tIm-bn
Aw-Ko-I-cn--s- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` Nm- B-Wv.
3285. i-co-c-n I-S-p-Iq-Sp- hn-j-h-kv-Xp- \-in-n-m \nbp--am-b A-h-b-hw- I-c
3286. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b _p--a-X sam-Wm--dn- X-hm-Mv
3287. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn {]-Y-a C.Fw.F-kv a-{n-k-`-sb ]n-cn-p-hn- Xo-bXn 1959 Pq-sse 31
3288. Hm-K-ss\-tk-j Hm-^v A-ta-cn- t-v-kn-s B-m-\w-hm-jnw-Kv-S Un.kn.
3289. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Kp-cp-Zzm-c--kp-h-W-t-{Xw
3290. Hm-kv-I in-ev-]w cq-]-I-]-\ sN-bv-X-Xv- sk-{Un-Iv Kn-kv
3291. i-co-c-n- c-Iv-X-tIm-i-- \n-an-p--sX-hn-sS- a--bn3292. C-y k--in- B-Zy-s ssN-\o-kv k-m-cn- ^m-ln-bm
3293. kzm-an Nn--bm-\--s ]q-hm-{i-a-n-se t]-cv- _m-e-Ir-jv-Wta-t\m
3294. Kzm-fn-tbm ap-p `-cn-n-cp- cm-P-hw-iw- kn-y
3295. \n-hr-Xn ]--Iw c-Nn--Xv--{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
3296. \m-b k-ho-kv skm-ssk-n-bp-sS B-Zy kv-Iq m-]n-
-ew- I-dp-I-m
3297. \n-h--\-{]-tm-`-n-s ap-J-]-{X-am-bn-cp--Xv- tI-c-f
tI-k-cn
3298. \m-b k-ho-kv skm-ssk-n F- t]-cp \n-t-in--Xv-
sI.]-c-ap-]n-
3299. a-[y-{]-tZ-in F-hn-sS-bm-Wv B--tem-bv-Uv ^m-Iv-S-dn nXn sN-p--Xv- \o-a-v
3300. em-tlm-dn _m-Zv-jm-ln tam-kv-Iv \n-an--Xv- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
3301. 1857se hn--h-n-s ]-cm-P-b-ti-jw {_n-o-jp-Im _-l-Zqjm c-m-a-s\ F-hn-sS-m-Wv \m-Sp-I-S-n-b-Xv- aym-a(_a)
3302. kn-Jp-Im G--hpw ]-hn-{X-am-bn I-W-m-p- B-cm-[-\m-ebw- A-ar-Xv-k-dn-se kp-h-W-t-{Xw
3303. I-^q-jy-\n-kw G-Xp-cm-Py-m-Wv {]-N-cn--Xv- ssN-\
3304. G-Xp cm-Py-s kzm-X-{y {]-m-\-am-Wv au au- sI-\n-b
3305. C-y-bn D--X hn-Zym-`ym-k-n-s am-[y-aw Cw-o-jv Bn-b K-h-W P-\-d- hn-eyw s_n-Iv
3306. H-mw tem-Iv-k-`-bn-se a-Wv-U-e-- 489
3307. em _-lm-Zq A-m-Za
- n Hm-^v A-Uva
- n-\n-kvt- {S-js
- B-m\w- ap-kq-dn
3308. B-cp-sS B--l-Xy-bn a-\w-s\m-m-Wv N--p-g c-a-W
c-Nn--Xv- C-S--n cm-L-h-]n-
3309. G--hpw \o-f-ap- Im-ep-I-fp- ]-n- I-cn-n-d-I ]-hn-gm-en
3310. B-cp-sS hn-hn-[ P---sf-p-dn-m-Wv Pm-X-I-I-Y-I-fn {]-Xn]m-Zn-n-cn-p--Xv- {io-_p--s
3311. i-co-c-n-se _-tbm-f-Pn- tm-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- {K-n ]o-\n-b {K-n

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3312. kzo-U-\n-se ]m-e-sa v- dn-Iv-kv-Um-Kv


3313. ln-p- hyq- Hm-^v- sse-^v- ,- C-y- ^n-tem-k-^n- F-o- Ir-XnI- c-Nn--Xv- tUm.- cm-[m-Ir-jv-W3314. kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-N-cn-{X-n-se t_m-kv k-tlm-Z-c-am B-scmw- i-c-Xv-N-{-t_m-kpw kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kpw
3315. kzm-X{- y-ka
- c
- N
- c
- n-{Xw A-Sn-m-\a
- m-n \n-an- tam-l-em
Nn-{Xw- Im-em-]m-\n
3316. 1857se I-em-]-s C-y-bp-sS H-m-a-s kzm-X-{y-k-a-cam-bn B-Zyw hn-ti-jn-n- `m-c-Xo-b- hn.Un.k-hm-
3317. ln-n hm-p-I c-N-\-bv-v D-]-tbm-Kn- B-Zy-s ap-nw
F-gp-p-Im-c- A-ao Jp-{kp
3318. kzm-X{- yw e-`n-p-tm C-y-bp-sS G-h
- pw sX-t-b
- s
-
\m-p-cm-Pyw- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
3319. {_n--Wn-\n-v kzm-X-{yw e-`n- B-Zy B-{^n- cm-Pyw
Lm-\
3320. kzm-X-{yw In-p-tm sIm-nbn {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-bn-cp-Xv- ]-\-n-n tKm-hn--ta-t\m
3321. C-ybnse B-Zy-s kq- Iw-]yq-- hnI-kn-n-s-Sp-
m-]\w knUmIv, ]qs\
3322. kzm-X-{y-e-_v-[n-h-sc cm-P-m A-dn-b-s-n-cp- t]-cv- cP-]p-m-\
3323. ln-n-bn-se B-Zy-s tbm-Km--I I-hn- I-_o
3324. Km-m-cw F- ]-g-b \-K-c-n-s ]p-Xn-b t]-cv- Im--lm
3325. ln-p-a-Xw kzo-I-cn- b-h-\ Aw-_m-k-U- lo-en-tbm-tUm-dkv
3326. kzm-X-{y-Zn-\-n F-hn-sS-\n-p-am-Wv {]-[m-\-a-{n cm-jv-{Ss A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-p--Xv- sN-tm-
3327. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se Bn--sIm-bm-Kp-e v- sl-m-cn
3328. ln-p-kv-Ym- s]-t{Sm-fn-bw- tIm-]-td-j-s-d B-kv-Ym-\w- hnim-J]
- - W
- w3329. lm-sse-v (tdm-v km-v) G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- tkm-Un-bw
3330. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm {]-[m-\-a-{n- kn-cn-am-thm
_-m-c-\m-b-sI
3331. kp-K--hy-Rv-P-\--fp-sS dm-Wn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- G-ew
3332. i-co-c-s ip-Nn-bm-p- sI-an- em-_v F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- hr-
3333. Km-n-Pn t\-m C-y tIm-{K-kv m-]n- h-jw
1894
3334. Kp-l-I-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- kv-]o-en-tbm-f-Pn
3335. kp-Mv hw-iw `-cn-n-cp- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3336. Kp-P-dm-n kq-cy-t-{Xw n-Xn-sN-bv-X -ew- sam-t[-c
3337. hn-\-b-]n-S-Iw F-n-s\-p-dn-p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-p- _p--`n-p A-\p-k-cn-t- \n-b-a-
3338. i-co-cw hn-b-p--Xn-\p ]n-n-se G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- [-aw Xm-]-\n-e {I-ao-I-cn-
3339. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s \n-b-a-Zm-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
l-p-dm-_n
3340. Kp-P-dm-n P-kn-b G-s-Sp-n-b G-I `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- Al--Zv jm H-m-a
3341. h- Zm-v Cu-kv C-y F- ]p-kX
v- I
- w c-Nn-X
- v- F.F._mjw
3342. k-Zm sI.Fw.]-Wn--cp-sS ap-gp-h t]-cv- Im-hm-ew am-[-h-Wn-
3343. a-[y-{]-tZ-in sk-Iyq-cn-n t]--an m-]n-n-cn-p- ew- tlm-jw-K-_m-Zv
3344. 1956-se kw-kv-Ym-\ ]p-\-w-L-S-\m I-n-j-s A-[y--
^-k A-en
3345. k-bn-^n-Iv am-t\-Pv-san-s ]n-Xm-hv- s{^-U-dn-Iv sS-bv-e
3346. h-`m-bn ]-t-en-\v k-Zm ]-Z-hn \-In-b-Xv- Km-n-Pn
3347. tI-c-f lm-Uv-eqw U-h-e-]v-sa v tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w I-q
3348. h--`m-Nm-cy {]-N-cn-n- X-zw- ip-m-ssZz-Xw
3349. hn-{I-a-h-jw B-cw-`n--sX-v- _n.kn.58
3350. tIm-i-n-s Du-P-kw-`-c-Wn- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ssa-tmtIm-{Sn-b
3351. tIm-v Km-Uv- m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1978

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

15

A-m-cm-jv-{S \o-Xn-\ym-b tIm-S-Xn-bn-se P-Uv-Pn-am-cp-sS


F-w
sh-fp- c-m-Wp--fp-sS ]-c-am-h-[n B-bp-v F-{X Znh-ka
- m-Wv
{In- B-\n-th-gv-k-dn F-{Xm-a-s hn-hm-l-hm-jn-Iam-Wv
H-cp tS-_n kv-]q F-{X an-o-en--dm-Wv
`q-an F-{X Un-{Kn Xn-cn-bp-tm-gm-Wv H-cp a-Wn-q-dm-Ip-Xv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s `m-K-n-em-Wv (]m-v) Xnc-s-Sp-n-s\-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv sIm-fw-_-kv A-ta-cn- I-s-nb-Xv
Nm-W-Iy-s A-[-im-kv-{X-s F-{X `m-K--fm-bn Xn-cnn-p-v
a-Xw, hw-iw, Pm-Xn, enw-K-]-Z-hn, P-\-\--ew Xp-S-n-b-hbp-sS A-Sn-m-\-n hn-th-N-\w ]m-Sn- F- \n-jvI-jn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
a-{n-k-`mw-K--fp-sS F-w B-sI \n-b-a-k-`mw-K--fpsS F--n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-n Iq-Sm ]m-Sn- Fm-Wv hy-h-
lp-a-bq F-{X h-j-am-Wv {]-hm-k Po-hn-Xw \-bn--Xv
(15401555)
G-Xp \q-m-n-em-Wv tPm Hm-^v B-v Po-hn-n-cp--Xv
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv hm-kv-tIm U Km-a B-Zy-am-bn tI-c-fn-se-n-b-Xv
C-y I-d-kn-bp-sS emw-tKz-Pv ]m-\-en F-{X `m-j-Ifn-em-Wv aq-eyw tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-p--Xv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS c-m-k-an-Xn-bn B-sI F-{X
Aw-K--fp-v
B-sI 22 Aw-K--fp- ]-_v-fn-Iv A-u-v-kv I-n-nbn F-{X t]-cm-Wv tem-Iv-k-`-bn-\n-p--Xv
3352. X-]m-m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy c-m-a-s a-e-bm-fn-
cm-Pm c-hn-h-a
3353. Km-n-Pn 1910 {Sm-kh
v- m-fn-\S- p-v m-]n- B-{i-aw- tSmtm-bv ^mw
3354. tUm-bv-jv-em-Uv- F-- t]-cv- G-Xp- cm-Py-s- kq-Nn-n-p-p--P-a-\n3355. tIm-i-n-se G--hpw {]-[m-\-s- `m-Kw- \yq-n-b-kv
3356. C-y-bn tUm-Iv-tS-gv-kv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv H-cp `m-c-Xc- X v- \ w
tP- X m- h n- s
P- - Z n- \ - a m- W v.
B- c p- s S
- tUm._n.kn.tdm-bn
3357. tem-I-n-se B-Zy sS-v Syq-_v in-ip P-\n- \-K-cw- e-
3358. tX-\o- h-f--en-s im-kv-{X-\m-aw- F-]n-I-
3359. Xo-Ym-S-I-cn cm-P-Ip-am-c F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- lypbm km-Mv
3360. tem-I-n-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b A-W-s-v- ln-cm-p-Uv
3361. Xo-h-n B-Zy-am-bn B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
3362. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s P-\m-[n-]-Xy cm-Pyw- {Ko-kv
3363. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s B-hn--- F-ss{]-kv
3364. tIm-i-a-aw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tdm-_-v {_u
3365. Xp--Iv hw-i-n-se H-Sp-hn-e-s `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- \m-kn-dp-o
a-l
- q-Zv
3366. Z-n-tW-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X kw-km-cn--s-Sp- `mj- sX-ep-v
3367. kn-\n-am-tm-{Km-^v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- eq-an-b k-tlm-Z-c-am
3368. ssh-w- k-Xy-{K-l-Im-e-v- k--i-\w- \-S-n-b X-an-gv-\m-nse t\-Xm-hv- C hn- cm-a-kzm-an- \m-bv--

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

95

3369. 61mw t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS(1989) thm-n-Mv {]m-bw 21 \n-v 18


B-bn C-f-hp-sN-bv-X C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- -cm-Po-hv-Km-n
3370. tem-I-n-se {]-ap-J F- D-]m-Z-\ cm-Py--fp-sS A-m-cmjv-{S kw-L-S-\- H-s-Iv
3371. en-_-lm I-n-j F-n-s\-p-dn-m-Wv A-t\z-jn-X
- v- _m_v-dn a-kv-Pn-Zv X-I-
3372. tem-I-n-se {]-ap-J hn-I-kn-X cm-Py- G-Xv k-ap-{Z-ns Xo-c-m-Wv -A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
3373. en-p-Uv ]m-n G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- C-{k-tb
3374. h-{P-n-\p k-am-\-am-b ]-c-L-S-\-bp- aq-e-I-ta-Xv- P-ta\n-bw
3375. C-y B-Zy-am-bn tdm--v hn-t-]n- -ew- Xp- (Xn-cp-h\--]p-cw)
3376. ssh-w- k-Xy-{K-l-Im-e-v- ssh-p-\n-v- Xn-cp-h-\--]pc-t-v- k-h-W-Pm-Y \-bn--Xv- a--v- ]-Xv-a-\m-`3377. ssh-w k-Xym-{K-l-k-a-b-v \m-K-tIm-hn-en-\n-pw Xn-cph-\--]p-c-t-v k-h-W-Pm-Y \-bn--Xv- tUm.Fw.C.\m-bnUp
3378. ssl--h-hn-izm-k-{]-Im-c-ap- \m-ep-bp-K--fp-sS i-cn-bm-b {Iaw- Ir-X, t{X-X, Zzm-]-c,I-en
3379. tem-I-n-em-Zy-am-bn s{U-bn-t\-Pv kw-hn-[m-\w m-]n-X-am-b
\-K-cw- sam-l-sPm-Zm-tcm
3380. tI-c-f Ipw-`-ta-f F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-I-c-hn-f-v
3381. Km-n-Pn {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ I- h-jw- 1925
3382. tem-I
- n-s k-am-[m-\ X-e
m-\w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- P
- \
- oh
3383. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-Zy A-[y-- k-Zm
sI.Fw.]-Wn-
3384. k-bn-^n-Iv tkm-jy-en-k-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- Im-d am-Iv-kv
3385. K-b-bn-se t_m-[n-hr--s ap-dn- cm-Pm-hv- i-im-
3386. k-c-kz-Xn k-m-\w \-Ip--Xv- sI.sI._n-fm ^u-t-j
3387. ssl-t{U--Uv A-b Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv km-[m-c-W-am-bn A-dn-bs-Sp--Xv- Xp-cp-v
3388. tem-I-n-se c-m-a-s h-en-b ]-n- F-ap
3389. sIm-n t]m-v {S-v \n-e-hn--h- h-jw-1964
3390. sN-kv Hm-kv-I t\-Sn-b d-jy-m-c-\-m- B-Zy Xm-cw- hn-iz\m-Y B-\-v
3391. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn F-bv-Uv-kv tcm-Kw dn-tm-v sN--s- cmPyw- bp.F-kv.F.
3392. tIm-_-v tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\-n-s ]-g-b t]-cv- sl-bv-en \m-jW ]m-v
3393. tem-I-n-s Im-n--S-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {_-ko-en-se
km-tm-kv
3394. hm-Izw o-\ I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- C-hv-kv U-yp. a-Iv-K-^n(1869)
3395. hm-Wn-Pym-Sn-m-\-n sam-ss_ t^m Xp-S-n-b BZy cm-Pyw- P-m
3396. C-y-bn-se G--hpw D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b sd-bn-th-m-ew G-Xp kwm-\-m-Wv- P-p I-iv-ao
3397. I-Wm-S-I-kw-Ko-X-n-epw ln-p-m-\n kw-Ko-X-n-epw D-]tbm-Kn-p- kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-Ww- ]p-m-p-g
3398. tem-I-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- I-dp-h-tm-w- A--c-n
3399. kn-p-hn-s t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fn G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b-Xv- kXv-e-Pv
3400. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s Zr-V en-Jn-X `-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hnh- cm-Pyw- bp.F-kv.F.
3401. tI-c-f kw-m-\-v a-{n-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X- - sI.B.Kucn
3402. tk-hm-Z cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn-v km-aq-ln-I {]-h--\--fn-te--Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
3403. tem-I-n I-c-`m-K-p- G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b ]-h-X-\n-c B-]v-kv
3404. tKm-_n a-cp-`q-an G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- aw-tKm-fn-b
3405. tIm-fn- ^v-f-h-dn-s-d G-Xv- `m-K-am-Wv- `--W-n-\m-bn- D-]-tbmKn-p-X
- v- ]p-jv]
- a
- R
- vP
- c
- n-

96

CONFUSING FACTS
a-a-tm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b Np-h- c-m-Wp- D- Po-hn-I-fmWv H--I-hpw (Camel) em-a-bpw (Lama).
A-d-bv- cm-P-Ip-Spw-_-n-se ]p-cp-j `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn Ben cm-P-sb-pw kv-{Xo-bm-sW-n A-d-bv- _o-hn Fp-am-Wv A-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv.
"Service above Self" B-]v-X-hm-Iy-am-b kw-L-S-\ tdm--dn
C-\m-j-W. \m-j-W Un-^-kv A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B]v-X-hm-Iyw Service Before Self.
ss_-_n-fn-te-v a-S-q F- B-lzm-\w am-n eq-X-dnt-Xm-Wv. {]-Ir-Xn-bn-te-v a-S
- q F-p ]-d
X
- v dq-tm.
3406. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s ]-{Xw GXp cm-Py-m-Wv- ssN-\
3407. C-y k--in- B-Zy-s {_no-jv cm-Pm-hv- tPm-Pv A-m-a
3408. h-S-p-In-g- C-y-bn-se G-hpw h-en-b \-K-cw- Kp-h-l-n
3409. Im N-e-n-t{Xm-k-hw G-Xp cmPy-m-Wv- {^m-kv
3410. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- lm-Xt-v j-]k
-v p-Xv (CuPn-]v-Xv)
3411. kn-p \-Zo-X-S-\n-hm-kn-I-v AtI- { - a - { n- b m- b B- Z y
m-X-am-bn-cp- ar-Kw- Ip-Xn-c
a3412. kzm-X-y-n-\p-ap-v Xp-S--bm-bn e - b m- f n- tUm.tPm
a- m- b n
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew tIm-{Kkv {]-kn-Um-b-Xv au-em-\m A_p I-emw B-km-Zv
3413. tem-I-n-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b tdm-Uv- ]m A-ta-cn-
ssl-th
3414. kn-p \-Zo-X-S-kw-kv-Im-c tI-{--fn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv D-gp-Xpa-dn- \n-ew Im-W-s--Xv- I-en-_w-K
3415. Kp-P-dm-n-se {]-kn--am-b \r--cq-]w- Km-_
3416. kn-Jp-Im-sc tbm-m--fp-sS k-ap-Zm-b-am-n h-f-n-b Kp-cp-
l-tKm-hn-v
3417. tem-I-n-se G--hpw \o-f-ap- ]-h-X-\n-c-bm-b A-Xv-emnIv dn-Uv-Pv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Z-n
3418. kn-p-\-Zo-X-S-kw-kv-Im-cw I-s-n-b h-jw- 1921
3419. k-Zm k-tcm-h ]--Xn- G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- \-a-Z
3420. Kp-Pd
- m-n-s sX-p-`m-K
- p- D-S- - K-^v Hm-^v Imwt_
3421. tI-c-f ssl-th dn-k-v C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
3422. tKm-_n-v km-K F- a-\p-jy-\n-an-X X-Sm-Iw G-Xv kw-m\-v- ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv
3423. tZ-io-tbm-Zv-{K-Y-\-n-\p- C-n-cm-Km-n A-hm-Uv B-Zy-ambn t\-Sn-b-Xv- kzm-an cw-K-\m-Ym-\-
3424. U-ln-bn B-Zy-am-bn I-tm-f \n-b-{-Ww G-s-Sp-nb `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn
3425. I-d-v e-`n-p- k-kyw- t]m-n
3426. Km-n-Pn tIm-{K-n-\n-pw cm-Pn-sh-m-\p- Xo-cp-am-\w
{]-Jym-]n- h-jw 1934
3427. I-dp- C-c--I F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- C-cp-pw I--cn-bpw
3428. _p-Iv e-Mv-kv G-Xv Po-hn-bp-sS iz-k-\m-h-b-h-am-Wv- F-p-Im-en
3429. I-dm-n G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv--kn-p
3430. `m-c-X-n-s hn-tZ-i-Im-cy-h-Ip-v sI-n--Sp-p--Xn kp-{][m-\ ]-p-h-ln- a-e-bm-fn \-b-X-{-- sI.]n.F-kv.
ta-t\m
3431. 1947 sI.tI-f--s t\-Xr-Xz-n sF-Iy-tI-c-f k-t-f\w \-S- -ew- Xr-q

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3432. U-ln-bn tam-n a-kv-Pn-Zv \n-an--Xv- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v


3433. X-]m-m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- {io-\m-cm-bW-Kp-cp
3434. a-[y-{]-tZ-iv ssl-tm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w- P-_-]q
3435. 1857 -se I-em-]-Im-e-v \m-\m km-tl-_v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv t\Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv--Im-]q
3436. ln-am-e-b-n-s ]m-Z-`m-K-p- ]-h-X-\n-c-I- in-hm-en-Iv
3437. tI-c-f ssk-Km F--dn-b-s--Xv- ]-c-ta-iz-c-\m-b
3438. Pm-XI
- I-YI
- f
- p-sS Nn-{Xo-Ic
- W
- w Im-Wm I-gn-bp- Kp-l- AP-m Kp-l
3439. ln-kv-]m-\n-tbm-f Zzo-]n-se cm-Py-- sUm-an-\n- dn--npw sl-bv-n-bpw
3440. kn-p-\-Zo-X-S-\n-hm-kn-I B-cm-[n-n-cp- a-cw- B
3441. tI-c-f ssl-tm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
3442. k-cn-kv-I ssS-K km-Mv-Nz-dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- A-hm
3443. k-em P-e-ssh-Zyp-X ]--Xn G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- P-p-Ii
- a
v- o
3444. tI-cf
- sl-an-Mvt- h F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- Fw.Sn.hm-kp-tZ-h \mb
3445. kn-kv-- A-t^m-k-bp-sS `u-Xn-Im-h-in-jv-Sw- kq-n-n-cnp-X
- v- `-cW
-
- m-\w3446. Ip-cym-tm-kv G-en-bm-kv Nm-h-d P-\n- h-jw 1805
3447. \o-e-I-WvT-Xo-Y-]m-Z-cp-sS Kp-cp- N--n-kzm-an-I
3448. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s Z-i-\-hpw B-i-b--fpw ]m-m-Xytem-I-v {]-N-cn-n--Xv- \-S-cm-P-Kp-cp
3449. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp H-Sp-hn m-]n- t-{Xw- I-f-h-tIm-Sv
3450. Xp-h-b-]-n m-]n--Xv- A-m ssh-Ip-WvT
3451. kn-p-\-Zo-X-S-hm-kn-I-v A-m-X-am-bn-cp- {]-[m-\-temlw- C-cp-v
3452. `q-an-bn e-`n-p- t^m-kn C--\--fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-Xep--Xv G-Xv- I--cn
3453. tI-c-f sk-{I-t-dn-b-v a-n-cw ]-Wn-I-gn-n-p-tm Zn-hm-\mbn-cp-X
- v- S- n.am-[h
- d
- m-hp
3454. {]m-No-\ tI-c-f-n s\-bv-X F-p hn-ti-jn-n-n-cp- {]tZ-i--fp-sS {]-tXy-I-X- I-S-o-cw
3455. {Km-Uv am- ]-Z-hn kz--am-n-b C-y-bn-se c-m-a-s
h-\n-Xm sN-kv Xm-cw- t{Zm-W-h-en l-cn-I
3456. {Ko-s_-v F- B-i-bw D-cp-n-cn- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
3457. K-h-W-dm-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- hn.]n.ta-t\m
3458. tI- c - f km- l n- X y A- m- Z - a n- b p- s S B- Z y- s s^- t m-
sI.]n.tI-i-h-ta-t\m
3459. Km-n-Pn-sb s\-{lp B-Zy-am-bn I- tIm-{K-kv k-t-f\w- e-Iv-\u(1916)
3460. k-emw t_mw-s_ F- kn-\n-a kw-hn-[m-\w sN-bv-X-Xv-
ao-cm \m-b
3461. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy-N-cn-{Xw c-Nn--Xv- D-q
3462. Km-n--C-hn D-S--Sn H-p-sh--Xv- 1931
3463. {_-ko {]-kn-Um-b B-Zy h-\n-X- Zn-a dp-tk-^v
3464. tKm-{io- F- t]-cn {]m-No-\-Im-e-v A-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv-
sIm-n
3465. tN-c-cm-Pm--am-cp-sS {]-[m-\-tZ-h-X- sIm--ssh
3466. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-Zy-s B-m-\w- Xncp-h-\--]p-cw
3467. tPm cm-Pm-hv am--Im--bn H-p-sh- h-jw- 1215
3468. tI-c-f sIm--Wn A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
3469. tIm-_-v tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\-n-eq-sS H-gp-Ip- \-Zn- cmw-Kw-K
3470. ssl-sS-Iv- kn-n- F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s-Sp- C-y
\-K-cw- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv3471. `m-kv-I-c c-hn-h-a H-m-a-\p-am-bn _--s- im-k-\w- 1000
F.Un-bn-se Pq-X-im-k-\w
3472. tIm-_ G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- O-n-kv-K-Vv
3473. m-v hm- ^o-h F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-te-dn-b
3474. ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bm-b B-Zy tI-c-fo-b h-\n-X--P-n-kv
A-m Nm-n
3475. tPm- F-^v- sI--Un- sIm--s-- h-jw- 1963

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

16

G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv ap-K km-{am-Pyw m-]n--s--Xv


sN-kv I-fn-bn H-cp h-i-s I-cp--fp-sS F-w
H-cp k-a-N-Xp-c-n-s hn-kv-Xo-W-hpw Np--f-hpw H-cp c- kw-Jy-bm-Wv. B kw-Jy G-Xm-Wv
{In-kv-Xp-a-kv {So-bp-sS D-`-hw F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv X-tm-fn H-tX-\ Po-hn-n-cp--Xv
P-hm-l-em s\-{lp I-gn-m G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]mh-iyw U-ln-bn-se sN-tm--bn kzm-X-{y-Zn-\-n
{Xn-h-W ]-Xm-I D-b-n-b-Xv C-n-cm-Km-n-bm-Wv. F{X {]m-h-iyw
j-n tIm-n F-{X Xq-h-ep-I-fp-v.
B-Zy-s B-[p-\n-I hn H-fn-n-Iv-kn (1924) F-{X
cm-Py- ]-s-Sp-p
C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv thm-nw-Kv sa-jo-\n-s H-cp _m-e-v bq-Wnn F-{X m-\m-Yn-I-sf D-sm-n-m I-gn-bpw
{]m-No-\ `m-c-X-n-se a-lm-P-\-]-Z--fp-sS F-w
A-f-hp-Xq---v lm-c- P-\-X D-]-tbm-Kn-n-cp--Xv
G-Xv kw-Jy-bp-sS Kp-Wn-X--fm-Wv
A-ta-cn--bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s {]-kn-Um-Wv F-{_-lmw
en-
tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw \o-fw Ip-d- \-Zn-bm-b a-t-izcw \-Zn-v F-{X In-tem-ao- \o-f-ap-v
sXm-gn-e-h-k-c--fn Xp-ey-X F- B-i-bw G-Xv `-c-WL-S-\m A-\p-t-Z-n-em-Wv {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
H-cp cq-]-bv-v Xp-eyw F-{X A-W B-bn-cp-p
Ir-jvW
- t- Z-hc
- m-b hn-Pb
- \
- K
- c
- k
- m-{am-Pyw `-cn-X
- v G-Xv \qm-n-em-Wv
D-z-kn-p- hm-bp-hn-se Hm-Iv-kn-P-s A-f-hv F-{X iX-am-\a
- m-Wv
3476. sj-jm I-\u-Pv bp--n lp-a-bq-Wn-s\ ]-cm-P-b-s-Spn-b h-jw- 1540
3477. I-dp- kz-Ww F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- s]-t{Sm-fn-bw
3478. -Km-n-Pn tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-Um-b h-jw- 1924
3479. ssN-\-b-tb-bpw X-bv-hm-t\-bpw th-Xn-cn-p- I-S-en-Sp-v- Xbv-hm I-S-en-Sp-v
3480. tIm-gn-tm-Sv Pn--bn-se sIm-fm-hn-m-ew F-n-\p {]-kn-w-
I-S-em-a-kw-c--W tI-{w
3481. A-[n-h-j--fn ]p-Xn-sbm-cp am-k-ap- I-e- G-Xv- blq-Z I-e-
3482. 1957-se C.Fw.F-kv.a-{n-`-bn-se X-t-i-`-c-W h-Ip-p-a-{n-
]n.sI.Nm-
3483. tX-\o- k-aq-l-n-se sXm-gn-em-fn-I B-cv- s] tX-\o-
3484. tZ-io-b-Km-\-n-s ^p th-j ]m-Sm-\m-h-iy-am-b k-a-bw 52 sk- v
3485. tI-c-f kn-hn k-]v-ssf-kv tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w--F-dWm-Ip-fw
3486. km-sc P-lmw tk A-m F-p Xp-S-p- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv- apl--Zv C-Iv-_m
3487. tI-c-f kw-Ko-X \m-S-I A-mZ-an-bp-sS B-m-\w- Xr-q
3488. km-tm ]m-k- F- I-Ym-]m-{X-n-s {k-jv-Sm-hv- skhmn-kv
3489. I-dp---F- I-Ym-]m-{Xw B-cp-sS kr-jv-Sn-bm-Wv- X-I-gn inh-i--c-n-
3490. ln-p-]p-cm-W--fn ssZ-h--fp-sS `n-j-Kz-c- [-\z--cn
3491. ln-p-a-X-m-c-\-m- B-Zy C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- a-taml kn-Mv
3492. i-co-c
- n-se `-S-am F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- sh-fp- c-m-Wp
3493. C-y k--in- B-Zy-s hn-tZ-i k-m-cn- sa-K-kv-X-\o-kv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

97

3494. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S k-`-bn {]-kw-Kn- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X--amXm A-ar-Xm-\--a-bn


3495. s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s ]-cn-n-Xn {]-h-I- hmw-Km-cn am-Xm-bn
3496. sF.F-kv.B.H.bp-sS B-m-\w- _mw-q
3497. kn-p \-Zo-X-S \n-hm-kn-I {]-[m-\-am-bn B-cm-[n-n-cp-
ar-Kw- Im-f
3498. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S s]m-Xp-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy k-t-f-\-n-\p th-Znbm-b \-K-cw- e-
3499. K-eo-en-tbm G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv P-\n--Xv- C--en
3500. kn-Jv-a-X-n-se B-sI Kp-cp--am- 10
3501. kn-K-d-v sse--dp-I-fn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hm-X-Iw- _yq-t-bv
3502. sIm-n Xp-d-ap-J-n-s in-ev-]n- tdm-_-v _n-tm
3503. k-am-[m-\w H-gn-sI-bp- hn-j-b--fn s\m-t_ k-m-\Zm-\w \-S-p- \-K-cw- tm-v-tlmw
3504. tIm-g-t-cn {]-kw-L-n-s t]-cn in-n--s- t\-Xm-hv kn.tI-i-h
3505. 1959 C-y-bn G-Xp-\-K-c-n-em-Wv sS-en-hn-j kw-t{]-Ww B-Zy-am-bn \-S-n-b-Xv- \yq-U-ln
3506. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b m-t\-{n-bw- Xz-v
3507. tIm-h-e-s-bpw I--In-bp-sS-bpw {]-W-bw {]-Xn-]m-Zy-am-b IrXn- Nn-e--Xn-Im-cw
3508. a-lm-ho-c ssP-\-a-X-[-tam-]-tZ-iw \-S-m D-]-tbm-Kn-ncp- `m-j- {]m-Ir-Xw
3509. C-y-bp-sS B-m-hv {Km-a
- f
- n-em-Wv F-v {]-Jym-]n- a-lm a-lm-m-Km-n
3510. sa-tem ]m-n-se am-Pn-p-Im-c F--dn-b-s--Xv- F-Unk
3511. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b \-Zo-Zzo-]m-b a-Pp-en G-Xv \-Zn-bnem-Wv- {_--]p-{X
3512. C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b sd-bn-th m-v-t^mw nXn-sN-p- kw-m-\w- ]-n-a _w-Km
3513. Hm-kv-t{S-en-b h-I-c-sb-bpw Sm-kv-am-\n-b Zzo-]n-t\-bpw thXn-cn-p- I-S-en-Sp-v- _m-kv I-S-en-Sp-v
3514. sX-t C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b I-S-m-ew-
]m- ]m-ew (A-m--C-n-cm-Km-n ]m-ew) (2.3 In.ao.)
3515. Hm-kv-t{S-en-b-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- ap-td Um-enMv
3516. sa-p-dn-Iv sX-tam-ao- I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Um-\n-tb K-{_ntbm ^m-c-lo-v(1714)
3517. Pm-X-Iw X-m-dm-p- hn-Zy C-ym-m B-cn-\n-p-am-Wv
]Tn--Xv- {Ko-p-Im
3518. Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn B-cw-`n- ]-{Xw- C-y Hn-\n-b
3519. I-em-a-Wv-U-e-n-s {]-Y-a sk-{I--dn-bm-bn-cp--Xv- ap-Ip--cmP
3520. Pm-Xn th-m a-Xw-th-m a-\p-jy-\v F-p ]-d--Xv- k-tlmZ-c A--
3521. Pm-X-I-I-Y-I D-t-iw F-{X-sb--ap-v- 549
3522. s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy A-d-_v km-ln-Xy-Im-c-
\-Po-_v a-lv-^q-kv (1988, Cu-Pn-]v-Xv)
3523. s\m-t_ ss{]-kv k-m-\n-p- cm-Pyw- kzo-U
3524. ssN-\o-kv hn-]v-f-h-s-p-S-v Nn-bm-Mv ssI-j-Iv G-Xp Zzo]n-te-m-Wv ]-em-b-\w sN-bv-X-Xv- X-bv-hm(t^m-tam-k)
3525. sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-se I-c-_-n-X cm-Py-- s_m-fo-hnb, ]-cm-tKz
3526. t]m-fn-tbm hm-Iv-kn I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm-\m-kv km-v
3527. kn-p-\-Zo-X-S kw-kv-Im-cw F- hm-v B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-Xv- tPm am-j
3528. ln-p-kv-Ym t]-- tIm-]-td-j-s- B-kv-Ym-\w- sh-q3529. ssN-\--d-jy F-o cm-Py--fp-sS A-Xn-n-bm-b \-Zn- Aap
3530. sa-m-d (a-Sn-t-cn) G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- I-Wm-S-Iw
3531. s\m-t_- k-am-[m-\- k-m-\-w e-`n-- B-Zy-s- A-ta-cn-{]-kn-U-v- Xn-tbm-U- d-q-kv-sh-v-

98

CONFUSING FACTS
N-{-Kn-cn-tm- \n-an-X
- v _n-Z\
- q-cn-se in-h
- \
- m-bI
- v, tlmkv-Zp-Kv tIm- \n-an--Xv C-t-cn-hw-i-n-se tkm-a-tiJ-c \m-b-Iv.
X-]m-m-v, \m-W-bw F-n-h-bn ap-{Z-Ww sN--s B-Zy a-e-bm-fn {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hm-Wv. X-]m mn-se-bpw \m-W-b-n-se-bpw B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X kn A-t^m-km--bm-Wv.
{_u j-v-kv F- kw-L-S-\-bv-p cq-]w \-In-b-Xv
P-a-\n-bn-se ln-v-e-dm-Wv. I-cn-p-m-b-m (m-v jv-kv) C--en-bn-se ap-tm-fn-\n-bp-sS kw-L-S-\-bm-Wv.
3532. ln-n km-ln-Xy-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn- ]r-Yzn-cm-P-dm-tkm F Ir-Xn c-Nn--Xv- N-{-h-c-Zm-bn
3533. ssN-\o-kv hn--h-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- k
bm-Xv sk
3534. ln-p Im-e-L--n-se A-Iv-_ F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv l-j
3535. sX-t C-y-bn,- A-ta-cn--m hn-I-kn-n-s-Sp- kp-Jhm-k-tI-{w--sIm-ssU--\m3536. ln-p-a-X-n-s A-Izn-\m-kv F--dn-b-s--Xv- B-Zn-i--c
3537. 1972 Pq-em-bn C-n-cm Km-n-bpw kp-^n- A-en `q-tmbpw X-n C-ym--]m-Iv I-cm H-n- \-K-cw--jnw-e
3538. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se c-m-a-s h-en-b {K-n- B-t-b {Kn
3539. l-n-Mv-k tcm-Kw _m-[n-p- A-h-b-hw- a-kv-Xn-jv-Iw
3540. ln-Pv-d h-j-n-se A-h-km-\-s am-kw- Zp-l-Pv
3541. Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn C-y H-n-\n-b B-cw-`n-Xv-1903
3542. Im-em-h-[n-bm-b A-p-h-jw Xn-I-, tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS
N-cn-{X-n-se BZy kv-]o-- Fw.hn-P-b-Ip-am
3543. ta--q- \m-cm-b-W-`--Xn-cn-bp-sS Im-e-L-w F-tm
F.Un.15591620
3544. ssk-a I-n-js
- \-Xn-sc-bp- {]-Xn-tj-[k
- a
- c
-
- n-\n-Sb
- n-te em-n-bS- n-I G-Xp-t\-Xm-hn-\m-Wv a-cW
- I
- m-cW
- a
- m-b-Xv- emem e-Pv-]-Xv-dm-bn
3545. Nm-W-I-n-\n-v D-m-Ip- H-cp hm-X-Iw- ao-tY
3546. Nm-Xp-h-Wy-n-s i-cn-bm-b {I-aw- {_m--W, -{Xn-b,
ssh-iy, iq-{Z
3547. Pm-Zp-Kp-U J-\n G-Xp [m-Xp-hn-\p {]-kn-w- bp-td-\n-bw
3548. Pn.F-kv.A- 1878 B-cw-`n- ]-{Xw- Zn ln-p
3549. s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy ]m-In-kv-Xm-Im-c- A_v-Z-kv k-emw (^n-kn-Iv-kv, 1979)
3550. Nm-W-Iy-s b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- hn-jv-Wp-Kp-]v-X
3551. Nn-{X-c-N-\-bn X-]-c-\m-bn-cp- ap-K N-{I-h-n- P-lmwKo
3552. Pn-m-lu-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- apw-ss_-bn
3553. Nm-W-Iy-s A-Y-im-kv-{Xw Cw-Kv-fo-jn-te-v ]-cn-`m-j-s-Spn-b-Xm-cv- iym-a-im-kv-{Xn
3554. m-\w sIm-v H-cp h-kv-Xp-hn-\p e-`n-p- Du-Pw- m-\ntIm-Pw
3555. m-]-I D- a-X--fn-h-v G--hpw {]m-No-\w- Pq-X-a-Xw
3556. tI-c-f Iu-ap-Zn ]-{Xw B-cw-`n--Xv- sI.kp-Ip-am-c
3557. tI-c-f Iu-ap-Zn F- hym-I-c-W {K-w c-Nn--Xv- tIm-hp-n
s\-Sp-m-Sn
3558. Nn-{X-Im-c-\m-b hm-tKm-Kv P-\n- cm-Pyw- s\-X-e-Uv-kv
3559. tk-hm-{Kmw B-{i-aw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
3560. -tI-c-f-n-se Du-n F-p hn-fn-p- dm-Wn-]p-c-n-s ]-g-bt]-cv- am-S-p-a-e
3561. tI-c-f-N-cn-{X-n ]-d-n-I F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- t]m-p-Kokp-Im
3562. k-em-P-Mv- ayq-kn-bw- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zn-

]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3563. I-em-Im-c-am-cn cm-Pm-hpw cm-Pm--am-cn I-em-Im-c\


- pw F-dn-b-s--Xv- kzm-Xn Xn-cp-\m
3564. Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn Z-_-\n-\-Sp-v ^o-\n-Iv-kv skn-sa v m-]n- h-jw 1904
3565. s\-s-cn-v A-\p-`-h-s-Sp--Xv G-X-h-b-h-n-em-Wv- B-am-ibw
3566. ta-n-fn-s \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- Im-\-U
3567. sa-\m-U-sd _p--a-X-n-te-v ]-cn-h--\w sN-bv-X-Xv- \mKm-Pp-\(\m-K-tk-\)
3568. Z-n-tW-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ^o- ^n-enw- Io-N-I-h-[w
3569. ta-cn C-hm-kv- G-Xp-t]-cn-em-Wv {]-kn-n-bm-Pn--Xv- tPm-Pv
G-en-b-v
3570. kn-p kw-kv-Im-c-tI-{-am-b tdm- G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-mbn-cp-p- k-Xv-e-Pv
3571. Pn--I- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn 1949\p ap-v F-p-t]-cn-em-Wv Adn-b-s-n-cp--Xv- d-h-\yq Un-hn-j
3572. 1975 Pq 25\v A-Sn-b--cm-h- H-p-sh-p-sIm-p- {]Jym-]-\-n H-p-sh- {]-kn-U v- ^-{Ip-o A-en A-l-Zv
3573. ta-cn Iyq-dn P-\n- cm-Pyw -t]m-f-v
3574. 1977 \-S- Xn-c-s-Sp-n C-n-cm-Km-n-sb ]-cm-P-b-sSp-n-b-Xv- cm-Pv \m-cm-b
3575. Z-im-h-Xm-c--fn A-h-km-\-t-Xv- I-n
3576. ta-b-sd A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p- ]-Zw- Bcm-[y-\(b)m-b(tI-c-f-n "BZ-c-Wob' Fv t`Z-KXn
sNbvXn-p-v.)
3577. tI-c-f In-knw-P F--dn-b-s--Xv- t_-_n tPm
3578. ta-Lm-e-b-bp-am-bn A-Xn-n ]-n-Sp- G-I A-b-cm-Pyw-
_w-m-tZ-iv
3579. tI-c-f en- F--dn-b-s--Xv- ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp-
3580. G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn m-\w h-ln--Xv-
hn hn Kn-cn
3581. tem-I-n P-\- G--hp-a-[n-Iw Xn-n-m-p- {]-tZiw- a-m-hp
3582. B-[p-\n-I d-jy km-ln-Xy-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- A-e-Iv-km-
]p-jvI
- n
3583. tam-fn-hp-Uv (t_m-fn-hp-Uv) F- A-]-c-am-a-n-e-dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- apw-ss_-bn-se kn-\n-am-hy-h-km-bw
3584. sXm--ap-g D-m-Ip--Xv G-Xv aq-e-I-n-s A-`m-hw aq-e-amWv- A-b-Un
3585. Xm-thm-bn-k-n-s m-]-I- em-thm-Sv-sk
3586. 1993 X-s cm-jv-{So-b {]-Xn-tbm-Kn-sm-w (F-^v.U-yp.
Un -v) k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_ ]-n--Xm-cv--s\-k-a-te
3587. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn t]- I-d-kn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- ssN\
3588. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se c--n-s i-cm-i-cn A-f-hv--A-p
en-
3589. tem-I-{]-kn--am-b tIm-ln-\q- c-Xv-\w- e-`n- J-\n- - tKmsm-
3590. Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-p P-\n-p-I-bpw P-a-\n tI-{-am-n {]-hn-p-I-bpw sN-bv-X hn--h-Im-cn--tUm.sN--I-cm-a ]n-
3591. tem-I-n-s {_-Uv _m-kv-I-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- {]-b-dn ]pta-Sp-I Im-W-s-Sp- h-I-c--h-S-t A-ta-cn-
3592. s\-Sn-bn-cp-v F-d
- n-bs
- -n-cp- tZ-iL
- S- I
- w `-cn-n-cp-X
- v- kmaq-Xn-cn
3593. I-en--v k-h-I-em-im-e \n-e-hn h- h-jw- 1968
3594. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn _-Uv-P-v A-h-X-cn-n-n-p- ap-Jy-a-{nam- B.i-, kn. A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m, C.sI.\m-b-\m
3595. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn sk-{I-dn-b
- v k-{-Zm-bw B-hn-jvI
- c
- n- {_no-jv d-kn-U v- tI-W a-tdm
3596. ta-L--S F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--N-{
3597. Xn-tm-Sn-b F- Xq-en-Im\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s--Xv- ]n.Ip-\- \m-b
3598. tI-c-f-N-cn-{X-n e--m F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- U-p-Im

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

17

H-cp i-_v-Zw {]-Xn-[z-\n--W-sa-n i-_v-Z-kv-t{Xm-X-pw


{]-Xn-^-en-p- C-S-hpw X-n G--hpw Ip-d--Xv F-{X
ao- A-I-ew th-Ww
C-y I-d-kn-bn F-{X `m-j-I-fn aq-eyw tc-J-sSp-n-bn-p-v
ap-l--Zv K-kv-\n C-y-sb F-{X {]m-h-iyw B-{I-an-p
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv in-h-Pn Po-hn-n-cp--Xv
kzm-X-{y-Zn-\-n U-ln-bn-se sN-tm--bn tZ-iob-]-Xm-I G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw D-b-n-bn-p--Xv
P-hm-l-em s\-{lp-hm-Wv. F-{X {]m-h-iyw?
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s `m-K-n-em-Wv (]m-v)HutZym-Kn-I `m-j-I-sf-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
sIm-n-sb-bpw ]-\-th-en-s\-bpw X-n _-n-n-p-
C-tm-g-s 66mw \m-j-W ssl-th ap-v F-{Xm-a-s
\m-j-W ssl-th B-bn-cp-p
sIm-- sa-t{Sm C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s sd-bnth tkm-Wm-Wv
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv Xm-Pv-a-l ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv
C-y-bn-se B-Zy Cw-Kv-fo-jv ]--I-im-e m-]n-X-am-bXv G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv
C-y-bn-se t]m-p-Ko-kv ta-[m-hn-Xzw U-p-Im A-h-km\n-n--Xv G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv
A-bn-m-N-c-Ww in-m-l-am-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\pt-Zw
jm-P-lm N-{I-h-n `-c-Ww \-S-n-bn-cp- \q-m-v
U-p-Im-cp-sS B-Zy-s I-- k-aq-lw C-y-bn h-
\q-m-v
Cw--n G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv a-l-m-b hn--hw \-S-Xv
H-cp kv-{Xo-v F-{X N-Xp-c-{i A-Sn Xz-v D-v
3599. sa-\n-ss-n-kv F- tcm-Kw _m-[n-p- i-co-c-`m-Kw- X-etm
3600. sa-{Sn-Iv kw-hn-[m-\w B-Zy-am-bn \-S-m-n-b cm-Pyw- {^mkv
3601. Km-n-Pn {]m-hm-kw I-gn-v C-y-bn Xn-cn-s-n-b hjw A--cn- t\-Xm-hv--tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W tKm-J-se
3602. A-l--Zm-_m-Zv G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- k-_-a-Xn
3603. tem-I-n-s ]--km-c-n-w -Iyq-_
3604. s\-tm-fn-b {^-p-N-{I-h-n-bm-bn m-\-ta- -ew-
t\m-{X-Zmw I-o-{U
3605. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn Fw-tm-bv-sa v F-Iv-kv-tN-v B-cw-`n- cmPyw- bp.F-kv.F.
3606. m-Wp-c-hn-h-a-s A-mw `-c-W-h-j-n A--\-Sn-I
Xn-cp-h-Sn-I \-In-b sN-p-^-e-Iw- X-cn-km--n im-k-\w
3607. n-c Im--ap-m-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- tem-l-k--cw- A\n-tm
3608. P-a sj-t-Uv F- \m-b-bp-sS a-sm-cp t]-cv- A-tkjy
3609. Km-n-Pn ]Tn-m Cw--n t]m-b h-jw- 1888
3610. P-am-_-n ]-cn-jv-Im-c- sIm-p-h--Xv- Sn-p kp-m
3611. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn lr-Z-b-am- i-kv-{X-{In-b (1967) \-S- cmPyw--Z-n-Wm-{^n-
3612. P-Z-]m-d h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-na _w-Km
3613. I-enw-K ss{]-kv- G-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p- kw-L-S-\- bp-s\kv-tIm
3614. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew Fw.F.F. Bbn-cp--Xv- kn.l-cn-Zm-kv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n

99

3615. Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn F-{X-Zn-h-kw X-S-h-d-hm-kw A\p-`-hn-n-p-v -249


3616. m-t\m-tcm-l-W-n-\p-ti-jw in-h-Pn kzo-I-cn- m-\-tcv- O-{X-]-Xn
3617. Km-n-Pn {]m-Y-an-I hn-Zym-`ym-kw t\-Sn-b -ew- cm-Pv-tIm-v
3618. Pm-en-b-hm-em-_m-Kv Iq--sm-e-bv-v t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b DtZym-K-- P-\-d U-b
3619. ln-v kz-cm-Pv c-Nn--Xv- Km-n-Pn
3620. tI-cf
- l-b F-Pyp-t-j Iu-kn-en-s B-Zy sN-b-am tUm.sI.F.]-Wn-
3621. 1998--C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n F._n.hm-Pv-t]-bn-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm
{]-[m-\-a-{n \-hm-kv sj-co-^pw {]-Jym-]-\-n H-p-sh-
\-K-cw--em-tlm
3622. m-n-Iv k-P-dn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- kp-{ip-X
3623. Hm-tcm ]-n-sm--hpw H-cp ]-n-q-Sw F- B-i-bw-ap-tmp-h- km-aq-ln-I ]-cn-jv-I-m-hv- Nm-h-d-b-
3624. Ip-am-c-Kp-cp-tZ-h F--dn-b-s- km-aq-ln-I ]-cn-jv-I-m-hv-
s]m-bv-I-bn A--
3625. 1949 Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq tZ-h-kzw t_m-Un-s B-Zy {]-knUm-b-Xv- a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
3626. Pm-kv F- kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-Ww cq-]w sIm- cm-Pyw- bp.Fkv.F.
3627. sF.F-kv.B.H.bp-sS B-Zy-s sN-b-am- hn-{Iw km-cm`m-bn
3628. tam-kv-am-bv sh--m-w G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
3629. D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-sb Xn-c-s-Sp-p--Xv- tem-Iv-k-`-bn-se-bpw
cm-Py-k-`-bn-se-bpw F-m Aw-K--fpw tN-v.
3630. ta-L--fp-sS ]m-n-Sw F- F--dn-b-s-Sp- kw-m-\w-
ta-Lm-e-b
3631. tem-I{- ]-ik
- X
v- k
- n-\n-am-kw-hn-[m-bI
- \
- m-bn-cp- A-In-c Ip-dt- kmh G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- P-m
3632. Km-n-Pn {_--N-cyw Po-hn-X-N-cy-bm-bn kzo-I-cn-m Xo-cpam-\n- h-jw- 1906
3633. D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-sb-p-dn-p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A\p-t-Zw- 63
3634. ln-am-e-bw G-Xp X-cw in-e-I-fm \n-an-X-am-Wv- A-h-km-Z-ine-I
3635. sa-bn sk-{S tdm-Uv X-n _-n-n-p--Xv--Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw- A--am-en
3636. sa-bv H-n-\v \n-e-hn-h- H-cp C-y kw-m-\w- a-lm-cmjv{- S
3637. C-y-bp-sS H-mw- kzm-X-{y-k-a-cw- {]-Jym-]n--s- h-jw 1857
3638. sh-fn-w Zpx-J-am-Wp-n...F--Xv G-Xv Ir-Xn-bn-se h-cn-I
C-cp-]-Xmw \q-m-n-s C-Xn-lm-kw
3639. shm-Ub
- m cm-Ph
- w-i
- n-s X-e
m-\a
- m-bn-cp-X
- v- ssa-kq
3640. a-lm-ho-c-s am-Xm-hv- {Xn-im-e
3641. sh-Pn--_n tKm-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Ip-p-aw
3642. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I--cn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- skIv-S- Xm-]-\n-e-b-
3643. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b-h-cn I-ayp-Wn-v Nm-bv-hp-m-bn-cp- GI hy-n- A-cp-W B-k-^v A-en
3644. sF.kn.Nn-p-I \n-an-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- aq-e-Iw- kn-en
3645. Km-n- Po-hn-X-hpw Nn--bpw B-cp-sS Ir-Xn-bm-Wv- sP._n.Ir]-em-\n
3646. sa-tU- I-p-am-bn _--s- I-fn- ^p-Sv-t_m
3647. kn-p kw-kv-Im-c-tI-{-am-b _-\m-hm-en G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-cm-bn-cp-p- L-
3648. ln-p--ap-nw ssa-{Xn-bp-sS {]-Xn-]p-cp-j F-v Pn--sb hnti-jn-n--Xv- k-tcm-Pn-\n \m-bn-Up
3649. tI-c-f N-cn-{X-n-se G-I ap-nw cm-P-hw-iw- A-d-bv-
3650. C-tm \n-e-hn-ep--Xn G--hpw ]-g-b \m-K-cn-I-X- ssN-\
3651. Cw--n Km-n-Pn \n-b-a-]T-\w \-S-n-b hn-Zym-e-bw- C sS-n
3652. `q-an-tbm-Sv G--hp-a-Sp-p- B-Im-i-tKm-fw- N-{

CONFUSING FACTS
72mw h-b-n _o-lm-dn-se ]m-h-]p-cn-bn-em-Wv a-lm-hoc C-l-tem-I-hm-kw sh-Sn--Xv. 80 mw h-b-n KuX-a-_p- D--{]-tZ-in-se Ip-in-\-K-c-n-em-Wv A-cn-X
- v.
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS 32mw A-\p-t-Zw kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn-bn
dn-v s]-o-j k-a-n-p--Xn-s\--n-bpw 226mw A-\pt-Zw ssl-tm-S-Xn-bn dn-v s]-o-j k-a-n-p-Xn-s\--n-bpw {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-p.
H-Iv-tSm-_ 9 tem-I X-]m-Zn-\-hpw H-Iv-tSm-_ 10 tZ-iob X-]m-Zn-\-hp-am-Wv.
3653. ap-Xp-a-e h-\y-ar-K k-t-Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-n-em-Wv- X-an-gv\m-Sv
3654. t]m-fn-tbm-bv-p Im-c-W-am-b tcm-Km-Wp- ssh-d-kv
3655. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s kq--tkm-Wn-Iv sP-v hn-am-\w- Fv.F-^v 24 am-cp-Xv
3656. t]m-fn-Un-]v-kn-b F-m-Wv- A-an-X-Zm-lw
3657. ta-q A-W-s-v G-Xp-\-Zn-bn--Im-th-cn
3658. tem-I-{]n-b tKm-]n-\m-Yv t_m-tZm-fn hn-am-\-m-h-fw F-hnsS-bm-Wv- Kp-h-l-n
3659. tI-c-f-ssl-tm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-km-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X P-n-kv sI.sI.D-j
3660. `q-ap-J-s G--hpw h-en-b P-p- \o-e-n-anw-Kn-ew
3661. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew A-[n-Im-c-n Xp-S-
ap-Jy-a-{n- tPym-Xn-_-kp
3662. I-enw-K-p--c-Wn c-Nn--Xv- P-b-sIm-
3663. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X _-Uv-P-p-I A-h-Xcn-n-n-p- [-\-a-{n- sI.Fw.am-Wn
3664. i-co-c-h-ep--hp-am-bn Xm-c-X-ayw sN-p-tm G--hpw h-en-b akv-Xn-jv-I-ap- ss{]-ta-v--a-\p-jy
3665. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew tIm-f-\n `-c-W-n-\p hnt[-b-am-b {]-tZ-iw- tKm-h
3666. B-Zy-s sk-t^m ]p-d-n-d-n-b I--\n- tam-tm-tdmf
3667. Cw--n A-Sn-a-w A-h-km-\n-n- h-jw- 1833
3668. B-Zy-s ssk-tm-f-Pn e-t_m-d--dn m-]n--Xm-cv- hq-v
3669. sIm-n Xp-d-ap-J-n-s \n-am-W-n k-l-I-cn- cm-Pyw-
P-m
3670. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s B-Iv-Sn-Mv- {]-[m-\-a-{n- Kp-k-cn-em
\-
3671. A-l--Zm-_m-Zv \-K-c-n-s m-]-I- A-l--Zv jm H-ma
3672. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s {_nojv K-h-W- P-\-d- hm-dtl-kv-n-Mv-kv3673. A-l--Zo-b {]-m-\w B-cw-`n--Xv- an-k Kp-emw A-l--Zv
3674. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s sa-bn _m-n Sm-v- A-Pp
3675. a-lm-m-Km-\v-[n Z-Wv-Un am-v B-cw-`n--Xv- k-_-a-Xn B-{iaw
3676. m-kn bp--n-s A-\--c-^-ew F-m-bn-cp-p- C-y-bn
{_n-o-jv `-c-W-n-\v A-Sn--d ]m-In
3677. A-m-cm-jv-{S ]p-kv-X-I h-jw- 1972
3678. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s B-Iv-Sn-Mv- {]-kn-U v- hn- hn- Kn-cn3679. a-lm-m-Km-n h-[n--s- _n-fm lu-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-
\yq-U-ln
3680. sF.Sn.km--c-Xm ]--Xn-bm-b A--b-bv-p Xp-S-w Ip-dn-
Pn-- a-e-p-dw
3681. sIm-n km-K c-Nn--Xv- tdm-_-v {_n-tm
3682. a-\p-jy lr-Zb
-
- n-s `m-cw-]
- p-cp-j- 340 {Kmw, kv{- Xo- 255{Kmw
3683. A-Pp-\ A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s a-e-bm-fn A-Xv-e-v-
Sn.kn.tbm-lm

100 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3684. Z-n-Wm-[-tKm-f-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw {_-ko


3685. sX-t C-y k--in- A-X-t\-jy-kv \n-In-Xn G-Xv cm-Pym-c-\m-bn-cp-p- d-jy
3686. a-e-bm-fn sa-tm-dn-bn k-a-n- h-jw- 1891
3687. ssN-\o-kv dn--n-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- k-bm-Xv-sk
3688. sIm-n Xp-d-ap-Jw cq-]w sIm- h-jw- 1341
3689. ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS hn-c-an- {]m-bw- 62
3690. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b ssk-\y-ap- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
(]o-n-kv en-_-td-j B-an)
3691. ssk-a I-n-j cq-]w-sIm- h-jw- 1927
3692. sIm-n im-kv-{X--km-t-Xn-I k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-Zy
ssh-kv Nm-k-e- tPm-k-^v ap--t-cn
3693. t]m-fn-tbm Xp-n-a-cp-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- B-_-v km_n
3694. a-lm-Im-hy-sa-gp-Xm-sX a-lm-I-hn ]-Z-hn t\-Sn-b-Xv- Ip-am-c-\mim
3695. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s ap-nw cm-jv-{S-]-Xn- k-o lp-ssk
3696. sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-se tPm-Pv hm-jnMv-S F--dn-b-s-Xv- ssk-a s_m-fn-h
3697. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn aq-ey-h-[n-X \n-Ip-Xn \-S-m-n-b cm-Pyw-
{^m-kv
3698. sIm-n, Xn-cp-s
- Im-n, tI-cf
- \
- n-ba
- k
- `
- I
- f
- n-epw tem-Ivk
- `
- b
- n-epw
cm-Py-k-`-bn-epw Aw-K-am-Im A-h-k-cw e-`n- G-I hy-n-
sI.I-cp-Wm-Ic
-
3699. tI-c-f-s kw-_-n- G--hpw ]-g-b ]-cm-a-iw G-Xn-em-Wp-Xv- sF-X-tc-bm-c-Wy-I-n
3700. U-ln-bp-sS `-c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-am-b \m-aw- tZ-io-b X-e-m-\
{]-tZ-iw
3701. a-lm-I-hn D-q P-\n- h-jw- 1877
3702. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s \m-hn-I-tk-\m-ta-[m-hn- B.Un.
J-{Xn
3703. tI-{-a-{n-k-`mw-K--v hy-n-]-c-am-b D--c-hm-Zn-Xzw
B-tcm-Sm-Wv- {]-[m-\-a-{n-tbm-Sv
3704. tI-c-f {]-kv A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-Zy-s sN-b-am- sI.F.
Zm-tam-Z-c-ta-t\m
3705. I-enw-Kw F- {]-tZ-iw C-tm A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- H-do-k
3706. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s X-t-io-b bm-{Xm-hn-am-\w- k-c-kv
3707. a-\p-jy-ic
- o-c
- n-s h-f- \n-b{- n-p- tlm-tam-t- {Kmv tlm-tam
3708. a-lm- F-v B-Zy-am-bn Km-n-Pn-sb kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-XXv- Sm-tKm
3709. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy `q-]-Sw X-mdm-n-b-Xv- tU B-hn-n
3710. kn-en-tm-kn-kv F- tcm-Kw _m-[n-p--Xv F-hn-sS ]-Wnsb-Sp-p--h-m-Wv- ]m-d-a-S-I-fn
3711. Ip-am-c-]m-e-N-cn-Xw c-Nn--Xv- P-b-knw-l
3712. t^m-Iv-em v Zzo-]p-I G-Xp cm-Py-n-s Io-gn-em-Wv- {_n
3713. B-kq-{X-W-I-n-j-s B-Zy A-[y-- P-hm-l-em s\{lp
3714. t_m--Wn t_ F- k-ap-{Z-`m-Kw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Sm-kv-am IS-en
3715. B-kq-{X-WI
-
- n-js
- B-Zy D-]m-[y--K
- p-kc
- n-em \-
3716. t_m-Km-n Zzo-]n-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- t]m-n--c A-s-n
ap-fh
- p-Im-Sv
3717. A-[n-Im-c-n-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy- C-y {]-kn-U v-
tUm.- k-o- lp-ssk3718. km-v k-t-f-\-n-\p th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy C-y \-K-cw-_mw-q
3719. Ip-m-en a-c-bv-m-sc h-[n--Xv- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im
3720. t_- tIm- ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- in-h- \m-b-Iv
3721. A-b-sh-p- Po-hn-I-fn G--hpw h-ep-Xv--Pn-dm-^v
3722. kn-hn hn-hm-lw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv c-Pn- sN-p--Xv- k-_v cPn-kv-{Sm Hm-^o-kn
3723. sF-_o-cn-b F-b-sse-kv- G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv k-ho-kv \S-p--Xv- kv-s]-bn

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

18

tI-c-f-n-se tem-Iv-k-`m ko-p-I-fn F-{X-sb--am-Wv P\-d hn-`m-K-n-ep--Xv


_-lp-a-Xn-I (ssS-n) \-Ip--Xn-\n-v t-n-s\ hne-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
{_n-o-jv C-y-bp-sS hn-kv-Xo-W-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\am-Wv hn-`-P-\-tm-sS ]m-In-kv-Xm-\v e-`n--Xv
tI-c-f-n tem--dn G-Pm-Im-\p- Ip-d- {]m-bw F{X-bm-Wv
Im-S-ap- hn-cn-bp--Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b k-a-bw F-{X Zn-h-k-amWv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s `m-K-n-em-Wv (]m-v) ASn-b--cm-h--sb-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv am-m-Wv-U-h-a B-[p-\n-I Xn-cphn-Xmw-Iq m-]n--Xv
`-K-h-Xv-Ko-X-bn-se A-[ym-b--fp-sS F-w
a-lm-`m-c-X-bp-w F-{X Zn-h-kw \o-p-\n-p.
C-y-bn kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS G--hpw Ip-d- hn-hm-l {]m-bw
1929- ]m-km-n-b im-c-Zm- B-Iv-Sv-{]-Im-cw- B-Ip-n-I-fpsS hn-hm-l-{]m-bw- F-{X-bm-bn D-b-n
tKm-^v tIm-gv-kn-se Ip-gn-I-fp-sS F-w
{_n-o-jv ]m-es
- an-s A-t[m-k`- b
- m-b lu-kv Hm-^v tIma-kn Aw-K-am-Im-\p- Ip-d- {]m-bw
am-b I-e--dn-se am-k--fp-sS F-w
B-h--\ ]-n-I-bn F-{X {Kq-p-I-fp-v
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv H-mw ]-g-n hn--hw \-S--Xv
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv Cw--n hym-h-km-bn-I hn--hw
B-cw-`n--Xv
C-y-bn s]m-Xp-Xn-c-s-Sp-n thm-p-sN-m-\m-h-iyam-b G--hpw Ip-d- {]m-bw
{]-[m-\ ]p-cm-W--fp-sS F-w
cm-Po-hv Km-n k-m-cn-s Im-e-v 61mw `-c-W-L-S-\m
t`-K-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS thm-p-sN-m-\m-h-iy-am-b Ip-d- {]mbw F-{X-bm-bn \n--bn-p
3724. Xm-c-s im-kv-{Xo-b \m-aw- ]o-n-cm-bm-kn-kv Im-n-n-kv
3725. a-lm-ho-c-s Pm-am-Xm-hpw B-Zy-in-jy-\pw- P-am-en
3726. C-y-bp-sS hm-\-m-Sn F-p hn-fn--Xm-sc- k-tcm-Pn-\n \mbn-Up
3727. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn ]-cp-n Ir-jn sN-bv-X-Xv- kn-p X-S \nhm-kn-I
3728. m-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s I-iv-ao-cn km-ln-Xy-Im-c- dm dm-ln
3729. a-lm-ho-c A-y-izm-kw h-en- ]m-h-]p-cn G-Xp kw-m-\m-Wv- _o-lm
3730. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s A-tm-an-Iv- dn-bm-Iv-S- A-]v-k-c
3731. 1959 Iyq-_-bn \-S- hn--h-n-s t\-Xm-hv- ^n-U
Im-kv-t{Sm
3732. `-c-W-L-S-\m \n-am-W-k-`-bn-se G--hpw {]m-bw Iq-Sn-b AwKw- k-n-Zm-\- kn-l
3733. 1969 _m-p-I tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn--tm [-\-a-{n-bm-bn-cp-Xv- C-n-cm-Km-n
3734. C- y- b p- s S C- e - I v - t {Sm- W n- I v kn- n F- - d n- b - s - S p- - X v _mw-q
3735. Ip--_v-an-\m-dn-s G--hpw ap-I-fn-e-s \n-e ]p-Xp-n-\n-an-Xv- ^n-tdm-kvj
- m-Xp-I
- v
3736. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se ]p-tcm-Ka
- \
- m-I
- a
- m-b `-cW
-
- n-s Aw-KoIm-c-am-bn {_n-o-jv cm-n-bn-\n-v a-lm-cm-Pm-hv F- _ncp-Zw e-`n--Xv- B-bn-eyw Xn-cp-\m
3737. Ip--\m-Sn-s I-Ym-Im-c- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- X-I-gn

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 101

3738. _w-Km-fn hm-Wn-Py-n-\v Cu-v C-ym---\n-v A-\p-aXn e-`n- h-jw- 1634


3739. Ip-n-I-fp-sS t-aw e-y-an-v {]-h-n-p- A-m-cm-jv-{S
kw-L-S-\- bp-\n-sk-^v
3740. `-b-n-s-bpw sh-dp-n-s-bpw ta hn-P-bw t\-Sn-b a-\p-jy
F-v hn- N-n B-sc--n-bm-Wv ]-d--Xv- P-hm-lem s\-{lp
3741. `-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS G-Xv A-\p-t-Zw {]-Im-ca
- m-Wv cm-j{v- S-]X
- n Bwtm- C-y Aw-K--sf \m-a-\n-t-iw sN-p--Xv- 331
3742. Ip-n-I-p-th-n-bp- G--hpw h-en-b {]-m-\w- kv-Iu-v
3743. Ip-am-c-\m-im-s P---ew- Im-bn--c
3744. t_m-Iv-k I-em-]w- G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv \-S--Xv- ssN-\
3745. {]-km `m-c-Xn t_m-Un-s B-Zy-s sN-b-am- \n-Jn
N-{I-h-n
3746. t_-ew Kp-l-I G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- B-{m-{]-tZ-iv
3747. A-[n-I-ap- q-tm-kv i-co-c-n kw-`-cn-m I-gn-bm-
A-h-- {]-ta-lw
3748. a-c-o-\n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]m-Zn-n-p- tI-c-f-n-se
Pn-- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
3749. {^m-kn-se- \n-b-a-\n-am-W-k-`- \m-j-W- A-kw-n
3750. ssh-Zyp-X-_-_n-s ^n-e-sa v \n-an-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p-
tem-lw- S-Mv-
3751. {^m-kn-se- A-mw- dn--n-n-se- B-Zy- {]-kn-U-v- Nmkv- Un- tKm
3752. t`m-m Zp-c
-
- n-\p Im-cW
- a
- m-b cm-kh
- k
- vX
- p- ao-ssY sFtkm-k-b-t\-v
3753. t_m-[-K-b G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- _o-lm
3754. {In--n-s sa- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- e--\n-se tem-Uv-kv
t-Un-bw
3755. bp.Pn.kn.cq-]-h--cn--tm tI-{ hn-Zym-`ym-k a-{n- auem-\m A-_p I-emw
3756. t_m-h bp--n {_n-o-jp-Im-sc k-lm-bn-m Km-n-Pn
B-cw-`n-(1899) {]-m-\w- C-y Bw-_p-e-kv tIm-]v-kv
3757. a-[y-[c
- W
- ym-gn-bp-sS hn-f
- p-am-Sw F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp- ]-hX
- w- kvt{Smw-t_m-fn
3758. bp.Pn.kn.ssh-kv sN-b-am-\m-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- hn.F.cm-Pti-Jc
- ]n-
3759. {In--n-s ss_-_n F--dn-b-s-Sp- am-kn-I- hn-kv-U
3760. t_mw-Un-em- Np-cw G-Xp kw-m-\
- m-Wv- A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZiv
3761. 1905 kz-tZ-im-`n-am-\n ]-{Xw B-cw-`n--Xv- h-w au-e-hn
3762. t_-eq-cn-se sN--tI-i-h t-{Xw 1117 ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv-
tlm-bv-km-e hw-i-n-se hn-jv-Wp-h-[
3763. 1911 hn--h-n-eq-sS k bm-Xv sk cm-P-`-c-Ww A-h-km\n-n- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
3764. {In--p I-fn-bn H-pw t\-Sm-\m-Im-sX ]p-d-m-Ip--Xn-s\ ]d-bp- t]-cv- U-v
3765. t_mw-s_ t_mw-_ F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- -v k-n sS-Up-
3766. a-c
- o-\n-bn-eS-
- n-bn-cn-p- B-kn-Uv- {]q-kn-Iv B-kn-Uv (sslt{Um k-bm-\n-Iv B-kn-Uv)
3767. km-[m-cW
- a
- m-bn \n-ba
- k
- `
- -bn k-`m-t\-Xm-hv m-\w h-ln-p-Xv B-cm-Wv -ap-Jy-a{- n
3768. a-c
- n X-eI
- o-gm-bn Xq-n-n-S
- v D-d
- p- k-kX
-v \
- w
h-m
3769. {Z-hy-n-s B-dm-a-s A-h-- s^-an-tbm-Wn-Iv I--tk-v
3770. {Zm-hn-U ap-t- I-g-I-n-s Nn-w--D-Z-b kq-cy
3771. m-v X- Xow ]m-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ta-p-m-f-bw
3772. o-tU-gv-kv tcm-Kw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- lo-tam-^o-en-b
3773. A-Iv-_-dp-sS i-h-Ip-So-cw B-kq-{X-Ww sN-bv-X-Xv- A-Iv-_
3774. bq-tdm-n-s\-bpw G-jy-b-bpw th-Xn-cn-p- ]-h-X-\n-c-
bq-dm
3775. tI-c-f {]-tZ-iv tIm-{K-kv I-n-n-bp-sS G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d {]-kn-U v--F.sI. B-Wn
3776. km-[p-P\
- ]
- c
- n-]m-e\
- k
- w-Lw t]-cp-am-dn ]p-eb
- a
- l
- m-k`
- b
- m-b hjw- 1938
3777. C-mw [-a-]-cn-]m-e-\-kw-Lw m-]n--Xv- h-w au-e-hn

CONFUSING FACTS
_o-lm hn-Zym-]oTw m-]n--Xv tUm.cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zv.
`m-c-Xo-b hn-Zym `-h-s m-]-I sI.Fw.ap-jn.
X-I-gn-bp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv Hm-a-bp-sS Xo-c--fn .
ssh-w ap-l--Zv _-jo-dn-s B--I-Y-bm-Wv Hm-a-bpsS A-d-I. Hm-a-I-fp-sS Hm-f- Pn. i--c-p-dp-n-s
B--I-Y.
Np-h- c-m-Wp--fp-sS Ip-d-hv A-\o-an-b F- A-h-bv-v Im-c-W-am-Ip-p. Np-h- c-m-Wp--fp-sS Fw {I-am-Xo-X-am-bn h-[n-p- A-h--bm-Wv t]m-fnssk-o-an-b.
{Sm-h-Iq t-v am-\z-en-s I-m-hv hn.\m-K-a--bmWv (1906). sIm-n t-v am-\z c-Nn--Xv kn.A-Nyp-Xta-t\m-\m-Wv (1911).
B-Wn B v n-tbm-]m-{S c-Nn--Xv hn-eyw tj-Iv-kv-]nb B-Wv. ko-k B v n-tbm-]m-{S bp-sS I-m-hv
tPm-Pv s_-Wm-Uv jm B-Wv.
3778. s]-cn-\m-Sv e-l-f \-S- h-jw- 1915
3779. a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`-s\ tI-c-f-n-se a-Z tam-l am-f-hy F-p
hn-ti-jn-n-X
- v- k-Zm sI.Fw.]-Wn-
3780. Ip-a-c-Iw G-Xv Im-b-en-s Xo-c-m-Wv- th--\m-Sv
3781. `-c-W-L-S-\m \n-am-W-k-`-bn H-_v-P-Iv-So-hv sd-skm-eq-j Ah-X-cn---Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
3782. _p-- s
- sP-\a
- X
-
- C-y-bn D-Ss
- e-Sp-X
- v- _n.kn.B-dmw
i-XI
-
- n
3783. a-lm-ho-cs
- `m-cy- b-tim-[
3784. Ip-am-c-\m-im-s ho-W-]q-hv G-Xp ]-{X-n-em-Wv B-Zyw {]-kno-Ic
- n-X
- v- - an-Xh
- m-Zn
3785. t_-cm-dn-se C-am-Zv-jm-ln-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- ^-m-hp- Al--Zv(1484)
3786. Ip- \-ym G-Xp cm-P-[m-\n-bn-em-Wv I-gn-n-cp--Xv A--e-p-g
3787. _p--v {]q-^v h-kv-{X- \n-an-p--Xn-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-p-
h-kvX
- p- sI-hve
- m
3788. Ip- m- n F- a- e - b m- f Nn- { Xw kw- h n- [ m- \ w sN- b v - X - X v Pn.A-c-hn-
3789. B-cp-sS P--Zn-\-am-Wv tZ-io-b bp-h-P-\-Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p-Xv- kzm-an hn-th-Im-\-
3790. _r-lZ- va
- R
- vP
- c
- n c-Nn-X
- m-cv- t-ta-{
3791. ip-n {]-m-\w B-cw-`n--Xv- Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
3792. t_m t]m-bn v t]-\ I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm sP. eu-Uv
3793. B-d-p-f I-m-Sn \n-an-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- ]-Zm-Yw- tem-lh-kX
-v p-
3794. Ip-am-c\
- m-im-s B-Zy-s {]-ik
- X
-v a
- m-b Ir-Xn- ho-W]
- q-hv (1907)
3795. a-lm-cm-jv{- S-bp-sS c-mw X-e
m-\w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- \m-Kv]q
3796. {]-Ir-Xn-hm-X-I-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- L-S-I-- ao-tY,
Cu-tY, s{]m-t, _yq-t
3797. t`m-m-en-s m-]-I-\m-b ]-c-am-c hw-i cm-Pm-hv- t`m-P
3798. {]-k-hn-p- ]m-v- A-W-en
3799. A-cp-W F-p hn-fn--s-Sp- {K-lw--bp-dm-\-kv
3800. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X B-W-h-{]-k-c-Ww D--Xm-bn _n-F-B-kn
I-s-n-b -ew- I-cp-\m-K--n
3801. A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in {_n-o-jv `-c-W-n-\p Xp-S--an- I-cm bm-m-thm I-cm (1826 ^n-{_-hc
- n 24)
3802. A-Iv_
- d
- p-sS k-Z
- n-se G-h
- pw {]-ik
- vX
- \
- m-b I-hn- Xp-fk
- o-Zmkv
3803. i-cm-hX
- n ]-X
- n G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- I-Wm-SI
3804. t_mw-s_-bv-p-ap-v ]-n-a-Xo-c-v {_n-o-jp-Im-cp-sS {]-[m-\
Xm-hf
- a
- m-bn-cp- \-Kc
- w -kq-d
- v

102 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3805. bq-tdm-n-s ]p-X-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- K-^v kv-{Sow


3806. bq-tdm-n-s ]-S--fw F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- s_-Pn-bw
3807. A-Iv-_-dp-sS Im-e-s a-n-c- {]-[m-\-am-bpw F-p-]-tbmKn-m-Wv \n-an-X
- v- Np-h
- a-W-
- v
3808. a-lm-cm-jv-{S-bn-se tkm-{I-o-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tKm-]m-eIr-jW
v- t- Km-Js
- e
3809. B-Zy tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kv \-S- h-jw- 1930
3811. t_ hm-v Xow ]m-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -I-\ym-Ip-am-cnv
3812. A-[n-Im-c-m-\-s-sm-v H-cp s]m-Xp I--hyw \-S-n-emn-n-m ]p-d-s-Sp-hn-p- I-ev-]-\- am-Um-a-kv
3813. t{]m-n-bw, Uyp-o-cn-bw, {Sn-jn-bw F-n-h G-Xp aq-e-I-n-s
sF-tkm-tSm-p-I-fm-Wv- ssl-{U-P
3814. B-Zy tIm-a-sh-v sK-bnw-kv \-S--tm A-Xn-s t]-cv-
{_n-o-jv F--b sK-bnw-kv
3815. a-lm-ho-c-\v ssI-h-eyw e-`n- -ew- {Pnw-`n-{Km-aw
3816. A-Iv-_-dp-sS k-Z-n-ep-m-bn-cp- A- I-hn- kq-Zm-kv
3817. A-c-hn- k-am-[n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- -]p-Xp-t-cn
3818. t_- tIm- G-Xp Pn--bn- Im-k-tIm-Sv
3819. `-cW
- L
- S- \
- m \n-am-Wk
- `- `-cW
- L
- S- \
- C-y Aw-Ko-Ic
- n- Xob-Xn- 1949 \-hw-_ 26
3820. B-e-p-g Pn--bn {]m-No-\-Im-e-p-m-bn-cp- _p--a-X-tI{w- {io-aq-e-hm-kw
3821. Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn-em-bn-cp- Im-e-v s]m-n-p-d-s bp-w- t_m-h bp-w
3822. i-I-cm-Pm-hm-b cp-{Z-knw-l-s\ h-[n- Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv--N-{-Kp-]v-X
hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
3823. ssh-Zyp-X Im-n-I t{]-c-Ww I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv- ssa- ^m-ctU
3824. t-Kn-\p Im-c-W-am-b tcm-Km-Wp- sb-kn-\n-b s]-n-kv
3825. {]-Ir-Xn-bp-sS tXm-n F--dn-b-s-Sp- ]-n- Im-
3826. a-lm-hn-`m-jw c-Nn-X
- m-cv- h-kp-an-{X
3827. t_-n-Mv tkm-U(A--m-cw)bp-sS cm-k-\m-aw- tkm-Un-bw
ss_-Im-_t- W-v
3828. A-Jn-e tI-c-f _m-e-P-\ k-Jyw cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn--Xv- sI.kn.
a
- m-- am-n-f
3829. H-cp sh-_v-ssk-n-se B-Zy t]-Pv- tlmw-t]-Pv
3830. Ip-m-t\z-j-W-Ir-Xn-I-fp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv- F-Uv-Km
A-e t]m
3831. A-en k-tlm-Z-c-am F- t]-cn {]-kn--cm-b-Xv- au-em-\m
ap-l--Zv A-en-bpw ju--v A-en-bpw
3832. t{]m-tm-m-ka
- m-Wv Po-hs
- `u-Xn-Ia
- m-b A-Sn-m-\w F-p ]d-X
- v- l-Iv-ke
- n
3833. a-[p-ssc-sIm--tNm-f F--dn-b-s--Xv- ]-cm--I tNm-f Hm-a
3834. kp-aw-K-e F- Xq-en-Im-\m-a-n F-gp-Xp- F-gp-p-Im-cn-
eo-e \-q-Xn-cn-m-Sv
3835. sk-{S A-ta-cn--bn-se G--hpw h-en-b cm-Pyw- \n--cm-Kz
3836. t_m-dn- km-Xv-]p-c ssS-K dn-k-hv G-Xv kw-m-\-v-- a-[y{]-tZ-iv
3837. {]-kn-a
- m-b h-n-bq-m-hv n-Xn sN-p- Pn-h-

sX- t C- y- b n- s e G- - h pw \o- f w Iq- S n- b I- S - m- e w- ]m ]m- e w (A- m- - C - n- c m- K m- n ]m- e w) (2.3 In.ao.)

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

19

C-jv-S-ap- sXm-gn sN-m ]u-c-\v kzm-X-{yw \Ip- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw


]-{X-kzm-X-{y-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m
A-\p-t-Zw
F-{Xmw i-XI
-
- n-em-Wv C-y-bn cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdmbv km-aq-ln-I cw-K
- v \-thm-m-\
- n-\v Xp-S
- w Ip-dn-X
- v
A-`n-{]m-b {]-I-S-\ kzm-X-{y-hp-am-bn _--s- `-c-WL-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw G-Xm-Wv
G--hpw sN-dn-b D-]-\n-j-m-Wv Cu-tim-hm-tkym-]-\n-jv. C-Xn F-{X ]-Zy--fm-Wp--Xv
k-tm-tm-kn-s Xp-S-w F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv
k-m-c kzm-X-{y-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-LS-\m A-\p-t-Zw
\n-tm-_m Zzo-]-k-aq-l-n F-{X Zzo-]p-I-fm-Wp--Xv
B-i-b {]-Im-i-\ kzm-X-yw A-\p-h-Zn-p- `-c-W-L-S\m A-\p-t-Zw
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS a-\-m-n F-v Granville
Austin hn-ti-jn-n- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
]-Wn-ap-S-w F- B-i-bw {_n--Wn cq-]w-sIm--Xv GXv \q-m-n-em-Wv
C-y-bn-se-hn-sS-bpw Xm-a-kn-m ]u-c-\v kzm-X-{yw
\-Ip- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv c-mw ]-g-n hn--hw \-S--Xv
au-en-I kzm-X{- y-s
- f-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-X
- v F-{Xma-s `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Z-n-em-Wv
1878 kn-hn k-ho-kv ]-co--sb-gp-Xm-\p- {]m-b]-cn-[n 21-\n-v F-{X h-b-m-bn-m-Wv Ip-d--Xv
kw-L-Sn-p--Xn-\v kzm-X-{yw A-\p-h-Zn-p- `-c-W-LS-\m A-\p-t-Zw F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
A-ta-cn--bn B-`y--c-bp-w \-S- \q-m-v
G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv Nm-kv Um-hn Po-hn-n-cp--Xv
{_n-o-jv km-{am-Pyw G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-Im-kw {]m-]n-Xv G-Xv \q-m-n-em-Wv
b-\m-Sv
3838. bp.F.Nm- H-p-sh- -ew- km-{^m-kn-kv-tIm
3839. 1971-se C-tm ]m-Iv bp--Im-e-v C-y-bp-sS k-h-ssk\ym-[n-]- hn.hn.Kn-cn
3840. A-Jn-e Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq {K--im-em-kw-L-n-s B-Zy-s
{]-kn-U v- sI.Fw.tI-ih
-
3841. q _p-v G-Xp cm-Py-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I {]-kn-n-I-c-W-am-Wv-
{_n-
3842. a-\p-jy-cm-in-sb-p-dn-p- i-cn-bm-b ]T-\-am-Wv a-\p-jy Fp ]-d
X
- v- A-eI
- vk
- m- t]m-v
3843. q hm- t]m-fn-kn-bp-am-bn _-s
- - `-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn- Un Ata-U
3844. hn-h-cm-Im-i \n-b-aw ]m-km-m Im-c-W-am-b {]-m-\w- a-kvZq In-km i-n kw-L-X
3845. q-Um-\yq-_n-s \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- s_-t{K-Uv
3846. km-aq-Xn-cn k-Z-n-se km-ln-Xy-{]-Xn-`-I-fm-b ]-Xn-s\--c--hnI-fn A-c--hn B-cv- ]q-\w \-q-Xn-cn
3847. m-kn-\v I-Spw-\o-e-\n-dw \-Ip--Xv- tIm-_m-v Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
3848. {_-lv-a-k-am-Pw- kv-Ym-]n--Xv- cm-Pm-dmw- tam-l-tdm-bv3849. m-kv e-bn-p--Xv F-n-em-Wv ssl-{U-P ^v-fq-ssd-Uv
3850. hm-Km t_m-U G-Xv cm-Py--fp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- Cy-bpw ]m-In-kvX
- m-\pw
3851. 1912 P-\-K-W-a-\- F-p io-j-I-n-em-Wv X-z-t_m-[n-\nbn {]-kn-o-I-cn--Xv- `m-c-Xv hn-[m-X

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 103

3852. a-\p-jy-c--n Hm-Iv-kn-P h-ln-p-sIm-p-t]m-Ip- L-SIw- lo-tam-tm-_n


3853. Ip-a m-c-\ m-im _- - s - p {]- h - n- kw- L-S-\- Fkv.F.Un.]n.
3854. N-{ F- D-]-{K-lw B-cp-sS kv-a-c-W \n-e-\n-p--Xn-\m-Wv
A-ta-cn- hn-t-]n-X
- v- tUm.F-kv.N-{-ti-J
3855. a-\p-jy-cn G-X-h-b-h-n-sh-m-Wv _o-P-kw-tbm-Kw \-S-p-Xv- ^-tem-n-b Syq-_v
3856. i-I-h-j-n-se c-m-a-s am-kw- ssh-im-Jw
3857. A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn-sb tZ-h-Kn-cn Io-g-S-m k-lm-bn--Xv-
am-en-Iv Im-^
3858. {^m-kn-se sh-gv-k-bv-kv- sIm-m-cw- ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- eq-bn]-Xn-\m-em-a
3859. A-en-q Kq-Vm-tem-N-\m-t-kn A-d-n-em-Ip-I-bpw ]n-o-Sv
k-ym-kn-bm-bn-o-cp-I-bpw sN-bv-X-Xv- A-c-hn--tLm-jv
3860. C-y-bn hy-h-m-]n-X-am-b kn-hn k-ho-kv Xp-S-n-b-Xv
B-cp-sS Im-e-m-Wv- tIm-hm-en-kv
3861. an--en-s ssh-Zyp-X-kz-`m-hw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- s_--an {^mvf
- n
3862. Im-em-h- hy-Xn-bm-\ h-Ip-v B-cw-`n- B-Zy C-y kwm-\w- Kp-Pd
- m-v
3863. an-m-an-\p-n-s sh-fn-
- n-\p Im-cW
- a
- m-b h-kvX
- p- eq-kn-s^dn
3864. \n-ba
- k
- `
- hn-fn-p-tN-p-X
- m-cv- K
- h
- -W
3865. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b-h-cn H-Sp-hn P-\n- hy-n- kn
sSp
3866. G--hpw X-Wp-p-Iq-Sn-b k-ap-{Zw- B-n-Iv
3867. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I-p-Im-en-I D- kw-m-\w-
D- {]-tZ-iv
3868. In-g
- t- \-jy I-Sp-hI
- F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- Xm-bvh
- m, knwK-q,tlm-tmw-Kv, Z-n-W sIm-dn-b
3869. Iw-]yq--dn-t\m-Sp- t]-Sn- ssk-_ t^m-_n-b
3870. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS B-ap-Jw C-Xp-h-sc F-{X {]m-h-iyw t`-Z-K-Xn
sN-bvX
- n-p-v- -H
- v
3871. i-I-h-jw B-cw-`n--sX-v- F.Un.78
3872. B-\v{- [m-{]-tZ-in- ap-Jy-a{- n-bm-bt- i-jw- C-y- {]-kn-U
- mb hy-Iv-Xn-- \o-ew- k-Rv-Po-h-sd-Uv-Un3873. ssh-Zyp-Xn {]-hm-l-n-s i-n A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- Ao-
3874. H-kv-{Sm-kn-kw kq-Nn-n-p--Xv- Du-cp-hn-e-v
3875. ssk-a I-n-j-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I-\m-aw- C-y m-yq--dn In-j
3876. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv \n--l-I-c-W-{]-m-\w Bcw-`n- h-jw- 1920
3877. an-en- ]m-tlm c-Nn--Xv- \m-Km-Pp-\
3878. {_-lvj
- n-tZ-iw,a-[y-tZ-iw-F
- o-t]-cp-If
- n-{]m-No-\I
- m-e
- vA
- dn-bs
- -n-cp-k
- w-m-\w-D
-
- -{]-tZ-iv
3879. H-cp hy-n {]-Ir-Xym A-h-s-X-s-n A-h H-cp A-Sn-a-bmWv F-p ]-d--Xv- A-cn-tm-n
3880. a-\p-jy-ic
- o-c
- n a-cW
- w-hs
- c h-fc
- p- c-p-`m-K
- - ap-Sn, \Jw
3881. N-{ `q-an-tbm-Sv G--hpw A-Sp-p-h-cp- {]-Xn-`m-kw- kq-aq
3882. {^m-kv- A-ta-cn-
- v- k-m-\n-- kv
- m-Nyp- Hm-^v- en-_-n-bp-sSi-n-]n- s{^-U-dn-Iv- Hm-K-kv-Xv- _-tm-Un
3883. an-I- \-S-\p- Hm-kv-I A-hm-Uv B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b-Xv- Fan sP-n-Mv-kv
3884. A-en-q Kq-Vm-tem-N\
- t- -kn A-ch
- n-t- Lm-jn-\p-th-n lmP-cm-b A-`n-`m-j-I- kn.B.Zm-kv
3885. {_-ko I-s-n-b-Xv- I-{_m
3886. A--co--a-w A-f-p- bq-Wn-v- ]m-kv-I
3887. A-en-K-Vv ap-nw bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n-bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- ap-l--Z
Bw-tm Hm-dn-b tIm-tf-Pv
3888. B-\v-{[m- kw-kv-Ym-\-n-s-d B-Zy- ap-Jy-a-{n- - Sn- {]-Im-iw3889. i-Ih
- -jw- B-cw-`n-X
- v- B-cp-sS `-cW
- I
- m-e
- v- I-\n-jvI
- -

CONFUSING FACTS
kz-X-{ C-y-bn _-Uv-P-v A-h-X-cn-n- B-Zy-s
[-\-a-{n B.sI.j-ap-Jw sN-n-bm-Wv. F-m, P-\d _-Uv-P-v A-h-X-cn-n- B-Zy [-\-a-{n kn.Un.tZ-ivap-Jv B-Wv (1952).
tNm-f-am-cp-sS cm-P-Io-b-ap-{Z I-Sp-h-bpw ]m-Wv-Uy-am-cptS-Xv a-y-hpw B-bn-cp-p.
C-y k--in- B-Zy-s {_n-o-jv cm-Pm-hv tPm-Pv Am-a (1911). C-y k--in- B-Zy-s {_n-o-jv {][m-\-a-{n lm-tcm-Uv am-Iv-an-.
tI-c-f-n Pq-X-p-v Nm-h-m-pw Pq-X-p-fw am-Sm-bnbn-epw n-Xn-sN-p-p.
3890. ssh-Zyp-Xo-I-cn--s- B-Zy-s
Z-n-tW-y \-K-cw -_mw-q
3891. G-Xv ssh-t{km-bn-m-Wv c-mw
Cu-g-h sa-tm-dn-b k-a-n-Xv- I-gvk
-
3892. am-bv
- m-\m-Im- a-jn D-]t- bm-Kn B-Zy-s C-e- 1962
3893. ap-nw sF-Iy-kw-Lw m-]n-Xm-cv- h-w au-e-hn
3894. ap-n-ac
- n-p-X
- n-\p-ap-v Ip-am-c\
- mim k--cn-n-cp- t_m-v- sdUo-a
3895. tI-c-f {K--im-e kw-L-n-s G- - h pw Ip- d - p- I m- e w D- ] m-]I
- - ]n.F.]-Wn-
cm- j v - { S- ] - X n m- \ w
3896. B-\v-{[m- kw-kv-Ym-\w- cq-]-h-- h- l n- - X v - hn hn Kn- c n
cn-W
- s
- a- B-hi
- y-ap-b
- n--v \ncm-lm-ck
- a
- c
- w- \-S
- n- a-cW
- w- h-cn- hy-IX
v- n- - t]m-n- {io-cm-ae
- p3897. B-cp-sS k-Z-ky-\m-bn-cp-p `m-c-hn- knw-l-hn-jv-Wp
3898. ap-l--Zv \-_n-bp-sS I-_-dn-Sw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv a-Zo-\
3899. i-Ih
- -jw Xp-S
- n-b \q-m-v- F.Un.H-mw \q-m-v
3900. sS-v {In--n-se G--hpw D-b- hy-n-K-X kv-tIm t\-Sn-bXv- {_-b em-d
3901. aq-ey-h-[n-X \n-Ip-Xn \-S-m-n-b B-Zy cm-Pyw- {^m-kv
3902. aq-gn-bm Umw G-Xv Pn--bn ]--\w-Xn-
3903. A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in-s ]-g-b t]-cv- t\-^(t\m-v Cu-v
t{^mn-b G-P-kn)
3904. A-Pp-\ F- I-Ym-]m-{Xw G-Xv C-Xn-lm-k-n- a-lm-`m-cXw
3905. aq-Imw-_n-I-t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-q
3906. A-tm-Wn P-\d
- e
- n-s\-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-cW
- L
- S- \
- m-A\p-t-Zw- B-n-n 76
3907. a-X-s cm-jv-{So-b-n-\n-p th-s]-Sp-n-b B-Zy-s Cy `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn
3908. A-Xv-emn-n-s\-bpw a-[y-[-c-Wym-gn-tb-bpw _nnp-
I-S-en-Sp-v- Pn-{_m-
3909. A-f-I-\- G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv tN-cp--Xv- Kw-K
3910. a-g-hn-p-I-fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- l-hm-bv Zzo-]p-I
3911. A-v-e-kv ]-h-X-\n-c G-Xv h-I-c-bn- B-{^n-
3912. cm-jv{- S-]X
- n-sb Xn-cs
- -Sp-p-X
- v- ]m-es
- an-se C-cp- k-`I
- fn-se-bpw- kw-kv-Ym-\ \n-b-a-k-`-I-fn-se-bpw- Xn-c-s-Sp--s Aw-K
-
3913. A--co--`m-c-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv ss\-{S-P- 75.46
3914. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy I-hn-X- cm-a-N-cn-Xw ]m-v
3915. A--co--n Im-_ ssU Hm-Iv-ssk-Un-s i-cm-i-cn
A-fh
- v F-{X-iX
- a
- m-\a
- m-Wv- 0.03
3916. kp-thm-f-Pn- k-th Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS ]-n-a-L- {]m-tZin-I tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
3917. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s hy-h-lm-c hn-ap- ]-m-b-v- h-chq

104 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

3918. a-e-bm-f-n-\n-pw D-h-in A-hm-Uv B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b-Xv-


im-cZ3919. a-cn-p-Ig- n-v a-Wn-q-dp-I I-gn-bp-tm ssI-Im-ep-I-v _ew h-bv-p- A-h--bv-v ]-d-bp- t]-cv- dn-K tam-n-kv
3920. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s hym-I-c-W-{K-w- A-jv-Sm-[ym-bn
3921. Kq-J-I D-]-tbm-Kn-p- I-n-bp-sS t]-cv- Ip-{In
3922. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s \n--_v-Z-kn-\n-a- hn-K-X-Ip-am-c
3923. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s i-_v-Z kn-\n-a- B-ew B-d
3924. kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-hp-am-bn _--s-v a-e-_m-dn-se Im-jn-I Iem-]--sf-p-dn-v A-t\z-jn-m \n-tbm-Kn--s- I-f-Iv-S-
hn-eyw tem-K
3925. G--hpw- sN-dn-b ]-n- -l-n-Mv- ]-n3926. ssl-Um-kv-]-kv bp-w \-S- h-jw- _n.kn.326
3927. tI-cf
- {Iq-jtv- N-hv- F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v- Fw.F.tKm-hn- \m-b
3928. i-Iv-X-X-p-cm- sIm-n-bn-- cm-Pm-hm-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1790
3929. H-cn-e am-{X-ap- k-kyw- tN-\
3930. G-h
- pw- ssZ-Ly-ta-dn-b K-`I
- m-ea
- p- k-kX
-v \
- w- G-jy- B-\
3931. I-kv-Xq-_m Km-n A--cn- sIm-m-cw- ]q-s\-bn-se B-KmJm sIm-m-cw
3932. ssl-Z-Ae
- n-bp-sS sX-t-ae
- _
- m- B-{I-aW
- w- G-Xv h-j
- n F.Un.1758
3933. Im-bn-It- I-cf
-
- n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- tKm-Zh
- -ac
- mP
3934. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-ep-m-bn-cp- Un-hn-j t]-jvI
- m-p Xp-ey-amb C-tm-g-s ]-Z-hn- Pn-m I-f-Iv-S
3935. G--hpw- th-K-n- N-en-m- I-gn-hp- ]-n- s]-cn-{Ko^m-3936. G-I-I-n-`-c-Ww A-h-km-\n-n- B-Zy-s ]q-h-bq-tdm-]y
cm-Pyw- t]m-f-v
3937. ssI-Im-ep-I-fn-se B-sI A-n-I- 126
3938. a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bp-sS B-[p-\n-I en-]n \-S-m-n-b Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
cm-Pm-hv- kzm-Xn Xn-cp-\m
3939. sS-v {In--n B-Zy-am-bn 10000 d-kv Xn-I--Xv- kp-\n
Km-hk
- I
-v
3940. A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in-se h-\y-ar-K-kw-c--W-tI-{w- \w-Z-^
3941. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s hn-i-p-c-ln-X-\-K-cw- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
3942. A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in {]-th-in-p-tm {_-lv-a-]p-{X A-dnb-s-Sp- t]-cv- kn-bm-Mv
3943. a-\p-jy-s I-hn-fn-s A-\m--an \m-aw- _-
3944. G-Xp cm-Py-s `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-Wv am- Im--bn H-p-h-Xv- Cw-
- v
3945. am-dm-Sv I-em-]w D-m-b Pn-- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
3946. a-c-W-k-a-b-v Km-n-Pn-bp-sS H--ap-m-bn-cp- in-jy- a-\p,
B-`
3947. A-cp-hn-p-dw hn-h
- w- F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v- {io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp-hn-sd in-he
- nw-K{- ]-Xn-jvT
3948. ap-f-m-Sp-I-v {]-kn--am-b a-e-p-dw Pn--bn-se -ew- \n-eq
3949. G-Xp cm-Py-am-Wv tlm-f-v F-v A-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv- s\-Xe-Uk
v- v
3950. tNm-f km-{am-Py- X-e-kv-Ym-\w- X-m-hq3951. a-dm- hw-ia
- m-b sK-bv
- vhm-Zv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv `-cn-X
- v- _-tdm-U
3952. h-[n--s- c-m-a-s A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v- sP-bnw-kv
F.Km-^o-Uv
3953. sS-v {In--v I-fn- B-Zy-s C-ym-m-c- c-Rv-Pn-X
kn-Mv-Pn
3954. i-Im-cn F- m-\t- -cp kzo-Ic
- n-X
- -v N-{-Kp-]X
-v h
- n-{I-am-Zn-Xy
3955. ssi-Xy--S F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--N-{
3956. I-iv-ao-cn-se A-Iv-_ F-v hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- sk-bv-\p
A-_-Zn (142070)
3957. dn-b-hyq an-d B-bn D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- tIm-sh-Iv-kv an-d
3958. Hm-tkm hm-X-I-n-s \n-dw \o-e
3959. an-kv F-v a--c-n hn-P-bn- B-Zy C-y-m-cn- \n-tmtfm ^-cn-b
3960. F-Uyp-km-v F- D-]-{K-lw hn-t-]n--Xv F-hn-sS-\n-p-am-Wv-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

20

tZ-io-b-Km-\-n-s tjm-v th-j B-e-]n-m-\m-h-iyam-b k-a-bw F-{X sk- v


A-n-I-fp-sS F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv P-ew
{In--n c-p hn-p-I-n-S-bn-se Zq-cw 22 bm-UmWv. C-Xv G-I-tZ-iw F-{X ao--dn-\v Xp-ey-am-Wv
1969, 1980 h-j--fn-em-bn C-y-bn F-{X _m-p-I
tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn-n-p-v
F-{Xmw \q-m-n-em-Wv F-Iv-{]-j-\n-v co-Xn-bn-ep- Nn{X-I-em-co-Xn B-cw-`n--Xv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s `m-K-n-em-Wv `-c-W-L-S\m t`-Z-K-Xn-sb-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv
k-ky--fn F-{X A-an-t\m B-kn-Up-I D-v
`-c-W-L-S-\m-hy-h- {]-Im-cw tI-{-`-c-W-{]-tZ-i--fn\n-v tem-Iv-k-`-bn ]-c-am-h-[n F-{X Aw-K--fm-Imw
a-\p-jy-s {i-h-W-ti-jn-bp-sS G--hpw Ip-d- B-hrn F-{X tl-Sv-kv B-Wv
]p-cp-j-s Xz-n-s hn-kv-Xo-Ww F-{X N-Xp-c-{i A-Snbm-Wv
tI-c-f-n-se tem-Iv-k-`m-ko-p-I
a-\p-jy-\v F-{X ]m--p-I-fm-Wp--Xv
Im-ky-n-s A-Wp-kw-Jy F-{X-bm-Wv
F-{X tl-Sv-kn-\v Xm-sg B-hr-n-bp- i-_v-Z--fm-Wv
C-{^m-tkm-Wn-Iv
{io-lc
- n-tm-
3961. an-I- {In---p- sF.kn.kn. A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy Xmcw- cm-lp {Zm-hn-Uv
3962. G--hpw P-e-k---am-b \-Zn- B-a-tkm
3963. tZ-io-b A-Sn-b--cm-h- {]-Jym-]n-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m h-Ip-v 352
3964. a-cW
- m-\
- c
- _-lp-aX
- n-bm-bn `m-cX
- c
- X
- \
-v w {]-Jym-]n-t- i-jw ]nh-en--Xv B-cp-sS Im-cy-n-em-Wv- kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv
3965. tIm-gn-tm-Sv X-z-{]-Im-in-I B-{i-aw m-]n--Xv- hm-Kv-`-Sm-\
3966. B-m-Wv am-Xm-]n-Xm- ap-Sn-Nq-Spw-s]-cp-am F-p t]-cn-X
- v A-m ssh-Ip-WvT
3967. Pm-Xn Ip-n c-Nn--Xv- ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp-
3968. {io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp-hn-s B-Zy-in-jy- in-he
- nw-KZ- m-kk
- zm-an-I
3969. I-hn-Xn-e-I F- _-lp-a-Xn ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp--\v \-In-b-Xv-
sIm-n-cm-Pm-hv
3970. 1973-se H-Iv-tSm-_ bp--n hn-P-bn- cm-Pyw- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
3971. A-d-_n--S G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-s `m-K-am-Wv--C-y-a-lm-k-ap{Zw
3972. G--hpw sIm-gp-p- ]m G-Xv ar-K-n-s-Xm-Wv- ap-b
3973. U-n-Kmw h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- {io-\-K
3974. G--hpw sN-dn-b ]q-hv- hp-^n-b
3975. H-cn--epw sh-w Ip-Sn-m- P-p- Iw-Km-cp F-en
3976. h-cn-I h-cn-I k-l-P-sc... F- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv Aw-in \m-cm-bW-]n-
3977. F-Un-k P-\n- A-ta-cn- ]--Ww- an-em (1847)
3978. G--hpw- ssZ-Lyw- Ip-d- K-`-Im-ew--hn-Pn-\n-b H-tm-kw3979. Um-hn-s ]-cn-Wm-a K-th-j-W--p th-Zn-bm-b Zzo-]v- Km-em-tKm-kv
3980. G--hpw th-K-n \o-p- a-kyw- tkz-Uv ^n-jv
3981. I-iva
- o-cn-se Hu-tZym-Kn-I`
- m-j- D-dp-Zp
3982. ssk-e v hm-en tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\-am-bn {]-Jym-]n--s- h-jw 1984
3983. F-Uzn B-t\m-Un-s Zn sse-v Hm-^v G-jy F- Ir-Xn-bnse {]-Xn-]m-Zyw B-cp-sS Po-hn-X-am-Wv- {io-_p-
3984. a-lm-m-Km-n B-Zy-am-bn tI-c-f-n h-n-d-n-b -ew-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 105

tIm-gn-tm-Sv
3985. k-Xyw ku--cy-am-Wv, ku--cyw k-Xy-hpw- F-p ]-d--Xm-cv-
Io-k
-v v
3986. sS-kn-Mpw ln-em-cn-bpw B-Zy-am-bn F-hd
-
- v Io-gS-
- n-bX
- v- 1953
sa-bv 29
3987. kym-\
- q-c]
- p-cw- F-v kw-kI
v- r-X
- n ]-cm-a-in-p- \-Kc
- w-
Xn-cp-h\
-
- ]
- p-cw
3988. Kym-e-]v t]m- F- k-t-X-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xv G-Xp cmPy-m-Wv- bp.F-kv.F.
3989. kz-]v-\-irw-K--fp-sS \-K-cw- Hm-Iv-kv-t^m-Uv
3990. a-e-_m I-em-]w A-c-t-dn-b Xm-eq-v- G-d-\m-Sv
3991. kz-w `m-c-tm-Sp Xp-e-\w sN-p-tm G--hpw h-en-b ap--bnSp- ]-n- In-hn
3992. am-am-w B-tLm-jn-n-cp- am-kw- Ipw-`w
3993. X-tUm-_ h-\y-ar-K-kw-c--W tI-{w G-Xp kw-m-\-v- alm-cm-j{v- S
3994. U-ln-bn-se Xp--m-_m-Zv tIm- \n-an--Xv- Kn-bm-kp-o Xp-Iv
3995. Po-h-s \-Zn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- c-w
3996. U-ln-bn-te-v-c-v-A-tim-I-kv-Xq-]--sIm-p-h--Xp--Ivkp-m-^
- n-tdm-kv jm-Xp-I
- v
3997. m-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f t\m-h- H-cp tZ-in-s I-Y
3998. tem-I
- n-s h-{P X-e
m-\w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- Inw-_-en
3999. ta-tbm {]-`p B-Zy sk-k-kv X-m-dm-n-b h-jw- 1872
4000. C-y-bn-se c-m-a-s h-\n-Xm ap-Jy-a-{n- \-n-\n km-Xv-]Xn (197276)
4001. a-dm- hw-ia
- m-b t`m-ks
- e F-hn-sS-bm-Wv `-cn-X
- v- \m-Kv]
- q
4002. tcm-K--sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- ]m-tXm-f-Pn
4003. kz-]v-\m-hm-k-h-Z-w, Du-cp-`w-Kw F-n-h c-Nn--Xv- `m-k
4004. C-y-bn-se G--hpw sN-dn-b Pn--bm-b am-ln G-Xv `-c-W-L-S-In-s `m-Ka
- m-Wv- ]
- p-Xp-t-cn
4005. C-y-bn-se G--hpw sN-dn-b ssl-tm-S-Xn kn-nw
4006. kz-w- a--fp-sS X-S-hn- I-gn-tb-n-h- ap-K- N-{I-h-n-
jm-Pl
- m4007. kz--am-bn ]-Xm-I-bp- G-I C-y kw-m-\w- P-p I-ivao
4008. ssN-\-bn-se Ku-X-a-_p- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- em-thm-Xv-sk
4009. C-y-bn-se K-h-W P-\-d-am-cn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew ]Z-hn h-ln--Xv- hm-d tl-n-Mv-kv
4010. Po-hn-X-n k-Xy-k--\m-bn-cn--Ww F- Xo-cp-am-\-sa-Spm Km-n-Pn Xo-cp-am-\n-X
- v G-Xv ]p-cm-W I-Ym-]m-{X-n-s
kzm-[o-\-m-em-Wv- l-cn--{
4011. kz--am-bn hm-l-\w \n-an-v a-\p-jy-s\ _-ln-cm-Im-i-v A-b cm-Py-- A-ta-cn-, d-jy,ssN-\
4012. ssa ssSw-kv B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- sP._n.Ir-]-em-\n
4013. kz-a
- m-bn ssh-Zyp-Xn D-]m-Zn-n-v hn-Xc
- W
- w sN-bvX
- , kw-m\-s B-Zy-s {Km-a-]-m-b-v- am-p-fw
4014. aq-o-tZ-hn A-hm-Uv G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- m-\-]oTw {S-v
4015. kv-{Xo-I-v- thm--h-Im-iw- \-In-b- (1893)- B-Zy-s- cm-Pyw-\yq-kn-e-Uv4016. C-cp-n-s G--hpw ip--am-b cq-]w- tdm-v A-b
4017. kv{- Xo-I-v {]-th-i\
- a
- n-m- ]-hX
- w- au-v B-tXm-kv ({Kokv)
4018. C-y-bn-se cm-jv-{So-b Im-q-Wp-I-fp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp-X-v i-
4019. Pp-Uo-jy dn-hyq- F- B-i-bw G-Xp cm-Py-n \n-m-Wv
C-y kzo-Ic
- n-X
- v- bp.F-kv.F.
4020. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\ e-`n- G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d- hy-n- -k-n
sS-Up-
4021. Pq-en-b-kv ko-k sIm--s- h-jw- _n.kn.44
4022. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-U v m-\-t-v
1939 Xn-cs
- -Sp-p \-S
- t- m t\-Xm-Pn kp-`m-jv N-{-t_mkn-s F-Xn-cm-fn-bm-bn-cp--Xv- ]-m-`n ko-Xm-cm-a-
4023. tem-I-n-s hn-kv-Xo-W-n-s F-{X `m-K-am-Wv C-y- 1/42

tNmZyw; Dcw
h\nXm tab temIw, Cy, tIcfw
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm ta-b kp-tem-N-\m tamUn B-tWm Xm-cm sN-dn-bm B-tWm?
kp-tem-N-\m tam-Un. 1956- apw-ss_ ta-b-dm-bn. Xm-cm
sN-dn-bm sN-ss-bn ta-b-dm-b-Xv 1957em-Wv. Z-n-tWy-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm ta-b F-v Xm-cm sN-dn-bms\ hn-ti-jn-n-mw. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm tab ssl-a-h-Xn Xm-bm-v B-Wv (tIm-gn-tm-Sv).
tc-JI
- {]-Im-cw, tem-I
- n-em-Zy-am-bn ta-b m-\s
- n-b h-\n-X A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fn-se Im-k-kv
kw- m- \ - s A- t Km- W n- b \- K - c - n- s e Susanna
Madora Salter B-Wv (1887).
4024. ]m-e-m-Sv Np-cw tIc-f-s X-an-gv-\m-nse G-Xv Pn--bp-ambn-m-Wv tbm-Pn-np--Xv -tIm-b-q
4025. kv{- Xo-I-v H-fn-nIv - k n ]- s - S pm A-\p-aX
- n sImSp- h-jw- 1900
4026. B-Zy-s ku-v
G-jy s^-U-tdj sK- b nw- k n
(1984) G--hpw Iq-SpX sa- U - e p- I
t\-Sn-b-Xv- C-y
4027. B-sc {]-Io-n-mWv Ip-am-c-\m-im a-l m-Im-hy-sa-gp-Xm-sX a-l m-I-hn
Zn-hy-tIm-In-ew c-Nn]- Z - h n t\- S n- b - X v - Ip- a m- c - \ m- i m
-Xv- a-lm-I-hn SmtKm
4028. ssh-tZ-in-I-k-lm-bw-Iq-Sm-sX A-p-Iq-Sw m-]n- B-Zy a-ebm-fn- Nm-h-d-b-
4029. tam--{]-Zo-]-J-Wv-U-\w c-Nn--Xv- N--n-kzm-an-I
4030. I-eym-W-Zm-bn-\n-k-`-bp-sS m-]-I- ]-Wv-Un-v I-dp-
4031. sam-km-v G-Xp I-e-bp-sS D-]m-k-I-\m-bn-cp-p- kw-Ko-Xw
4032. C-y-bn-se G--hpw Xn-c-t-dn-b ]m-ew- lu-d ]m-ew (c-_o-{
tk-Xp)
4033. kz-X{- -C
- y-bp-sS B-Zy-s ^o-Uv am-j- F-kv.F-v.F^v.sP.a-t\-m
4034. `m-cX
- c
- X
- v\
- t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s kn-\n-am-Xm-cw-F
- w.Pn. cm-aN
- {-
4035. B-cpw ]u-c-am-cm-bn P-\n-m- kz-X{- -cm-Pyw h-n-m
4036. C-y-bp-sS kp-K
hy-RvP
- \
- t- m-w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- tIc-fw
4037. \yq-U-ln I-gn-m D--tc-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b CU-kv-{Sn-b l-_v--Im-]q
4038. cm-k-Nn-In-k-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- t]m F-en-Iv
4039. cm-jv{- S-]X
- n-v k-Xy-{]-Xn-m-hm-NI
- w sNm-n-sm-Sp-p-X
- vkp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-kv
4040. ap-Sn \n-an-n-cn-p- t{]m-o- sI-cm-n
4041. Po-h-Pm-e- Im-W-s-Sp- A--co--]m-fn- t{Sm-tm-kv-^nb
4042. ar-Wm-sk-n-s B-Zy Nn-{Xw- `p-h tjmw (1965)
4043. A-ta-cn- hn--h-Im-cn-I-sf k-lm-bn- {^-v N-{I-h-n-
eq-bn ]-Xn-\m-dm-a
4044. B-[p-\n-I kn-\n-a-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv tU-hn-Uv {Kn-^n-Xv
4045. C-y-bn H-cp kw-m-\-v A-[n-Im-c-n h- B-Zy-s

106 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

{]m-tZ-in-I ]m-n- Un.Fw.sI.


4046. B-lm-c-s B-am-i-b-n-se-n-p- A--\m-f-n-s {]tXy-I X-cw k-tm-N-hn-Im-k-n-s t]-cv- s]-cn-m-kn-kv
4047. bo-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X A-S-n-bn-cn-p- Po-h-Iw- ssdt_m-^v-fm-hn
4048. C-y-bn-se G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- h-cp-am-\-ap- t-{Xw- -Xn-cp-Xn-bn-se sh-n-tS-iz-c-t-{Xw4049. C-y-bn-se G--hpw Iq-Sp-X thm--am-cp- tem-Iv-k-`m-a
W
- vU
- e
- w- D-m-hp
4050. _m-em-a-Wn-b--bp-sS B-Zy-s Im-hy-k-am-lm-cw- Iq-p-ssI
4051. `m-c-X k-m-cn-s F-m {]-hr-n-I-fpw B-cp-sS t]-cn-em-Wv
\-S
- p-X
- v- cm-j{v- S-]X
- n
4052. ssl-Um-kv-]-kv bp--n t]m-d-kn-s\ tXm-]n--Xm-cv -Ae-Ivk
- m- N-{I-h-n
4053. `q-\n-Ip-Xn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv H-Sp-p--Xv- hn-t-Pm-^o-kn
4054. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s Hm- bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n- B-{m-{]tZ- i v Hm- bq- W n- t h- g n- k n- n (1982)(1991 ap- X t]- c v
tUm._n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n)
4055. bq-tdm-n-s A-d--an F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- kzo-U
4056. ]m-v D-s-sS-bp- D-c-K- C-m- h-I-c--Am-n-
4057. C-y-bp-sS lr-Z-bw F--dn-b-s-Sp- kw-m-\w- a-[y{]-tZ-iv
4058. G--hpw h-en-w Iq-Sn-b in-ip-hn-s\ {]-k-hn-p- Po-hn- \o-en-anw-Kn-ew
4059. G--hpw h-en-w Iq-Sn-b lr-Z-b-ap- Po-hn- \o-e-n-anw-Kn-ew
4060. B-Zy-s ssP-\-a-X-k-t-f-\w \-S- -ew- ]m-S-eo-]p-{Xw
4061. P-\-Io-b I-hn-X-bp-sS ip-{I-\--{X-sa-v \n-cq-]-I hn-e-bn-cpn-b I-hn- Ip- \-ym
4062. P-n-kv ^m-n-am-_o-hn K-h-W-dm-b kw-m-\w- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
4063. c-m-_p-Z-n-s ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-\m-aw- ep-o-an-b
4064. C-cp-]-Xmw \q-m-n P-\n-v A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Um-b B-Zy
hy-n--tPm F-^v. sI--Un
4065. A-{`-J-\n-bm-b sIm-S-a G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
4066. C-c-hn-Ip-fw h-\y-Po-hn k-t-X-s \m-j-W ]m-m-bn {]Jym-]n- h-jw- 1978
4067. A-cn-bp-sS X-hn-Sn [m-cm-f-am-bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- hn-m-an-
_n
4068. C-S-Xp-]--n-s-bpw _n.sP.]n.bp-sS-bpw ]n-p-W-tbm-sS `cn- {]-[m-\-a-{n- hn.]n.kn-Mv
4069. A-`n-m-\ im-Ip--fw Cw-o-jn-te-p ]-cn-`m-j-s-Sp-n-b-Xv hn-eyw tPm-kv
4070. a-cp-`q-an-bn-se I-- F--dn-b-s-Sp- ar-Kw- H--Iw4071. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X tX-bn-e D-]m-Zn-n-p- kwm-\w- A-kw
4072. B-Zy-am-bn i-kv-{X-{In-b-bn-eq-sS am-n-sh- a-\p-jym-h-b-hw- hr
4073. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- ss{S-_ hn-`m-Kw- k-m
4074. \n-h-p \-S-m I-gn-bp- ]-n- s]-Kzn
4075. \-tc-{ I-o-j dn-tm-v F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
tPm-en kw-h-c-Ww
4076. c--]-cy-b-\-s D-t-Pn-n-p- tlm-tam- A-{Un-\men
4077. _n.kn.kn.sF.bp-sS B-m-\w- apw-ss_
4078. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-tXm-Xn D-]m-Z-\w \-S-p-
o m v m-]n-X-am-b \-K-cw- Pw-j-Uv-]q
4079. _n tK-v-kv G-Xv ta-J-e-bn I-gn-hv sX-fn-bn- B-fm-Wv- hnh-c km-t-Xn-I hn-Zy
4080. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s Hm- bp-Wn-th-gv-kn-n-v (B-{m{]-tZ-iv) G-Xv t\-Xm-hn-s t]-cm-Wv \-In-bn-cn-p--Xv-_n.B.Aw-t_-ZvI
-
4081. _p- Nn-cn-p-p F- t]-cn-ep- \yq-Ivf
- n-b t_mw-_v ]-co-Ww C-y \-S-n-b-Xv G-Xv ]--h--c ]--Xn-m-e-mWv- \m-emw ]--Xn
4082. A-Iv-_-sd G--hpw Iq-Sp-X kzm-[o-\n- A-\y-a-Xw- {In-kv-Xp-aXw
4083. Ko-Xm-cl
- k
- yw c-Nn-X
- v- _m-eK
- w-Km-[c
- X
- n-eI
-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

21

cm-jv{- S-t\-Xm-s
- f B-Zc
- n-p-X
- n-\p- K-ke
- yq-n F{X sh-Sn-bm-Wp-Xn-p--Xv
F-{Xm-as
- t{Im-at- kmw tPm-Sn-bp-sS X-Ic
- m-dp-aq-ea
- m-Wv awtKm-fn-kw D-m-Ip--Xv
]-m-b-v cm-Pv m-]-\--fn-te-p- Xn-c-s-Sp-n
a--cn-m-\m-h-iy-am-b Ip-d- {]m-bw
iz-kn-p-tm A-I-t-v F-Sp-p- hm-bp-hn Hm-Ivkn-P F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hn-h- k-a-b-v ]m-e-sa v
Xn-c-s-Sp-n thm-p-sN-m-\m-h-iy-am-b Ip-d- {]m-bw
F-{X-bm-bn-cp-p
H-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-w A-h-km-\n-p--Xn-\pw c-mw
tem-Ia
- l
- m-bp-w Xp-S
- p-X
- n-\pw C-Sb
- n-ep- Im-eL
-
- ns ssZ-Lyw F-{X h-j-am-bn-cp-p
tIm-gn-ap- hn-cn-bp--Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b k-a-bw F-{X Zn-h-kam-Wv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s h-Ip-m-Wv au-en-Im-h-Im-i-fp-sS A-Sn--d F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv
Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j-I-fp-sS Iq--n kn-n-sb D-s-Spn-b-Xv F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv
1975 se B-`y--c A-Sn-b--cm-h- F-{X am-kw \o-p\n-p
2005 G-{]n H-n-\v F-{X kw-m-\--fn-em-Wv hm-eyp
B-U-Uv Sm-Iv-kv (hm-v) \n-e-hn-h--Xv
hn-Zym-`ym-kw au-en-Im-h-Im-i-am-p--Xp kw-_-n- hyh- G-Xv `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Z-n-em-Wv D-s-Spn-bn-cn-p--Xv
P-\-\-hpw a-c-W-hpw F-{X Zn-h-k-n-\p-n-em-Wv X-t-i `c-W m-]-\-n c-Pn- sN-t--Xv.
G--hpw Ip-d- {]m-b-n C-y {In--v Sow Iym-]v-\m-b-Xv a-kq A-en-Jm ]-tm-Un (19412011) bm-Wv. F{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv A-t-lw Cu t\--n-\p-S-a-bm-b-Xv
C-y-bn ]p-cp-j-s Ip-d- hn-hm-l-{]m-b-]-cn-[n F-{X
h-b-m-Wv
tI-c-f-n F-{X d-h-\yq Un-hn-j-\p-I-fp-v

4084. c- Nw-{I-a-Ww I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv--hn-yw lm-hn


4085. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sS-en-hn-j sk- \yq-U-ln
4086. C-s\-v Iw-]yq- {irw-Je
- b
-
-v v Xp-S
- a
- n- cm-Pyw- bp.F-k.v F.
4087. C-y-bn-se t-{X \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- `p-h-t\-iz
4088. Cw-o-jv A--c-am-em {I-a-n A-h-km-\-s cm-Pyw- knw_m-_v-sh
4089. Ip-jm-\-hw-i-n-se G--hpw a-lm- I-\n-jv-I
4090. A-ta-cn--bp-sS- cm-jv-{S-]n-Xm-hv- tPm-Pv- hm-jn-Mv-S-4091. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s hn-Nz bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n- C-tm
4092. {_n-o-jp-Im- a--gn- ssI-h-i-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1779
4093. cm-Py-k-`-bn C-tm F-{X Xn-c-s-Sp--s- Aw-K- Dv- 233
4094. ap-l
- Z- _
-v n-Xp-
- n-s-km-lk
- n-II
- r-Xy--hn-hc
- n-p-C
- _
-
v _-q--bp-sS-Ir-Xn- k-^-\m-a
4095. \m-t\m Im \n-an-p- I--\n--Sm-
4096. Hu-dw-K-_m-Zn-s ]p-Xn-b t]-cv- kmw-_m-Pn-\-K
4097. C-y D-]-Zzo-]n-s sX-t-b-w--I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
4098. Pm-v `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fn G--hpw i-- kq-c-Pv a
4099. A-Izm-Im-Kz sIm-Sp-ap-Sn G-Xp cm-Py-v- A-Po-\
4100. c-
- n Im-ky-n-s A-fh
- v Ip-db
- p-X
- p-aq-ea
- p-m-Ip-
tcm-Kw- sS--\n

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 107

4111. Ct^mknkns Bm\w._mwq


4112. CtUm {Kov hwinse cmPmamcn Ghpw
{]ikvX sa\mU
4113. Dbcw IqSptmdpw _mtcmaodnse ck\ncv Ipdbpp
4114. CUkv FdnbsSp \Zn knp
4115. Dcpp h\nX FdnbsXv amKcv Xm
4116. PSmbp]md FhnsSbmWv NSbawKew
4117. B[p\nI HfnnIvkn\p thZnbmb BZy \Kcw GYkv
4118. Ckp-en Ip-]n-Sn--Xv s{^U-dnIv _mn-Mv, Nmkv
s_v
4119. Cybnse Ghpw hnkvXrXamb ]oT`qan Um
4120. F{X Intemao DbcnemWv Hmtkm ]mfn nXn
sNpXv 15 apX 60 In.ao.hsc
4121. Cy-bn-se Ghpw- Ncn-hp- Iq-Sn-b sdbn]m-Xtap-m-fbw DZIaWv-Uew- (Du-n)
4122. Ghpw _pnhnImkap ISPohn tUm^n
4123. Cybnse Ghpw sNdnb tI{`cW{]tZiw eZzo]v
4124. Fm EXp--fp-sSbpw kwm\w - lnam-N {]tZiv
4125. GXhbhsbmWv s\ss{^nkv _m[npXvhr
4126. Cybnse BZys sshbmIcW ]mWn\n
4127. h{Pw Ignm Ghpw ImTn\yap kzm`mhnI ]ZmYw
sImdw
4128. Cybnse Ghpw thKtadnb Xohn iXm_v Z n
FIvkv{]kv
4129. CtUm `cnncp cmPhwiw tlm
4130. KmnPnbpsS HSphnes kXym{Klw Ahkm\n
Znhkw 1948 P\hcn 18
4131. akKthm tUmvbmUv FhnsSbmWvapwss_
4132. kzX{ Hmsse hnm\ tImiw hnn]oUnb
4133. CybpsS tZiob Nnns bYmYcq]w
kqnncnp ayqknbw FhnsSbmWv kmcm\mYv
4134. Cybnse BZyXs Bkq{XnXhyhkmb \Kcw
PwjUv]q
4135. cmw temI almbpw Bcw`nptm Atacn
{]knU v{^mvfn Un dqkvshv
4136. cmPyk`bntev Bnn 80 {]Imcw \ma\ntiw
sNs BZy hyn tUm. ko lpssk
4137. cmw temIalmbpmev kJyinIfpsS
]na`mKs khssk\ym[n]\mbncpXv ssUzv Un
sFkt\mh
4138. ]gbImev amnf ]mpI cNnm D]tbmKnncp
`mj Ad_n aebmfw
4139. cmPys Fm ]ucampw GIoIrX Xncndnb
ImUpw \dpw \Ip B[m ]Xn BZyw \Smnb
kwm\w almcmjv{S
4140. cmweoe ssaXm\w GXv \KcnemWv Uln
4141. CybpsS A[nImcssIamhpw hn`P\hpw F{X
ZnhkwsImmWv ]qnbmnbXv 72
4142. CSpnbn sshZyptXm]mZ\w Bcw`n hjw 1976
4143. dnm an{ibpambn _s ImbnIbn\w \o
4144. Cybnse BZys sSv Syq_v inip ZpK
4145. Cybnse BZys ssk_ {Kmao sk
m]ns kwm\w B{{]tZiv
4146. Fv hfambn D]tbmKnm ImcWw AXn [mcmfambn
........ ASnbnpXpsImmWv t^mkv^dkv
4147. KmnPnbpsS cmjv{Sob ]coWime Fp
hntijnnsXv ZnWm{^n
4148. akv\mhn F IrXn cNn apK N{Ihn_m_
4149. cm{Xnbn am{Xw c]cntim[\ \Sn \nWbnp
tcmKw av
4150. CUn cNnXv saKkvX\okv
4151. C-Un-s]-U v te-_ ]m-n-bp-sS m-]I
- -_
- n.B.Awt_-Zv-I
4152. C-y-bp-sS kn-en- hm-en F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _mw-q
4153. A-tm-an-Iv dn-bm-Iv-S-dn-s I-h-Nw \n-an-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p-
aq-e-Iw- I-dp-o-bw

CONFUSING FACTS
C-y-bn bq-tdm-]y-am \n-an- B-Zy-s tIm- ]n-p-d-s am-\p-h tIm--bm-Wv. tI-c-fo-b-am-Xr-I-bn
bq-tdm-]y-am C-y-bn \n-an- B-Zy-s sI-n-Sw am-t-cn sIm-m-cw.
j-lo-Zv- C
- - A
- k
- w F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v `-KX
- v kn-Mv B-Wv. Izmbn-Zv--C--A-kw F--dn-b-s--Xv ap-l--Zv A-en Pn--bmWv.
G-h
- pw D-bc
- w Iq-Sn-b k-kX
v- \
- w Pn-dm-^m-Wv. (B-{^n-)
B-\-bm-Wv c-mw m-\-v. G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b, I-cbn-se k-kv-X-\w B-\-bm-Wv. C-m-cy-n c-mw-m\-v Pn-dm-^m-Wv.
tI-c-f t^m-d-v sU-h-e-]v-sa v tIm--td-j-s B-m\w tIm--b-m-Wv. tI-c-f t^m-d-v dn-k-v C-n-yq-v
Xr-q Pn--bn-se ]o-n-bn-em-Wv.
]-n-]m-Xm-fw n-Xn-sN-p--Xv h-b-\m-Sv Pn--bn. tIc-f-n-se ]-n-{Km-aw F--dn-b-s-Sp- \q-d-\m-Sv B-ep-g Pn--bn-em-Wv.
4154. C-y-bn-se G--hpw Iq-Sp-X e-h-Wmw-i-ap- X-Sm-Iw- kmw`m
4155. Z-sse-em-a-bp-sS {]-hm-k K-h-san-s B-m-\w- [-aim-e
4156. C-y-bn-se G--hpw ssZ-Ly-ta-dn-b ]-I- Pq 21
4157. C-U-kv-{Sn-b sU-h-e-]v-sa v _m-v Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS Bm-\w--apw-ss_
4158. Z-sse-em-a-bv-v t\m-_ k-m-\w e-`n- h-jw- 1989
4159. t^m-tam-k-bp-sS C-tm-g-s t]-cv- X-bv-hm
4160. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ssh-Zyp-Xo-I-cn--s- \-K-cw- sIm-
4161. G--hpw _-e-ap- Xm-Sn-sb-p-I D- Po-hn- I-gp-X-p-en
4162. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s t]m-p-Ko-kv ssh-t{km-bn- Un Ata-U
4163. t^m-th-Uv t]m-fn-kn sIm-p-h- K-h-W P-\-d- en-
{]-`p
4164. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s t]m-tm-^o-kv B-cw-`n--Xv- sIm--bn
4165. Z-Wv-Un-bm-{X-bn k---`-S-am-v B-th-iw ]-I- Km\w- c-Lp-]-Xn cm-L-h cm-Pm-dmw
4166. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s tdm-v Km-U N-Wv-Vo-K-Vv
4167. Zzm-c-I B-cp-sS P---esa--dn-b-s-Sp-p- {io-Ir-jv-W
4168. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s t{S-Uv bq-Wn-b-\m-b a-{Zm-kv te-_
bq-Wn-b m-]n--Xv- in-m-c th-ep sN-n-bm
4169. tc-Wp-I,-N{- -Xm- F-o X-o-S-
- G-Xp kw-m-\
- mWv- ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv
4170. td-kn-Mv ssd-t\m F--dn-b-s-Sp-, C-y-bp-sS bp--- sF.F.F-kv.{_--]p-{X
4171. B-e-q kn-m-{i-a-n-s m-]-I- {_-m-\- in-h-tbmKn
4172. \m-c-m-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s c-mw {io-e- k--i-\w G-Xv h-j-ambn-cp-p- 1926
4173. k--m-n-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- ]p-p-h-]m-v
4174. tI- c - f bp- n- h m- Z n kw- L - n- s B- Z y {]- k n- U v -
Fw.kn.tPm-k-^v
4175. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s tm-v F-Iv-kv-tN-v- apw-ss_ (1875)
4176. tdm-f-v Km-tcm Sq-W-sa v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {^-v Hm
4177. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s t\-{X-_m-v m-]n-X-am-b \-K-cw-
sIm--
4178. ssN-\-bn-se B-Zy-s C-y Aw-_m-k-U- k-Zm
sI.Fw.]-Wn-

108 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

4179. C-ym K-h-sa v 2005 B-cw-`n- `m-c-Xv \n-am ]-Xn-bp-sS e-yw- {Km-a-hn-I-k-\w
4180. cm-Po-hv Km-n A-m-Z-an Hm-^v G-hn-tb-j sS-Iv-t\m-f-Pn Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
4181. ssh-Zyp-Xn-bp-sS G--hpw an-I- N-e-Iw- sh-n
4182. 1971-se C-tm- ]m-Iv bp--k-a-b-v {]-Xn-tcm-[ a-{n-bmbn-cp--Xv- P-Kv-Po-h dmw
4183. ssI-q-en-s B-Ir-Xn-bn Im-W-s-Sp--Xv G-Xp X-cw ta-L-fm-Wv- kn-d-kv ta-L-
4184. C-y-bp-sS N-{-\n-te-p- bm-{Xm-]--Xn- Nm-{-bm-1
4185. K-Zy-cq-]-n-ep- G-I-th-Zw- b-Pp-th-Zw
4186. C-y-bp-sS s\--d- B-{m-{]-tZ-iv
4187. C-y-bp-sS sa-e-Un Izo F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- e-Xm a-t-jvI
4188. K-Zy-hpw ]-Zy-hpw C-S-I-e-n-bp- km-ln-Xy-cq-]w- N-p
4189. L-\-P-e-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- Uyp-o-cn-bw Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
4190. l-n-Mv ]-n-I-fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- {Sn-\n-UmUv
4191. C-y-bp-sS sX-t-b--p- sd-bn-th t-j -I-\ym-Ipam-cn
4192. C-y-bp-sS tam-tm kv-t]m-Sv-kv X-e-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv--tIm-b--q
4193. l-j C-l-tem-I-hm-kw sh-Sn- h-jw- F.Un. 647
4194. C-y-bp-sS km--n-I X-e-m-\w- apw-ss_
4195. C-Izn-em-_v kn-m-_m-Zv F- {]-tbm-K-n-s D-]-m-Xmhv- ap-l--Zv C-Iv-_m
4196. Km-\v-[n-Pn-bp-sS A-- ]p-Xv-en `m-bn
4197. Pq-X-am-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-e-bw- kn-\-tKm-Kv
4198. C-e-Iv-t{Sm-F-sk-^m-tem-{Kmw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- lm-kv s_K(1929)
4199. C-n-cm-Km-n-h-[w A-t\z-jn- I-n-j- Xm- I-o-j
4200. Pq-X-cp-sS a-X-{K-w- tXm-d
4201. ssN-\-bp-sS tZ-io-b-Km-\-am-b am-v Z thm-fn-tb-gv-kv c-Nn-Xv- Xn-bm lm
4202. tdm-t_m-n-Iv-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tPm Fw-Kns_-P
4203. Km-\v-[n-Pn-sb B-g-n kzm-[o-\n- Cw-o-jv km-aq-ln-I ]cn-jv-I-m-hv- tPm d-kv-In
4204. C-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ]-n-bm-bn a-bn-en-s\ Xo-cp-am-\n- hjw- 1963
4205. C-dm-\n-se s\-tm-fn-b F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- an-ln-cm-Ip-e
4206. C-e-Iv-{Sn-Iv td-k I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv- tP--_v jn-Iv
4207. Km-\v-[n-Pn-sb B-Zy-am-bn- a-lm-Xv-am-hv- F-v- hn-fn--Xv- Sm-tKm4208. km-h-tZm Zm-en-bp-am-bn _--s- I-e- Nn-{X-I-e
4209. C-y-bp-sS sPm-hm Hm-^v B-v- F-p hn-ti-jn-n-p-Xm-sc- Qm-kn dm-Wn

hm-Km t_m-U G-Xv cm-Py--fp-am-bn


_--s-n-cn-p-p- C-y-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm-\pw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

22

A-d-v sN--s-Sp- ]u-c-\v A-Xn-s Im-c-Ww A-dn-bm\p- A-h-Im-iw hy-h- sN-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\pt-Zw G-Xm-Wv
A-d-v sN--s- hy-n-sb 24 a-Wn-q-dn-\p-n A-Spp- a-Pn-kv-t{S-n-\p-ap-n lm-P-cm--Ww F-v hy-h sN-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw G-Xm-Wv
F-{Xm-a-s hn H-fn-n-Iv-km-Wv 2014 te-Xv
tem-Ivk
- `
- b
- n-\n-pw cm-Py-k`
- b
- n-\n-p-ap- Aw-K
-
D-s-sS ]-n-Iv A-u-v-kv I-n-n-bp-sS Aw-K-_-ew
a-\p-jy-s X-e-tbm-n-bn-se A-n-I-fp-sS F-w
F-{X h-jw-sIm-m-Wv Xm-Pv-a-l-en-s ]-Wn ]q-n-bmb-Xv
92 a-s t`-Z-K-Xn-tbm-sS (2004) `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-mw
sj-Uyp-fn-se `m-j-I F-{X-sb--am-bn
Xp-S--n C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bv-v F-{X `m-K--fmWp-n-bn-cp--Xv
A-d
- n-\pw I-cp-X X-S
- e
- n-\p-sa-Xn-cm-b kw-c
- W
- w \Ip- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
lo-{_p A--c-am-e-bn-se A--c--fp-sS F-w
F-{X Im-c-v kz-W-am-Wv 916 tKm-Uv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv
C-y-bn F-{Xm-aX
- v cq-]w-sIm- kw-m-\a
- m-Wv kn-nw
B-`-c-W- D-m-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv F-{X Im-c-v
kz-Wa
- m-Wv
{In--n ]n-n-s \o-fw F-{X hm-c(bm-Uv)bm-Wv
4210. C-e-Iv-t{Sm- Im-Un-tbm-{Kmw- I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- hn-eyw- sF-tmh4211. km--n-I A-Sn-b--cm-h--sb-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw- B-n-n 360
4212. ssl-tm-Kv-ssf-ko-an-b F-m- c--n ]--km-c Ip-dbp- A-h-
4213. Im-bw-Ip-fw Xm-]-\n-e-b-n-se C--\w- \m-^v-X
4214. km--n-I im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- B-Uw kv-an-v
4215. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w- tIm-_-v tZ-io-tbmZym-\w
4216. km cm-P-hw-iw `-cn-n-cp- cm-Pyw- d-jy
4217. C-y-bp-sS-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm-s-bpw A-Xn-n \n-W-bn- {_no-jv \n-b-a-- kn-dn dm-Uv-n-^v
4218. km-kv tcm-Kw _m-[n-p- A-h-b-hw- izm-k-tIm-iw
4219. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s, B-kq-{Xn-X kw-m-\ X-e-m-\w-
N-WvU
- n-KV
- v
4220. l-cn-bm-\- kw-kv-Ym-\-s- {]-[m-\- \-Zn- -L4221. km-ap-h l-\n-am G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p- P-a-\n
4222. km-ap-Km bp-w G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS knw-lm-k-\-amWv D-d-n--Xv- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
4223. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s U-]yq-n kv-]o-- Fw.F.A--m
4224. l-cn-bm-\-bn-se {]-[m-\-`m-j- ln-n
4225. sam-t-Kp sNw-kv-t^m-Uv `-c-W-]-cn-jv-Im-cw- 1919
4226. sam-Wm-en-k- F- {]-kn--am-b Nn-{Xw h-c--Xv- en-bm-WmtUm Um-hn-n
4227. ssk--h-kw-kv-Im-c-n-s `m-K-am-b lm-c- I-s-n-b-Xv Z-bm dmw km-n
4228. ssl-{U-P t_mw-_n-s A-Sn-m-\ X-zw- \yq-n-b ^yqj
4229. l-cn-bm-\ l-cn-t F--dn-b-s-Sp- {In--- I-]n-tZ-hv
4230. tem-I-n-s kw-`-c-W-im-e F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- sa-Ivkn-tm
4231. Nn-n-\n h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1984
4232. l-j-s X-e-m-\w- I-\u-Pv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 109

4233.
4234.
4235.
4236.
4237.
4238.
4239.
4240.
4241.
4242.
4243.
4244.
4245.
4246.
4247.
4248.
4249.
4250.
4251.
4252.

4253.
4254.
4255.
4256.

4257.
4258.
4259.
4260.
4261.
4262.
4263.
4264.
4265.
4266.
4267.
4268.
4269.
4270.

in-h-Pn B-{K-bn ap-K cm-P-[m-\n k--in- h-jw- 1666


km-n-s B-Zy sk-{I--dn P-\-d- A-_v-Zp A-lv-k
C-c- \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _p-Um-s]-v
in-h-Pn O-{X-]-Xn-bm-b h-jw- 1674
in-h-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Km-an (]p-{X) kmw-_m-Pn
C-c-hn-Ip-fw \m-j-W ]m-v G-Xp Pn--bn-em-Wv- C-Sp-n
km-hn-I kzo-I-m-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp- c- {Kq-v--F _n
{Kq-v
a-dm--sc \-bn- h-\n-X- Xm-cm-`m-bn
a-e-_m-dn B-Zy-s I-j-I-kw-Lw cq-]w-sIm- h-jw-
1937
`m-c-X-c-Xv-\- _-lp-a-Xn- e-`n- c-m-a-s im-kv-{X--F.]n.sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
]-cm-Z-am-b G-I k-kv-X-\w (hm--b _m-v) -h-m
B-Zy-s kv-t]-kv j-n G-Xm-Wv- sIm-fw-_n-b
A-Wp-tI-{-n-s km-n-[yw B-Zy-am-bn sX-fn-bn- im-kv{X-- G-W-v dp-Y-t^m-Uv
in-h-Kn-cn-bn \n-p-`-hn-p- \-Zn- s]-cn-bm
B-e-p-g-sb In-g-n-s sh-\o-kv F-p hn-ti-jn-n- {_n-ojv ssh-t{km-bn- I-gv-k {]-`p
in-h-Pn-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv jm-lv-Pn t`m-s
B-kq-{X-W I-o-j-\n Aw-K-am-b B-Zy h-\n-X- Zq-Km-`m-bv
tZ-ia
v- p-Jv
B-Zy-s A--sm-n m-]n--sX-hn-sS- Xn-cp-h-\--]pcw
C-y C-Un-s]-U-kv B-Iv-Sv \n-e-hn-h--Xv F-tm 1947 Pq-sse 18
]-cn-n-Xn-bn-se hr--hn-f-Isf \-in-n-m-sX A-h-bv-v
{]m-[m-\yw sIm-Sp-p-sIm-p Ir-jn-co-Xn- s]-am I-
C-y-bp-sS a-[y-`m-K-p-I-Snt]m-Ip- tc-J- D-c
- m-b\
- t- cJ
em-tlm I-cm-dn H-p-sh-
C- y
{]- [ m- \ - a - { n-
F._n.hm-Pv-t]-bn
tIc-f-nse G--hpw \o-fw-IqSn-b kw-m-\ ]m-X--F-kvF-v-1
C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K- a-e-bm-f-n-\n-pw D-hkv \n--l-I-c-W-{]-m-\w in A-hm-Uv B-Zy-am-bn
t\-Sn-b-Xv- im-c-Z
kw-_-n- {]-ta-bw ]m-kmn-b-Xv- 1920 sk]vXw_-dn
tN {]tXyI kt-f-\-n
G-tgmw-2 G-Xn-\w hn-m-Wv- s\-v
H.N-p-ta-t\m-s ]q-n-bm-Im- t\m-h- im-c-Z
C-y-bn Im-Wp- G--hpw h-en-b i-e-` C-\w- k-tX
t_-Uv hnw-Kv
]-d-p- Ip-d- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv -h-m
G-jy-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Xp-en-]v Km-U G-Xv kw-m-\m-Wv- P-p I-iv-ao
`m-c-X-c-Xv-\w e-`n--ti-jw A--cn- B-Zy hy-n- `-K-hm-Zmkv
ssk--h-kw-kv-Im-c-n-s `m-K-am-b tem- I-s-nb-Xv- F-kv.B.dm-hp
Im-d am-Iv-kn-s aq-e-[-\w F- Ir-Xn ]p-d-p-h- h-jw 1867
]m-In-kv-Xm-s hm-Wn-Py X-e-m-\w--I-dm-n
a-e-bm-q- G-Xv- Pn--bn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fwC-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew `-c-Ww \-S-n-b bq-tdm]y i-n- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im
B-Zy-s ku-v G-jy s^-U-td-j sK-bnw-kv \-S-
h-jw- 1984
a-e-p In-S-p-d-p- H-tc-sbm-cp Po-hn--a-\p-jy
km-hn-I Zm-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp- c- {Kq-v--H {Kq-v

CONFUSING FACTS
Dj kvIq Hm^v AXvenIvkv tImgntmSv Pnbnse
sImbnemnbnemWv. ]n.Sn. Dj tImnwKv sk
Xncph\]pcmWv
sjbvJv A_vZp (190682)bmWv Imivao knwlw.
emem ePv]Xv dmbn (18651928)bmWv ]m_v knwlw.
am[hnpnbpw
A\pPn
kptemN\bpw
tNsgpXnb t\mhemWv IhmSw. am[hnpnbpw
sI.F. taml\habpw tNsgpXnb t\mhemWv
Aamhmkn.
IYIfnbn {][m\ KmbI s]mm\n Fpw
klKmbI innSn Fpw AdnbsSpp.
C\mjW tImv Hm^v Pnkv (Amcmjv{S
\oXn\ymb tImSXn), C\mjW {Inan\ tImv
FnhbpsS Bm\w s\XeUv k nse tlKv
F \KcnemWv.
4271. Nn-d-Ip-I \o-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p- ]-n- s]-Kzn
4272. m-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s t\m-h-en-v- Xm-cm-i- _m\-Pn
4273. -Um-\yq-_v \-Zn sN-p-tN-cp- I-S- I-cn--S
4274. Im-d am-Iv-kv A--cn- h-jw- 1883
4275. Um--Wn-kw F--dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- h-Wm--X
4276. Um-hn tem-Iw Np-n {]-Ir-Xn ]-cy-S-\w \-S-n-b I--en-s
t]-cv- F-v.Fw.F-kv._o-Kn
4277. X-Ym-K-X F-p-a-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {io-_p-
4278. Xz-n-s ]p-d-s ]m-fn- F-n-sU-an-kv
4279. Z C-y kv-{S-Kn B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- t\-Xm-Pn kp-`mjv t_m-kv
4280. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn, D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn, tem-Iv-k-`mw-Kw F-n-h-cp-sS Imem-h-[n- A-p-h-jw
4281. s\m-t_ k-m-\w e-`n- G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d- hy-n-
hn-eyw tem-d-kv {_m-Kv
4282. ssl-{U-P-s\-q-Sm-sX kq-cy-\n-ep- H-cp {]-[m-\ hm-X-Iw-
lo-en-bw
4283. Im-e-n-s I-t]m-e-n-se I-p-\o-p-n- F-v Xm-Pv-al-en-s\ hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-tKm
4284. tZ-io-b A-Sn-b--cm-h- B-Zy-am-bn {]-Jym-]n--s-Sp-tm
(1962) {]-[m-\-a-{n--P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
4285. tI-c-fo-b am-Xr-I-bn bq-tdm-]y-am C-y-bn \n-an- BZy-s a-n-cw- a-m-t-cn sIm-m-cw
4286. tI-c-fo-b F--dn-b-s--Xv- I-S-{]-b-v Ip-- \-ym
4287. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se B-Zy sd-bn-th-sse- sIm-w--Xn-cps\-th-en(1904)
4288. Izn-ss\ e-`n-p- k-kyw- kn-tm-W
4289. ssl--sam-t{Sm-n-b-bp-sS a-sm-cp t]-cv- Zo-L-Zr-jv-Sn
4290. Izo kn-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ^n-em-sU-^n-b
4291. cm-Po-hv Km-n h-[w kw-_-n- {]-tXy-I A-t\z-j-W-kw-Ls \-bn--Xv- Un.B.Im-n-tI-b
4292. c-mw A-e-Iv-km- F-v N-cn-{X-Im-c-am hn-ti-jn-n-p-Xv- Z-a-{Xn-b-v
4293. jm-\m-a G-Xp `m-j-bn c-Nn--s-p- t]-jy
4294. Z C-ssk-U F- t\m-h c-Nn--Xv- ]n.hn.\-c-knw-l-dmhp
4295. jm-n hw-i-n-se G--hpw a-lm- jw-kp-o C-{_mlnw(14011440)
4296. jm-ev-am `-cn- cm-Pyw- {^m-kv
4297. Jm-cn-^v Im-ew G-Xp k-a-b-m-Ip-p- Pq--sk-]v-Xw-_
4298. jm-Mv-lm-bv \-K-cw G-Xp-cm-Py-m-Wv- ssN-\
4299. jm-P-lm \n-an- X-e-m-\ \-K-cw- jm-P-lm-\m-_m-Zv
4300. k- t - i - h m- l - I - c m- b n ]- v D- ] - t bm- K n- n- c p- ]- n- I
- {]m-hv

110 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

4301. k-tcm-Pn-\n \m-bn-Up- Acn- hjw 1949


4302. ssl--h-[-tam-m-c-I F- m-\-t-cv kzo-I-cn--Xv-
in-h-Pn
4303. Im-e-l-c-W-s- sN-v F-v Km-n-Pn hn-ti-jn-n--Xv-
{In-]v-kv an-j-s\
4304. Kq-Kn F--Xv H-cp --- B-Wv- sk-v F-n
4305. k-t^-Zv ap-kv-en-bp-sS G-Xp `m-K-am-Wv Hu-j-[-\n-am-W-n-\v
D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- In-g-v
4306. Jm-kn-I-fpw Ip-n-I-fpw G-Xp kw-m-\-s P-\-X-bm-Wv ta-Lm-e-b
4307. k-tm-jv t{Sm-^n B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1941
4308. k-tX sd-bn-th-bp-sS B-m-\w- sN-ss
4309. k-U sU-v F- ]-Zw G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- ^p-Sv-t_m
4310. c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--m-e-v B-Zy-am-bn Io-g-S-n-b Ap-X-v i-n- C--en
4311. I-w ]-d-bp--Xp I-p-]n-Sn-m-\p- sS-v- t]m-fn-{Km-^v
4312. I-Wm-SI k-m-cn-s G--hpw D-b- _-lp-a-Xn- I-Wm-SI c-Xv-\w
4313. jm-P-lm A--cn- h-jw- 1666
4314. jm-P-lm F- hm-n-\-Yw- tem-I-n-s cm-Pm-hv
4315. k-tlm-Z-c-kw-Lw m-]n--Xv- k-tlm-Z-c A--
4316. K
- t- P-{-tam-w- Np-h-Nn-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- I
- r-jvW
- ]
- p-cw sImm-c-n
4317. jm-P-lm- N-{I-h-n- X-e-kv-Ym-\w- U-ln-bn-te-v- am-p-Xp-h-sc ap-K- N-{I-h-n-am-cp-sS X-e-kv-Ym-\w- G-Xm-bn-cpp- B-{K
4318. jm-P-lm P-\n- -ew- em-tlm (1592)
4319. Cu-iz-c ln-p-h-, {In-kv-Xym-\n-b- F- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv-
h-b-em cm-a-h-a
4320. jm-P-lm X-S-hn-em-bn-cp--tm ]-cn-N-cn-n-cp- a-I- P-l\m-c
4321. c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--m-e-v H-Sp-hn Io-g-S-n-b A-p-Xv i-n- P-m
4322. jm-P-lm ap-K N-{I-h-n-bm-b h-jw- 1628
4323. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se B-Zy-s {]-[m-\-a-{n- ]-w Xm-Wp-]n
4324. Xm-a-cp-`q-an-bn n-Xn-sN-p- \-K-cw- P-bv-km-ao
4325. ssl-tm-S-Xn- P-Uv-Pn-sb \n-b-an-p--Xv- cm-jv-{S-]-Xn4326. Im-em-en-v \p-\m-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- `q-hn-`m-Kw- {Ko-eUv
4327. Xm-bv-e-Uv, Iw-t_m-Un-b, a-te-jy, C-sm-\o-jy F-o {]tZ-i- Io-g-S-n-b tNm-f cm-Pm-hv- cm-tP-{ tNm-f
4328. Xm-jv-sI-dv- I-cm-dn- H-p-sh- t\-Xm-- em-_-l-Zq-imkv-{Xn-bpw- A-bq-_v-Jm-\pw4329. tPm-Zm \-Zn-bp-sS ]-X-\w G-Xp I-S-en- Nm-hp-I-S
4330. tPm-Kv sh--m-w G-Xp kw-m-\-v- I-Wm-S-Iw
4331. tSm-tm-bn-bp-sS bp--hpw k-am-[m-\-hpw F- t\m-h-en-s
]-m--e-n-\p \n-Zm-\-am-b bp-w- s\-tm-fn-b-s d-jy
B-{I-a-Ww
4332. tSm-f-an-bp-sS ]p-kv-X-I-n iu-_ F-v tc-J-s-Sp-n-b {]tZ-iw- tKm-h
4333. tPym-Xn-im-kv-{Xw, K-Wn-Xw, ssh-Zy-im-kv-{Xw ap-X-em-b-h-bn
A-Km-[-]m-Wv-Uy-Xy-ap-m-bn-cp- ap-nw `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- ap-l-Zv _n Xp--Iv
4334. tSm-tm-s^-tdm- F--dn-b-s-Sp- Po-h-I-ta-Xv- Po-h-Iw C
4335. tem-K-cn-Xw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm t\-n-b
4336. a-e-bm-q-cn-s\ h-b-em A-hm-Un-\v A-l-\m-n-b Ir-Xn- b{w
4337. a-e -bm-f a-t \m- c - a ]- {X- n- s k- Y m- ]- I - I- - n
h-dpKo-kv am-n-f
4338. a-\p-jy B-Zy-am-bn sa-cp-n h-f-n-b ar-Kw- \m-b
4339. im-kv-{X-n-\p- s\m-t_ k-m-\-n-\-l-\m-b B-Zy `mc-Xo-b- kn.hn.cm-a
4340. ssl-tm-bn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- aq-e-I-- tkm-Un-bw,
k-^, Hm-Iv-kn-P, ssl-{U-P

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

23

ssP-\-a-X-n-se F-{Xm-a-s Xo-Y--c-\m-Wv ]m-iz\m-Y


a-\p-jy-tIm-i-n F-{X tPm-Sn t{Im-a-tkm-ap-I-fm-Wp-Xv
a-\p-jy-s kn-m-Wv-U-n F-{X tPm-Sn t{Im-a-tkmap-I D-m-bn-cn-pw
{]-hm-N-I-Xzw e-`n--ti-jw ap-l--Zv \-_n F-{X h-j-amWv Po-hn-n-cp--Xv
{_n-o-jv C-y-bp-sS P-\-kw-Jy-bp-sS F-{X i-X-am-\-amWv hn-`-P-\-tm-sS ]m-In-kv-Xm-\v e-`n--Xv
C-y-bn F-{Xm-a-Xv cq-]w-sIm- kw-m-\-am-Wv anskm-dw
a-\p-jy-s enw-K-tIm-i--fn-se t{Im-a-tkmw kw-Jy
F-{X ap-dn-hp-I-tf-m-Wv Pq-en-b-kv ko-k h-[n--s--Xv
a-\p-jy-_o-P-n-se t{Im-a-tkm-ap-I-fp-sS F-w
`q-an-bp-sS km--]n-I A-w- ew-_-n-\n-v- F-{X
Un-{Kn- N-cn-m-Wv- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p--Xv F-{X h-b-n-em-Wv Km-n-Pn B-Zy-am-bn Z-n-Wm-{^n-bn t]m-b-Xv
\n-_-n-v ]-Wn-sb-Sp-n-p--Xv \n-tcm-[n-p- `-c-WL-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
Hm-Iv-kn-P A--co--hym-]v-X-n-s 21 i-X-am-\-am-Wv.
F-m, `m-c-n-s A-Sn-m-\-n C-Xv F-{X i-Xam-\a
- m-Wv.
ap-l--Zv _n Xp-Kv-f-n-s km-{am-Py-n F-{X {]hn-iy-I-fm-Wp-m-bn-cp--Xv
4341. Im-em-h-[n ]q-n-bm-n-b B-Zy-s tIm-{K-kn-X-c {][m-\-a-{n- A-S _n-lm-cn hm-Pv-t]-bn4342. D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS C-y ]m-e-san B-Zy-am-bn AwK-am-b-Xv- ]p-cp-tjm-w-Zm-kv S-Wv-U
4343. im-kv{- X-f
- p-sS cm-n F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- K-Wn-Xi
- m-kv{- Xw
4344. Xm-ft- a-f hm-Zy-Ie
- m-cw-Ks
- Ip-e]
- X
- n m-\o-bs
- c B-Zc
- n-m
tI-c-f k-m G-s-Sp-n-b A-hm-Uv- ]-m-hq ]p-c-kvIm-cw
4345. hn-tam-N\
- k-ac
- I
- m-es
- B-`y-c
- a
- {- n- kn.A-Nyp-Xt- a-t\m
4346. G-jy-bp-sS {]-Im-iw F-v {io-_p--s\ hn-ti-jn-n--Xv- FUzn B-t\m-Uv
4347. Hmw-_p-Uv-kv-am kw-hn-[m-\w B-Zy-am-bn G-s-Sp-n-b cmPyw- kzo-U
4348. te-Un Hm-^v C-y kn-\n-a F--dn-b-s--Xv- tZ-hn-Im-dm-Wn
tdm-dn-v
4349. Hm-Wm-tLm-j-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- X-an-gv-Ir-Xn- a-[pssc-m-n
4350. hm-Wn-Pym-Sn-m-\-n C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn d- Ir-jn
Xp-S-n-b kw-m-\w- tI-c-fw
4351. h-S-p In-g- C-y-bn-\n-v `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w B-Zy-am-bn t\Sn-b-Xv- tKm-]n-\m-Yv t_m-Z-tem-bv
4352. G--hpw h-en-b D-c-Kw- ap-X-e
4353. {_n-ojv C-y-bp-sS a-[y-m-bn n-Xn-sN-bvXn-cp \-K-cw \m-Kv-]q
4354. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s Im-jn-I k-h-I-em-im-e- tKm-hn-v
h--`v ]-v bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n Hm-^v A-{Kn-- B v sS-Ivt\m-f-Pn (1960)
4355. G--hpw h-en-b P-p-hn-`m-Kw- B-t{Xm-t]m-Uv
4356. Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw-Pn--bn No--n h-f- tI-{w n-Xn
sN-p--Xv--s\-m-Umw
4357. G--hpw h-en-b tIm-iw- H--I--n-bp-sS A-Wv-Uw

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 111

4358. F-en--m-bw F- kn-\n-a-bp-sS kw-hn-[m-b-I- A-Sq tKm]m-eI


- r-jvW
-
4359. G-jy-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b P-bn- Xn-lm
4360. Xm-thm-bn-kw G-Xp cm-Py-s a-X-am-Wv- ssN-\
4361. G-jy-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b ss{I-kv-X-h-k-t-f-\w- a-cm-a
I-sh-j
4362. C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b tN-cn- [-cm-hn
4363. Xn-cp--Xn t-{Xw G-Xv kw-m-\-v- B-{m-{]-tZ-iv
4364. G-jy-bn-se- G--hpw- hn-kv-Xo-Ww- Ip-d-- cm-Pyw- - am-e-Zzo]v4365. I--cn-bp-sS cq-]m--c-W-n-se B-Zy-L-w- ]o-v
4366. cm-Po-hv Km-n tJ-c-Xv-\ ]p-c-kv-Im-cw B-Zy-am-bn e-`n--Xv-
hn-iz-\m-Y B-\-v
4367. tI-c-fo-b-\m-b B-Zy I-n-\m- tPm-k-^v ]m-td-m-n
4368. cm-Po-hv Km-n-bp-sS-k-am-[n- ho-`q-an
4369. I-Zw-_ hw-iw m-]n--Xv- a-bq-c-h-a
4370. J-a `m-j D-]-tbm-K-n-ep--Xv G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- Iw-t_mUn-b
4371. J-k 1699 m-]n--Xv- tKm-_n-v kn-Mv
4372. I--cn-bp-sS G--hpw ta--tb-dn-b cq-]w- B-{-ssk-v
4373. I-m-n-p-g G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS ssI-h-gn-bm-Wv- `m-c-X-p-g
4374. i- X-p-cm ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xr-q
4375. i-a
- m-b td-Un-tbm X-cw-K
- ]p-ds
- -Sp-hn-p- {K-lw- hymgw
4376. I-j-I-cp-sS kz-Kw F--dn-b-s-Sp- -ew- X-m-hq
4377. a-e-bm-f-`m-j B-Zy-am-bn A--Sn--s--Xv G-Xp {K--n-tlm-q-kv a-e-_m-dn--kv
4378. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw h-en-b A--{km-hn {K-n- ssXtdm-bv-Uv
4379. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s A-\p-t-Z-am-Wv kw-m-\-fp-sS H-cp bq-Wn-b-\m-Wv C-y- F-p {]-kv-Xm-hn-p--Xv- Hv
4380. ]-\m-a I-\m ]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Z-s G-Xv k-ap-{Z-hp-am-bn _n-n-p-p--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
4381. {^-v Cu-n-ym---\n m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1664
4382. _yq-kn-^m-e \-K-c-n-s m-]-I--A-e-Iv-km- N-{I-hn
4383. ]m-In-kv-Xm kn-\n-am hy-h-km-b-n-s tI-{w -em-tlm
4384. \n-b-a-k-` ]n-cn-p-hn-Sm B-m-W-[n-Im-c-ap--Xv--K-h-W
4385. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp- kw-m-\w- a-Wn-q
4386. tI-c-f-n G-Xp h-jw \-S- Xn-c-s-Sp-n-em-Wv G--hpw
Iq-Sp-X t]m-fn-Mv i-X-am-\w tc-J-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-p--Xv- 1960
4387. G-Xp hy-h-km-b-n-\p {]-kn--am-Wv sIm-w- I-ip-h-n
4388. C-y-v kp-tJm-bv bp--hn-am-\w \-Ip- cm-Pyw -d-jy
4389. B-dp-Im-e--fn ]m-Sm I-gn-hp-m-bn-cp- kw-Ko-X--
j-Sv-Im-e tKm-hn--am-cm
4390. B-e-p-g Pn--bn-se \m-Km-cm-[-\-bv-p {]-kn--am-b t-{Xw a-m-d-m-e
4391. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hy-h-km-b bq-Wn-p-I-fp- Pn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
4392. ln-Pv-d h-j-n-se B-Zy-s am-kw- ap-l-dw
4393. an-I- K-Zy-Im-c-\m-bpw Xp-n-`m-j-bn-se an-I- F-gp-p-Imcn H-cm-fm-bpw ]-cn-K-Wn--s-Sp- ap-K N-{I-h-n--_m_
4394. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s \m-W-b-am-Wv t{Im-W- kzo-U
4395. _yq-n-^p kn-n Hm-^v C-y F--dn-b-s--Xv -N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
4396. \-ap-v `-b-t--Xv `-b-s--s-bm-Wv F-p ]-d--Xv-{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
4397. ]m-In-kv-Xm-s A-e-l-_m-Zv F--dn-b-s-Sp- an-m-tIm-v
G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v--kn-p
4398. _w-Km K-k-n-s a-p c-p t]-cp-I- ln-o-kv K-k-v, I- P-\-d A-sUz-ss-k
4399. a-dmTn-I-sf aq-mw ]m-\n--p bp--n (1761) tXm-]n- Al--Zv jm A-_v-Zm-en B-sc-bm-Wv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bm-bn
\m-a-\n-t-iw sN-bv-X-Xv- jm B-ew c-m-a-s\
4400. I-j-I-s-d N-m-Xn- F--dn-b-s-Sp- P-p -a-n-c

CONFUSING FACTS
{io-_p--s `m-cy b-tim-[-c-bpw a-lm-ho-c-s `m-cy btim-[-bpw B-bn-cp-p.
tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s m-v s]-n m-v (1840).
C-y-bn-te-Xv kn-v [m-v (1852).
C-ym-N-cn-{X-n-se kp-h-W-Im-ew Kp-]v-X-Im-e-L-w.
tI-cf
- N-cn-{X-n-se kp-h-WI
- m-ew Ip-et- i-Jc
- -am-cp-sS Imew.
a-e-bm-f ]-{X-cw-K-v Hm-^v-sk-v kw-hn-[m-\w \-S-m-nb B-Zy-]-{Xw tZ-im-`n-am-\n-bpw (1979) ^m-Iv-kn-an-en(H-cp bqWn-n-\n-v a-sm-cp bq-Wn-n-te-v t]-Pp-I {Sm-kv-an-v
sN-bv-Xv A--Sn-p- co-Xn) kw-hn-[m-\w B-cw-`n- B-Zy ]{Xw a-e-bm-f a-t\m-c-a-bpw (1986) B-Wv.
tI-c-f am-Iv-kv F--dn-b-s--Xv sI.Zm-tam-Z-c-\m-Wv. tIc-f {Iq-jv-tN-hv Fw.F.tKm-hn--\m-b.
4401. i-n--en A-y-\n-{Z-sIm-p- C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n C-n-cm-Km-n
4402. I-n-sh--n A-b-Un em-b-\n tN-p-tm \o-e\n-dw In-p- h-kv-Xp- A--Pw
4403. I--S A-W-s-v G-Xp Pn--bn- sIm-w
4404. I-v ]p-fn-p-tm ]-X-p-s]m-p- hm-X-Iw- Im-_
U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
4405. c-mw tem-I bp--m-e-v P-m-\n-en-Sm-\p- t_mw-_v \nan-p--Xn-\p- ]--Xn- am-l- ]--Xn
4406. tI-c-f-n Im-W-s-Sp- ssS-m-\n-bw A-S-n-bn-cn-p- [mXp- C-a-ss\-v
4407. G-Xp cm-Py-s {]-[m-\ `m-j-bm-Wv Zm-cn--A-^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm
4408. tbm-K-t-a-k-` cq-]w-sIm--Xv G-Xv k-ap-Zm-b-n-s ]p-tcmK-Xn e-y-an-m-Wv- {_m--W-k-ap-Zm-bw
4409. ssX-m-Sv A--bp-sS b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- kp--cm-b
4410. A-`n-\-h tI-c-fw F- {]-kn-o-I-c-Ww m-]n--Xv- hm-Kv-`-Sm\-
4411. km--c-X-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F-v hn-ti-jn-n--s- tI-c-f-nse \-thm-m-\ \m-b-I- Nm-h-d Ip-cym-tm-kv G-en-bm-kv
4412. B-[p-\n-I tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s km-aq-ln-I ]-cn-jv-I-mhv- ssh-Ip-WvT-kzm-an
4413. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew D-]-ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-bn-cp-Xv- A-hp-m-Z-Ip-n \-l
4414. C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn-se \n-t-i-I X-z--sf 1935se Kh.Hm-^v C-y B-Iv-Sn-se C-kv-{Sp-sa v Hm-^v C-kv-{S-kp-am-bn Xm-c-X-ay-s-Sp-n-b-Xm-cv--_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
4415. G-Xp hn-P-b-\-K-c cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-s-p-dn-m-Wv C-_v _q- X-s c-lv-e F- ]p-kv-X-I-n hn-h-cn-p--Xv- lcn-l-c H-m-a
4416. c-p `q-JW
- vU
-
- f
- n n-Xn sN-p- \-Kc
- w- C-kvX
- mw-_p
4417. tZ-io-b Im-bn-I Zn-\m-Nc
- W
- h
- pw-am-bn _-s
- - hy-n- [ym
N-v
4418. tZ-io-b km--c-Xm-an-j- {]-h--\m-a-cw-`n--Xv- 1988
4419. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se A-hk
- m-\s
- h-\n-Xm `-cW
- m-[n-Im-cn- tkXp-e-v-ao-`m-bn
4420. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm k-P P-\-d--ta-cn ]p eq-tm-kv
4421. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw a-{n-bm-bn k-Xy
{]-Xn- sN-bv-X t\-Xm-hv- sI.Fw.am-Wn
4422. ln-tcm-jn-a-bn ho-W t_mw-_n-s t]-cv- en-n t_m-bv
4423. G-Xp hn-t-Pv F-d-Wm-Ip-fw Pn--tbm-Sv tN--tm-fm-Wv G-hpw h-en-b Pn--sb- _-lp-a-Xn C-Sp-n Pn--bv-v \-jv-S-s-Xv- Ip--p-g
4424. tI-cf
-
- n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X im-JI
- f
- p- s]m-Xp-ta-Je
- m hmWn-Py _m-v- t-v _m-v Hm-^v C-y
4425. tI-c-f-N-cn-{X-ayq-kn-bw n-Xn sN-p--Xv- C-S--n

112 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

4426. kq-cy-s Xm-]\


- n-e Af-p- D-]-I-c-Ww-
ss]-tdm-lo-en-tbm-ao
4427. cm-Py-k-`-bn-te-v \ma-\n-t-iw sN--s-
B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- kZm sI.Fw.]-Wn-
4428. kq-cy-s Xm-]w `q-anbn-se-p--Xv- hn-Inc-Ww h-gn
4429. kq-cy-t\m-Sv G--hpw
A-Sp-p n-Xn sNp- \--{Xw t{]mIv-kn-a sk-tm-dn
4430. cm- P - X - c w- K n- W n- b n
F- h n- S p- s cm- P m- A- t a- c n- - b p- s S- cm- j v - { S- ] n- X m- h v -
-am-cp-sS N-cn-{X-amtPm-Pv- hm-jn-Mv-S-Wv {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p--Xv I-iv-ao
4431. Z eq-an-\k
- v kv]
- m-Ivk
- v F- ]p-kvX
- I
- w c-Nn-X
- v- F.]n.sP.A_v-Zp I-emw
4432. tZ-io-b im-kv-{X-Zn-\w ^n-{_-h-cn 28-\v B-N-cn-m Im-c-Ww cm-a C-^-Iv-Sv kn.hn.cm-a I-p-]n-Sn- Xo-b-Xn
4433. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-s {]-Xn-\n-[n-If
- m-bn F-{X-t]-cm-Wv tIm-np-h v A-kw-n-bn D-m-bn-cp--Xv- 6
4434. s\m-t_ k-m-\w e-`n- B-Zy-s m-]-\w- C-n-yqv Hm-^v C-\m-j-W em
4435. kq-d-n B-Zy-s {^-p ^m-Iv-S-dn m-]n-X-am-b h-jw 1668
4436. F-en-^m Kp-l-I \n-an--Xv- cm-jv-{S-Iq-S-am
4437. In-Mv ta- F--dn-b-s- X-an-gv t\-Xm-hv--sI.Im-a-cm-Pv
4438. hn-tam-N-\-k-a-cw \-bn--Xv- a--v ]-Zv-a-\m-`
4439. in-h-Pn-bpw ap-K-f-cpw ]p-c- k-n H-n- h-jw- 1665
4440. In-Mv-kv t^m-Uv F- Pn-m a-Pn-kv-t{S-n-s\ sIm-e-s-Sp-nb tI-kn Xq-n-te--s--Xv- Jp-Zn-dmw t_m-kv
4441. io-X-bp--n-\v A-h-km-\w Ip-dn-v _-en `n-n X-I-
h-jw- 1989
4442. Ip-{]-kn--am-b Im-am-n-]p-c hy-`n-Nm-c tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-apw-ss_
4443. Cw--pw {^m-kpw X-n i-X-h-j-bp-w B-cw-`n- hjw- 1338
4444. cw-K-kzm-an- I-v- G-Xv- I-fn-bp-tS-Xv- tlm-n4445. G-jy-bp-sS s\m-t_ k-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-Kv-ktk A-hm-Uv
4446. Cw-Kv-f-n-t\-bpw {^m-kn-t\-bpw th-Xn-cn-p- I-S-en-Sp-v Cw-o-jv Nm-\
4447. G--hpw h-ep--ap- sN-hn D- Po-hn- B-{^n- B-\
4448. C-W-sb Xn-p- Po-hn- -Nn-e-n4449. \-f
- k-hI
- e
- m-im-es
- b ]p-\c
- p-c
- n-W
- s
- a-v B-Zy-am-bn Bh-iy-s--Xv--F.]n.sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
4450. C-Xm-bv--C-Xm-bv tcm-K-ap-m-Ip--Xv G-Xp tem-l-n-s a-en\o-I-c-Ww aq-e-am-Wv- Im-Uv-an-bw
4451. D-]-\n-j-p-I-fp-sS F-w- 108
4452. \-c-\m-cm-b tk-Xp-hm-Wv h-S-p-In-g- C-y-bn-se G-hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b sd-bn-th-m-ew. C-Xv G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv-
{_--]p-{X
4453. ]m-In-kv-Xm sd-bn-th-bv-kn-s B-m-\w--em-tlm
4454. `-c-X-\m-Sy-n-\p-th-n cp-Iv-an-Wn tZ-hn A-cp-t F-hn-sSbm-Wv I-em-t-{X m-]n--Xv- A-U-bm
4455. Ir{Xna D-]{- K-l
- -v `q-n-c{- `-aW
- ]
- Y
- w F- B-ib
- w BZy-am-bn A-h-X-cn-n--Xv- B-X kn m-v
4456. D-]-{K-l--fn-m- {K-l-- _p-[, ip-{I
4457. hn-tI-{o-bm-kq-{X-W-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn- ]-m-b-v- Ieym-t-cn (I-q Pn-)

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

24

B-ap-J-ap-s-sS-bp- `-c-W-L-S-\m-`m-K- t`-Z-K-Xn


sN-m ]m-e-san-\v A-[n-Im-cw \-In-b `-c-W-L-S-\m
t`-Z-K-Xn F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-ep-m-bn-cp- lo-tcm-n-^n-Iv-kv en-]n-bn-se
A-Sn-m-\ Nn---fp-sS F-w
ip--am-b kz-Ww F-{X Im-c-m-Wv
tkm-hn-b-v bq-Wn-b-s eq-W Zu-Xy-n F-{X hm-l-\-fm-Wv hn-t-]n--Xv
I-Y-I-fn-bn-se A-Sn-m-\ ap-{Z-I-fp-sS F-w
H-cp cm-Py-n-s Xo-c-p-\n-v F-{X t\m-n- ssah-sc-bp- Zq-sc-bp- k-ap-{Z-`m-Ka
- m-Wv I-n-Py-kv tkm
F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv
C-y-bn F-{X ssl-tm-S-Xn-I-fp-v
F-{X Im-c-v kz-W-am-Wv X-w
`-c-W-L-S-\ \n-e-hn-h- k-a-b-v au-en-Im-h-Im-i--fpam-bn _--s- F-{X B-n-n-fp-I-fm-Wv D-m-bn-cp--Xv
A-d-v sN--s- hy-n-sb F-{X a-Wn-q-dn-\p-n ASp-p- a-Pn-kv-t{S-n-\p-ap-n lm-P-cm--Ww
tZ-io-b Nn--n-se A-tim-I N-{I-n F-{X B-c-mep-If
- p-v
kn-\n-a-bn H-cp sk-n F-{X s{^-bn-ap-I-fm-Wv I-Sp-t]m-Ip-X
- v
au-en-Im-h-Im-i- A-S--ap- `-c-W-L-S-\m-`m-K-
t`-Z-K-Xn sN-m ]m-e-san-\v A-[n-Im-cw \-In-b `-cW-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
{Ko-v A--c-am-e-bn-se A--c--fp-sS F-w
`q-n-c D-]-{K-lw H-cp {]m-h-iyw `q-an-sb {]-Z-n-Ww sNp--Xv F-{X a-Wn-q sIm-m-Wv
ssP-\-a-X-n-se F-{Xm-a-s Xo-Y--c-\m-Wv a-lm-ho-c
ssP-\-a-X-n F-{X Xo-Y--c-am-cm-Wp--Xv
a-\p-jy-\v F-{X hm-cn-sb-p-I-fp-v
C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bn _m-e-th-e \n-tcm-[n-p- A\p-t-Zw
A-m-cm-jv-{S Zn-\-tc-J-bp-sS C-cp-h-i- X-n-ep- k-ab-hy-Xym-kw F-{X a-Wn-q-dm-Wv
4458. G-Xv h-I-c-bn-se cm-Py--fm-Wv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X tIm-f-\nI m-]n--Xv bq-tdm-v
4459. hn-tZ-im-{I-a-Ww, km-bp-[I
-- -em-]w F-n-h-bp-m-bm A-Sn-b-cm-h- {]-Jym-]n-m cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-v A-[n-Im-cw \-ev-Ip-Xv- B-n-n- 352
4460. hn-m-\-n-s {]-Xo-I-am-bn I-W-m--s-Sp- ]-n- aq
4461. Hm-tkm ]m-fn-v A-]-I-Sw h-cp-p- cm-k-h-kv-Xp- tmtdm ^v-fq-tdm Im-_
4462. G-Xv h-I-c-sb-bm-Wv Pn-{_m- I-S-en-Sp-v B-{^n--bn\n-v th-Xn-cn-p--Xv- bq-tdm-v
4463. hn-Uv-Vn-Zn-\w B-tLm-jn-p Xp-S-n-b cm-Pyw- {^m-kv
4464. D--cm-J-Wv-Uv ssl-tm-S-Xn-bp-sS B-m-\w--ss\-\n-m
4465. hnw-_n-U F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- e-
4466. a- \ p- j y- i - c o- c - n- s e G- - h pw \o- f w - I q- S n- b t]- i n km-tm-dn-b-kv
4467. A-m-cm-jv-{S ]-cn-n-Xn kw-L-S-\-bp-sS B-m-\w- s\-bvtdm-_n
4468. hn-Zym-`ym-km-h-iy--p am-{X-am-bn H-cp D-]-{K-lw hn-t]n- B-Zy-s cm-Pyw- C-y
4469. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv a-U-Km-kv-I--C-y-a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
4470. Hm-tkm ]m-fn X-S-p-\n-p- In-c-Ww- A-{Sm h-b-e-v
4471. G-Xv h-I-c-bn-se D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b `m-K-am-Wv hn-k am-kn-^v-Am-n-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 113

4472. h-b-em m-en F--dn-b-s--Xv- kn.sI.Ip-am-c--Wn-


4473. G-Xv C-y kw-m-\-n-\m-Wv kz-w `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-Xv- P-p I-iv-ao
4474. hnw-_n-U-Wn ]-s-Sp- B-Zy C-y-m-c- k-Zm \nl kn-Mv
4475. Ip--_v-o sF-_-n-\p-ti-jw Ip-d-p-Im-e-t-v- ]n-Kman-bm-b-Xv- B-cmw jm
4476. G-Xv- cm-Pm-hn-s-d Im-e-m-Wv- _p-- a-cn--Xv- A-Pm-X-i-{Xp4477. H-dn-b `m-j G-Xv `m-jm-tKm-{X-n-s-Sp-p- C-tm B-cy
4478. Un-k v Hm-^v am c-Nn--Xv- Nm-kv Um-hn
4479. Du-n-G-Xp-a-e-\n-c-I-fn-em-Wv--\o-e-Kn-cn
4480. G-Xv- cm-Py-tm-Sm-Wv- {^m-kv- i-X-h-j-bp--n- G-p-apn-b-Xv- Cw--v4481. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-Xo-c-m-Wv km-{^m-kn-kv-tIm--]-k-^n-Iv k-ap{Zw
4482. G-Xv Du-jv-am-hn-em-Wv sX-tam-ao--dn sko-t{K-Uv kv-sI-bnepw ^m-c-lo-v kv-sI-bn-epw Xp-ey-am-Ip--Xv- -ssa-\-kv 40
4483. G-Xv hm-X-Iw k-ky-F--bn-eq-sS I-S-n-hn-m-Wv h-\-kv-]-Xn
\n-an-p--Xv- ssl-{U-P
4484. h-b-\m-Sv Pn--bp-sS B-m-\w- I--
4485. dn- kv-sI-bn A-f-p--Xv- `q-I--Xo-{h-X
4486. G-Xv Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-s cm-jv-{So-b--km-aq-ln-I kml-N-cy-am-Wv ^m-ln-bm-s Ir-Xn-I-fn hn-h-cn-p--Xv--N-{-Kp]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
4487. h-b-em A-hm-Uv B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1977
4488. G-Xv hn-j-b-n-se s\m-t_ k-m-\-am-Wv B-{^-Uv s\mt_ G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv A-m--Xv- C--tWm-an-Iv-kv
4489. G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv tKm-_n a-cp-`q-an--G-jy
4490. H-cp Xo-Ym-S-\w F-v Km-n-Pn hn-ti-jn-n- A-t-l-n-s
A-h-km-\-s tI-c-f-bm-{X G-Xp-h-j-am-bn-cp-p-1937
4491. H-do-k-bp-sS ]-g-b-t]-cv- I-enw-Kw
4492. H-fn-n-Iv-kv Zo-]w kq-Nn-n-p--Xv F-n-s\-bm-Wv- am-\-h-PmXn-bp-sS \- Kp-W--sf
4493. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv ssS-m-\n-Iv I- ap-n-bX
- v- A-Xve
- mnIv k-ap-{Zw
4494. Im-en--v k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-m-\-am-b tX-n--ew
G-Xp Pn--bn- a-e-p-dw
4495. Iq-dp-am- \n-tcm-[-\n-b-aw B-cp-sS Im-e-m-Wv \n-an--Xv- cmPo-hv Km-n
4496. e--_- A-Y-hm e-w Zm-\w sN-p--h F--dn-b-s-
U-ln kp-m- Ip--_v-o sF-_-Iv
4497. H-do-k-bn-se {]-kn--am-b \r--cq-]w- H-Uo-kn
4498. eo-Kv Hm-^v t\-j-kn-s cq-]-h--c-W-n-\p ap-ssI-sbSp- A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v- hp-Uv-tdm hn-k
4499. H-fn-n-Iv-kv sk-an-ss^-\-en-se-n-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X
ssj-\n hn-k
4500. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv Aw-tKm-f {]-hm-lw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap{Zw
4501. G-Xv-hw-i-n-\v-ti-j-am-Wv -tk-\-am _w-Km-fn A-[n-Im-cn h--Xv- ]m-e hw-iw
4502. F.B.d-m G-Xv ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv {]-kn-- kw-Ko-X kwhn-[m-b-I
4503. G-Xv- Xp--Iv- kp-m-s -Im-e-m-W v-hn-P-b-\-K-c- km-{am-Pyhpw -_m-lv-an-\n- hw-i-hpw- m-]n-s--Xv- ap-l--Zv _n Xp-Iv
4504. kv-{Xo-I-p-th-n-am-{X-am-bp- \r-w- tam-ln-\n-bm-w
4505. H.hn.hn-P-b-s J-km-n-s C-Xn-lm-k-n-se \m-b-I-
c-hn
4506. h-k- Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- P-ssa-
4507. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s\-Xn-sc D-m-b \-S-]-Sn-bm-Wv Jn-em-^-v {]m-\-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b-Xv- Xp-n
4508. H-Iv-tSm-_ c-n-\p P-\n- t\-Xm-- Km-n-Pn-bpw em
_-lm-Zq im-kv-{Xn-bpw
4509. C-Z-b--\n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- P-b-e-fn-X
4510. c-p {]m-h-iyw C-y-bp-sS B-Iv-Sn-Mv {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b-Xv-
Kp-k-cn-em \-

CONFUSING FACTS
tI-c-f-n sS-en-hn-j kw-t{]--Ww B-cw-`n--Xv
1982. a-e-bm-f ]-cn-]m-Sn-I-fp-sS kw-t{]--Ww B-cw-`n-Xv 1985.
kp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn, ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-am-sc \n-b-an-p-Xv {]-kn-Um-Wv. K-h-W-dm-Wv Pn-m P-Uv-Pn-am-sc \nb-an-p--Xv .
C-y-bn ]-Z-hn-bn-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy {]-[m-\-a-{n
P-hm-l-em-s\-{lp-hpw ]-Z-hn-bn-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy
{]-kn-U v tUm.k-o lp-ssk-\p-am-Wv.
\-f-N-cn-Xw B---Y D-m-bn-hm-cy-cp-sS c-N-\-bm-Wv. Ip \-ym-cm-Wv \-f-N-cn-Xw Xp- c-Nn--Xv.
k-_-a-Xn-bn-se k-ym-kn F--dn-b-s--Xv Km-n-Pn-bmWv. ]u-\m-dn-se k-ym-kn F--dn-b-s--Xv hn-t\m-_m
`m-sh-bm-Wv.
4511.
4512.
4513.
4514.
4515.
4516.
4517.
4518.
4519.
4520.
4521.
4522.
4523.
4524.
4525.
4526.
4527.
4528.
4529.
4530.
4531.
4532.
4533.
4534.
4535.
4536.
4537.
4538.
4539.
4540.
4541.

114 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

G-Xv kw-m-\-s \m-tSm-Sn \r--cq-]-am-Wv du-^v- I-iv-ao


C-Zn A-ao G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-Wv- D-Km-
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s im-kv-{X-\-K-cw- sIm--
D-]-\n-j-p-I-fp-sS {]-Xn-]m-Zy-hn-j-bw- X-z-Nn-
hn-Zym-`ym-k-s-p-dn-p ]Tn-m tIm-m-cn I-n-j \ne-hn-h- h-jw- 1964
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s k-q-W km--c Pn-- F-d-Wm-Ipfw
hn-Zyp-Xv {]-Xn-tcm-[w G--hpw Ip-d- tem-lw- sh-n
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kn-\n-am-lm- sIm-- (F^n- ]n-Iv-N ]m-e-kv)
G-Xv X-Sm-I-n-em-Wv Pn-{_m- ]m-d- lp-ssk km-K
ho-kv tcm-Kw- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- F-en--\n
ho-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- Cu-t\m-f-Pn
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kv-ssI _-kv kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn
h--Xv- tKm-h
ho-Sv Xm-a-kn-m-\p- H-cp b-{-am-Wv- F-p ]-d--Xv- se
tIm-_yp-kn-sb
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kz-Im-cy hn-am-\-m-h-fw- s\-Sp-m-t-cn
ho-W-hm-bn-p--Xn X-ev-]-c-\m-bn-cp- Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv- k-ap{Z-Kp-]vX
-
C-y-bp-sS a-[y-`m-K-v n-Xn-sN-p- ]-h-Xw- hn-y
D-kvX
- m-Zv _n-kva
- n-m-Jm {]-kn-n t\-Sn-b kw-Ko-tXm-]I
- c
- W
- w sj-m-bn
hp-fm X-Sm-I-n-s ]-g-b t]-cv- a-lm-]--k-c-v
C-y-bp-sS P-e-dm-Wn- _p-e Nu-[-cn
hr-m--]-{X-{]-h--\w F- Ir-Xn c-Nn--Xv- kz-tZ-im-`nam-\n
hr-m-h ]q-tm-w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ssa-kq
]o-n-kv dn--n-Iv Hm-^v ssN-\ \n-e-hn h- Xo-b-Xn- 1949
H-Iv-tSm-_ 1
C-y-bn-se tem-Uv-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp- t-Un-bw- Cu-U
Km-U-kv
H-mw tem-I a-e-bm-f k-t-f-\w \-S- -ew- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
H-cp Pm-Xn, H-cp a-Xw, H-cp ssZ-hw , H-cp `m-j F- k-t-iw
\-In-b-Xv- ssh-Ip-WvT-kzm-an-I
hm-X-I-cq-]-n-ep- tlm-tam- F-Yn-en
hn-iz-kp--cn a--c-n-s B-]v-X-hm-Iyw- _yq-n hn-v {_bn
in-e-I-fn A-Sn-m-\-in-e F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B-t-b-ine
Ip- \-ym-cp-sS P--tZ-iw- e-n-Sn
I-S-em-a-I ap--bn-Sp--Xv F-hn-sS- I-c-bn
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kv-t]m-Sv-kv ayq-kn-bw- ]m-Sym-e

4542. I-tc-c h-\y-ar-K-kw-c--W tI{w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- a[y-{]-tZ-iv


4543. Iv-fm-kn- \r--cq-]-am-b Ipn-p-Sn B-{-{]-tZ-in-se G-Xv
Pn--bn-se hn-t-Pn-s t]-cm-Wv Ir-jv-W
4544. Kp-l-I-fn Xm-a-kn-p- tI-cf-n-se G-I B-Zn-hm-kn-h-Kw tNm-e-\m-bv--am
4545. lm-{Sn-Iv tKm-tfm-sS tI-c-f-n\v k-tm-jv t{Sm-^n t\-Sn-smSp--Xv- a-Wn
4546. hr-m-h Km-U G-Xv A-W- C- y- b p- s S sa- e - U n Izo
s-n-\p k-ao-]-am-Wv- Ir-jv-WF- - d n- b - s - S p- - X v -
cm-P-km-K
e- X m a- t - j v - I
4547. hr-j`- m-{Zn-]p-cw F-d
- n-bs
- -n-cp-Xv- Xr-q
4548. kw-m-\ kn-hn k-ho-kn-se G--hpw D-b- D-tZym-K- No-^v sk-{I--dn
4549. h-S- bq-tdm-n-s o-c-kw-`-c-Wn F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw sU-m-v
4550. G-Xv- hw-i-n-s-d `-c-W-Im-e-am-Wv- {]m-No-\ C-ym- N-cn-{Xn-se kp-h-W Im-e-L-w- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Kp-]v-X-hwiw.4551. kz-cm-Pv du-v G-Xv \-K-c-n-em-Wv- Xr-q
4552. e--Zzo-]v {Kq-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Ip-d- Zzo-]v-
_n-{X
4553. kz-X-{ C-y-bp-sS H-mw \n-b-a-\n-am-W I-n-j cq-]-hXv-I-cn- h-jw- 1955
4554. G-Xv Im-b A-d-_n--S-ep-am-bn tbm-Pn-p-n-S-m-Wv
\o--I-c A-gn- A-jv-S-ap-Sn
4555. kw-L-Im-e-P-\-X-bp-sS ap-Jy `--Ww- A-cn
4556. G-Xv- hw-i-am-W v-Xn-c-s-Sp--s-- cm-Pm-hn-\m -m-]n-X-amb-Xv ]m-e hw-iw
4557. em-h sIm-p-m-b C-y ]oT {]-tZ-iw- U-m
4558. kn-p-\-Zo-X-S kw-kv-Im-c Im-e-L--n-se ho-Sp-I \n-an-s--Xv F-p-]-tbm-Kn-m-Wv- C-jv-Sn-I
4559. km--n-I-im-kv-{X-n s\m-t_ tP-Xm-hm-b B-Zy-h-\nX- F-en-t\m Hm-kv-{Sw
4560. G-Xv im-k-{X--s kv-a-c-W-bv-m-Wv B-h--\-]-n-I-bnse \q-dm-as
- aq-eI
-
- n-\v t]-cn-n-cn-p-X
- -v F-dn-tm s^an
4561. k-b-ss\-Uv {]-{In-b-bn-eq-sS ip-o-I-cn-p- tem-lw- kzWw
4562. G-Xv- k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv- ss\- ]-Xn-p--Xv--sa-Un--td-\n-bI-S4563. en-\-Iv-kv F- Hm--td-n-Mv kn-w hn-I-kn-n--Xm-cv- en-\-kv
tXm-hm-Uvk
- v
4564. G-Xv kn-Jp Kp-cp-hn-\p-ti-j-am-Wv Kp-cp ]-Zw ss]-Xr-I co-Xn-bnem-bn am-dn-b-Xv- cmw-Zm-kv
4565. ep-[n-bm-\ G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- k-Xv-e-Pv
4566. G-Xv kn-Jv Kp-cp-hm-Wv ]-lp k-{-Zm-bw \-S
- m-n-bX
- v- tKm_n-v kn-Mv
4567. G-Xv ssZ-hs
- -bm-Wv B-gvh
- m-am B-cm-[n-p-X
- v- hn-jvW
- p
4568. G-Xv- I-yq-- I--\n-bm-Wv- B-Zy-am-bn- au-kv- {]-Nm-c-W-nsIm-p-h--Xv- B-n- tIm-]-td-j4569. G-Xv sX-n-y kw-m-\
-- m-Wv t]m-bn v Im-en-sa F h-\y-Po-hn--]-n k-t-Xw n-Xn sN-p--Xv- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
4570. G-Xv X-Sm-I-n-\-cn-In-em-Wv l-{k-v-_m ]-n- Zm
X-Sm-Iw
4571. h-S-p In-g- a-kq-Wn-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- Xp-em-h-jw
4572. hm-kv-tIm-U-Km-a c-mw X-h-W C-y-bn h- h-jw- 1502
4573. G-Xp- cm-Py-n-s-d- ]-g-b- t]-cm-Wv- P-Sv-em-Uv--sU-m-v4574. a-\p-jy H-cp an-\n-n i-cm-i-cn F-{X {]m-h-iyw iz-kn-p-p 1317

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

25

tem-Ik
v- `- m Xn-cs
- -Sp-n a-c
- n-m-\m-hi
- y-am-b Ip-d {]m-bw
C-y `-cW
- L
- S- \
- {]-Im-cw a-Xk
- zm-X{- yw A-\p-hZ- n-n-cnp- h-Ip-v
kw-m-\ ap-Jy-a{- n-bm-Im-\m-hi
- y-am-b Ip-d
{]m-bw
B-cp-sS-sb-n-epw h-kX
v- p k-m G-s-Sp-p-tm \Ip- \-jSv- ]
- c
- n-lm-cs
- kw-_
- n-v tIm-SX
- n-If
- n ]-cmXn-s-Sm D-m-bn-cp- A-hI
- m-iw C-m-Xm-n-b `-cW
- L
- S-\m t`-ZK
- X
- n F-{Xm-at- -Xm-Wv
C-y {]-[m-\a
- {- n-bm-Im-\m-hi
- y-am-b Ip-d
{]m-bw
C-y bq-Wn-b\
- n-se F-{Xm-as
- kw-m-\a
- m-Wv tKm-h
a-\p-jy-\v hy-a
- m-b Im-gN
v- b
-
v- p- G-h
- pw Ip-d
Zq-cw
(\n-IS- _n-p) F-{X skn-ao-d
- m-Wv
A-ta-cn-b
- n {]-Xn-\n-[n-k`- mw-Ka
- m-Im-\m-hi
- y-am-b Ip-d
{]m-bw
B-\b
- p-sS lr-Zb
- a
- n-Sn-v an-\n-n F-{X-bm-Wv
\n-ba
- k
- `- m Xn-cs
- -Sp-n a-c
- n-m-\m-hi
- y-am-b Ip-d
{]m-bw
kn-h Pq-_n-en B-tLm-jn-p-X
- v F-{Xm-as
- B-\nth-gk
v- d
- n-bn-em-Wv
A-Izm-do-Pn-bb
- n ss\-{Sn-Iv B-kn-Uv F-{X i-Xa
- m-\a
- m-Wv
hn-eyw tem-d-kv {_m-Km-Wv G-h
- pw Ip-d
{]m-b
- n
s\m-t_ k-m-\
- n-\v A-l\
- m-bX
- (v 1915) . F-{Xm-as
-
h-b
- n-em-Wv A-t-lw Cu t\-w ssI-hc
- n-X
- v
cm-Py-k`- b
- p-sS Izm-dw F-{X t]-cm-Wv
4575. th-Zm- tIm-tf-Pv 1825 m-]n--Xm-cv- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l
tdm-bv
4576. k-a-Xz-k-am-Pw 1836 m-]n- km-aq-ln-I ]-cn-jv-I-m-hv ssh-Ip-WvT-kzm-an
4577. A-m-cm-jv-{S ^p-Sv-t_m a-k-c-n-s ssZ-Lyw- 90 an\n-v
4578. hr--Kw-K- F-p- hn-fn--s-Sp-- \-Zn--tKm-Zm-h-cn4579. F-h-d-v sIm-Sp-ap-Sn-v B t]-cp \-In-b-Xv tI-W B{Up-hm-Kv
4580. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s ]-g-b t]-cm-Wv sl-th-jy- kzn-v-k-eUv
4581. G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- hm-cn-sb-p-I-fp- Po-hn- ]m-v4582. H.sl-dn B-cp-sS Xq-en-Im-\m-aw- hn-eyw kn-Uv-\n t]m-
4583. ]m--bp-sS c--n-s \n-dw- \n-d-an-
4584. P-K-Zv-Kp-cp F--dn-b-s- _o-Pm-q kp-m- C-{_m-lnw
B-Zn jm c-m-a
4585. 1920 tN- F.sF.Sn.bp.kn.bp-sS H-mw k-t-f-\-n
A-[y--X h-ln--Xv- em-em-e-Pv-]-Xv dm-bn
4586. ]m-e-san Aw-K-a-m- H-cm-v ]-c-am-h-[n F-{X Im-ew
{]-[m-\-a-{n ]-Z-n Xp-S-cmw- B-dv am-kw4587. `q-an-bp-sS Kp-cp-Xzm-I-j-Ww A-Xn-Po-hn-m _-ln-cm-Im-i-t]S-I-n-\p-th- Ip-d- th-Kw- 11.2In.ao. {]-Xn sk- v
4588. {io-\-K-dn-se jm-en-am ]q-tm-w \n-an--Xv- P-lmw-Ko
4589. {Zm-hn-U I-g-Iw- m-]n--Xv- C.hn.cm-a-kzm-an \m-bv-
4590. Po-hn-X-Im-ew ap-gp-h a-sm-cp Po-hn-bp-sS ]m Ip-Sn-p- GI Po-hn- a-\p-jy
4591. 1921 H--m-e-v \-S- {]-Y-a A-Jn-e tI-c-f tIm-{K-kv
k-t-f-\-n A-[y--X h-ln--Xv- Sn. {]-Im-iw
4592. a-cp-`q-an G--hpw Ip-d-p- `q-J-Wv-Uw- bq-tdm-v
4593. a-[p-c ao-\m-n t-{Xw \n-an--Xv- Xn-cp-a-e \m-b-Iv
4594. {Zp-]Z- v F-m-se--v H-cp X-cw ln-p-m-\n m-kn- kw-Ko-Xw
4595. m-v ]-tKm-U F--dn-b-s-Sp- t-{Xw- sIm-Wm-n-se
kq-cy-t-{Xw
4596. A-`n-\-h-t`m-P F--dn-b-s--Xv- Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 115

4597. {io-\m-cm-bW
- [-a ]-cn-]m-e\
- t- bmKw m-]n-X-am-b h-jw-1903
4598. P-lmw-Ko \-Kd
- n-s C-tm-gs
-
t]-cv- [m-
4599. h-[n-s
- -- B-Zy- A-ta-cn-- {]kn- U - v-
F- { _- l mwen-4600. G-Xv I-o-j-s in-]m-i {]-Imc-am-Wv dn-k-hv _m-v \n-e-hn
h--Xv- ln- b-Mv
4601. h-[n--s- B-Zy-s kn-Jv Kpcp- A-Pp tZ-hv
4602. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s tIm-f\
- n-bm-Wv
Pn-{_m-- Cw--v
Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se
4603. D- {]-tZ-in-se ap-K-k-cm-bn- B-Zy-s {]-[m-\-a-{n-
bn 1904 H-Iv-tSm-_ c-n-\p P]- w Xm- W p- ] n-
\n- C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- em
_-lm-Zq-im-kv-{Xn
4604. H-cp ]-Zm-Yw I-p-tm \-S-p- {]-h--\w- Hm-Iv-ko-Ic-Ww
4605. dn-Iv-S kv-sI-bn-en A-f-p--Xv- `q-I-w
4606. a-e-p-g A-W-s-v G-Xv h-Ip-n-s ta-t\m--n-em-Wv- Pe-tk-N-\w
4607. tPm Hm-^v B-p-am-bn _--s- bp-w- i-X-h-k-c-bpw
4608. dn-k-hv _m-v Hm-^v C-y tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn--s- h-jw- 1949
4609. h-[n--s- G-I {_n-o-jv C-y-bn-se ssh-t{km-bn- ta-tbm
{]-`p
4610. H-cn- am-{Xw ^-e-ap-m-Ip- k-kyw- hm-g
4611. G--hpw Xm-W Du-jv-am-hn Po-hn-m I-gn-bp- ]-n- F-d s]-Kzn
4612. G-e-n-s P--tZ-iw- Z-n-tW-y
4613. G-gp Zzo-]p-I-fp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- apw-ss_
4614. G-gp-a-e-I-fp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tdmw
4615. tKm-J-se bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b-Kp-cp--Fw.Pn.dm-\-tU
4616. A-m-cm-jv-{S h-\n-Xm h-jw- 1975
4617. A-[-\--\m-b ^-o F-v Km-n-Pn-sb hn-fn- {_n-o-jv
{]-[m-\-a-{n hn- N-n
4618. am-m-Wv-U-h-a U-p-Im-sc tXm-]n- bp-w- Ip-f-
(1741)
4619. A-bn-tm-m-S-\-\n-b-aw ]m-e-sa v ]m-km-n-b h-jw-1955
4620. a-e-_m-dn-se B-Zy- P-e-ssh-Zyp-X-]--Xn- Ip-ym-Sn4621. G-Xp cm-Py-p-sh-m-Wv d-jy hn--h-t\-Xm-hv t{Sm-Sv-kv-In h[n--s--Xv- sa-Iv-kn-tm
4622. h-[n--s- B-Zy tI-{-a-{n- F.F.an-{i
4623. G-Xp cm-Py-v {]-Nm-c-n-ep- Nn-In-m-k-{-Zm-b-am-Wv AIyp-]-Mv-N- ssN-\
4624. G--hpw sN-dn-b ap--bn-Sp- ]-n- l-n-Mv ]-n
4625. F-en-^ v sh--m-w G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
4626. tlm-q-kv a-e-_m-dn--kn-s aq-e-Ir-Xn- tI-c-fm-cm-aw
4627. G-Xp cm-Py-am-Wv A-em-kv-I {]-tZ-iw bp.F-kv.F.bv-p \In-b-Xv- d-jy
4628. G-Im- Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {Sn- Un Ip-l
4629. Xm-k-s Kp-cp- kzm-an l-cn-Zm-kv
4630. G-IX
- m-kY
v- e
- n- A-y-\n-{Z-sIm-p- {]-kn-U v- Kym-\n- skbn-kn-Mv4631. G-I-Zn-\ {In--n 15000 d-kv t\-Sn-b B-Zy I-fn-m-c-
k-n sS-Up-
4632. G--hpw ]-g-w sN- tZ-io-b-]-Xm-I G-Xv cm-Py-n-t-Xm-Wv sU-m-v
4633. X-e-t-cn-bn-\n-v 1907 aq-tm-v Ip-am-c-s t\-Xr-Xzn \-S--s-n-cp- {]-kn-o-I-c-Ww- an-X-hm-Zn
4634. G-jy-bn-em-Zy-am-bn H-cp bq-tdm-]y-i-n ]-cm-P-b-s- bp-w Ip-f- bp-w(1741)
4635. F-cn-t{Xm-ssk-v-kv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Np-h--c-m-Wp-

CONFUSING FACTS
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS Nm- Aw-Ko-I-cn--Xv 1945 Pq
26-\v B-Wv. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` \n-e-hn-h- Xo-b-Xn
1945 H-Iv-tSm-_ 24 B-Wv.
_m-e-Kw-Km-[-c-Xn-e-I-s ]-{X-am-b tI-k-cn a-dmTn `m-j-bnepw -'Mahratha' Cw-o-jn-ep-am-Wv {]-kn-o-I-cn-n-cp--Xv.
1912 au-em-\m A-_p I-emw B-km-Zv Xp-S-n-b D-dpZp hm-cn-I-bm-Wv A ln-em. 1914 ]-{X-am-c-W-\n-ba-{]-Im-cw {_n-o-j-[n-Im-cn-I A ln-em ]n-Sn-s-Sp-tm B-km-Zv Xp-S-n-b-Xm-Wv A _-em-Lv.
tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tIm- s]m-eo-kv t-j \o-I-c. Sq-dn-kw s]m-eo-kv t-j a-m-t-cn.
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s k-q-W km--c ]--Ww tIm-b-am-Wv (1989 Pq 25). F-d-Wm-Ip-f-am-Wv C-y-bn-se
B-Zy-s k-q-W km--c Pn- (1990 ^n-{_-h-cn 4).
4636.
4637.
4638.
4639.
4640.
4641.
4642.
4643.
4644.
4645.
4646.
4647.
4648.
4649.
4650.
4651.
4652.
4653.
4654.
4655.
4656.
4657.
4658.
4659.
4660.
4661.

116 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

F-dn-{Xn-b I-S F--dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv G-Xm-Wv- sN--S


F-en--\n D-m-p- tcm-Km-Wp- se-]v-tm-kv-ss]-d
G--hpw- h-ep-w- Iq-Sn-b a-kyw- - Xn-anw-Kn-e {km-hvh-S-p In-g- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw- Kp-h-ln
h-S-p In-g- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-I-am-b temIv-X-Iv X-Sm-Iw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-Wn-q
Xp-cn-in-s cm-k-\m-aw- tIm- k-t^-v
h-S-t B-{^n--bn-te-bpw A-td-_y-bn-te-bpw Nq-Sp- a-cpm-p-I-p ]-d-bp- t]-cv- kn-aq-kv
Zzn-cm-jv-{S kn-m-w B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv- ap-l--Z-en Pn-
C-y-bn-te-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X tXm-dn-bw D-]m-Zn-n-p- kw-m\w- tI-c-fw
h-S-t-A-ta-cn--bn-se- G--hpw- \o-fw-Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn--an--u-dn- ann-n-nC-y-bp-sS tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I-bv-v- cq-]w- \-In-b-Xv- ]nw-K-en- sh-
h-t-am-X-c-n-s Cw-Kv-fo-jv ]-cn-`m-j \n-h-ln--Xv- A-c-hn-tLm-jv
C-hn-S-am-W-[ym--hn-Zym-e-bw F-p ]m-Sn-b-Xv- Ip-am-c-\m-im
G--hpw- h-ep-w-Iq-Sn-b a-kv-Xn-jv-I-ap- P-e-Po-hn- kv-t]w shbv
A-bn-tm-m-S-\w e-y-an-v 1932 Km-n-Pn cq-]-h-Xv-I-cn-
kw-L-S-\- A-Jn-te-ym l-cn-P k-am-Pw
C-y-bn-te--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- ]p-I-bn-e D-]m-Zn-n-p- kw-kvYm-\w- - B-\v-{[m-{]-tZ-iva-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se G--hpw I-n-Iq-Sn-b `m-Kw- ]-n-s C-\ma
H-tc hn-j-b-n c-p s\m-t_ k-m-\w In-n-b B-Zy
hy-n- tPm _m-Uo(^n-kv-Iv-kv-1956,1972)
C-eI
- vt- {Sm-Im-Un-tbm-{Km-^v G-Xh
- b
- h
-
- n-s {]-h-\
- w \nco-n-m-\m-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- lr-Z-bw
G--hpw- h-ep-w-Iq-Sn-b Hm-v- tIm-a-tUm {Um-K
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s N-e-n-{X {]-Z-i-\w \-S- \-K-cw- apwss_
H-tc hn-j-b-n c-p s\m-t_ k-m-\w In-n-b c-m-as hy-n- s{^-U-dn-Iv kmw-K (sI-an-kv-{Sn-1958,1980)
C-y-bp-sS \-s-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- ta-J-e- Im-jn-I-ta-Je
H-tc ssZ-h-n-s hy-Xy-kv-X \m-a--fm-Wv cm-a-\pw d-ln-apw
F-p ]-d--Xv- I-_o
G--hpw ]p-cm-X-\-am-b kw-kv-Ir-X Ir-Xn- E-tKz-Zw
G-I-Zn-\ {In--n 500 hn--v Xn-I- B-Zy I-fn-m-c- hknw A-{Iw

4662. G-j-y,- bq-tdm-v,- B-{^n-- F-o- h-I-c-I-fp-sS- kw-K-a-kv-Ym\-n-\-Sp-v- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p-- Zzo-]-p-cm-jv-{Sw- --ssk-{]-kv4663. G-jy sK-bnw-kn-\v B-Xn-tY-b-Xzw h-ln- B-Zy-s K^v cm-Pyw- J-
4664. C-y-bp-sS ]-c-tam--X _-lp-a-Xn-bm-b `m-c-X-c-Xv-\-bpw ]m-Inkv-Xm-s ]-c-tam--X _-lp-a-Xn-bm-b \n-jm- C- ]m-In-kvXm-\pw e-`n- G-I- `mc-Xob - sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
4665. G--hpw Xm-gv- {Z-h-Wm--hpw Xn-f-\n-e-bp-ap- tem-lw- sap-dn
4666. im-kv-{Xo-b tkm-jy-en-k-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- Im-d am-Iv-kv
4667. G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b K-^v cm-Pyw- ku-Zn A-td-_y
4668. C- y- b p- s S ]- - k m- c - n- w- F - - d n- b - s -- S p- - X v D--{]-tZ-iv
4669. im-kv-{Xo-b tPym-Xn-im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- sI-]v-f
4670. C-y-bp-sS ]n-Xm-a-l F--dn-b-s--Xv Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
4671. G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b tIm-a-sh-v Aw-K-cm-Pyw-
Im-\-U
4672. Z-n-tW-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b \-Zn- tKm-Zm-h-cn
4673. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X \n-b-a-k-`mw-K--fp- kw-m-\w- D-{]-tZ-iv
4674. \-h-Pm-X in-ip-hn-s lr-Z-b kv-]--\ \n-c-v- an-\n-n 130 Xh-W
4675. \m-fn-tI-c hn-I-k-\ t_m-Un-s B-m-\w- sIm-n
4676. ]-w Xm-Wp-]n- cq-]-h--cn- ]m-n- U-tam-{Im-n-Iv tkmjy-en-v ]m-n
4677. ]p-Xn-b A-Jn-te-ym k-ho-kv cq-]-h--cn-m-\p- {]-tabw B-Zyw A-h-X-cn-n--s-tS--Xv- cm-Py-k-`-bn
4678. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ]-{X--fp- C-y kw-m-\w- D-
{]-tZ-iv
4679. G--hpw ho-Xn Iq-Sn-b I-S-en-Sp-v- tU-hn-kv
4680. G--hpw hr-m-Im-c-am-b {]-Z-n-W-]-Y-ap- {K-lw- ip-{I
4681. a-lm-t_m-[n t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- t_m-[v-K-b
4682. _m- Km-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv C-{_mw-lnw dp-tKm-h
4683. A-b k-t^-n-s \n-dw- ]-
4684. tKm-h-bp-sS Po-h-tc-J F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-Zn- a-Wv-tUm-hn
4685. G--hpw h-en-b A-I-ti-cp-In- P-b v kv-Izn-Uv
4686. G--hpw h-en-b `m-jm tKm-{Xw- C-tm--bq-tdm-]y
4687. sS--\-kv, -bw,hn--Np-a F-n-h-bv-p-Im-c-W-am-b-Xv- _mIv-So-cn-b
4688. {]m-No-\ C-y-bp-sS kp-h-W-Im-ew F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv G-Xv
hw-i-n-s Im-ew- Kp-]v-X-Im-ew
4689. {]-kn-U v ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn-m ti-jn- Im-e-tv ssh-kv {]-kn-U v B ]-Z-hn h-ln-m hy-h--bp-
cm-Pyw- bp.F-kv.F.
4690. H-cm-v F-{X h-jw C-y-bn Xm-a-kn-m-em-Wv ]u-c-Xzn-\v A-t]-n-m I-gn-bp--Xv- 5
4691. G--hpw h-en-b cm-P-Ip-Spw-_w D- cm-Pyw- ku-Zn A-td-_y
4692. {]-kn-Up-`-c-Ww \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy C-y kw-m-\w-
]-m-_v
4693. G--hpw h-en-b B--dn- A-tbm-
4694. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s tZ-io-b Nn--am-Wv H-en-hv in-J-cw- {Ko-kv
4695. G--hpw th-K-n h-f-cp- ]p-h-K-k-kyw- ap-f
4696. G--hpw- Ip-d-p-Im-ew- {]-kn-Um-bn-cp--Xv- tUm.- k-o- lpssk4697. X-an-gv kn-\n-am-hy-h-km-b-n-\p tIm-fn-hp-Uv F-p t]-cp-e-`nm Im-c-W-am-b -ew- tIm-S-m-w
4698. G--hpw- th-K-ta-dn-b k-kv-X-\n- -No-
4699. G--hpw- h-ep-w- Iq-Sn-b X-h-f tKm-en-bm-v X-h-f
4700. F.sI.47 tXm-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- an-Jm-tb Sn-tam-^n-hn-v
I-em-jv-\n-tm-hv
4701. G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew `-cn- ap-K cm-Pm-hv--_m-_
4702. D- {]-tZ-in-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- bp-ssW--Uv s{]m-hn-kv
4703. in-h-Pn-bp-sS am-Xm-hv- Po-Pm-`m-bn
4704. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s `-c-W-L-S-\-bm-Wv am-Xr-Im `-c-W-L-S-\-sbp hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp--Xv- {_n-
4705. in-h-Pn-bp-sS A-h-km-\-s ssk-\n-I ]-cy-S-\w- I-Wm-S-Iw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

26

`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv \mp-cm-Pm-m-am-v \-In-bn-cp- B-\p-Iq-ey-am-b {]nhn ]-gv-k-kv \n--em-n-b-Xv


C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s kw-m-\-am-Wv O-n-kv-K-Vv
C-cp-n-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
am-c-tm F-{X In-tem-ao- Zq-c-am-Wv
a-\p-jy-\v ]m-Z-n F-{X A-n-I-fm-Wp--Xv
X-h-f-bp-sS t{Im-a-tkmw kw-Jy
hm-v Un-kv-\n-v B-sI F-{X Hm-kv-I A-hm-Uv In-nbn-p-v
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS cq-]-h-Xv-I-c-W-n-se \m-gn-I-m-b sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S {]-Jym-]-\-n F-{X cm-Py--fmWv H-n--Xv
Cw-o-jv A--c-am-e-bn F-{X A--c--fm-Wp--Xv
a-\p-jy-\v \-s-n F-{X A-n-I-fm-Wp--Xv

4706. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s hn-am-\-k-ho-km-Wv k-_o-\- s_-Pnbw


4707. F.sI.tKm-]m-e-s ]-n-Wn-Pm-Y ]p-d-s- -ew- I-q
4708. X-]m m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X- kn A-t^m-km-
4709. G--hpw th-Kw Iq-Sn-b ]m-v- B-{^n- am-
4710. G--hpw h-en-b C-Xn-lm-kw- a-lm-`m-c-Xw
4711. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s ]-Xm-I-bm-Wv Hm-Uv tm-dn F--dn-b-sSp--Xv- bp.F-kv.F.
4712. d-{^n-P-td- I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- lm-cn-k-Wpw Im-v-en-\pw
4713. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s km-t-Xn-I k-l-I-c-W-tm-sS-bm-Wv H-dok-bn-se dq-t-e kv-o m v \n-an-n-cn-p--Xv- P-a-\n
4714. G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew Po-hn-n-cp- ap-K cm-Pm-hv--_m-_
4715. G-Xp cm-Py-n-s Nm-c-kw-L-S-\-bm-Wv sam-m-Zv- C-{k-tb
4716. Sm-P
- v G-Xv kvt- ]m-Svk
- v C-\h
- p-am-bn _-s
- -n-cn-p-p- jqn-Mv
4717. kw-m-\--fn A-Sn-b--cm-h- B-n-n 356
4718. Sm-m A-b B v o I--\n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Pw-j-Uv]q
4719. kn-Fw-Fk
- p-Im- tIm-b
-
- v- s]-]
- n-q-Sw- Xp-S
- n-bX
- v- GXv h-j-n- F.Un.1821
4720. tem-I-t--hpw Iq-Sp-X \yq-kv-{]n v D-]m-Zn-n-p- cmPyw- Im-\-U
4721. A-tam-d kp-J-hm-k-tI-{w G-Xp kw-k-Ym-\-v- D--cm-JWvU
- v
4722. G--hpw h-en-b A-mw-i-tc-J- `q-a-[y tc-J
4723. G--hpw h-en-b a---cp-hp- ap--bn-Sp- ]-n--H--I--n
4724. A-Y-im-kv-{Xw F-n-s\-p-dn-p {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-p- cm-jv-{S-X{w
4725. Zq-c-Z-i U-b-d-Iv-S P-\-d-en-s Hm-^o-kv- a-Wv-Un lu-kv
4726. G--hpw km-[m-c-W-am-b I-c tcm-Kw- a--n-w
4727. G--hpw sN-dn-b a-\p-jy-tIm-iw- _o-Pw
4728. H-cm-fn-s s]m--n-s G-I-tZ-iw F-{X-i-X-am-\w \o-f-am-Wv
Xp-S-sb-v- 27.5
4729. G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew `-cn- kp-m-t\-v hw-iw- Jn-Pn-hwiw(12901320)
4730. F-Uzn- ep-Sy-kv- cq-]-I-]-\ sN-bv-X C-y- \-K-cw- \yqU-ln4731. H-cp- \n-dw- (]-)- am-{X-ap-- tZ-io-b- ]-Xm-I- G-Xp- cm-Py-n-sd-Xm-bn-cp-p- --en-_n-b4732. tPm-Pv Hm-sh-n-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- F-dn-Iv B-X s-b
4733. H-cp ]q-W-hr-w F-{X Un-{Kn-bm-Wv- 360
4734. G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Ip-d- kv-Im-Un-t\-hn-b cm-Pyw-
sU-m-v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 117

4735.
4736.
4737.
4738.
4739.
4740.
4741.
4742.
4743.
4744.

4745.
4746.
4747.

4748.
4749.
4750.
4751.
4752.
4753.
4754.
4755.
4756.
4757.
4758.
4759.
4760.
4761.
4762.
4763.
4764.
4765.
4766.
4767.
4768.
4769.
4770.

D-z-e i-_v-Zm-Vy F-v hn-ti-jn-n--s- I-hn- D-q


e-Xm a-t-jv-I B-Zy-am-bn ]m-Sn-b a-e-bm-f Nn-{Xw- s\-v
F-p-ho-n ]n--am-sc h-[n- cm-Pm-hv- am-m-Wv-U-h-a
tI-c-f-n-se I-p-Im-en h-K-n-se G--hpw h-en-b ar-Kw-
Im-p-t]m-v
F-m B-lm-c--fp-sS-bpw ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A^m-^
a-n-b sh-fn--n Im-gv-i-n Ip-d-p-t]m-Ip- tcm-Kw
am-e--v
H-cp ]u-v F-{X In-tem-{Kmw- 0.454
A-[n-Im-c-n-en-cn-s h-[n--s- G-I C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n C-n-cm Km-n
G--hpw h-en-b D--S l-Uv-k D--S
`q-an-bn C-Xp-h-sc D-mbn-p--h-bn G--hpw hen-w Iq-Sn-b Po-hn- \o-en-anw-Kn-ew
G--hpw- h-en-b ]-n--H-I--nA-k-an-se G--hpw \o-fw
Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- {_--]p-{X
a-Kk
-v t- k A-hm-Uv C-ybn-\n-pw B- Z y- am- b n
t\-Sn-b h-\n-X- a-Z sXtc-k (1962)
G--hpw h-en-b ]-Z-k-p- `m-j- Cw-o-jv
a-\p-jy-s h-e-t izmk-tIm-i-n-s i-cm-i-cn
`m-cw- 570 {Kmw
In- M v ta- F- - d n- b - s -
{]m-th {]m-th t]m-Ic
- p-tX X- a n- g v t\- X m- h v - - s I.Im- a - c m- P v
F- I-hn-X c-Nn--Xv- Dq
`q-J-Wv-U Zzo-]v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
tI-c-f-n-se H-mw \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se t{]m-tw kv-]o-- tdmk-m ]p-q-kv
A-t^m-tkm- A-_p--v- t]m-p-Ko-kv- ssh-t{km-bnG-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1509
G--hpw h-en-b ^-ew- N-
1946 Pq-Wn- ]o-n- F-Uyq-t-j-W- skm-ssk-n-vcq-]w- \-In-b-Xv--_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
h-b-\m-n-se B-Zy P-e-tk-N-\-]--Xn- Im-cm-p-g
tIm-b
- w- Pn-b
- n-se {]-ik
- vX
- a
- m-b ]-n-kt- -Xw-
Ipa-cI
- wB-Zy-s _-jo ]p-ckvI
- m-c
- n-\-l\
- m-bX
- -v
tImhn-e
in-h-Pn-bp-sS ap-Jy k-Nn-h- t]-jzm
G--hpw- th-K-n- ]-d-p- ]-n- -kzn-^v-vh-b-em-dpw tZ-h-cm-P-\pw H-cp-an- B-Zy Nn-{Xw- N-Xp-cw-Kw
D-ep-h-bp-sS P--tZ-iw- sa-Un--td-\n-b {]-tZ-iw
A-Kp-l-kv {]-hm-lw G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv -C-y-a-lmk-ap-{Zw
I-en--v k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS {]-Y-a ssh-kv Nm-k-e s{]m-^. Fw.Fw.K-\n
tZ-iv-\m-b-Iv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s- hy-n- kp-`m-jv N-{t_m-kv
U-v h-v eq-bn-kv \n-b-a- G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--sn-cn-p-p- {In--v
G--hpw th-K-n-tem-Sm I-gn-bp- ]-n- H--I--n
tX--Sn h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw 1934 m-]n- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
cm-Pm-hv- Nn-n-c-Xn-cp-\m
aq-e-bp--Im-e-v G--hpw `m-cw Ip-d-bp- k-kv-X-\w- \o-en-anw-Kn-ew
A-kp-ssd-v G-Xv tem-l-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv--sN-v

CONFUSING FACTS
C-y \yq- F-v B-cy-`-S-s\-bpw C-y sFo F-v \m-Km-Pp-\-s\-bpw hn-ti-jn-n-p-p.
C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm hn-tZ-i Im-cy sk-{I--dn
sNm-In-e A-, h-\n-Xm hn-tZ-i-Im-cy h-m-hv \n-cp-]am dm-hp.
No-\-h-e-bv-p {]-kn--am-b tI-c-f-n-se -e-am-Wv
sIm-n. {]-kn--am-b No-\-sm-m-cw sIm--m-Wv.
H-mw ]-g-n hn--h-n-s Im-e-L-w 1793 ap-X 1797
h-sc-bpw c-mw ]-g-n hn--h-n-s-Xv 1800 ap-X 1805
h-sc-bpw B-bn-cp-p.
kq-b-kv I-\m K-Xm-K-X-n-\p Xp-d-p sIm-Sp--Xv
1869. tZ-i-km-Xv-I-cn--Xv 1956. ]-\m-a I-\m K-XmK-X-n-\p Xp-d-p sIm-Sp--Xv 1914.
4771. G--hpw- th-Kw- Iq-Sn-b lr-Z-b-an-Sn-p- k-kv-X-\w- jyq
4772. tI-c-f-n-se- In-g-tm-sm-g-p-Ip-- 3 \-Zn-I--I-_-\n,- `-hm-\n,]m-m4773. {]-kn--am-b sK-n-kv-_-Kv {]-kw-Kw \-S-n-b-Xv- F-{_-lmw
en-
4774. Z-i-Ip-am-c-N-cn-Xw, Im-hym-Z-iw F-o Ir-Xn-I c-Nn--Xm-cv- ZWv-Un
4775. G--hpw h-S-m-bn n-Xn sN-p- cm-Py X-e-m-\w- sd-bvIv-Pm-hn-Iv
4776. ]m-]v-kv-an-b sS-v G-Xp tcm-K-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
K-`m-i-b Iym-k
4777. ]n--c-kw kw-`-cn-p h-bv-p- A-h-b-hw- Km m-U
4778. G--hpw- hn-jw- Iq-Sn-b ]m-v- cm-P-sh-m-e
4779. h-t-am-X-cw {]-kn-o-I-cn- h-jw 1882
4780. H-tc A-f-hn kq-cy-{]-Im-iw e-`n-p- -e--sf _-nn-v `q-]-S-n Im-Wp- tc-I-J-fm-Wv- sF-tkm-sl
4781. X-t-m-Sv ]-n k-t-X-n-s {]-tXy-I-X B-Zy-am-bn Nq-nm-Wn--Xv- tUm.k-enw A-en
4782. H-tc A-tm-an-Iv \--cpw hy-Xy-kv-X am-kv \--cp-ap- aq-e-I A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- sF-tkm-tSm-p-I
4783. G--hpw- h-S-v- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p-- bq-tdm-]y- cm-jv-{Sw- -t\m-sh4784. Z-n-W-]q-th-jy-bn-se G-I I-c-_- cm-Pyw- em-thm-kv
4785. G- - h pw H- S p- h n- e - s tem- [ n kp- m- C- { _m- l nw
tem-Zn
4786. F-Iv-ssk-Uv G-Xv D-]--hp-am-bn _--s- t]-cm-Wv-
_m--dn
4787. th--\m-Sv Im-b-en \n-an-n-cn-p- _-v--X-o-ap-w
4788. th-Uv ssh-Uv sse-^v ^-n-s B-m-\w- kzn-v-ke-Un-se m-Uv
4789. kv-Im-Un-t\-hn-b cm-Py--fn \m-W-bw bq-tdm A-m-
G-I cm-Pyw- kzo-U
4790. 1453 F-hn-S-p-Im-cm-Wv tIm-mn-t\m-n ]n-Sn--S-nb-Xv- Xp-n
4791. `q-Kp-cp-Xzm-I-jW
- t- m-Sv sN-Sn-I {]-Xn-Ic
- n-p- {]-Xn-`m-kw Pn-tbm-t{Sm-n-kw
4792. Ip-am-c-\m-im F-hn-sS h-m-Wv ho-W-]q-hv c-Nn--Xv- ssP-\nta-Sv
4793. G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv l-Kn-b tkm-^n-b- Xp-n
4794. tI-cf
-
- n-se Im-iva
- o, Z-n-tW-y-bn-se Im-iva
- o F-o t]cp-I-fn A-dn-b-s-Sp- -ew- aq-m
4795. c-p h-I-c-I-fn-em-bn n-Xn-sN-p- sa-s{Sm-s]m-fn- \-Kc-am-b C-kv-Xm-_p G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- Xp-n
4796. A-l--Zm-_m-Zv \-K-c-n-s ]-g-b t]-cv- I-Wm-h-Xn
4797. I-ip-h-n C-y-bn sIm-p-h--Xv- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im
4798. a-e-bm-f hym-I-c-W-sa-gp-Xn-b B-Zy-s {In-kv-Xy an-j-\-dn-
B-Rv-P-tem {^m-kn-kv sa-{Xm

118 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

4799.
4800.
4801.
4802.
4803.
4804.
4805.
4806.
4807.
4808.
4809.
4810.
4811.
4812.
4813.
4814.
4815.
4816.
4817.
4818.
4819.
4820.
4821.
4822.
4823.
4824.
4825.
4826.
4827.
4828.
4829.
4830.
4831.
4832.
4833.
4834.
4835.
4836.
4837.
4838.
4839.

Im-Zw-_-cn c-Nn--Xm-cv- _m-W-`-


in-]m-bn e-l-f \-S- h-jw- 1857
tI-c-f-Km-\v-[n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sI.tI-f-
n-_v-ss\-v G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- Bn-a-Wn
hym-h-km-bn-I hn--h-s I-fn-bm-p- Nm-fn Nm-n-s kn\n-a- tam-tU ssSw-kv
In-Km- G-Xp `m-j-bn-se ]-Z-am-Wv- P-a
P-e
- n ssl-{U-Ps
- -bpw Hm-Ivk
- n-Ps
- -bpw A-\p-]m-Xw hym]v-X-n-s A-Sn-m-\-n- 2-:1
tI-fp-N-c a-lm-]m-{X-bp-am-bn _--s- I-em-cq-]w- H-Uon
ip-c
-
-
- p-ge
- p-If
- n a-cp-p Ip-n-h
- t- i-jw F-Sp-p- FIv-kv-td- B-Pn-tbm-{Kmw
Iq-p-Ir-jn F- \m-S-Iw c-Nn--Xv- C-S-t-cn
Iq-dp-am- \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-aw A-\p-k-cn-v A-tbm-Ky-X I-]ns- B-Zy tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`mw-Kw- B._m-e-Ir-j-W
v- -]n-
P-e-n-s cm-k-\m-aw- ssU-ssl-{U-P Hm-Iv-ssk-Uv
lm-c- P-\-X-bp-sS {]-[m-\ B-cm-[-\m-aq-n-bm-bn-cp-
B-ssZ-hw- ]-ip-]-Xn
kw-m-\-n-s \n-hm-l-Im-[n-Im-cw \n-n-]v-X-am-bn-cn-p-Xv- K-h-W-dn
tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\w \-S- B-Zy Z-n-tW-y \-K-cw-
a-{Zm-kv
{^m-kn-se- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- k--i-I-cp-- kv-am-c-Iw- Cu^- tKm-]p-cwlm-c--bpw sam-l-sPm-Zm-tcm-bpw C-tm G-Xp cm-Py-mWv- ]m-In-kv-Xm
kw-m-\-n-se {]-Y-a \n-b-a D-tZym-K-- A-Uz-t-v P\-d
kz-w Zr-jv-Sn-bn sN-dn-b-h P-\-Zr-jv-Sn-bn h-en-b-h Bbn-cn-pw F-p ]-d--Xv- ap-l--Zv \-_n
tKm-U {Km-Uv-mw- t\-Sn-b G-I-h-\n-X- s-^n-{Km-^v
kz-Ko-b [m-\yw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- G-ew
tem-I
- n G-h
- pw D-bc
-
- n-ep- hm-\\
- n-co-W
- t- I-{w GXp cm-Py-m-Wv- C-y
C-y-bv-pw ssN-\-bv-p-an-S-bv-p- A-Xn-n-tc-J \n-bn--Xv- k sl-dn a-tlm
tI-c-f-n tem--dn B-cw-`n- [-\-a-{n- ]n.sI.Ip-v
tem-I-n G--hpw h-S-t-b--p- \-K-cw- lm-a-^m-v
(t\m-th)
C-y-bv-v B-Zy-am-bn H-fn-n-Iv tlm-n-bn kz-Ww e-`n-
h-jw-1928
tIm-mn-t\m-n-fn-s C-tm-g-s t]-cv- C-kv-Xm-_p
C-y-bn Im-p-I-gp-X-I kw-c-n--s-Sp- tI-{w- [{K
tKm-bn--dn-s a-sm-cp-t]-cv- t{K-hv-kv tcm-Kw
tkm-f-n hw-i-n-s m-]-I- ap-cm-Pv
tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-Um-b B-Zy A-ln-p- Zm-Zm-`m-bv \-h-tdmPn
tNm-f-n-s P--tZ-iw- sa-Iv-kn-tm
ko-tdm-kn-kv- G-X-h-b-h-s-bm-Wv _m-[n-p--Xv- I-c
tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s ^o- ^n-enw- Zv t{K-v s{S-bn tdm_-dn
tN-c-cm-Pm--am-cp-sS Nn-w- hn-v
C-y-bp-sS ]q-tm- \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _mw-q
tN-cn-tN-cm {]-m-\-n-\v A-Sn--d-]m-In-b t\-Xm-- s\{lp, am-j Sn-tm, K-am \m-k
C-y-bp-sS Fw-t{_m-bn-U-dn X-e-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv
-kq-d-v
C-y tZ-io-b-X-bp-sS ]n-Xm-a-l F-p hn-ti-jn-n-p-Xv B-sc-bm-Wv- cm-Pv \m-cm-b t_m-kv
tkm-Wn-bm-Km-n-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- A-tm-Wn-tbm ssat\m
cm-tI-jv i-a-bp-sS _-ln-cm-Im-i-bm-{X \-S-n-b h-jw 1984

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

27

a-\p-jy-s ssI--n-bn-se A-n-I-fp-sS F-w


sIm-_m-n-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
C-y tPym-Xn-im-kv-{X {]-Im-cw tkm-Un-bm-Iv {]-Xo-I-fp-sS F-w
C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s kw-m-\-am-Wv D--cm-J-Wv-Uv
N-{-\v H-cp {]m-h-iyw `q-an-sb h-ew-h-bv-m B-h-iy-amb k-a-bw
s\-k a-t-e F-{X h-j-am-Wv X-S-h-\p-`-hn--Xv
ss{I-kv-X-h-cp-sS ]p-Xn-b \n-b-a-n F-{X ]p-kv-X-I-fm-Wp-X
- v
tI-c-f-n-se 34 Im-b-ep-I-fn F-{X-sb-w A-gn-tbm
s]m-gn-tbm-aq-ew I-S-ep-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p
ap-l--Zv \-_n X-s Po-hn-X-Im-e-v F-{X bp---fm-Wv
\-bn--Xv
sS-o-kv tIm-n-s ho-Xn (knw-Kn-kv) F-{X A-Sn-bmWv
F-{X Zn-h-kw-sIm-m-Wv kq-cy H-cp I-d-w ]q-n-bmp--Xv (27.27)
4840. tKm-X-n-s-bpw I-p-Im-en-I-fp-sS-bpw \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp-
cm-Pyw- A-Po-\
4841. tIm-I]
v- n-v thm-bk
v- v sd-tm-Ud
- n-s a-sm-cp-t]-cv- m-v t_mIvk
- v
4842. Ko-X-bn-te-p a-S-p-I F-p ]-d--Xv- kzm-an hn-th-Im-\
4843. Kn- - k v - _ p- n C- S w t\- S n- b a- e - b m- f - k n- \ n- a m- \ - S -
t{]w-\-ko
4844. k- k y- - f p- s S tIm- i - ` n- n \n- a n- n- c n- p- ]- Z m- Y w-
sk-p-tem-kv
4845. c-mw- ]-g-n- I-em-]w- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.18001805
4846. tI-Sp-h-m ho-pw h-f-cm- i-co-c-tIm-i-- \m-Uo-tImi-
4847. C-y-bn- {`w-i-Xm-gv-h-c-bn-Iq-Sn- H-gp-Ip-- {]-[m-\- \-Zn-I- \-a-Z,- X-]v-Xn4848. k-am-[m-\-n-s-d a-\p-jy F--dn-b-s--Xv- em _-lmZq im-kv-{Xn
4849. cm-ta-iz-cw Zzo-]n-s\ C-y D-]-Zzo-]p-am-bn th-Xn-cn-p--Xv-
]m- Nm-\
4850. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s B-n-tbm-f-Pn- ]m-v m]n-X-am-b \-K-cw- U-ln
4851. cm-tam-Pn ^n-enw kn-n G-Xv \-K-c-n-em-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
4852. C-e- I-n-j-\p-am-bn _--s- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw B-n-n 324
4853. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw tI-c-fw k--in- a-[y-Im-e A-d_n k-m-cn- C-_v _-q-
4854. C-e-I-p ]--\n-dw sIm-Sp-p--Xv- Iv-tfm-tdm-^n
4855. c-mw _-tZm-fn-sb--dn-b-s- -ew- ]--q
4856. C-e-I-fn B-lm-cw ti-J-cn-p- k-kyw- Im-t_-Pv
4857. c-mw ]m-\n--p-bp--n(1556) ap-K ssk-\y-hp-am-bn Gp-ap-n-b, ap-l--Zv B-Zn-jm-bp-sS ]-S--e-h- sl-ap
4858. C-y-bp-am-bn- A-Xn-n- ]-n-Sp-- cm-Py--fn- G--hpw- sNdp-Xv- - `
- q-m-.
4859. C-n-cm-Km-n I-\m-en-s ]-g-b t]-cv- cm-P-m I-\m
4860. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-tm Su- ]m-\n--v
4861. C-y-bp-sS ]-Sn-m-d Xo-c-n-s D--c-`m-Kw A-dn-b-sSp--Xv- sIm- Xo-cw
4862. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn sa-t{Sm m-]n-X-am-b \-K-cw- sIm-
4863. C-y-bp-am-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X A-m-cm-jv-{S A-Xn-n ]n-Sp- cm-Pyw- _w-m-tZ-iv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 119

4864. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn sF.F-kv.H. k-n-^n-t-j e-`n- _mm-Wv Im-\-d _m-v. C-Xn-s B-m-\w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--_mwq
4865. hm-f ]p-fn-bn-e-S-n-bn-cn-p- B-kn-Uv- Sm-Sm-dn-Iv B-knUv
4866. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn sF.F-kv.Un.kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn h-Xv- apw-ss_
4867. h-b-\m-n-se F-S-bv- Kp-l-I-sf-p-dn-v B-Zy-am-bn B-[nIm-cn-I ]T-\w \-S-n-b-Xv- ^m-sk-v (1901)
4868. tIm-{K-kn-s 125a-s hm-jn-I-n A-[y- ]-Z-hn hln--Xv--tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
4869. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn sk-p-e t-v m-]n- `-c-Wm-[nIm-cn- A-Iv-_
4870. G--hpw X-Wp-p-Iq-Sn-b h-I-c--Am-n-
4871. B-kq-{X-W I-n-j \n-e-hn h- h-jw- 1950
4872. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS A-h-km-\-`m-K-am-Wv Io-n-\m-in-\n-sb--dnb-s-Sp--Xv- Kw-K- {- _-]
- p-{X \-Zn-I kw-tbm-Pn-p-m-Ip-
ta-Lv-\-bp-sS
4873. hm-g--n im-k-\w ]p-d-s-Sp-hn- `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- cm-P-ti-J-ch-a
4874. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s km-{am-Pyw m-]n- hw-iw- au-cyam
4875. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I \-Zn-bm-Wv Xq--p-g- `m-c-X-p-g
4876. hm-\-h-c- F-p hn-fn--s-n-cp- tN-c-cm-Pm-hv- D-Xn-btN-c
4877. Hm-n-d ]-c-{_--t-{X-n-se {]-[m-\ D--hw- Hm-n-d--fnbpw ]-{-p-hn-f-pw
4878. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ssk-_ s]m-eo-kv t-j F-hnsS m-]n-X-am-bn- _mw-q
4879. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv ap-Xn-c-p-g- s]-cn-bm
4880. k-^v-f-h F- Nn-{Xw h-c--Xv- hm-tKm-Kv
4881. C-y-bn Iym-_n-\-v a-{n-bm-b B-Zy kn-p-Im-c- kZm _-tZ-hv kn-Mv
4882. G-Xp- \-Zn-bp-sS t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv- Xpw-K-`-{Z-- Ir-jv-W
4883. C-y-bn Iym-_n-\-v ao-n-Mn A-[y--X h-ln-p--Xv-
{]-[m-\-a-{n
4884. G-Xv {K-l
- n-em-Wv t{K-v sd-Uv kvt- ]m-v Im-Ws
- -Sp-X
- v- hymgw
4885. B-d-p-f h-w I-fn G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv \-S-p--Xv- ]-m-\-Zn
4886. K-sa- F- tem-l-k--c-n-se L-S-I-- sN-v, shfp-o-bw, \m-Iw
4887. G-Xp kw-m-\-s-bm-Wv P-\- h-\m-- F-pw hn-fnp--Xv- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
4888. Ir-{Xn-aP
- o \n-an- C-y-hw-iP
- \
- m-b im-kv{- X-- ltKm-hn-v Jp-cm-\
4889. Ir-jv-W-\m--n-\p cq-]w \-In-b km-aq-Xn-cn cm-Pm-hv- am-\th-Z

D- k v - X m- Z v _n- k v - a n- m- J m {]- k n- n t\- S n- b


kw-Ko-tXm-]-I-c-Ww- sj-m-bn

CONFUSING FACTS
Ghpw thKw Ipd kkvX\w kvtemv BWv.
Ghpw aSnb\mb kkvX\w sImhme BWv.
Ghpw IqSpX D]tbmKnsSp CwKvfojv hmv
The BWv. Ghpw IqSpX definitions D Cwojv
hmv Set BWv. Ghpw IqSpX D]tbmKnp
CwKvfojv AcamWv e.
Iqcnse sk v BRv P tem tIm \nanXv
t]mpKokpImcmWv (1505). Xetcntm \nanXv
{_nojpImcmW v(1708).
O{X]Xn inhPnbpsS(16271680) a{nk`-bmbncpp
AjvS{][m. AjvSZnznP AecnncpXv
IrjvWtZhcmbcpsS kZn-s\bmWv.
4890. hn--h-Nn--I ]p-e-n-b-Xn-\v 1831 ln-p tIm-tf-Pn
\n-p ]p-d-m--s- Bw-tm C-y I-hn- sl-dn sUtdm-kn-tbm
4891. h-kv-Xp--fp-sS ImTn-\yw A-f-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- bq-Wn-v-
tam-lv-kv kv-sI-bn
4892. G-Xp kw-m-\w hn-`-Pn-m-Wv N-o-kv-K-Vv cq-]-h--cn--Xv a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
4893. h-kv-Xp-I-cw A-S-bv-t--Xv F-hn-sS- hn-t-Pm-^o-kn
4894. Hm--td-j _v-fq-m \-S- h-jw- 1984
4895. G-Xp kw-m-\-s \r--cq-]-am-Wv tIm-em-w- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
4896. G-Xp Nn-{X-n-se A-`n-\-b-n-\m-Wv s_ In-Mv-n-v Hmkv-I A-hm-Uv e-`n--Xv- Km-n
4897. G-Xp {]-tZ-i-n-s N-cn-{X-s-p-dn-m-Wv cm-P-X-cw-Kn-Wn {]Xn-]m-Zn-p-X
- v- I-iva
- o
4898. G-Xv ]-m-b-n-em-Wv B-\-ap-Sn- aq-m
4899. G-Xp {K-\v-Y-n-\n-p- h-cn-I-fm-Wv Ip--_v-an-\m-dn-s `nn-bn Im-Wp--Xv- Jp-dm
4900. B-cym-h--sa-v A-dn-b-s-n-cp- {]-tZ-iw- D--{]-tZ-iv
4901. G--hpw Xn-c-t-dn-b k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
4902. G-Xp kw-m-\w hn-`-Pn-m-Wv Pm-J-Wv-Uv cq-]-h--cn--Xv-
_o-lm
4903. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw kn-\n-a-bm-n-b C-y t\m-h tZ-h-Zm-kv
4904. G-Xv _m-v-\n-cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-s--n-bm-Wv d-jy hym-]mcn-bm-b A-X-t\-jy-kv \n-n hn-h-cn-p--Xv- ap-l--Zv aqm-a
4905. c--c-ln-X hn--hw \-S- cm-Pyw- Cw--v
4906. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv ]m-v-\- Kw-K
4907. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-kw-L-S-\-bp-sS bq-tdm-]y B-m-\-am-b ]me-kv Hm-^v t\-j-kv G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv - kzn-v-k-e v
4908. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn ss]-e-v sse-k-kv t\-Sn-b hy-n-
sP.B.Un.Sm-
4909. -tem-I-n-s- ^m-j-kn-n- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv.- ]m-co-kv
4910. cm-a-\m-w F- {]m-No-\ I-em-cq-]-n-s Cu-n-w- sIm-m-c-c
4911. cm-P-jn-F--dn-b-s-n-cp- `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w tP-Xm-hv- ]p-cp-tjmw Zm-kv T-
4912. C-y-bn-se B-Zy _-P-v A-h-X-c-Ww \-S-n-b hy-n- k
sP-bnw-kv hn-k (1860)
4913. a-[y-{]-tZ-in Ipw-`-ta-f \-S-p- -ew- D--bn-\n
4914. D-Z-bw-t]-cq- kp--l-tZm-kv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1599
4915. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn sS-en-t^m \n-e-hn-h- \-K-cw- sIm-
4916. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn tIm- an- sIm-- (1818)
4917. e--\n C-ym lu-kv m-]n--Xv- iymw-Pn Ir-jv-W-h-a
4918. C--en-bv-p-n n-Xn-sN-p- cm-Pyw h-n-m
4919. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn- tZ-io-b A-Sn-b--cm-h-kv-Y {]-Jym-]n- {]kn-U v- tUm.- cm-[m-Ir-jv-W4920. C-y ]m-e-san-s B-Zy-s kw-bp- k-t-f-\w- 1961

120 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

4921. e--\n-h-p-I- G-Xv C-y-m-c-s in-jy-Xz-am-Wv am-Kc-v t\m-_ kzo-I-cn--Xv- hn-th-Im-\-


4922. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn tZ-io-b A-Sn-b--cm-h- {]-Jym-]n--s-Xv- 1962
4923. A-Xy-[n-Iw Xm-gv- Du-jv-am-hn-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- {I-tbmP-\n-Iv-kv
4924. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn Un.]n.C.]n. B-cw-`n- kw-m-\w- D-
{]-tZ-iv
4925. D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-b-ti-jw cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-b B-Zy hy-n-
tUm. F-kv. cm-[m-Ir-jvW
-
4926. ayq-d ]-tKm-U F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp- sIm-m-cw- ]-Zv-a\m-`-]p-cw
4927. G--hpw km-{-X Ip-d- tem-lw- en-Yn-bw
4928. C-y-bn-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm-{]-[m-\-a-{n C-n-cm-Km-n
4929. C-y-bn-se B-Zy I-yq- km--c-Xm {Km-aw- Xr-q th-eqcn-se X-q {Km-aw
4930. d-jy hn-h
- I
- m-es
- km N-{I-h-n- \n-tm-fm-kv c-ma
4931. C-y-bn-se Np-h- \-Zn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {_--]p-{X
4932. F-m \n-d--sf-bpw B-Kn-c-Ww sN-p- {]-X-ew G-Xp \n-dn Im-W-s-Sp-p- I-dp-v
4933. [m-Xp-k--n C-y-bn H-mw-kv-Ym-\-p- kw-m\w- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
4934. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn sF-F-kv Un kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn h-
\-K-cw--apw-ss_
4935. Cu- Zzo-]v G-Xp cm-Py-n-t-Xm-Wv- Nn-en
4936. dm-Wm-{]-Xm-]n-s Ip-Xn-c- tN-X-Iv
4937. F-m cm-K--fpw hm-bn-m I-gn-bp- C-y kw-Ko-tXm-]I-c-Ww- km-cw-Kn
4938. C-y-bp-sS Nm-b-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-kw
4939. G--hpw km-{-X Iq-Sn-b tem-lw- Hm-kv-an-bw
4940. apw-ss_-bn B-Zy tIm--an-m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1854
4941. F._n.U-yp G-Xv I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- {In-v
4942. F.]n.sP.A-_Z-v p I-em-an-s\-Xn-sc {]-kn-Up Xn-cs
- -Sp-n
a-k-cn--Xv- Iym-]v- e-v-an
4943. A-Iv-_ N-{I-h-n P-\n- -ew- A-a-tIm-v
4944. C-y-bn-se B-Zy h-\n-Xm ap-Jy-a-{n- kp-tN-X Ir-]-em-\n
4945. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s cm-jv-{So-b \m-S-Iw- ]m--_m-n
4946. "-{]-Im-i-n-s-d- \-K-cw-' F--dn-b-s-Sp-- cm-Pyw- {^m-kv4947. "-{^-v- hn--h-n-s- i-n-ip'-,- "hn-[n-bp-sS- a-\p-jy-'- F-o- A]-c-\m-a--fn- A-dn-b-s--Xv- s\-tm-fn-b4948. [-\p-th-Zw F-n-s\-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-p- B-tbm-[-\ hnZy
4949. [-a-cm-Pm-hv- A--cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1798
4950. a-c-Wm-\--c _-lp-a-Xn-bm-bn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\ e-`n- B-Zy-hy-n-
em _-lm-Zq-im-kv-{Xn
4951. a-lm-`m-c-X-n-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- P-b-kw-ln-X
4952. a-lm-`m-jyw c-Nn--Xv- ]-X--en
4953. D-b- Xm-]-\n-e-sb {]-Xn-tcm-[n-m ti-jn-bp- m-kv-
ss]-tdm-m-kv
4954. c-P-\o-Im-n-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv in-hm-Pn-dm-hp sK-bv-Iv-hm-Zv
4955. `q-Zm-\-{]-m-\w B-cw-`n- -ew- t]m---n
4956. [-hf
- {- ]-Im-is
- L-SI
- h
- -W
- f
- m-n th-Xn-cn-m D-]t- bmKn-p--Xv- {]n-kw
4957. [m-Xp--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- kz-Ww
4958. `-Sv-\-K A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bn \-Ip-p- im-kv-{Xw
4959. `u-am--co--n G--hpw A-]q-h-am-bp- hm-X-Iw-
dm-tUm
4960. `u-tam-]c
- n-Xe
-
- n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-Xe
- p- aq-eI
- w-
HmIv-kn-P
4961. c-P-X hn--hw F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ap- D-]m-Z\w
4962. c-p-X-h-W s\m-t_- k-m-\w- t\-Sn-b h-\n-X- ta-cn- Iyq-dn4963. A-ta-cn- \m-K-km-n-bn-en- t_mw-_v- ^m-v am

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

28

tI-cf
-
- n C.Fw.F-kv. \-q-Xn-cn-m-Sn-s t\-Xr-Xz-n
A-[n-Im-c-n-h- a-{n-k-` F-{X am-k-am-Wv `-cn--Xv
\n--en-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s kw-m-\-am-Wv Pm-J-Wv-Uv
_m-kv-I-v-t_m tIm-n-s \o-fw F-{X ao--dm-Wv
H-cp Hu-kv F-{X {Kmw (28.35)
{In--v -n-s \o-fw F-{X C-m-Wv
A-d-_n-`m-j-bn-se A--c- F-{X
kq-cy-\n F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv lo-en-bw
`u-tam-]-cn-X-e-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- c-m-a-s aqe-I-am-b kn-en- F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv (27.7)
bq-tdm-]y bq-Wn-b-\n-se F-{Xm-a-s Aw-K-am-Wv s{Imtb-jy
U-_n-kpw knw-Kn-kpw D-s-sS G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X {KmUv mw In-co-S- I-c--am-n-b ]p-cp-j-Xm-cw F- sdtm-Un-\p-Sa
- b
- m-b tdm-bv F-ta-gvk
- F-{X {Km-Uv mw
In-co-S- t\-Sn-bn-p-v
H-cp A-am-hm-kn I-gn-v A-Sp- A-am-hm-kn B-Ip-hm
F-{X Zn-h-kw th-Ww
H-cp an-\n-n F-{X In-tem-ao- th-K-n-em-Wv {`-a-Ww sNp-X
- v
`q-tKm-f-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv Hm-Iv-kn-P
4964. am- I v- _ - v- F- I- Y m- ] m- { X- s kr- j v- S n- - X m- c v-
tj-Iv-kv-]n-b
4965. {Uq-Iv--bp F-v X-t-io-b hn-ti-jn-n-p- cm-Pyw-
`q-m
4966. {_--]p-{X-bp-sS Zm-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp- kw-m-\w- A-kw
4967. {Xn-]n-S-I- G-Xp a-X-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- _p--aXw
4968. {]m-No-\-Im-e-v Im-a-cq-]w F--dn-b-s-n-cp- kw-m-\w-
A-kw
4969. {Im--q, ap-kn-cn-kv, a-tlm-Z-b-]p-cw F-o t]-cp-I-fn-e-dn-bs- kv-Y-ew- sIm-Sp--q
4970. {io-aq-ew {]-Pm-k-`-bn-te-v t\m-an-t\-p sN--s- B-Zy-s
A-[x-n-X hn-`m-K-m-c- A--Im-fn
4971. {K-l-]-n-I-bn-\n-pw im-kv-{X-tem-Iw ]p-d--n-b {K-lw-
q-tm
4972. {Km-q-hn-\v Kp-Ww \-Ip- cm-k-h-kv-Xp- bq-Pn-t\m
4973. C-y-bv-v kzm-X-{yw In-p-tm lu-kv Hm-^v tIm-a-knse {]-Xn-]- t\-Xm-hv--k hn- N-n
4974. cm-Pn-h- B-Zy C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n- sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
4975. tI-c-f-n Xp-em-h-jw A-\p-`-h-s-Sp--sX-tm- H-Iv-tSm_--\-hw-_
4976. tem-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X cm-Py--fn-eq-sS H-gp-Ip- \-Zn
-Um-\yq-_v
4977. tem-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-t\m-Z-k-m-cn-I-sf B-Ijn-p- tKm-]p-cw- Cu-^
4978. {Ko-e-Uv G-Xp cm-Py-n-s \n-b{- -W
- n-em-Wv- sU-mv
4979. F-hn-sS a-\-v `-b-c-ln-X-am-Ip-p-thm A-hn-sS in-c-v D--Xam-Ipw F-p ]-d--Xv- c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-Kq
4980. F-hn-sS h-m-Wv tUm.-Aw-t_-ZI
v- A-\p-bm-bn-It- fm-sSm-w _p-a-Xw kzo-I-cn--Xv- \m-Kv-]q
4981. {Ko-hn-v k-ab
- s
- -m F-{X a-Wn-q ap-n-em-Wv C-y
kv-m-tU-Uv k-a-bw- A--c
4982. a-\p-jy-\n _o-P-kw-tbm-Kw \-S-p--sX-hn-sS-h-v- ^-temn-b Syq-_v
4983. G--hpw h-en-b ap--bn-Sp- ]-n- H--I--n

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 121

4984. a-\p-jytIm-in F-{X enw-K t{Im-at- km-ap-If


- p-v- H-cp tPmSn
4985. a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-se A-n-I- 206
4986. A-m-cm-jv-{S G-I-Zn-\ {In--v N-cn-{X-n H-tcm-h-dn-se Bdp-]-pw kn-Iv-k-dn-\p ]-d-n-b B-Zy Xm-cw- sl-j Kn-_vkv
4987. A-an-Xm-`v _- B-Zy-am-bn A-`n-\-bn- km-Zv ln-p-m-\n
F- Nn-{X-n-s {]-ta-bw- tKm-h hn--hw
4988. A-cn-m-d D-m-Ip--Xn-\p Im-c-Ww- ssh-d-kv
4989. bp-w A-cp-Xv F-v t]-cn-\-ap- C-y \-K-cw- A-tbm-[y
4990. tIm-gn-tm-Sv Pn--bn-se hn-t\m-Z-k-m-c tI-{w- Xp-jm-c-Kncn
4991. C-y-bn t]m- kw-hn-[m-\w \-S-m-n-b K-h-W P-\d- U-lu-kn
4992. tIm-{K-kn-se an-X-hm-Zn hn-`m-K-n-s t\-Xm-hv- -tKm-]m-eIr-jv-W tKm-J-se
4993. bp-dm-\-kv {K-l-s I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Xn-tbm-U sl-j
4994. C-y ]m-e-san-s A-t[m-k-` F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- temIvk
- `
4995. C-y ]m-e-san-s D-]-cn-k-` F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- cm-Pyk-`
4996. a-e-_m I-em-]-n-\p-ti-jw e-l-f-m `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn
hm-gn--Xv- B-en ap-k-en-bm
4997. a-e-bm-f-a-t\m-c-a ]-{Xw- {]-kn-o-I-c-W-am-cw-`n--Xv- G-Xv h-jn- F.Un.1890
4998. A-e-Iv-km--dp-sS Ip-Xn-c-bp-sS t]-cv- _yq-kn-^m-e-kv
4999. I-iv-ao I-cm-dn H-p-sh- cm-Pm-hv- l-cn-kn-Mv
5000. I-c-bn-se ar-K--fn h-ep--n c-mw m-\w- ln-tms]m-m-a-kv
5001. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s A-m-cm-jv-{S hn-am-\-m-h-fw--Xn-cph-\--]p-cw
5002. G-Xv {K-l-n-s D-]-{K-l--m-Wv tj-Iv-kv-]n-b-dp-sS IYm-]m-{X--fp-sS t]-cv \-In-bn-cn-p--Xv bp-dm-\-kv
5003. hn-Iv-S bq-tKm-bp-sS ]m-h- a-e-bm-f-n-te-v X-P-a sNbv-X-Xv- \m-e-m-p \m-cm-b-W ta-t\m
5004. tI-c-f-n-se Pn--I-fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X \-Zn-I-sfm-gp-Ip-Xv- Im-k-tIm-Sv
5005. G-Xv {K-l-n-em-Wv t{K-v Um-v kv-t]m-v Im-W-s-Sp--Xv-
s\-]v-yq
5006. ssZ-h-`q-an-bp-sS kw-c--I F-p h-Wn--s- U-ln
kp-m- C-p-an-jv
5007. am-m--am G-Xp ]--W-n-se _n-j-p-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv- tdmw
5008. G-Xv A-\p-t-Zw {]-Im-c-am-Wv cm-jv-{S-]-Xn cm-Py-k-`-bn-te-v
12 t]-sc \m-a-\n-t-iw sN-p--Xv- 80
5009. ssZ-h-n-s ]q-tm-w F-v t]-cn-\-Y-ap- \-K-cw- _m-KvZm-Zv
5010. i-t-gv-kv ho-v-en-bp-sS ap-{Z F-m-bn-cp-p- I-gp-X-p-d-v sN-m-c
5011. G-Xv {K-l-n-s D-]-{K-l-am-Wv ssS-m-\n-b--bp-dm-\-kv
5012. tI-c-f-k--i-\-n-\n-sS Km-n-Pn ]p-e-b-cm-P F-p hn-tijn-n--Xv- A--Im-fn
5013. I-\y-Im-dm-Wn sb- t]-cn tem-I-N-cn-{X-n {]-kn--bmb-Xv- H-mw F-en-k-_-v dm-Wn
5014. {]m-No-\ C-y kw-kv-Im-c-n-s `m-K-am-b I-en-_w-K GXp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- L-
5015. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bm-Wv kmw-_m-Pn-sb h-[n--Xv- Hu-dwK-ko-_v
5016. A-_p--n-\v `-Sv- F- -e-v tIm- \n-an-m
A-\p-a-Xn \-In-b hn-P-b-\-K-c `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- Ir-jv-W-tZ-hcm-b
5017. A-{Sm ku-v kvI
- m-\n-Mv I-p-]n-Sn-X
- v- sF. sUm-Wm-Uv
5018. ssZ-h-n-s {]-Xn-]p-cp-j F- m-\-t-cp kzo-I-cn-, ASn-a-hw-i-n-se kp-m- _m-_
5019. G-Xv ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv Cw-Kv-fo-jv Cu-nym- - - \ n e- - \ n (F.Un.1600) m- ] n- X - a m- b - X v -
A-Iv-_

CONFUSING FACTS
tem-I-n-se ss_-kn-n \-K-cw ssN-\-bn-se s_bv-Pn-Mpw C-y-bn-te-Xv ]-m-_n-se ep-[n-bm-\-bp-am-Wv.
a-p Xn-p--h F- A-]-c-\m-a-ap- {]m-tZ-in-I hmX-am-Wv Nn-\q-Iv. tUm-Iv-S F- A-]-c-\m-a-ap- {]m-tZin-I hm-Xw l-a-.
Kp-cp-Pn F--dn-b-s--Xv am-[-h k-Zm-in-h tKm-h-dpw Kp-cp-tZ-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv c-ho-{-\m-Y Sm-tKm-dpw Bbn-cp-p.
_n.kn. \m-en A-K-kv-X-kv ko-k N-{I-h-n-bm-bncp- Im-e-m-Wv {In-kv-Xp-hn-s P-\-\-sa-v I-cp-X-s-Spp. F.Un. 29 ssS-_o-cn-b-kv N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-em-Wv {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\ Ip-cn-in-te-n-b-Xv.
X-an-gv-\m-Sm-Wv C-y-bp-sS sX-s-b--s kw-m-\-san-epw sX-t-b--s kw-m-\ X-e-m-\w Xn-cp-h-\-]p-ca
- m-Wv.
tZ-io-b a-\p-jym-h-Im-i I-o-j-s B-m-\wa m - \ - h v
A-[n-Im `-h-\n-em-Wv. tI-{ C-^-ta-j I-o-js B-m-\w B-K-kv-Xv {Im-n `-h-\n-ep-am-Wv.
5020. C-y-bn A--Sn- B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f {K-w- \m-ep kp-hnti-j
-
5021. in-h-Pn-bp-sS B-o-b Kp-cp- cmw-Zm-kv
5022. G-Xv a-K-[-cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-m-Wv {io-_p- A--cn--Xv-
A-Pm-Xi
- {- Xp
5023. C-y-bn kn-\n-am ]-ck
- yw {]-kn-o-Ic
- n- B-Zy ]-{Xw- ssSwkv Hm-^v C-y
5024. G-Xv ap-K cm-P-Ip-am-c-\m-Wv `-K-h-Xv-Ko-X t]-jy-\n-te-v XP-a sN-bv-X-Xv Zm-cm-jp-tm
5025. Im--\m-S-s b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- tPm-Pv h-Ko-kv
5026. G-Xv- ap-K- N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv- ap-K- in-]-I-e
A-Xn-s-d ]m-c-ay-X-bn-se-n-b-Xv--jm-P-lm5027. Im-n-p-dp-n-sb-Sp- I-hn-X- F-p hn-fn-p--Xv B-cp-sS cN-\-sb-bm-Wv- ssh-tem-n-n
5028. Im--en-Iv F- ]-Zw G-Xp `m-j-bn-\n-m-Wv \n-jv-]--amb-Xv- {Ko-v
5029. in-h-Pn-bp-sS a-{n-k-`- A-jv-S-{]-[m
5030. {]m-No-\-Im-e-v-Z-n-W-tIm-k-ew F--dn-b-s-n-cp- kwm-\w- N-o-kv-K-Vv
5031. G--hpw- h-en--ap- ap--bn-Sp- ]-n- -H--I--n5032. im- k-ap-{Z-s-bpw A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Z-s-bpw _-n-np- I-\m- ]-\m-a I-\m
5033. sI-hn kv-sI-bn-en a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-s km-[m-c-W Dujv-am-hv F-{X-bm-Wv- 310
5034. G-Xv B-Iv-Sv {]-Im-c-am-Wv dn-k-hv _m-v Hm-^v C-y \n-e-hn
h--Xv- 1934 se dn-k-hv _m-v Hm-^v C-y B-Iv-Sv
5035. F.kn.F.F. G-Xv cm-Py-n-s \yq-kv G-P-kn-bm-Wv-
ssN-\
5036. G-Xp a-e-ap-I-fn-em-Wv sIm-ssU--\m- ]-g-\n-a-e
5037. F.Un.F. k-m-cn-s-bpw tIm-{K-kn-s-bpw ]n-p-Wtbm-sS {]-kn-Um-b hy-n--F.]n.sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
5038. G-h
- pw h-en-b \m-jW
- ]m-v- hp-Uv _p-^t- em \m-jW
-
]m-v
5039. C-y-bn-se G-h
- pw D-X
- a
- m-b A-o-tm-SX
- n- kp-{]ow tImS-Xn
5040. G--hpw e-h-Wmw-iw Iq-Sn-b I-S- Nm-hp-I-S
5041. s v Nn-In-k G-X-h-b-h-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- lrZ-bw
5042. G--hpw- Ip-d--p-Im-ew- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-m-bn-cp--Xv- hneyw- sl-dn- lm-cn-k-

122 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5043. A-e-Iv-km--dpw t]md-kpw G-p-ap-n-b bpw- ssl-Um-kv-]-kv


bp-w
5044. G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-cm-Wv {io-\m-cm-b-WKp-cp A-cp-hn-p-dw in-h{]-Xn-jvT \-S-n-b-Xv-
s\-m
5045. G-Xp am-k-n-em-Wv
sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S s]m-XpX]m mn {]Xys
k-` km-[m-c-W-am-bn
BZy aebmfn h\nX kn
k-t-fn-p--Xv- skAt^mkm
]vX
- w-_
5046. A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-Un-s-d- Im-e-m-h-[n- \m-ep-h-jw5047. B-[p-\n-I _m-_n-tem F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- e-
5048. G-Xp ap-K N-{I-h-n-bm-Wv in-h-Pn-sb X-S-hp-Im-c-\m-n-bXv- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
5049. G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv t]m-tfm I-fn D-`-hn--Xv- C-y
5050. G-Xp k-a-c-n-s ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-am-bn-cp-p Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq Xn-cphn-Xmw-Iq-dp-Im-v- a-e-bm-fn sa-tm-dn-b
5051. G-Xp t-{X-n-en-cp-m-Wv ta--q \m-cm-b-Wo-bw
c-Nn-X
- v- Kp-cp-hm-bq
5052. G-Xp ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv ]p-en-v-k k-m-\w \-Ip--Xv am-[ya-{]-h--\w
5053. G-Xv- ap-K- N-{I-h-n-bm-Wv- ^-t-]q- kn-{In-sb- X-e-kvYm-\-\-K-cw- ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv--A-Iv-_5054. G-Xv C-y \-Zn-bm-Wv Sn-_-n km-Mv-t]m F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- {_--]p-{X
5055. H-mw kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-Im-e-s K-h-W P-\-d- Im-\n-Mv
{]-`p
5056. H-cp {]m-tZ-in-I C-y-`m-j-bn B-Zy-am-bn Im-d-am-Iv-kns Po-h-N-cn-{Xw X-m-dm-n-b-Xv- kz-tZ-im-`n-am-\n sI.-cm-a-Irjv-W-]n-
5057. H-cp In-tem kz-Ww F-{X ]-h-\m-Wv- 125
5058. H-fn-n-Iv h-f-b--fn G-jy-sb {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w sN-p-
h-f-b-n-s \n-dw- a-
5059. hm-[-Iy-s-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- sP-dn-bm-{Sn-Iv-kv
5060. Hm-a-\-n--n-Sm-thm F- Km-\w c-Nn--Xv- C-c-bn-
X-n
5061. Hm-In-kn-P-\n-m-sX F-h-d-v Io-g-S-n-b B-Zy C-y-m-c-
^yq-tZm-Pn
5062. k-ap-{Z-n- ]-Xn-m-- {]-ap-J- C-y- \-Zn--eq-Wn5063. k-ap-{Z-n-s i-cm-i-cn B-gw- 3554ao-
5064. k-ap-{Z--fp-sS B-gw A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- F-tm-ku-
5065. In-Km- k-{-Zm-b-n-s D-]-m-Xm-hv- t{^m-_
5066. C-y-bn-se B-Zy t]- an m-]n--s- -ew- sklv-dmw-]q
5067. kn-n Hm-^v tPm-bv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sIm--
5068. In-cm-Xm-Pp-\o-bw c-Nn--Xm-cv- `m-c-hn
5069. in-e-I-fp-sS am-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B-t-b-in-e
5070. C-y-bn-s- H-tc-sbm-cp- em-Uv- tem-v-Uv- ta-P Xp-d-ap-Jw-
hn-im-J-]--Ww5071. kz-w Nm-c-n-\n-v D-bn-s-gp-t-v h-cp-sa- sF-Xoly-m {]-i-kv-X-am-b ]-n- ^o-\n-Iv-kv
5072. Pnw- tIm-_-v- \m-j-W- ]m--n-eq-sS- H-gp-Ip-- \-Zn--cmw -KwK5073. lr-Z-b-hm-hp-I-v X-I-cm-dp-m-p- tcm-Kw- hm-X--\n
5074. C-y-bn-se \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw A-]-I-S-Im-cn-sb-p hn-ti-jnn--s-Sp--Xv- tIm-kn
5075. s\-{lp t{Sm-^n h-w-I-fn-bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- ss{]w an-\n-tgv-kv t{Sm-^n
5076. N- { - s D- ] - c n- X - e - n G- - h pw Iq- S p- X - e p- aq- e - I w-
Hm-Iv-kn-P
5077. N--n-kzm-an-bp-sS k-am-[n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]--\

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

29

sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s Aw-K-am-Wv C-y


sN-n-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
F-{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv kn-m-Y (_p-) sIm-m-cw-hnn-d-n-b-Xv
i-\n-v kq-cy-s\ {]-Z-n-Ww sN-m F-{X `u-a-h-j B-h-iy-am-Wv
Nm-{-am-k-n-se Zn-h-k--fp-sS F-w
t-n-s B-`n-ap-Jy-n-ep- hn-Zym-`ym-k m-]-\-n
a-Xw,hw-iw,Pm-Xn, `m-j F-n-h-bp-sS t]-cn {]-th-i-\w
\n-tj-[n-m ]m-Sn-m F-v A-\p-im-kn-p- `-c-W-L-S\m A-\p-t-Zw
tI-c-f-n-\n-v ]m-e-san-te-v Xn-c-s-Sp--s-Sp-
Aw-K--fp-sS F-w
i-\n-{K-l-n-\v H-cp {]m-h-iyw kq-cy-s\ {]-Z-n-Ww sNm F-{X `u-a-h-j- B-h-iy-am-Wv
`u-tam-]-cn-X-e-n F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv I-c-`m-Kw
`m-j, en-]n, kw-kv-Im-cw F-n-h-bp-sS ]-cn-c--W-s-pdn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw
F-{Xm-as
- H-fn-n-Ik
v- m-Wv 2012 s_-bP
v- nw-Kn \-S
- X
- v
C-y-bn-se F-{Xm-a-s kw-m-\-am-Wv sXem\
5078.
5079.
5080.
5081.
5082.
5083.
5084.
5085.
5086.
5087.
5088.
5089.
5090.
5091.
5092.
5093.
5094.
5095.
5096.
5097.
5098.
5099.
5100.
5101.
5102.

C-y-bn-se B-Zy k-q-W km--c \-K-cw- tIm--bw


s]-cn-b ]p-cm-Ww F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- tk-o-gm
s]-cn-bm h-\y-ar-K-k-t-Xw G-Xp Pn--bn- C-Sp-n
lw-k-hpw Z-a-b-n-bpw F- Nn-{Xw B-cp-tS-Xm-Wv- cm-Pm chn-h-a
Nm-en-k F-, \m-]-Xw-K a-X-ta-[m-hn-I-fp-sS kw-L-s Aa- sN-bv-X-Xv- _m-_
Nm-eq-Iy hw-i-n-se cm-Pm--am-cn G--hpw {]-i-kv-X-
]p-en-tI-in c-m-a
kz-W-n-s D-]-t`m-K-n G--hpw ap-n \n-p- cmPyw- C-y
C-y-bn-se {_n-o-jv A-[n-Im-cw \n-e-\n-p--Xn-\p-th-n
C-ym Un-^-kv eo-Kv m-]n--Xv--k hn- N-n
cm-{Xn-bn ap--bv-v B-]-n A-S-bn-cn-p- hn-`m-Kw--H-I--n
Hm-Iv-kn-P A-S-n-bn-n-m- B-kn-Uv- ssl-t{Um-tm-dnIv B-kn-Uv
C-y-bn-se B-Zy B-[p-\n-I k-h-I-em-im-e m-]n--s-Xv- sIm--
hm-Km A-Xn-n G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- ]-m-_v
C-y-bn-se B-Zy kn-a v ^m-Iv-S-dn m-]n-X-am-b -ew--a{Zm-kv
kw-L-Im-e tNm-f-am-cp-sS Nn-w- I-Sp-h
Pm-en-b hm-em _m-Kv Iq--sm-e A-t\z-jn- I-n-j- l I-n-j
C-y-bn-se B-Zy ss]-e-v- sP.B.Un.Sm-
kw-L-Im-e-v Po-hn-n-cp- {]-i-kv-X-bm-b I-h-bn-{Xn- Hu-bm
cm-{Xn-bpw ]-I-epw Xp-ey-am-bn-cn-p--Xv G-Xv `q-ta-J-e-bn-emWv- `q-a-[y-tc-Jm-{]-tZ-i-v
In-an-Km-tbm G-Xp cm-Py-n-s tZ-io-b-Km-\-am-Wv- P-m
in-e-I-sf kw-_-n- ]T-\w- en-tm-f-Pn
In-tbm-em-Zn-tbm ]-n k-t-Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- `-c-Xv-]q
tI-c-f-h-a ]p-e-t-Sn- F- {]m-No-\m-Nm-cw- \n-tcm-[n--Xv- G-Xv
h-j-n- F.Un.1696
tI-c-f-hym-k F--dn-b-s--Xv- sIm-Sp--q Ip-n-p-
X-p-cm
Inw-_-en h-{P-J-\n G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- Z-n-Wm-{^n-
Kp-h-l-n-bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- {]m-Kv-tPym-Xn-jv-]q

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 123

5103.
5104.
5105.
5106.
5107.
5108.
5109.
5110.
5111.
5112.
5113.
5114.
5115.
5116.
5117.
5118.
5119.
5120.
5121.
5122.
5123.
5124.
5125.
5126.
5127.
5128.

In-Xm-_v D ln-v c-Nn--Xv- A s_-dq-Wn


Ip-p-a-q-hn-s-d \m-Sv- Im-iv-aoHm-kv-I A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy Nn-{Xw- hn-Mv-kv
kq-cy-s {X-kn-p- D-]-cn-X-e-n-\p ]-d-bp- t]-cv- t^mtm-kv-^n-b
Hm-kv-I in-ev-]-n-\v B t]-cp \-In-b-Xv- am-K-c-v sl-dn-Iv
hn--hw H-cp A-m-g-hn-cp-- F-p ]-d--Xv- am-thm tkXp-Mv
hn- N-n km-ln-Xy s\m-t_-en-\v A-l-\m-b hjw- 1953
kp-tam Kp-kv-Xn G-Xv cm-Py-n-s tZ-io-b Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Z-amWv- P-m
Kp-Uv-Km-hv hy-h-km-b ta-J-e G-Xp kw-m-\-v- l-cn-bm-\
Iym-_n-\-v k-t-fn-p-tm A-[y-X
-- h-ln-p--Xv- {][m-\-a-{n
Iyq-_-bn 1959 ^n-U Im-kv-t{Sm B-s-Xn-sc-bm-Wv
hn--hw \-bn--Xv- _m-n-
Im-n-s th-Kw A-f-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- A-\ntam-ao-
Im-s_m-dm--n-s cm-k-\m-aw- kn-en- Im-ss_-Uv
Im-se-bn-ep- {]-i-kv-X-am-b ssN-Xy \n-an--Xv G-Xp hw-im-cp-sS Im-e-m-Wv- i-X-hm-l-\
Im-t_m-ssl-t{U-n-s\ G-Xp cq-]-n-em-Wv I-c-fn ti-J-cnp--Xv- ss-tm-P
Im-tm-{Km-^ F-m-Wv \n-an-p--Xv- `q-]-Sw
k-ym-kn-am-cp-sS cm-Pyw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sIm-dn-b
k---Xo-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- tIm-m-dn-
k-q-W km--c-X ssI-h-cn- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s Pn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
k-q-W km--c-X t\-Sn-b C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ]--Ww tIm--bwIm-bn-I ]-cn-io-e-I-p- tZ-io-b A-hm-Uv- t{Zm-Wm-Nm-cy
A-hm-Uv
K- _ G- X p kw- m- \ - s X- \ - X m- b \r-- cq- ] - a m- W v -
Kp-P-dm-v
c-p-Im-en-tem-Sp- Po-hn-I-fn G--hpw th-Kw Iq-Sn-b-Xv H-I--n
Cw-o-jv km-ln-Xy-n-se {]-Ir-Xn-bp-sS I-hn F--dn-b-s-Xv- th-Uv-kv-h-v
F-Un-k \n-an- N-e-n-{X b-{w- ssI-\-tm-{Km-^v
G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b ]-n- H--I--n

tI- f p- N - c a- l m- ] m- { X- b p- a m- b n
_--s- I-em-cq-]w- H-Uo-n

tNmZyw; Dcw
tUm.Awt_ZvIdpsS kam[n
tUm.Awt_Zv I dpsS kam[n ew ssN{X`qan,
ssNX\y`qan, ssNXy`qan Fns\ hyXykvXambn
]e ]pkvXIfn ImWpp. GXmWv icn?
tUm.Awt_ZvIdpsS kam[nbpsS t]cv ssNXy`qan
FmWv. CXv apwss_-bn ZmZ-dn\p kao]amWv.

5129. k-m A- F- t]cn Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn H-cp t]m k-ho-kv B-cw-`n-Xm-cv- Sn.am-[-h-dm-hp


5130. tI-c-f-n-se tlm-f-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- -Ip--\m-Sv
5131. tI-cf
-
- n-se tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\
- f
- n knw-lh
- m-e Ip-c
- n-s\
kw-c-n-p--Xv- ssk-e v hm-en
5132. Iq-\q G-Xv kw-m-\-s kp-J-hm-k-tI-{w- X-an-gv-\m-Sv
5133. iq-\ym-Im-i-t-v B-Zy-am-bn bm-{X sN-bv-X -\mbbp-sS t]cv- se-bv-I
5134. hn-am-\-n D-]-tbm-Kn-p- C--\w- G-hn-tb-j kv-]ncn-v
5135. I-\n-jv-I-s sIm-m-cw ssh-Zy- N-c-I
5136. hn-am-\-n-s `m-K- \n-an-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p- tem-lw-
ssS-m-\n-bw
5137. Iw-]yq--dp-I-sm-w G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]-tbm-Kn-p- t]mbnn-Mv D-]-I-c-Ww- au-kv
5138. Iw-Km-cp-hn-s \m-Sv- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
5139. I-Wn-bw-Ip-fw- bp-w- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1634
5140. I-f-hp ]-d-bp-tm I-p-]n-Sn-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- t]m-fn-{Km^v
5141. h-b\
- m-Sv Pn-b
- n-se, k-ap-{Z-\n-c
- n-\n-pw D-bc
-
- n-em-bn nXn sN-p- X-Sm-Iw- ]q-tm-Sv
5142. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X t] kw-km-cn-p- {Zm-hn-U-`m-j- sX-ep-v
5143. h-cm-l-an-ln-c B-cp-sS k-Z-ky-\m-bn-cp-p--N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{Iam-Zn-Xy
5144. C-y-bn t{]m-P-Iv-Sv F-en-^ v B-cw-`n- h-jw- 199192
5145. H-cn--epw, H-cn--epw....H-cn--epw ]m-Xn-h-gn-bn D-t]-n-cp-Xv -F-p ]-d--Xv--k hn- N-n
5146. tIm-{K-kn-Xc
- k-m-cn-s Im-e
- v `m-cX
- c
- X
- v\
- t\-Sn-b BZy t\-Xm-hv--_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5147. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn F.Sn.Fw. kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn-h-
\-K-cw- apw-ss_
5148. I-fn-a ]m-{X- B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
5149. hn-am-\-n-se m-v t_m-Iv-kn-s \n-dw- Hm-d-v
5150. a-lm-\m-b A-e-Iv-km--dp-sS am-Xm-hv- H-fnw-]n-b-kv
5151. A-lp-Z a-kv-Z-bpw A-{ln-am-\pw \--sb-bpw Xn--sb-bpw {]-Xn\n-[m-\w sN-p- a-Xw- ]m-gv-kn a-Xw
5152. Im-a-kq-{Xw c-Nn--Xv- h-kym-b-\
5153. Im-bv-I-fp-s-n-epw hn-n-m- k-kyw--hm-g
5154. C-y kn-\n-a-bn-se {]-Y-a-h-\n-X F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- \Ko-kv Z-v
5155. Im-bw G-Xn-\-n-s-Sp- h-kv-Xp-hm-Wv- sd-kn
5156. hn-m-an kn bp-sS cm-k-\m-aw- A-kv-tIm-_n-Iv B-kn-Uv
5157. Hu-j-[n-I-fp-sS am-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Xp-f-kn
5158. hw-K-_-p F--dn-b-s--Xv- sj-bv-Jv ap-Po-_v d-lv-am
5159. I-_o-dn-s Kp-cp- cm-am-\-
5160. tI-c-fw--a-e-bm-fn-I-fp-sS am-Xr-`q-an c-Nn--Xv- C.Fw.F-kv.
5161. tI-c-f-Xo-c-v [m-Xp-a-W th-Xn-cn-p- tI-{ K-h-sa v
D-S-a--X-bn-ep- ^m-Iv-S-dn- C-y sd-b F-v en-an--Uv
5162. Rm a-cn-p--Xv th--{X ssh-Zy-am-cp-sS k-lm-b-m-emWv F-p ]-d--Xv- A-e-Iv-km- N-{I-h-n
5163. tm-Wn-n-eq-sS kr-jv-Sn--s- B-Zy ]q-- Im-_ tImn

124 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5164. km-[m-c-W-am-bn `-y-hn-j-_m-[-bv-v Im-c-W-am-b _m-Iv-So-cnb G-Xv- tm-kv-{So-Un-bw t_m-p-en-\w


5165. Km-n kn-\n-a-bp-sS kw-Ko-X kw-hn-[m-b-I- ]-Wv-Un-v c-hni-
5166. Im ^n-enw s^-n-h B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1946
5167. Im-_ tU-n-n-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-p- sF-tkm-tSm-v- Im_-14
5168. G-jym-n-Iv sK-bnw-kn-\v G-jy sK-bnw-kv F- t]-cp \In-b-Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
5169. G-Xp a-X-hn-`m-K-n-s B-Nm-c-am-Wv tbmw In-q- b-lq-Z
5170. G-Xp h-jw-ap-X-em-Wv sam-w km-ln-Xy kw-`m-h-\-I ]-cnK-Wn-v m-\-]oTw \-In-p-S-n-b-Xv- 1982
5171. H-p-In C-y-v kzm-X-{yw A-s-n H-cp kz-X-{-cmPy-v B-d-Sn-a-v F-p ]-d--Xv- au-em-\m ap-l--Zv A-en
5172. I--U-bn-se ]p-Xp-h-jw- D-Km-Zn
5173. km-[m-c-W-Xm-]-\n-e-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hn-I-kn-p- ]Zm-Yw- ko-kn-bw
5174. I-em-ssa G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- kn-v (\m-Iw)
5175. tem-Iv-k-`-bn-te-v Xn-c-s-Sp--s- a-e-bm-f km-ln-Xy-Imc- F-kv.sI. s]m--m-v
5176. tI-{ _-P-v A-h-X-cn-n- G-I a-e-bm-fn- tPm a-m-bn
5177. tImw-tKm dn--n-n-s m-]-I t\-Xm-hv- ]m-{Sn-kv ep-apw-_
5178. tm-Wn-n-eq-sS kr-jv-Sn--s- B-Zy Ip-Xn-c- s{]m-an-Xy
5179. tKm-hm-en-b Sm-v C-tm F-p-t]-cn A-dn-b-s-Sp-p- HmK-kv-v {Im-n ssa-Xm-\w
5180. C-y km-aq-ln-I hn--h-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdm-bv
5181. C-y kn-\n-a-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Zm-Zm kmtl-_v ^m-t
5182. A-e-l-_m-Zv \-K-c-n-s m-]-I- A-Iv-_
5183. A-h-km-\-s kpw-K-cm-Pm-hv- tZ-h-`q-Xn
5184. ap--n B-cp-sS Ir-Xn-bm-Wv- _m-em-a-Wn-b-
5185. ap-l--Zv _n Xp--n-s ]-g-b-t]-cv- Pq-\m cm-P-Ip-am-c
5186. apw-Xm-kv-a-l-en-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- A-Pp-am-v-_m-\p _o-Kw
5187. B-{m-tI-k-cn F--dn-b-s--Xv- Sn.{]-Im-iw
5188. B-cp-sS k--i-\-n-s kv-a-c-W-bv-m-bm-Wv apw-ss_-bn
tK-v th Hm-^v C-y \n-an--Xv- tPm-Pv cm-Pm-hn-s
5189. B-kq-{Xn-X-am-bn D-]-I-c-W--fp-m-m a-\p-jy B-Zy-ambn D-]-tbm-Kn- tem-lw- sN-v
5190. C.sI.\m-b-\m-cp-sS ]q-W-\m-aw- G-d-m-e Ir-jv-W \m-b\m
5191. C-y ]m-e-san-s aq-p L-S-I-- tem-Iv-k-`, cm-Pyk-`, cm-jv-{S-]-Xn
5192. G-Xp hn-f-sb _m-[n-p- tcm-K-am-Wv {Zp-X-hm-w- Ip-cp-ap-f-Iv
5193. G-Xp hn-j-b-n-em-Wv G--hpw H-Sp-hn s\m-t_ k-m-\w
G-s-Sp-n-b-Xv- C--tWm-an-Iv-kv
5194. C-y m-kn- kw-Ko-X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- km-cw-K-tZ-h
5195. C-y A-m-Z-an Hm-^v k-b-k-kv m-]n--Xv- kn.hn.cma
5196. C-y A-cm-P-I-Xz-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Xv- _m-e-Kw-Km-[-c-Xn-e-I
5197. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq t-v tIm-{K-kv cq-]-h-Xv-Ir-X-am-b h-jw-
1938
5198. em--d D-S--Sn {]-Im-cw 1929 \n-e-hn-h- cm-Pyw- h-nm
5199. tI-c-f t-v Iu-kn t^m ssN-Uv sh-s^-b-dn-s
{]-kn-U v--ap-Jy-a-{n
5200. tI-c-f-n BZy-ambn Av h-jw Im-emh-[n ]q-nbmnb kv-]o- - Fw. hn-P-b-Ip-am
5201. tem-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-W-s-Sp- Po-h-\p- h-kvXp- h-v
5202. cm-Pm-tI-ih
- Z- m-kv- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq- Zn-hm-\m-bX
- v- G-Xv h-j
- n F.Un.1789
5203. D--cm-kz-bw-h-cw- B---Y F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- C-c-bn- X-n
5204. tI-c-f t]m- k-n \n-e-hn-h- h-jw- 1961

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

30

cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-Im-\p- Ip-d- {]m-bw


A-ta-cn--bn sk-\-w-K-am-Im-\p- Ip-d- {]m-bw
`q-an-bp-sS I-c-`m-K-n-s hn-kv-Xo-W-n-s F-{X i-Xam-\-am-Wv G-jy
C-y-bp-sS ]-Sn-m-dv, In-g-v tc-Jmw-i- X-n GtI-Z-iw F-{X Un-{Kn-bp-sS hy-Xym-kw D-v
H-cp {]-tZ-i-v Ip-d--Xv F-{X h-j-am-bn A-\p-`-h-s-Sp Zn-\m--co- n-Xn-bm-Wv A-hn-S-s Im-em-h-
F-{X Zn-h-kw \o-p-\n-p- B-tLm-j-am-bn-cp-p amam-w (]p-jy-]q-bw ap-X am-L-a-Iw h-sc)
c-v k-a-b-ta-J-e-I X-n F-{X an-\n-v k-a-b-hy-Xymkw D-v
]m-e-san-se G--hpw h-en-b I-n-n-bm-b F-n-ta-v-kv
I-n-n-bn-se Aw-K-
\n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS D-]-cn-k-`-bm-b e-Pn-t-o-hv Iu-knen Aw-K-am-Im-\p- Ip-d- {]m-bw
H-cp tm-n-se a-Wn-q kq-Nn H-cp a-Wn-q-sIm-v F{X Un-{Kn Xn-cn-bpw
hn-h-cm-h-Im-i \n-b-a-{]-Im-cw C-^-ta-j Hm-^o-k-v
A-t]- sIm-Sp-m F-{X Zn-h-k-n-\p-n hn-h-cw
e-`y-am--Ww
2012- e--\n \-S--Xv F-{Xm-a-Xv k- H-fn-n-Iv-kmWv
t_mw-s_ tm-v F-Iv-kv-tN-n-se Hm-l-cn hn-]-Wn kqNn-I-bm-b _n-F-kv-C sk-sk-Iv-kn en-v sN-bv-Xn-p I--\n-I-fp-sS F--sa-{X
Km-n-Pn B-sI F-{X D-]-hm-k- A-\p-jvTn-n-p-v

5205. tem-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ssI-h-gn-I D- \-Zn- B-atkm


5206. Xq-h-en-s-d km-{-X G--hpw- Iq-Sn-b ]-n- s]-Kzn-5207. tZ-io-b t\-Xm--fp-sS kv-a-c-W-bv-m-bn hr--tm--ap- tIc-f-n-se -ew- s]-cp-h-m-aq-gn
5208. Xr--Sn-Zm-\w \-S-n-b Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq cm-Pm-hv -am-m-Wv-Uh-a
5209. k-am-[m-\ s\m-t_ ]p-c-kv-Im-c-n-\-l-bm-b B-Zy-h-\n-Xbm-b s_- thm k-Sv-\ G-Xp cm-Py-m-cn-bm-bn-cp-p-
kzo-U
5210. tZ-io-b]
- X
- m-Ib
- p-sS C-s
- cq-]w Aw-Ko-Ic
- n- Xo-bX
- n- 1947
Pq-sse 22
5211. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq Cu-g-h-k-`-bp-sS m-]-I- tUm.]-]p
5212. ]-{X-kzm-X-{y-n-\p-th-n \n-b-a-\n-am-Ww \-S-n-b B-Zy
cm-Pyw- kzo-U
5213. X-]m m-n-eq-sS B-Z-cn--s- B-Zy-s tZ-io-b t\-Xmhv- a-lm-m-Km-n
5214. C-c--k-tlm-Z-c-am {]-[m-\-a-{n-bpw {]-kn-Up-am-b tem-In-se B-Zy cm-Pyw- t]m-f-v
5215. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Po-hn-X-ssZ-Ly-ap- k-ky- G-Xv hn`m-K-n-s-Sp-p- Pnw-t\m-kv-t]w-kv
5216. Xp- tdm--v tem-n-Mv t-j-\n-\n-v hn-t-]n- B-Zys tdm--v- ss\-v A-m-s
5217. h-kv-Xp--v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X `m-cw A-\p-`-h-s-Sp- {K-lw hym-gw
5218. I-o-cpw In-\m-hpw B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- hn.Sn.`--Xn-cn-mSv
5219. X-Sm-I--fp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- D-Z-bv-]q
5220. X-sse-am-m F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- {io-e-
5221. bq-tdm-n-s km--n-I X-e-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp- kq-dnv G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- kzn-v-k-e v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 125

5222. U-ln kp-m-t\-n-s A-yw Ip-dn- bp-w- H-mw ]m\n--p-bp-w(1526 G-{]n 21)
5223. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq,- Xn-cp--sIm-n,- tI-c-fw- F-o- aq-v- kw-kv-Ym-\-fn-epw- {]-[m-\-a-{n,- ap-Jy-a-{n- F-o- \n-e-I-fn- tk-h-\a-\p-jv-Tn-n-S-Sp- hy-Iv-Xn- ]-w- Xm-Wp-]n-
5224. cm-am-\p-P (10171137)F-n-s hym-Jym-Xm-hm-bn-cp-p- hn-injv-Sm-ssZz-Xw
5225. C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b tZ-io-b-]m-X _n-n-p
\K-c- - (I-\ym-Ip-am-cn- hm-cm-W-kn
5226. C-y-bn-se G-h
- pw ]-g
- a
- p- F-i
- p-o-IW
- i
- m-e- Zn-Kt-v _mbn
5227. tem-Iv-k-`-bp-sS Im-em-h-[n I-gn-m-epw ]p-Xn-b k-` k-tfn-p--Xp-h-sc Xp-S-cp--Xv- kv-]o-
5228. B-cp-sS `m-cy-bm-Wv ta-cn tSm-Uv- F-{_-lmw en-
5229. {_--th-Zw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-Y-hw
5230. tZ-io-b P-e-]m-X-3 G-sXm-s -e--sf _-n-n-p-p-
tIm--p-dw- sIm-w
5231. k-kv-X-\n-I-f-m- P-p--fn G--hpw h-ep-w Iq-Sn-b-Xv-
ap-Xe
5232. tZ-io-b _-lp-a-Xn t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f Nn-{Xw- \o-ep-bn
5233. C-y-bn k-a-{K P-e-\-b-n-\p cq-]w \-In-b B-Zy kwm-\w- tI-c-fw
5234. G-Xv t\-Xm-hp-am-bn-m-Wv tIm-{K-kv ]q-\m k-n-bn Gs--Xv -_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5235. tZ-io-b kp-c-m-k-an-Xn-bp-sS A-[y-- {]-[m-\-a-{n
5236. kzm-Xn-Xn-cp-\m- A--cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1846
5237. U-p-Im B-Zyw D-S--Sn-bp-m-n-b C-y-bn-se cm-Pm-hv-
km-aq-Xn-cn
5238. Zn-{_p-K-Vv G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- {_--]p-{X
5239. Xn-c-s-Sp-v Zn-h-kw km-[m-c-W co-Xn-bn t]m-fn-Mv Bw-`nt- k-a-bw- cm-hn-se 7 a-Wn
5240. Xp--v- F-gp--Nv-O-s-d Im-e-L-w F-tm-- F.Un.
14951575
5241. Zpw-t_m X-Sm-Iw G-Xv kw-m-\-v {Xn-]p-c
5242. G--hpw D--n i-_v-Z-ap-m-m I-gn-bp- Po-hn- \o-en-anw-Kn-ew
5243. {In--v ]n-n-s ho-Xn- 3.05 ao.
5244. Xr-jv-W h-\y-Po-hn-k-t-Xw G-Xp kw-m-\-v- {Xn-]p-c
5245. X-tm-fn H-tX-\ P-\n- -ew- h-S-I-c
5246. X-t-i-`m-j-bn- a-m-Pym- F--dn-b-s-Sp-- cm-Py-ta-Xv- --lw-Kdn5247. G-Xp cm-Py-s hm-v I--\n-I-fm-Wv dm-tUm, tdm-f-Iv-kv Fn-h- kzn-v-k-e v
5248. Z-n-tW-y-bn-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- B-\-apSn
5249. Xm-jv-sI v I-cm H-p-h- ]m-Iv {]-kn-U v- A-bp-_v-Jm
5250. C-\m-j-W H-fn-n-Iv I-n-n, H-fn-n-Iv ayq-kn-bw F-n-hbp-sS B-m-\-am-b tem-sk-bv G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- kzn-vk-e v
5251. Zn _n-Kv B-n F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-K-cw- \yq-tbm-v
5252. G--hpw h-en-w Iq-Sn-b a-kv-Xn-jv-I-ap- Po-hn- \o-e-n-anw-Knew
5253. Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn \n-b-a-\n-am-W-k-` B-cw-`n- h-jw-1888
5254. Xn-c--Y-bv-v tZ-io-b A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- Fkv.F.]p-cw k-Zm-\-
5255. Zq-v km-K sh--m-w G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- tKm-h
5256. Zzm-c-I-\m-Yv t-{X-n-se B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- Ir-jv-W
5257. X-an-gv-\m-n Hm-^v-sk-v A--Sn-p {]-kn--am-b -ew- in-hIm-in
5258. X-an-gv-\m-n kn.cm-P-tKm-]m-em-Nm-cn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-n \-S D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n ]-s-Sp- a-e-bm-fn--Pn.cm-a-N-{
5259. N-e-n-{X-am--s- B-Zy-s a-e-bm-f t\m-h- am-m-WvU-h-a
5260. Pn-sk-Mv F- k-ky-n-s P--tZ-iw- ssN-\

CONFUSING FACTS
ss\-P kzm-X-{yw t\-Sn-b-Xv {^m-kn-\n-pw ss\Po-cn-b kzm-X-{yw t\-Sn-b-Xv {_n--Wn \n-p-am-Wv.
Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn ]-v Xm-eq-p-I a-Wv-U-]-pw-hm-Xp F-pw sIm-n-bn tIm-hn-e-I-pw hm-Xp- Fp-am-Wv A-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv.
\q-dp _-b-W-p-I-sf-m i-n-bp--h-bm-Wv \m-ep ]{X- F-p-]-d--Xv s\-tm-fn-b t_m-W-m-m-Wv.
sh-Sn-bp--sb-m i-n-bp--Xm-Wv _m-e-v (Ballet is
stronger than Bullet) F-p ]-d--Xv F-{_-lmw en-
B-Wv.
{In-kv-Xp-a-Xw kzo-I-cn- B-Zy-s tdm-a N-{I-h-n-bmWv tIm--ss. tdm-am km-{am-Py-n-s Hu-tZym-KnI a-Xw {In-kv-Xp-a-X-am-n-b-Xv Xn-tbm-tUm-kn-b-kv H-m-as Im-e-m-Wv.
h-t-am-X-cw B-Zy-am-bn B-e-]n- tIm-{K-kv k-t-f\w 1896te-Xm-Wv. P-\-K-W-a-\ B-e-]n--Xv 1911te-Xpw.
5261. tem-I-n-s F-m `m-K-pw Ir-jn sN--s-Sp- G-I `-yh-kv-Xp- Im-c-v
5262. a-e-bm-f-n-s B-Zn-I-hn F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- No-cma
5263. X-an-gv-tZ-i-n-s H-Uo-kn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-Wn-ta-J-sse
5264. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s {Xn Un Nn-{Xw- _m-\m sU-hn
5265. tUm-.- ]-p-hn-s-d t\-Xr-Xz-n- Cu-g-h sa-tm-dn-b- GXv h-j-n--F.Un.1896
5266. tI-{ s]m-Xp-_-P-v A-h-X-cn-n-p- Zn-h-kw- ^n-{_-h-cn-bnse A-h-km-\-s {]-hr-n Zn-h-k-n
5267. Uyp-dm v sse G-sXm-s cm-Py--n-S-bn-em-Wv- ]m-Inkv-Xm-\pw A-^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm-\pw (]-g-b {_n-o-jv km-{am-Py-hpw
A-^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm-\pw)
5268. tlm-n {Ku-n-s \o-fw- 91.4 ao.
5269. Un.F.F.bp-sS ]q-W-cq-]w--Un Hm-Iv-kn ssd-t_m \yq-Iv-fnIv B-kn-Uv
5270. X-\n-p-ti-jw B-sc Kp-cp-hm-bn I-W-m-m-\m-Wv tKm-_n-vkn-Mv \n-t-in--Xv- B-Zn-{K--s
5271. U-ln-bn-\n-pw tZ-h-Kn-cn-bn-te-v X-e-m-\w am-n-b Xp-Iv kp-m- ap-l--Zv _n Xp--Iv
5272. tZ-io-tbm-Z{v- K-Y\
- w t{]m-km-ln-n-p- kn-\n-aI
- -p- \mj-W A-hm-Uv- \-Ko-kv Z-v A-hm-Uv
5273. U-p-Im C-y-bn B-Zy ^m-Iv-S-dn m-]n- -ew- a-kqen-]--Ww
5274. tZ-h-`q-an-sb--dn-b-s-Sp- C-y kw-m-\w- D--cm-J-WvUv
5275. tZ-h-cm-b H-m-a-s Im-e-v hn-P-b-\-K-cw k--in- C--enm-c- \n-tm-tfm tIm-n
5276. tlm-q-kv a-e-_m-dn--kv c-Nn--s- `m-j- em-n
5277. tU-hn-Uv tIm--^o-Uv- B-cp-sS kr-jv-Sn-bm-Wv- Nm-kv Un-kv
5278. tPm-_v- t^m- an-ey-kv,- thm-bv-kv- Hm-^v- tIm-jy--kv- Fo- Ir-Xn-I- c-Nn--Xv- hn- hn- Kn-cn5279. tlm-_n-If
- p-sS cm-Pm-hv F-d
- n-b-s-Sp-X
- v- m-p-ti-Jc
- W
- w
(^n-em-s-en)
5280. tPm-n F- ]-Zw G-Xp a-k-c-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p Ip-Xn-c---bw
5281. tUm.- Aw-t_-Zv-I- 1956- kzo-I-cn- a-Xw- _p--a-Xw5282. tKm-U s{X-tjm-Uv B-cp-sS c-N-\-bm-Wv- k-tcm-Pn-\n \mbn-Up
5283. tI-cf
- tam-k
- m-Mv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp- F-gp-p-Im-c- X-Ig
- n inh-i--c-n-

126 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5284. C-y-bn tSm- I-d-kn k-{-Zm-bw B-Zy-am-bn \-S-mn-b-Xv- ap-l--Zv _n Xp--Iv


5285. hm-en-s A--v In-ep-p- H-cp `m-K-ap- ]m-v- dm-n kvt\-v
5286. {Sm-^n-Iv kn--en Np-h-v {]-Im-iw D-]-tbm-Kn-m Im-c-Ww X-cw-K-ssZ-Lyw Iq-Sp-X-em-b-Xn-\m
5287. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn- B-`y--c A-Sn-b--cm-h-kv-Y G-s-Sp-nb {]-kn-U v- ^-{Ip-Zo- A-en- A-l--Zv5288. Hm-K-kv-Xv 15 P--Zn-\-am-b kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-tk-\m-\n- A-c-hn-tLm-jv
5289. hm-kv-tIm- U Km-a-bp-sS a-c-Ww- G-Xv h-j-n--F.Un.1524
5290. tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se B-Zy-s D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-v hn-P-bn-
tdm-k- ]p-q-kv
5291. _w-Km hn-`-P-\-Im-e-v km-bp-[ k-a-c-n-\v B-lzm-\w sNbv-X bp-Km--dn-s ]-{Xm-[n-]- `q-t]-{-\m-Yv Z-
5292. Km-n-Pn-bp-sS C-jv-S {]m-Y-\m-Ko-X-am-b ssh-jv-W-h P-\-tXm
.... c-Nn- Kp-P-dm-n I-hn- \-c-knw-l ta-
5293. P-hm-l-em s\-{lp A-[y--X h-ln- B-Zy tIm-{K-kv
k-t-f-\w- 1929-se em-tlm k-t-f-\w
5294. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn tem--dn B-cw-`n- kw-kv-Ym-\w- tI-c-fw
5295. N--n-kzm-an-I P-\n- -ew--I--q-e
5296. kz-X-{ tkm-^v-v-sh-b-dn-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- dnm-Uv kv-m-am
5297. hn-P-b-\-K-c-km-{am-Pyw m-]n--Xv- l-cn-l-c-\pw _p--\pw
5298. I-Wm-SI
- kw-Ko-X
- n-se {Xn-aq-n-I F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- -v iyma-im-kv-{Xn, Xym-K-cm-P kzm-an-I, ap-p-kzm-an Zo-n-X
5299. {Xn-I-Sp F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Np-v,ap-f-Iv,Xn--en
5300. C-y-bn-se [m-Xp \n-t-]-n-s I-e-h-d F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- tOm-m-\m-Kv-]q ]oT-`qan
5301. {Xn-th-Wn kw-K-aw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv A-e-l-_m-Zv
5302. Im-an-\n dn-bm-Iv-S F-hn-sS-bm-Wv I-m-w (X-an-gv-\m-Sv)
5303. in-h-Pn P-\n- -ew- in-h-t\
5304. ssSw am-K-kn-s G-jy F-Un-j-s I-h-dn m-\w ]n-Sn B-Zy C-y h-\n-Xm Im-bn-I-Xm-cw- km-\n-b an-k
5305. A-[x-Ir-X-v {]-tXy-I \n-tbm-P-I-a-Wv-U-ew th-W-sa-p hmZn- t\-Xm-hv -_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5306. tZ-io-b ]-bd
- p-h-K K-th-jW
- tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-W-v
Im-]q
5307. G-Xv tem-lw A-Sn-p-Iq-Sp-X
- n-s ^-ea
- m-bn-m-Wv hn-kkv tcm-Kw D-m-Ip--Xv--sN-v
5308. B-cp-sS B-Zy Ir-Xn-bm-Wv K-tP-{-tam-w h-n-m-v--{io-\mcm-bW
- K
- p-cp
5309. h-\-{]-tZ-i-n-s hn-kv-Xo-Ww G--hpw Iq-Sp-X G-Xp kwm-\-m-Wv- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
5310. B-eo-kv C h--em-Uv- c-Nn--Xm-cv- eq-bn I-tcm
5311. h-\m- F-pw A-dn-b-s-n-cp- kw-m-\w- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
5312. C-y-bn ap-Jy-a-{n-m-\-s-n-b B-Zy-s sF.F.Fkp-Im-c- A-Pn-Xv tPm-Kn
5313. tZ-io-b a-\p-jym-h-Im-i I-o-j cq-]-h-Xv-Ir-X-am-b h-jw-
1993
5314. h-\n-X, {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy-s ap-nw cm-Pyw- ]m-In-kvXm
5315. C-y-bn B-cy-am B-Zyw Xm-a-k-ap-d-n- {]-tZ-iw- ]-m_v
5316. ssX-cn A-S-n-bn-cn-p- B-kn-Uv- em-Iv-Sn-Iv B-kn-Uv
5317. H--m-ew k-t-f-\-n A-[y---X h-ln--Xv- Sn.{]-Im-iw
5318. B-Zy-s G-jy sK-bnw-kv 1951 D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sN-bv-X-Xv-
tUm.cm-tP-{-{]-km-Zv
5319. {Sm-n-Im-Un-b F-m-se-v- Iq-Sn-b \n-c-n-ep- lr-Z-b-anSn-v
5320. ssSw sa-jo c-Nn--Xv- F-v.Pn.sh-kv
5321. 1857se C-y kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-n-s B-Zy-s c--kmn- aw-K ]m-Wv-sU
5322. l-cn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I {]-`m-hw Im-c-Ww G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Nq-S-\p`-h-s-Sp- {K-lw ip-{I

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

31

{Kn-tKm-dn-b I-e--dn H-cp-am-k-n-se ]-c-am-h-[n Znh-k--fp-sS F-w


Km-en-b-n-s A-Wp-kw-Jy
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv tem-Ivk-`-bp-sS Aw-K-kw-Jy 525-\n-v 545 B-bn D-b-nb-Xv
kz--h-Im-i-hp-am-bn _--s- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-tZw F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
2011 sk-k-kv {]-Im-cw C-y-bn-se \-K-c P-\-kw-Jy
F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv (31.16)
5323. s{]m-Uyq-k Kym-kv
G-Xn-s-sbm-s an{in- X - a m- W v - Im_ tam- t Wm- I v ssk-Uv, ss\-{S-P
5324. s{K- b n B- tlm F--dn-b-sSp--Xv- Cu-ssY
B--tlm
5325. sa-\m-U-dpw \m-KPp-\-\pw X-n-ep-
kw-`m-j-Ww A-S-nb Ir- X n- an- e n-
]m-tlm
5326. sF- I y- c m- j v - { S- k - ` - am-Iv-_-v- F- I-Ym-]m-{X-s krbn I-t-cn \-S-njv-Sn--Xm-cv- tj-Iv-kv-]n-b
b C-y kw-Ko-X- Fw.F-kv.kp--e-v-an
5327. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn-\n-pw Aw-K-Xzw ]n-h-en- G-I cmPyw- C-sm-\o-jy (]n-o-Sv ho-pw Aw-K-am-bn)
5328. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm _n-cp-Z-[m-cn-I- N-{-a-Xn _kp, Im-Zw-_n-\n Kmw-Kp-en
5329. sa-em-\n-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-ap-m-Ip- A-h-m- A-_n-\n-kw
5330. tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn sXm-gn-em-fn kw-L-S-\-I-sf Aw-Ko-I-cn- cmPyw- Cw--v
5331. C-y-bn-se B-Zy \yq-n-b dn-bm-Iv-S- A-]v-k-c
5332. ta--q kv-am-c-Iw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- Xn-cp-\m-hm-b-bv--Sp-v
N--\-m-hn
5333. ta-a-eq-Iv kp-m-am F-p-hn-fn--s-Sp--Xv G-Xp hw-in-se-`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fm-Wv- A-Sn-a-hw-iw
5334. lr-Z-bw- am-n-sh-- i-kv-{X-{In-b B-Zy-am-bn- \n-h-ln--Xv-
tUm.- {In-kv-Xy- s_-Wm-Uv5335. sa-gp-In-s em-b-Iw- S-s]-ss
5336. _w-Km-fn K-Zy-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- Cu-iz-c-N-{ hn-Zym-km-K
5337. tI-c-f ]-m-b-v cm-Pv B-Iv-Sv \n-e-hn h- h-jw- 1994
5338. ln-tcm-jn-a-bn 1945 Hm-K-kv-Xv B-dn-\v B-w-t_mw-_v h-jn hn-am-\-n-s ss]-e-v- t]m Sn-s_-v-kv
5339. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s _-tbm-f-Pn- ]m-v- A-K-kv-XymIq-Sw
5340. 1867 G-Xp cm-Py-am-Wv bp.F-kn-\v A-em-kv-I hn--Xv- d-jy
5341. Po-hm-Po F- I-Ym-]m-{X-s kr-jv-Sn--Xm-cv- hn-Iv-S
bp-tKm
5342. kq-cy `q-an-bn-\n-pw G--hpw A-I-se-bp- Zn-h-kw- Pqsse 4
5343. Ip-m-en a-c-bv-m B-cp-sS \m-hn-I-tk-\m--e-h-\m-bn-cpp- km-aq-Xn-cn
5344. 1982 sh-Sn-tb-p-a-cn- H-tem-^v ]m-sa G-Xp cm-Py-n-s
{]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-bn-cp-p- kzo-U

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 127

5345. kp-h-W-t-{Xw C-tm A-dnb-s-Sp- t]-cv- l-a


- n km-ln_v
5346. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kw-km-cnp- N-e-n-{Xw- B-ew B-c
5347. tI-c-f t^m-d-v dn-k-v C-nyq-v m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1975
5348. cm-Pn-h-bv-m D-t-in-p--]w ap-Jy-a-{n B-m-Wv cm-Pn-v \-tI--Xv -K-h-W
5349. Cw--n-\n-v Km-n-Pn t\-Snb _n-cp-Zw- _m-cn- A-v em
Im--\m-S-s
5350. D--c-Zn-n-se sh-\o-kv F--dnb-Ym-Y-t]-cv-
b-s-Sp--Xv tm-v-tlmw
tPm- P v h- K o- k v
5351. tem-I
- n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X-Imew Xp-S-b
- m-bn A-[n-Im-c
- n-encp- {]-[m-\-a-{n- en Izm bp (cm-Pyw- knw-K-q)
5352. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv au-\ In-bm ]-h-Xw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap{Zw
5353. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kw-m-\ a-en-\o-I-c-W \n-b-{-W
t_m-Uv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv m-]n--s--Xv- tI-c-fw
5354. `-cW
- L
- S- \
- m-]c
- a
- m-b ]-cn-lm-c
- -v C-y `-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- n
hy-h- sN-bv-Xn-p- dn-p-I-fp-sS F-w- A- v
5355. `-c-W-L-S-\m-]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s B-Zy-am-bn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w _-lpa-Xn-v A-l-\m-b-Xv--tUm.cm-[m-Ir-jv-W
5356. Iym-_n-\-v an-j \-bn--Xv- s]-n-Iv tem-d-kv
5357. k-am-[m-\-n-\p- s\m-t_ k-m-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy A-d_v h-\n-X- jn-dn C-_m-Zn (C-dm)
5358. kn-p-Im-cp-sS B-Zy-Kp-cp- Kp-cp \m-\m-v
5359. tI-c-f e-fn-X-I-em A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-m-\w- Xr-q
5360. m-n-Iv hy-hk
- m-b
- n ]n.hn.kn.F-m- t]m-fn hn-ss\
tm-ssd-Uv
5361. t_m-h bp--n Km-n-Pn {_n-o-jp-Im-p \-In-b tkh-\--sf am-\n-v \-I-s- _-lp-a-Xn- ssI-k--C--ln-v
5362. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sk-{S A-{Kn-I- bq-Wn-th-gvkn-n- Cw-^m
5363. th-j-{]--m-b cm-Py-t{Zm-ln F-v {_n-o-jp-Im hn-ti-jn-n-Xm-sc--tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W tKm-J-se
5364. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sS-e-{Km-^v sse- sIm--- Ub-a-v lm-_
5365. t_m- So ]m-n- \-S- h-jw- 1773
5366. 1949 Pq-sse H-n-\v Xn-cp--sIm-n kw-tbm-P-\w \-S-p-tm
sIm-n-bn {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-bn-cp--Xv- C---hm-cy
5367. Km-U-do-vI
-
- -\n-am-Wi
- m-e F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-
5368. tI-c-f-n tem--dn B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1967
5369. tI-c-f t]m-eo-kv A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- cm-a-h-a-]p-cw(Xrq)
5370. tem-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- I-d-kn- tUm-f
5371. tem-I-n I-c-bn-se G--hpw \o-f-ap- ]-h-X-\n-c- BUo-kv
5372. tI-c-f-n m-kv \n-am-W-n-\p ]-n-b sh-fp- a-W e`n-p- -ew- B-e-p-g
5373. C-y-bn-se- G--hpw- D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b- sh--m--am-b- tPm-Kv- sh-m-w- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p-- \-Zn--i-cm-h-Xn5374. s\-tm-fn-b-s-d- A-h-km-\- ]-c-P-b-n-\v-Im-c-W-am-b- bp-w\-S-- hm--eq- (1815)- G-Xv- cm-Py-m-Wv- s_-Pn-bw
5375. sXm--Ip-v, tX-am-cn-p-v sh--m-- G-Xp Pn-bn- C-Sp-n
5376. tI-c-f k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-m-\w- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
5377. `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS Xm-tm- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B-ap-Jw
5378. `-cW
- L
- S- \
- m \n-m-W k-`b
- n Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn \n-p-mbn-cp- G-I h-\n-Xm Aw-Kw- B-\n a-kv-{Io
5379. sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-\n-v H-do-km-Xo-c-v tZ-im-S-\-n-s\p- B-a-I- H-en-hv dn-Uv-en
5380. lq-n \-Zo-Xo-c-p- {]-[m-\ ]--Ww- sIm--

CONFUSING FACTS
ssa-kq I-Sp-h-F--dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv Sn-p kp-m-\mWv. _w-Km I-Sp-h-F--dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv hn-]n N-{]m.
C-y am-Iy-sh-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv Nm-W-Iy-\m-Wv.
Iu-S-ey F-pw A-dn-b-s- C-t-l-n-s b-Ym-Y
t]-cv hn-jv-Wp Kp-]v-X F-m-bn-cp-p. C-m-en-b Nm-WIy F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv C-m-en-b cm-jv-{S-X-{-\m-b am-Iy-sh-n (14691527)bm-Wv.
tem-I-P-\-kw-Jy A-q-dp-tIm-Sn Xn-I--Xv 1987 Pq-embv 11-\m-Wv. A-Xn-\m-em-Wv tem-I-P-\-kw-Jym-Zn-\-am-bn
(World Population Day)Pq-em-bv 11 B-N-cn-p--Xv. 1999
H-Iv-tSm-_ 12-\m-Wv tem-I-P-\-kw-Jy A-dp-\q-dp-tIm-Sn
Xn-I
X
- v.
A-mw \q-m-n-s H-Sp-hn-ep-m-b lq-W-am-cp-sS B{I-aW
- a
- m-Wv X-i
- n-e k-hI
- e
- m-im-eb
- p-sS X-I-b
- v
- v
Im-c-W-am-b-Xv. \m-f- k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS X-I--bv-v
Im-c-W-am-b-Xv ]-{-mw \q-m-n-ep-m-b ap-nw B-{Ia-Wa
- m-Wv.
5381. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w e-`n- B-Zy tUm-Iv-S Iq-Sn-bm-b kzm-X-{y-k-a-ctk-\m-\n- tUm._n.kn.tdm-bn
5382. P-lmw-Ko kn-Jv Kp-cp A-Pp tZ-hn-s\ h-[n-m Im-c-Ww-
Jp-{kp-hn-\v A-`-bw \-In-b-Xn-\v
5383. t]m-tfm I-fn-p--Xn-\n-sS Ip-Xn-c-p-d-p-\n-p ho-Wp a-cn-
U-ln kp-m- Ip--_v-o sF-_-Iv
5384. t^m-_v-kv am-kn-I G-Xv cm-Py-p-\n-p-am-Wv {]-kn-o-I-cnp--Xv- A-ta-cn-
5385. `-K-Xv kn-Mn-s\m-w Xq-n-te--s--h- cm-Pv-Kp-cp, kp-Jv-tZ-hv
5386. `m-c-n-s A-Sn-m-\-n A--co--hm-bp-hn-s F-{X iX-am-\-am-Wv ss\-{S-P- 75.5
5387. ssX-tdm-Iv-kn-\n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- aq-e-Iw- A-b-Un
5388. G-Xv ssh-kv-{]-kn-U v cm-Pn-h--tm-fm-Wv No-^v P-n-kv lnZm-b-p- B-Iv-Snw-Kv {]-kn-Um-b-Xv- hn.hn.Kn-cn
5389. A--m-Sn-bn-q-Sn H-gp-Ip- \-Zn- in-cp-hm-Wn
5390. sX-p In-g- G-jy-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b \-Zn- satm-Mv
5391. H-a-J-m-an-s dp-_m-m-v hn-em-k-e-l-cn F- t]-cn a-ebm-f-n-te-v ]-cn-`m-j-s-Sp-n-b-Xm-cv--Pn.i--c-p-dp-v
5392. sX-tam-ao--d D-]-tbm-Kn-p- {Zm-h-Iw- c-kw
5393. C-y-bn km-
- n-I h-jw B-cw-`n-p- Xo-bX
- n- G-{]n
1
5394. C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn A--hn-Zym-e-bw m-]n--s- -ew-
A-ar-Xvk
-
5395. H-cp cm-Py-n-s t]-cn-e-dn-b-s-Sp- G-I k-ap-{Zw- C-y
a-lm-k-ap-{Zw
5396. sX-fn- Np-m-v sh--s ]m-\n-d-am-p- hm-X-Iw-Im-_ U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
5397. C-y-bn km-ap-Zm-bn-I kw-h-c-Ww sIm-p-h- \n-b-aw-
1909se an-tm tam-en `-c-W-]-cn-jv-Im-cw
5398. H-cp cm-Pyw am-{X-ap- `q-J-Wv-Uw- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
5399. B-Zy-s hm-m-hn-\n-a-b D-]-{K-l-am-b F-tm hn-t-]n cm-Pyw- bp.F-kv.F.
5400. A-ssZz-Xm Nn-m ]--Xn F- Ir-Xn-bp-sS I-m-hv- N--n
kzm-an-I
5401. H-cp em-b-\n B-kn-Um-tWm t_-km-tWm F-p Xn-cn--dn-bm\p- A-f-hp-tIm- ]n.F-v.kv-sI-bn
5402. ap-K km-{am-Py m-]-I--_m-_
5403. tI-c-f sk-{I-t-dn-b-v a-n-c-n-s B-n-sS-Iv-Sv--hn-eyw _m
5404. t^m-v F-t-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-{X-am-[y-a-

128 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5405. C-y-bn-se G--hpw In-g-t-b--s kw-m-\w- A-cp-WmN {]-tZ-iv


5406. C-y-bn-se G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ]-g--ap- Pq-X--n- a-m-tcn
5407. {]-[m-\-a-{n, a-{n-k-`mw-K-, kp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn--ssl-tmS-Xn P-Uv-Pn-am, K-h-W,Iw-]v-t{Sm-f B v Hm-Un- P-\d,A-tm-Wn P-\-d,C-e- I-n-j-W-am F-n-h-sc
\n-b-an-p--Xv- {]-kn-U v
5408. knw-en-]m h-\y-Po-hn k-t-Xw - G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- Hdo-k
5409. sj-jm-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- ^-co-Zv
5410. kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS hn-c-an- {]m-bw- 65 h-b-v
5411. C-y-bn-se t-{X--fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h-cp-am-\-ap--Xv Xn-cp--Xn t-{Xw
5412. tI-c-f-N-cn-{X-n sh-w- bp-w- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1691
5413. h-Ko-b I-em-]w t\-cn-Sm-\p- tk-\- {Zp-X-I-a-tk-\
5414. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn F-bv-Uv-kv Im-W-s- kw-m-\w- Xan-gv-\m-Sv
5415. h-Wm--X-bp- B-fn-\v Xn-cn--dn-bm I-gn-bm- \n-d- Np-h-v, ]-
5416. tIm--bw- ]--W-n-s-d kv-Ym-]-I-\m-b h-S-- Un-hn-j-sd t]-jv-Im- Sn- cm-a-dm-hp- (1878)5417. H-cp _m-c F-{X en--dn-\p k-a-am-Wv- 159
5418. C-y-bn td-Un-tbm {]-t-]-Ww B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1927
5419. kw-m-\ h-\n-Xm I-n-j-s B-Zy A-[y-- kp-K-X-Ip-amcn
5420. N--n-kzm-an-I-fp-sS ]q-hm-{i-a-n-se t]-cv- A-- (Hm-a-\t-cv Ip-)
5421. sIm-n-bn ssh-Zyp-Xn k-a-cw \-S--Xv G-Xv Zn-hm-s Im-em-Wv- B.sI.j-ap-Jw sN-n
5422. t]-jzm-am-cn G--hpw Zp-_-e- _m-Pn-dm-hp c-m-a
5423. t]m--m-Sv- ]--Xn- G-Xp- \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- -tKm-Zm-h-cn5424. tI- c - f - \ n- b - a - k - ` - b n B- Z y _- P - v A- h - X - c n- n- - X v -
kn.A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
5425. t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im C-y-bn B-Zy ^m-Iv-S-dn m-]n- ew- sIm-n
5426. A-ao Jp-{kp-hn-s b-Ym-Y t]-cv- A-_p l-k
5427. a-o-jyw kn-en-t-v hym-]-I-am-bn A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv-
Sm-v
5428. a-p Po-hn-I D-m-p- am-f-n Po-hn-p- Po-hn- ]mv
5429. A-ap F--Xn-s ]q-W-cq-]w- B-\-v an-v bq-Wn-b
en-an--Uv
5430. Z--h-Im-i \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-aw B-hn-jv-I-cn- K-h-W P-\d- U-lu-kn
5431. C-n-cm-Km-n A-hm-Uv t^m C-\m-jW
- P-n-kv B v
lm-a-Wn-v A-l-\m-b Z-n-Wm-{^n- t\-Xm-h--s\k-a-t-e
5432. C-n-cm-Km-n h-[n--s- h-jw- 1984
5433. B-Zy-s _p--a-X-k-t-f-\w cm-P-Kr-l-n \-S- h-jw 483 _n.kn.
5434. {]-kv {S-v Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS B-m-\w- U-ln
5435. {]m-Ir-X-`m-j-bp-sS ]m-Wn-\n F--dn-b-s--Xv- tl-a-N-{
5436. {]m-Kv-tPym-Xn-jv-]q-cn-s m-]-I F-p hn-iz-kn-p- cmPm-hv- \-c-Im-kp-c cm-Pm-hv
5437. sIm---bn-se km-v te-v t-Un-bw G-Xp Im-bn-I
hn-t\m-Z-n-\m-Wp {]-kn-w- ^p-Sv-t_m
5438. C-y-bp-sS Km-U kn-n F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- _mw-q
5439. a-bq-c-knw-lm-k-\w D-]-tbm-Kn- A-h-km-\-s ap-K N-{Ih-n- ap-l--Zv jm
5440. C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn B-Iv-Snw-Kv {]-kn-U v ]-Z-hn h-ln-Xm-cv hn.hn.Kn-cn
5441. A-\-e-Iv-Sv-kv F- t]-cn-e-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv G-Xp a-X-n-s hnip--{K--am-Wv- I-^yq-j-\n-kw
5442. a---S F--dn-b-s-Sp- k-ap-{Z-`m-Kw- In-g- ssN-\-S

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

32

`-cW
- L
- S- \
- m-]c
- a
- m-b ]-cn-lm-ca
- m-K
- s
- f-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]mZn-p- `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
^m-c-lo-v kv-sI-bn {]-Im-cw P-ew sF-km-Ip- Dujva
- m-hv
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS lr-Z-b-hpw B-m-hpw-F-v tUm.Awt_-Zv-I hn-ti-jn-n- A-\p-t-Zw F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
C-y-bn-se G--hpw Aw-K-_-ew Ip-d- kw-m-\ \nb-a-k-` kn-n-an-em-Wv. F-{X t]?
F.sI.tKm-]m-e \-bn- ]-n-Wn-Pm-Y-bn A-t-l-ns t\-Xr-Xz-n F-{X t]-cm-Wv I-q-cn-\n-v- Im\-S-bm-bn- sN-ss-bn-se-n-b-Xv
tI-cf
-
- n sI.tI-f
- -\b
- n- D-p-kX
- ym-{K-lP
- m-Yb
- n
A-t-l-ap-s-sS F-{X Aw-K- D-m-bn-cp-p
i--cm-Nm-cy F-{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv C-l-tem-I-hm-kw shSn--Xv
a-\p-jy-\v F-{X n-c-Z---fp-v
G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew A-ta-cn- sF-Iy-\m-Sp-I-fp-sS {]kn-Up m-\w h-ln--Xv hn-eyw sl-dn lm-cn-k
B-Wv(1841). F-{X Zn-h-kw
sN-kv t_m-Un-se B-sI I-cp--fp-sS F-w
5443. C-y-bpw d-jy-bpw kw-bp--am-bn \n-an- kq- tkm-Wn-Iv
{Iq-bn-kv an-ssk- {_-tm-kv
5444. A-a-\m-Yv bm-{X B-cw-`n-p- -ew- ]-l-Kmw
5445. a-\-m-Wv ssZ-hw F-v {]-Jym-]n- tI-c-fo-b- {_-m-\-
in-h-tbm-Kn
5446. P-\k
- w-Jym-kn-m-
- n-s D-]
m-Xm-hv -tXm-ak
- v am-qkv
5447. B-Iv-Snw-Kv {]-kn-Um-b-ti-jw {]-kn-Um-b B-Zy hy-n-
hn.hn.Kn-cn
5448. C-n-cm-Km-n tIm-{K-kv {]-kn-Um-b h-jw- 1959
5449. a-c-W-\n-c-v G--hpw Ip-d- kw-m-\w- tI-c-fw
5450. `q-an-bp-sS ]m-fn-I-p-m-Ip- N-e-\--sf-p-dn-p ]Tn-p im-kv-{X-im-J- t-v sS-Iv-tm-Wn-Iv-kv
5451. Sm-tKm-dn-\v s\m-t_ k-m-\w In-n-b h-jw- 1913
5452. sN--t]-v G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-v- ]m-em
5453. hm--eq bp--n s\-tm-fn-b-s\ ]-cm-P-b-s-Sp-n-b-Xv-
B-X sh--n
5454. d-_- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- D-]m-Zn-n-p- Pn-- tIm--bw5455. D- {]-tZ-in-se G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw- Im-]q
5456. Hm-bn B v \m-p-d Kym-kv tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w-sU-dm-Uq
5457. cm-jv-{S-]-Xn m-\-s-n-b B-Zy-s kz-X-{-m-\m-Yn tUm. F-kv. cm-[m-Ir-jv-W
5458. hm-bp-hn-\p `m-c-ap-s-v sX-fn-bn--Xv- tSm-dn-sk-n
5459. hm-cn-sb-p-I G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Po-hn- ]m-v
5460. `q-an-bpw kq-cy-\p-am-bp- A-I-ew G--hpw Ip-d- Zn-h-kw-
P-\p-h-cn 3
5461. Sn-p- ^-tdm-v- ]--Ww- kv-Ym-]n--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.1788
5462. a-\p-jy-s G--hpw \o-fw Ip-d- t]-in--t-n-Un-b-kv
5463. K-Zm-[ N-tXm-]m-[ym-b G-Xp t]-cn-em-Wv C-ym-N-cn-{X-n
{]-kn-- {io-cm-a-Ir-jv-W ]-c-a-lw-k
5464. {]-Y-a tem-I-I-v {In--v a--c-n hn-P-bn- Sow sh-v
C-Uo-kv
5465. {^-p hn--h-n-s B-i-b-- kzm-X-{yw, k-a-Xzw, kmtlm-Z-cyw
5466. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s \yq-kv-{]n v ^m-Iv-S-dn- t\-m-\-K
5467. C-Izn-em-_v kn-m-_m-Zv F--Xv B-Zy-am-bn ap-{Zm-hm-Iy-am-bn
D-]-tbm-Kn--Xv- `-K-Xv kn-Mv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 129

5468. a-\p-jy B-Zy-am-bn h-f-n-b


[m-\y-- tKm-X-pw _m-enbpw
5469. C-y-bn-se G--hpw ]-g--ap-
h--am-\ ]-{Xw- t_mw-s_ kam-Nm
5470. A-h-km-\-s Ip-e-ti-J-c N-{Ih-n- cm-a-h-a Ip-e-ti-J-c
5471. ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv ssl-tm-S-Xnbp-sS B-m-\w--jnw-e
5472. a-\p-jy-a-kv-Xn-jv-I-n-s G-Xp
`m-Ks
- -bm-Wv a-Zyw _m-[n-p-- iq-\ym-Im-i-t-v B-Zyam-bn bm-{X sN-bv-X Xv- sk-dn-_-w
\mbbp-sS t]-cv5473. kz-X-{ hym-]m-c-ta-J-e-bp-
se-bv-I
B-Zy C-y Xp-d-ap-Jw- Im-ve
5474. a-e-_m {_n-o-jv `-c-W-n Io-gn-em-b h-jw- 1792
5475. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-se G--hpw B-gw-Iq-Sn-b `m-K-am-Wv ]yq-tm
dn-tm {S-v--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
5476. a-e-_m am-\z c-Nn--Xv- hn-eyw tem-K
5477. C--en-m-c-\-m- B-Zy t]m-v- tPm t]m c-m-a
5478. c--k--Zw \n-b-{n-p- tlm-tam- A-{Un-\m-en
5479. C-bm ^vs
- f-an-Mn-s A-hk
- m-\ t\m-h- Z am hn-v tKmU K
5480. cm-P-cm-P-tNm-f tI-c-f-am-{I-an- h-jw- F.Un.1000
5481. a-lm-cm-jv-{S-bn-se {]-[m-\ \r--cq-]w- X-am-i
5482. am-e--v ---- Po-h-I-n-s A-`m-hw-aq-ew D-m-Ip-p- Poh-Iw F
5483. a-e-_m- I-f-Iv-S- sIm-t\m-fn- h-[n--s--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n F.Un.1855
5484. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy sk-{I--dn P-\-d G-Xv cm-Pym-c-\m-bn-cp-p--t\m-th
5485. aq-p {]-hm-iyw `-c-Xv A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b a-e-bm-fn \-S- a-qn
5486. G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv Kn-\n-b {]-hm-lw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
5487. A-Iv-_ P-\n- -ew- A-a-tIm-v(1542)
5488. C-cp-]-Xmw \q-m-n P-\n--h-cn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b BZy hy-n- em _-lm-Zq im-kv-{Xn
5489. C-tm-g-s tI-c-f sk-{I-t-dn-b-v a-n-cw D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sN-s- h-jw-1869
5490. Hm-d-p-I-fp-sS \-K-cw- \m-Kv-]q
5491. Hm-d-v _p-v G-Xp cm-Py-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I {]-kn-o-I-c-Wam-Wv- s\-X-e-Uv-kv
5492. C-y-bn-se hn-am-\-m-h-f--fn G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b dth D--Xv- \yq-U-ln C-n-cm-Km-\v-[n hn-am-\-m-h-fw
5493. a-l-m-b hn--hw \-S- h-jw-1688
5494. C-m-an-I ssZ-h-im-kv-{X-n-s h-m--fm-b D-te-a-I F ]-Wv-Un-X-k-aq-l-n-s D-]-tZ-i- A-h-K-Wn- B-Zys U-ln kp-m- A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn
5495. C-et- bm th-tcm C-m- H-cp k-kyw- I-kI
-v yq- (aq-Sn-m-m-fn)
5496. A-l--Zv \-K-dn-se \n-kmw-jm-ln-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- am-en-Iv
A-l--Zv (1490)
5497. a-e-_m kn-a-dv ^m-Iv-S-dn F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- hm-f-bm
5498. am-j Sn-tm P-\n- cm-Pyw- s{Im-tb-jy
5499. N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cy-s Im-e-s {Ko-v Aw-_m-k-U- sa-K-kvX-\o-kv
5500. ssh-jv-tWm-tZ-hn t-{Xw n-Xn sN-p- -ew- I-{X
5501. tI-c-f-n \n-b-a-k-`mw-K-a-m-sX ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy hyn- kn.A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
5502. ap-l--Zv _n Xp--Iv ]-Wn-I-gn-n- \-K-cw- P-l-]-\
5503. am-Iv-kn-v k-m A-[n-Im-c-n h- B-Zy-s sX-t
A-ta-cn- cm-Pyw- Nn-en
5504. A-e-Iv-km- B-Zy-am-bn B-{I-an-p Io-g-S-n-b C-y {]tZ-iw- X--in-e
5505. ayq-t-j kn-m-
- n-s D-]
m-Xm-hv- lyq-tKm Uo-{hn-kv

s]mXphnm\nse
Hbmam
ico-c-n tcma-ap GI Pohn-hK-amWv kkvX-

\--.

Xetmdns\m henb Ip ]nbmWv

HIn.

{LmWin

D]tbmKnv CctXSp GI
]nbmWv Inhn.
Igpv XncnmsX ]ndInse Imcy ImWm
Ignbp PohnIfmWv apbepw Xbpw.
kucbqYnse {Klfn sImSpmv hoim
GI {KlamWv _p[. AcoanmXmWv ImcWw. Fm _p[\n magnetic storms DXmbn kao]Ime ]T\ shfnsSpnbnpv.
{Kop tZhs t]cp GI {KlamWv bpdm\kv.
h\nXm \maap GI {Klw ho\kmWv (ip{I).
a\pjys\IqSmX IpjvTw _m[np GI
PphmWv AamUntem.
kap{Zbm{X \Snbnp GI XncphnXmwIq
cmPmhmWv Nnnc Xncp\m.
Dc AXv e m npambpw ZnW AXv e m npambpw AXnn ]nSp GI sXt
Atacn cmPyamWv {_ko.

5506. a-Z tam-l am-f-hy-bp-sS-bpw ap-l--Z-en Pn--bp-sS-bpw P-Zn-\w- Un-kw-_ 25


5507. a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s bm-{Xm-hn-h-c-W-{K--am-b h-am-\ ]p-kv-X-Iw c-Nn--Xv- ]m-d-m- tXm-am---\m
5508. A-Iv-_-dp-sS C-em-ln I-e- B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1583
5509. C-y-bv-pw {io-e--bv-p-an-S-bn-ep- I-S-en-Sp-n-eq-sS \n-anp- I--Nm--tk-Xp-k-ap-{Zw
5510. C-y-bv-pw Hm-kv-t{S-en-b-bv-pw tZ-io-b {]m-[m-\y-ap- Zn\w- P-\p-h-cn 26
5511. c-v- `q-JW
- vU
-
- f
- n- kvY
- n-Xn-sN-p- \-Kc
- w- C-kvX
- m-_p5512. Cw-o-jp-Im- X-et- -cn-bn- tIm- \n-an-X
- v- G-Xv h-j
- n F.Un.1708
5513. an-kv th-Uv B-b B-Zy C-y-m-cn- do- ^-cn-b
5514. ap--bp-sS tXm-Sn {]-[m-\-am-bpw Im-Wp- cm-k-h-kv-Xp- Imkyw Im-_-tW-v
5515. A-tm-tfm ]-Xn-s\m-v hm-l-\-n-s\m-w a-\p-jy-s\ N-{\n-te-v sXm-Sp-p-hn- tdm--v -km-t A-v
5516. A-ta-cn- hn-t-]n- B-Zy D-]-{K-lw- F-Iv-kv-tm-d (1958
P-\p-h-cn 31)
5517. ap- hn-Z-Kv-[ A-Izm e-Mv-kn iz-k-\-n-\v D-]-tbm-Knp- hm-X-I-- Hm-Iv-kn-P, lo-en-bw
5518. A-n-I-sf-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- Hm-n-tbm-f-Pn
5519. a-y--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- {km-hv
5520. ap-\n-b-d-I-p {]-kn--am-b -ew- a-d-bq
5521. A-Jn-e Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq {K--im-em-kw-L-n-s B-Zy-s
sk-{I--dn- ]n.F.]-Wn-
5522. a-eb
- m-f
- n-se B-Zy-s dn-be
- n-n-Iv Nn-{Xw- \yq-kv t]- t_m-bv
5523. ssh-kv {]-kn-Un-s\ Xn-c-s-Sp-p--Xv- ]m-e-san-se
C-cp k-`-I-fn-se-bpw Aw-K-
5524. P-hm-l-em s\-{lp P-\n--Xv- A-e-lm-_m-Zv
5525. s]-t{Um- A-hm-cn-kv- I-{_m- tIm-gn-tm-s-n-b-Xv- G-Xv
h-j-n- F.Un.1500
5526. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-I Zzo-]v- am-\n-tm-fn (lyqd X-Sm-Iw)
5527. a-Zy-]m-\w-sIm-v G--hp-a-[n-Iw tZm-jw kw-`-hn-p- i-co-c`m-Kw- I-c
5528. B-[p-\n-I `m-c-X-n-s in-ev-]n- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
5529. tI-c-f-n Ip-cp-ap-f-Ip K-th-j-W-tI-{w n-Xn sN-p--Xv-
]-n-bq

130 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5530. A-ta-cn--bn-se- \m-W-bw- tUm-f5531. tI-c-f-n Iq-dp-am- \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-a-n-eq-sS Aw-K-Xzw \jv-S-s- B-Zy Fw.F.F. B._m-e-Ir-jv-W-]n-
5532. th-ep-
- n-bv
- p-ti-jw Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq Zn-hm-\m-bX
- v- D-n-Wn-n
5533. apw-ss_-bn-se Zm-Z-dn-\p-k-ao-]w B-cp-sS k-am-[n--e-am-Wp-Xv -_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5534. H-cp en-v F-{X C-m-Wv- 7.92
5535. H-cp en- P-e-n-\v F-{X `m-c-ap-m-Ipw- H-cp In-tem
5536. aq- I - \ m- b - I v F- {]- k n- o- I - c - W - n- s m- ] - I - _n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5537. H-cp H-fn-n-Iv-kn B-dp kz-Ww t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\n-X- {Inn Hm-tm
5538. a-s-pw ]-cm-a-in-n-n-m- hn-j-b- a-{n-k-`-bv-p-thn B-cm-Wv ssI-Im-cyw sN-p--Xv--ap-Jy-a-{n
5539. A-Sn-a--an-m- G-I h-I-c--Am-n-
5540. H-cp hn-`m-K-n \n-p-am-{X-am-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Hm-kv-I
A-hm-Uv t\-Sn-b-Xv- sk-{Un-Iv Kn--kv
5541. B-a-tkm \-Zn ]-Xn-p- k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
5542. tI-c-f-n P-tem-k-h--p Xp-S-w Ip-dn-p- h-wI-fn- N--p-fw aq-ew h-w-I-fn
5543. B-\n _-k v hm-cm-W-kn-bn sk-{S ln-p kv-Iq m]n- h-jw- 1898
5544. B-\v-{[ tI-k-cn- F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s-n-cp- t\-Xmhv Sn- {]-Im-iw5545. {^m-kn-se- G-Xv ayq-kn-b-n-em-Wv- Um-hn-n-bp-sS- hn-JymX-am-b- sam-Wm-en-k- F-- s]-bn-dn-Mv- kq-n-n-cn-p--Xv-
ep-hvd
- v5546. thm-bv-kv Hm-^v C-y c-Nn--Xv- Zm-Zm-`m-bv \-h-tdm-Pn
5547. s^-U-d- `-c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-ap- cm-Py-n-s G--hpw h-en-b
k-hn-ti-j-X- A-[n-Im-c-hn-`-P-\w
5548. tI-c-f-n C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv thm-n-Mv b-{w B-Zy-am-bn D-]tbm-Kn- h-jw- 1982
5549. B-{K \-K-cw m-]n--Xv- kn-- tem-Zn
5550. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X hm-l-\- c-Pn- sN--sn-p- Pn-- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
5551. B-h-em-Xn---e (\o-Xn---e) m-]n- ap-K N-{I-h-n P-lmw-Ko
5552. B-h-em-Xn---e \n-dp--em-n-b ap-K N-{I-h-n- jm-Plm
5553. sh-w ip-o-Ic
- n-m D-]t- bm-Kn-p- cm-kh
- k
- X
v- p- tm-dn
5554. B-cp-sS N-c-a-Zn-\-am-Wv hm-b-\m-Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv]n.F.]-Wn-
5555. Cw-o-jv- Cu-kv-n-ym-I--\n- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-Ip-tm- B-cm-bncp-p- ap-K-N{- I-h-n- -A-Iv-_5556. C-n-cm-Km-\v-[n h-[n--s--sX-v- 1984 H-Iv-tSm-_ 31
5557. c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--n \n-jv-]--X ]m-en-s-n-epw
1940 P-a-\n B-{I-an- cm-Pyw--t\m-th
5558. c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp--n P-\-kw-Jy-bp-sS G--hpw Iq-SpX i-X-am-\w a-c-Ww kw-`-hn- cm-Pyw- t]m-f-v
5559. A-ta-cn--bn-se- {]-[m-\- a-Xw- {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw5560. B-cp-sS P--Zn-\-am-Wv tI-c-f k-m X-z-m-\ Zn-\-ambn B-N-cn-p--Xv- i--cm-Nm-cy
5561. B-kv-]n-cn-\n-s cm-k-\m-aw - A-k-ss km-en-ssk-en-I
B-kn-Uv
5562. C-y kw-Ko-X-n-\v kn-Xm-dn-s\ ]-cn-N-b-s-Sp-n-b-Xv A-ao Jp-{kp
5563. C-y- kw-kvY
- m-\
- v- ap-Jy-a{- n-kvY
- m-\s
- -n-b B-Zy- kn\n-am- \-S--Fw- Pn- cm-a-N-{5564. ss{U-sk-n D-]-tbm-Kn-p- C-e-Iv-t{Sm-sse-v- A-tam-Wnbw tm-ssd-Uv
5565. ssa ssSw-kv- B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- sP._n.Ir-]-em-\n
5566. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-em-bn Im-W-s-Sp- ]-n Im-
5567. {_n-o-jv ]m-e-sa v k-t-fn-p- sIm-m-cw- sh-v-an-
sIm-m-cw

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

33

F{Xmw hbnemWv alm\mb AeIvkm AcnXv


IpfbbpsS icocnse skspIfpsS Fw
tbip {InkvXp F{X hbphsc Pohnncpp
BtcmKyIcamb ]cnnXnv cmPyns F{X
iXam\w h\w thWw
a\p-jys \snse BsI Iticp F{XbmWv
`cWLS\bpsS 73,74 t`ZKXnbneqsS kv{XoIv
{]mtZinI kzbw`cW m]\fn F{X iXam\w
kwhcWamWv GsSpnbXv (Ctm 50
iXam\amnbnpv)
Bgvsk\nns AtmanI kwJy
F{Xmw hbnemWv kzmXn Xncp\m cmPmhv AcnXv
5568. C-^v-fp-h-k-bv-v Im-c-W-am-b tcm-Km-Wp- _m-kn--kv lotam-^n-e-kv
5569. Z-n-tW-y-bn-\n-pw {]-[m-\-a-{n--bm-b B-Zy hy-n \-c-knw-l-dm-hp
5570. c-mw tN-c-km-{am-Py-n-s m-]-I- Ip-e-ti-J-c-h-a
5571. G--hpw hn-c-f-am-b c--{Kq-v- F _n {Kq-v
5572. sS--\-kn-\p Im-c-W-am-b tcm-Km-Wp- tm-kv-{So-Un-bw
5573. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s {]-tXy-I km--n-I ta-J-e- Im-\m-Sv
5574. B-Zy-s Xn-cp--sIm-n a-{n-k-`-bv-p t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv ]-d-hq Sn.sI.\m-cm-b-W-]n-
5575. tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s P-\-d ]--kv Iw-]yq-- bq-Wnhm-Iv
5576. Hm-d do-ssl-t{U-j sX-dm-n G-Xp tcm-K-n-\p--Xm-Wv-
A-Xn-km-cw
5577. hm-en hn-jw kq-n-p- Po-hn- tX
5578. Hm--en-v-kv bp-w \-S- h-jw- 1805
5579. Hm-Iv-kn-P I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- {]o-v-en
5580. Hm-Ivk
- n-Ps
- A-`m-hw-aq-ew i-co-cI
- e
- I
- -p-m-Ip- tcm-Kw-
A-t\m-Iv-kn-b
5581. D--{]-tZ-in-s \o-Xn-\ym-b X-e-m-\w- A-e-l-_m-Zv
5582. ssa-{Xm-I-hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- h--`n
5583. {_n--Wn-se In-co-Sm-h-Im-in-bp-sS m-\-t-cv- {]n-kv Hm-^v
sh-bn-kv
5584. bq-Wn-t^mw kn-hn tIm-Un-s\--n {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- `-c-WL-S-\m A-\p-t-Zw- 44
5585. C-y-bn \n-an- B-Zy Cw-Kv-fo-jv Nn-{Xw- tIm-v Umk
5586. Pn F--dn-b-s--Xv -Pn.i--c-p-dp-v
5587. {_--]p-cw Uo-k \n-e-bw G-Xp Pn--bn- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
5588. C-y-bn m-kn-Iv `m-jm ]-Z-hn e-`n- c-m-a-s `m-j-
kw-kv-Ir-Xw
5589. C-y X-]m-m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy hn-tZ-i h-\n-X B-\n _-k v
5590. B-Zy-am-bn sa-bv-Zn-\w B-tLm-jn--s- \-K-cw- jn-m-tKm
5591. sh-bn-n-Mv t^m Zn a-lm- c-Nn--Xv- B.sI.\m-cm-b
5592. k-Xy-Pn-Xv td-bp-sS B-Zy Nn-{Xw- ]-tY ]m-Rv-P-en
5593. {_u tIm F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- en-ss-v
5594. C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X I-ip-h-n D-]m-Zn-n-p- kwm-\w- tI-c-fw
5595. {`w-iX
- m-gvh
- c
- b
- n-eq-sS H-gp-Ip- C-y \-Zn-I- \-aZ- , X-]vX
- n
5596. {Im--tm-h A-n ]-h-Xw G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- C-tm-\ojy
5597. bp-td-\n-bw B-Zy-am-bn th-Xn-cn--Xv- bp-Pn s]-en-tKm-v
5598. C-y-bn C-m k-{-Zm-bw B-Zy-am-bn sIm-p-h--Xv ap-l--Zv tKm-dn

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 131

5599. {im-h-W-_-e-tKm-f G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-tI-{-am-Wv-


ssP-\-a-Xw
5600. tlm-n {Ku-n-s ho-Xn- 54.8 ao.
5601. tPm-k-^v kv-an-v F- hy-n m-]n- hn-izm-kw- tama hn-izm-kw
5602. G--hpw h-en-b A-n-]-h-Xw-D- kuc-bq-Y {K-lw- sNm-
5603. C-y ]-{X-{]-h--\-cw-K-s h-y-h-tbm-[n-I F--dn-bs-Sp--Xv- Xp-jm Im-n tLm-jv
5604. C-y-bn G--hpw h-S-p- kw-m-\ X-e-m-\w- {io-\K
5605. _w-Km- hn-`-P-\-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s- ssh-t{km-bn- I-gv-k{]-`p5606. Xr-q \-K-c-n-s in-ev-]n- i- X-p-cm
5607. k-Xym-{K-lw _-e-hm-am-cp-sS D-]-I-c-W-am-Wv F-p ]-d-Xv- Km-n-Pn
5608. F-hn-S-s ]m-e-sam-Wv tm-nw-Kv--t\m-th
5609. Xp-fp D-s-Sp- `m-jm-tKm-{Xw- {Zm-hn-U `m-jm-tKm-{Xw
5610. cm-Py--fn-m- G-I `q-J-Wv-Uw- Am-n-
5611. Fw.Pn.k-hI
- e
- m-im-e ssh-kv Nm-ke
- d
- m-bn-cp- m-\]
- oTtP-Xm-hv- bp.B.A-\--aq-n
5612. k-Xy-Pn-Xv-td-bp-sS ]-tY- ]m-Rv-P-en,- A-]-cm-Pn-X- F-o- kn\n-a-I-fp-sS aq-e-I-Y B-cp-tS-Xm-Wv- - hn-`q-Xn-`q-j- _-tm-]m[ym-b
5613. F-Xn-cn-m-sX Xn-c-s-Sp--s- B-Zy-s cm-jv-{S-]-Xn- \oew k-Rv-Po-h-sd-Uv-Un
5614. B-Zy-s C-y `m-jm-]-{Xw- Zn-Kv-Z-i
5615. cm-Py-k-` \n-e-hn h- Xo-b-Xv- 1952 G-{]n 3
5616. tem-I-s G--hpw h-en-b ]-h-Xw- ln-am-e-bw
5617. C-y H-n-\n-b-\n-s B-Zy ]-{Xm-[n-]- a-kp-Jv-em \mk
5618. G--hpw {]-p-_v-[ A--co- {]-Xn-`m-kw- sSm-Wm-tUm
5619. G--hpw {]-kn--\m-b tem-Zn kp-m- kn-- tem-Zn
5620. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy D-]-ap-Jy-a-{n- B.i-
5621. H-cp In-tem ss_-v F-{X ss_-m-Wv- 1024
5622. H-cp tdm-Up-t]m-ep-an-m- bq-tdm-]y \-K-cw- sh-\o-kv
5623. H-cp Ip-Xn-c-i-n F-{X hm-Sv-kv B-Wv- 746
5624. tem-It- a X-dh
- m-Sp X-\n-o-s-Sn-If
- pw ]p-If
- pw ]p-gp-f
- pw IqSn- Ip-Spw-_-m F-p ]m-Sn-b-Xv- h--tm
5625. C-y- bq-Wn-b-\n- G-p-hp-sam-Sp-hn- e-bn- aq-v- \m-p-cmPy-- - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv,- Pp-\-K-Vv,- Im-iv-ao5626. C-y- bq-Wn-b-s-d X-e-h- cm-jv-{S-]-Xn5627. H-cp Im-en c-p hn-c-ep-I am-{X-ap- ]-n- H--I--n
5628. C-y bq-Wn-b-s `m-K-am-b e--Zzo-]v G-Xp I-S-en-em-Wv-
A-d-_n--S
5629. kz-cm-Pv ]m-n m-]n--Xv- tam-n-em s\-{lp-hpw kn.B
Zm-kpw
5630. C-y bq-Wn-b-s F-Iv-kn-Iyp-o-hv X-e-h- {]-kn-U v
5631. h-e-p-\n-pw C-S-tm-v F-gp-Xn-bn-cp- {]m-No-\-`m-c-X-nse en-]n- J-tcm-jv-Sn
5632. G-Xv cm-Py-n-s G-jy `m-K-am-Wv G-jym-ssa-\ A-Y-hm
A-\-tm-fn-b- Xp-n
5633. H-fn-n-Iv th-Zn \n--bn-p--Xv- C-\m-j-W H-fn-n-Iv In-n
5634. tem-Iv-k-`-bn-epw cm-Py-k-`-bn-epw Aw-K-am-b a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X-A-p kzm-an-\m-Y
5635. kz-W-n-s ip--X kq-Nn-n-m D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- Imc-v
5636. C-y bq-Wn-b-s G-Xp `m-K-am-Wv t_ sF-e v-kv F-pw
A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- B--am \n-tm-_
5637. cm-Py-kv-t\-ln-I-fp-sS cm-P-Ip-am-c F-v B-sc-bm-Wv Km-nPn hn-ti-jn-n--Xv kp-`m-jv-N-{-t_m-kv
5638. tem-Iv-k-` cq-]-h--cn- Xo-b-Xn-1952 G-{]n 17
5639. G--hpw a-[p-c-ap- cm-k-h-kv-Xp- km--dn
5640. C-y B-W-thm-P-I-o-j-s B-Zy A-[y-- - tlm-an
P-lmw-Ko `m-`

CONFUSING FACTS
Hma ]qWambpw \inp AhbmWv Am-

nesia. kwkmcnmt\m hmbnmt\m FgpXmt\m


Ignbm AhbmWv Aphasia.
thh ]Xnsbn N sNm 1945
ssht{kmbn hnfnptNXmWv knwe ktf\w.
knwe DSSn 1972 Pqembv cn\v Cybpw
]mInkvXm\pw Hpshp.
ss{Ikv X h \nbafmWv Imt\m \nba.
CmantXv icnAv.
khcmPykJynse m]ImwK 42Dw
sFIycmjv{Sk`bnteXv 51Dw Bbncpp.
5641. G-h
- p-a[
- n-Iw A-m-cm-j{v- S-_l
- pa-Xn-I t\-Sn-b C-y kn-\n-a ]n-d-hn
5642. tem-Ivk
- `- b
- p-sS Cw-]o-vs
- a v t\cn- t S- n- h - B- Z y P- U v - P n-
hn.cm-a-kzm-an
5643. C-y C-n-yq-v Hm-^v AUzm-kv-Uv -Uo-kv F-hn-sS-bmWv- jnw-e
5644. Xp-cp-p-d c-Nn-X
- v- Xn-cp-h
- ph
5645. {io-cm-aI
- r-jvW
- a
- n-js
- A-[y-\m-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- kzm-an cwK-\m-Ym-\-
5646. kz-X-{ C-y-bn H-fn-n-Iv- Xn- c - - Y - b v - v tZ- i o- b Akn(1952) sa-U t\-Sn-b B- hm- U v t\- S n- b B- Z y a- e Zy C-y-m-c- sI.Un.bm-Z-hv bm- f n- F- k v . F.]p- c w
5647. G--hpw D-b-c-n-h-p \-S- Hk-Zm-\-
fn-n-Iv-kv- sa-Iv-kn-tm kn-n
5648. C-n-cm-Km-n h-[-t-kn in-n--s--h- k-Xv-h-v knMv, tI-l kn-Mv, _-_o kn-Mv
5649. Hu-dw-K-ko-_v Zm-c-sb tXm-]n- k-ap-K-Vv bp-w \-S- hjw- 1658
5650. G--hpw A-]q-h-am-b tem-lw- tdm-Un-bw
5651. C-y-bv-p kzm-X-{yw In-p-tm Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq t-v
tIm-{K-kn-s {]-kn-Um-bn-cp--Xv- ]-w Xm-Wp-]n-
5652. tem-Iv-k-`m-kv-]o- cm-Pn--v sIm-Sp-t--Xv B-m-Wv-
U-]yq-n kv-]o--v
5653. G--hpw D-b-cw-Iq-Sn-b ar-Kw- Pn-dm-^v
5654. C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s A-a-cm-h-Xn k-t-f-\n A-[y--X h-ln- a-e-bm-fn- kn.i--c \m-b
5655. G--hpw lr-Z-b-an-Sn-p-\n-c-v Ip-d- k-kv-X-\w- \o-e-n-anwKn-ew
5656. tem-Iv-k-`m {]-Xn-]--t\-Xm-hm-b B-Zy h-\n-X- tkm-Wn-bm
Km-n
5657. tI-cf
-
- n G-h
- pw Ip-d
- p Im-ew a-{n-bm-bn-cp-X
- -v Fw.]n.hotc-{-Ip-am
5658. C-y ]m-e-san G-Xp k-`-bn-em-Wv Aw-K-a-m- H-cm
A-[y--X h-ln-p--Xv- cm-Py-k-`
5659. tem-I-s G--hpw h-en-b ip--P-e-X-Sm-Iw- kp-o-cn-b X-SmIw
5660. tem-I-s B-Zy-s sS-v Syq-_v in-ip- eq-bn {_u
5661. kz-X{- -`m-cX
- w cq-]h
- X
- vI
- c
- n- a-{n-k`
- b
- n-\n-v cm-Pn-h
- BZy-a-{n- B.sI.j-ap-Jw sN-n
5662. cm-tI-jv i-a _-ln-cm-Im-i-p-t]m-b h-jw-1984
5663. C-y-bn P-\-Xm-]m-n A-[n-Im-c-n-te-dn-b h-jw- 1977
5664. s^-U-td-j Hm-^v C-y tNw-t_-gv-kv Hm-^v sIm-ta-gv-kv
B v C-U-kv-{Sn (1927)m-]n--Xm-cv- _n-f-bpw Xm-p-Zmkpw
5665. tem-Iv-X-Iv X-Sm-Iw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-Wn-q

132 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5666.
5667.
5668.
5669.
5670.
5671.
5672.
5673.
5674.
5675.
5676.
5677.
5678.
5679.
5680.
5681.
5682.
5683.
5684.
5685.
5686.
5687.
5688.
5689.
5690.
5691.
5692.
5693.
5694.
5695.
5696.
5697.
5698.
5699.
5700.
5701.
5702.
5703.
5704.
5705.
5706.
5707.

l-cn-X-hn--h-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- t\m-a t_m-tem-Kv


C-y {In--n-s sa- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- sIm--
cm-jv-{S-]-Xn \n-hm-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -jnw-e
Z-em- kv-{So-v- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- apw-ss_
l-cn-Zzm, tI-Zm-\m-Yv F-o Xo-Ym-S-\ tI-{- G-Xv kwm-\-m-Wv- D--cm-J-Wv-Uv
B-Zy-s m-\-]oT tP-Xm-hv- -- -Pn.i--c-p-dp-v
thm-Uv-I F- a-Zyw G-Xp [m-\y-n \n-m-Wv- tKm-X-v
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X `m-j-I-fn-te-v sam-gn-am-w sN--s-n-p-
a-e-bm-f t\m-h- sN-o
{Km-a-hn-I-k-\-hp-am-bn _--s-v \o-tem-t-cn ]--Xn-v t\Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xm-cv- F-kv.sI.tU
C-y {In--n-s \-gv-k-dn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- apw-ss_
tI-{ a-{n-bm-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X - e-v-an F.
ta-t\m
l-km-cn-_m-Kv- h-\y-Po-hn k
-- w-c--W -tI-{w G-Xp- kw-m-\m-Wv- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv A-k-j Zzo-]v--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
tem-I-n-em-Zy-am-bn ar-Km-ip-]-{Xn m-]n- cm-Pyw- C-y
tI-c-f-n {_n-o-jv C-y-bp-sS A-Sn--d D-e- hn--hw ]-g-n hn--hw
tI-c-f-n {In-kv-Xy a-X-hn-`m-K-m F--n G--hpw
Iq-Sp-X-ep- Pn-- F-d-Wm-Ip-fw
tI-c-f-n {io i--c kw-kv-Ir-X k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS Bm-\w- Im-e-Sn
Cw--n-se ]m-e-sa v tl-_n-b-kv tIm--kv \n-b-aw ]mkm-n-b h-jw- 1679
an-tm tam-en `-c-W ]-cn-jv-Im-cw kw-_-n- N--\-S-m
1912 Cw--n t]m-b-t\-Xm-hv--tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W tKm-J-se
G--hpw Ip-d-v I-S-o-c-ap- Z-n-tW-y kw-m-\w-
tKm-h
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn B-Iv-Sn-Mv kv-]o--dm-b h-\n-X--\-^ok-v _o-hn
ap-e-m D-]m-Zn-n-p- tlm-tam- t{]m-em-Iv-Sn
G--hpw- Ip-d- `q-cn-]--n-\p- Xn-c-s-Sp--s- {]-knU v- hn-.hn-. Kn-cnX-an-gn-se G--hpw ]-g-b Ir-Xn- tXm-m-n-bw
C-y {In--v So-an C-Sw In-n-b k-q-W a-e-bm-fn- {ioim-v
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s {I-a-h-Xv-Ir-X sk-k-kv \-S- hjw- 1881
lp-a-bq-Wn-s i-h-Ip-So-cw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- U-ln
bp-F- s]m-Xp-k-`-bp-sS A-[y--bm-bn- sX-c-s-Sp--s-
B-Zy-h-\n-X- hn-P-b-e-v-an- ]-Wv-Un-vC-y-bn-se B-Zy-s A-m-cm-jv{- S N-e
- n-t{Xm-h
- w 1952
F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \-S--Xv--apw-ss_
cn-lv-em F- Ir-Xn c-Nn--Xv- C-_v _-q-
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X cm-Py--v kzm-X-{yw \-In-b cm-Pyw-
{_n-
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ayq-kn-bw- sIm--
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bn-se B-Zy-s tIm-{K-kv kv-]o-- Ae-Iv-km- ]-d-n--d
U-ln-bn ]p-cm-Wv In-e \n-an--Xv- sj-jm
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s bq-tdm-]y tIm- \n-an--sX-hn-sS-
sIm-n-bn
C-y-bn km--n-I h-jw B-cw-`n-p--Xv- G-{]n 1
tI-c-f am-Iv-kv F--dn-b-s--Xv- sI.Zm-tam-Z-c
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-\m-j-W ^n-enw s^-n-h
\-S- \-K-cw- apw-ss_
G--hpw Iq-Sp-X cm-Py--fp- `q-J-Wv-Uw- B-{^n-
Hm-tm-a kp-m-am `-c-Ww \-S-n-bn-cp- cm-Pyw- Xpn
tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`mw-K-am-bn-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy hy-n-
tUm.F.B.ta-t\m
C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-jp-d-kv I--\n- t_mw-s_ ayqNz A-jz-d-kv skm-ssk-n en-an--Uv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

34

kp\n KmhkvI sSv {Inn F{X skzdnI


t\Snbnpv
Ftmd KplI F{XsbamWv
tIcfnse ImbepIfpsS Fw
Cybnse BZys s{Sbn khokv 1853 G{]n
16\v \SnbXv apwss_ apX Xms\ hscbmbncpp.
Cu sdbnmXbpsS \ofw F{X Intemaodmbncpp?
5708. t{]m-tm-m-k-am-Wv Po-h-s `u-Xn-I-am-b A-Sn-m-\w F-p
]-d--Xv- l-Iv-k-en
5709. N-{-\n-\n-v t\m-p--bm-v B-Im-iw F-m-bn tXm-pp- I-dp-v
5710. t{]w `m-n-b A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv \-Ip--Xv- ]{X-{]-h--\w
5711. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-s\-v ]-{Xw- ^n-\m-jy F-Ivkv-{]-kv
5712. N-{-Kp-]v-X- c-m-a- G-Xv-t]-cn-em-Wv- {]-kn--\m-b-Xv- -hn-{Iam-Zn-Xy5713. t{_m- hn-Mv-kv c-Nn--Xv- k-tcm-Pn-\n \m-bn-Up
5714. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s C-e-Iv-{Sn-Iv Im- td-h
5715. N-cn-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- sl-tdm-tUm--kv
5716. t{_m-Uv-tK-Pv ]m-X-bn sd-bn-m-f- X-n-ep- A-I-ew 1.676 ao.
5717. C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s A--Sn-b-{w m-]n--sX-hn-sS-bm-Wv tKm-h-bn
5718. t{i-jvT `m-jm ]-Z-hn e-`n- B-Zy C-y `m-j--X-an-gv
5719. tm-tdm-^n-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- tem-lw- a-o-jyw
5720. Nm-Nv-\m-a F--Xv G-Xv {]-tZ-i-n-s N-cn-{X-s-p-dn-v {]Xn-]m-Zn-p- Ir-Xn-bm-Wv- kn-v
5721. I-cn-n-\n-p In-p- ]--km-c- kp-t{Im-kv
5722. C-y `-cn- B-Zy-s A-^v-Km hw-iw- tem-Zn hw-iw
5723. Nm-an-\m F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
5724. c-p X-e-m-\--fp- C-y kw-m-\w- P-p Im-iv-ao
5725. H-cp m-kn-se P-e-n H-cp sF-kv I-j-Ww s]m-n-n-Sp-p. A-Xn-se sF-kv I-j-Ww D-cp-In-o- D-S P-e-\nc-v ---- hy-Xym-kw h-cp-n-
5726. 1948 tUm. im-c-Zm I-_o-dn-s\ ]p-\-hn-hm-lw-sN-bv-X t\Xm-hv--_n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5727. tIm-{K-kp-am-bn ]q-s\ D-S--Sn-bn G-s- t\-Xm-hv _n.B.Aw-t_-Zv-I
5728. H-cp C-y kw-m-\-n-s ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy a-e-bmfn h-\n-X Pm-\-In cm-a-N-{ (Fw.Pn.B-dn-s ]-Xv-\n-bm-bncp- A-h ssh-w kz-tZ-in-\n-bm-bn-cp-p.)
5729. C.Fw.F-kv. a-{n-k-`-bp-sS Im-e-v \n-b-a-k-`-bn `q-]-cn-jvI-c-W-_n sIm-p-h- d-h-\yq a-{n sI.B.Ku-cn-b-
5730. tIm-h-]q-Xq F-v ]-v A-dn-b-s-n-cp- \-K-cw- tIm-b-q
5731. cq-]w- sIm-- \m ap-X aZy-\n--tcm-[-\w \n-e-hn-ep- kwm-\w- Kp-P-dm-v
5732. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew `-cn- I-ayp-Wn-v `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- ^nU Im-kv-t{Sm
5733. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Zq-cw tZ-im-S-\w \-S-p- ]-n- B-Sn-Iv
tS
5734. tI-c-f I-em-a-Wv-U-e-s tI-c-f k--m G-s-Sp- h-jw-
1957
5735. C-y \-thm-m-\-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv- cm-Pmdmw tam-l tdm-bv
5736. G-Xp t\-Xm-hn-s a-c-W-ti-j-am-Wv Km-n-Pn tZ-io-b {]-m\-n-s A-\n-tj-[y t\-Xm-hm-bn D-b--Xv- _m-e-Kw-Km-[-c
Xn-eI
-

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 133

5737. Nn-Zw-_-c-s \-S-cm-P-hn-{K-lw \n-an--Xv- tNm-f-am


5738. G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s ]-WvU
- n-Xk
- Z-
- m-bn-cp-p A-jvS- Z- zn-zn-P
- Ir-jv-W-tZ-h-cm-b
5739. C-y bq-Wn-b-\n-se G--hpw sN-dn-b Pn-- am-ln
5740. Np-h- {Xn-tIm-Ww F-n-s Nn--am-Wv- Ip-Spw-_m-kq-{X-Ww
5741. {Ko-\n-v tc-J-bpw `q-a-[y-tc-J-bpw kw-K-an-p- t]m-bn v GXv k-ap-{Z-n-em-W--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zwv
5742. D--{]-tZ-in-s km--n-I- hym-h-km-bn-I X-e-m-\w-
Im-]q
5743. Hm-Ik
v- tv- ^m-Uv bq-Wn-th-gk
v- n-n-bp-sS tUm-ISv- t- d-v e-`n- C-y
N-e-n-{X kw-hn-[m-b-I- k-Xy-Pn-Xv-td
5744. hm-jn-Mv-S \-K-cw G-Xv \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- t]m-tm-am-Iv
5745. hm-jnw-Kv-S sa-tm-dn-b F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--hm-jnw-Kv-S
Un.kn.
5746. Hm-d-v hn--hw F-p-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ^m-a-kyqn--kv
5747. C-y-bn-se G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b _o-v- (I-S-p-dw)-sN-ssbn-se a-do-\m- _o-v5748. N-ta-en tZ-hn P-bn A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv \-Ip-Xv- ]-{X-{]-h--\w
5749. C-y- {]-kn-Un-s-d kv-Ym-\-s G-Xp- cm-Py-n-s-d `-cW--e-h-\p-am-bn-m-Wv- km-[m-c-W-am-bn- Xm-c-X-ayw- sN-p--Xv
-{_n-5750. Sm-tKm-dn-s Ko-Xm-Rv-P-en A-tX-t]-cn a-e-bm-f-n-te-v XP-a sN-bv-X-Xm-cv--Pn.i--c-p-dp-v
5751. C-tm-g-s tI-c-f sk-{I-t-dn-b-v a-n-cw ]-Wn-I-gn-n- cmPm-hv--B-bn-eyw Xn-cp-\m
5752. O-t-e-am `-cn-n-cp- cm-Pyw- _p-t-J-Wv-Uv
5753. G-Xn-s I-hm-S-am-Wv A-sse Z-hm-k- Ip--_v-an-\m
5754. P-\m-[n-]-Xy-s \n-h-Nn- en--s {]-i-kv-X-am-b {]-kw-Kw sK-n-kv-_-Kv
5755. G-Xn-s km-n-[yw-aq-e-am-Wv i-co-c-n-se c-w I--]n-Sn-m-Xv- sl-m-cn
5756. C-t-hs
- c e-`n-n-p-X
- n G-h
- pw h-en-b h-{Pw-
In-\
5757. tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w- t\m-v Cuv {Ko-em-Uv \m-j-W ]m-v
5758. P-\n-XI
- i
- m-k{v- X-n-s ]n-Xm-sh-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- {Kn-K saU
5759. P-m-\n t_mw-_n-Sm A-\p-a-Xn \-In-b A-ta-cn- {]kn-U v- lm-cn F-kv. {Sq-am
5760. Cu-\m-Sv G-Xp `m-j-bn-se ]-{X-am-Wv- sX-ep-v
5761. tI-c-f t^m-d-v U-h-e-]v-sa v tIm--td-j-s B-m-\w-
tIm--bw
5762. P-e-n-s hn-in-jv-S Xm-]-[m-cn-X F-{X- 4200 Pq-kv {]-Xn
In-tem-{Kmw sI-hn
5763. C-y {In--v So-an-s B-Zy-s Iym-]v-- kn.sI.\m-bnUp
5764. c-v ssN-\-bn F- Ir-Xn c-Nn--Xv- kZm sI.Fw.
]-Wn-
5765. Cw-]o-v-san-\v hn-t[-b-\m-b K-h-W P-\-d- hm-d
tl-n-Mv-kv
5766. tam-n Im-tem Im dm-en \-S-p- cm-Pyw- sam-Wm-tm
5767. C-y a-lm-k-ap-{Z-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Zzo-]v- a-U-K-kv-I
5768. D--tc-y-bn-se A-h-km-\-s ln-p-N-{I-h-n- -l-jh-\
- 5769. G--hpw ]-g--ap- hn-h-cm-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn-ep cm-Pyw- kzo-U
5770. P-kyq-v {]-m-\w B-cw-`n--Xv -C-t-jy-kv Hm-^v e-tbm-f
5771. D-m-bn hm-cy kv-am-c-I-I-em-\n-e-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- C-cn-me-p-S
5772. C-y a-X--km-aq-ln-I \-thm-m-\-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dnb-s-Sp--Xv- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdm-bv
5773. Km-n-Pn A-l--Zm-_m-Zn-\-Sp-v sIm-v-dm-_v F- -e-v
k-Xym-{K-lm-{i-aw m-]n--Xv- 1915
5774. H-cp in-ip h-f-p-h-cp-tm F-p-I-fp-sS F-w- Ip-d-bp-p

CONFUSING FACTS
k-ky--sf h-f-p h-ep-Xm-Im A-\p-h-Zn-m-sX ap-cSn-n-v sN-dn-b B-Ir-Xn-bn h-f-p- P-m-\o-kv coXn-bm-Wv t_m-km-bv. k-ky--fp-sS C-e-I-fpw in-J-c-fpw {]-tXy-I B-Ir-Xn-bn sh-n-sbm-cp-p--Xm-Wv
tSm-n-b-dn.
]m-In-kv-Xm tZ-io-b-X-bp-sS ]n-Xm-a-l F--dn-b-sSp--Xv d-lv-a-v A-en-bm-Wv. C-y tZ-io-b-X-bp-sS
]n-Xm-a-l F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv cm-Pv \m-cm-b t_m-kv
B-Wv.
C-Xm-bv--C-Xm-bv tcm-Kw Im-Uv-an-bw aq-e-hpw an-\-am-X tcmKw sa-p-dn-aq-e-hpw D-m-Ip-p.
bq-tdm-n-se tcm-Kn F-p hn-fn--s- cm-Py-am-Wv Xpn. G-jy-bn-se tcm-Kn aym-am.
5775. tZ-ho-N-{-Kp-]v-Xw F- kw-kv-Ir-X \m-S-I-n-se tI-{ I-Ym]m-{Xw--N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
5776. G-Xv Po-hn-bp-sS a-kv-Xn-jv-I-n-em-Wv {]-Ir-Xn-bn-se G--hpw
h-en-w Iq-Sn-b \yq-tdm Im-W-s-Sp--Xv- H-Iv-tSm--kv
5777. tZ-io-b ]--km-c K-th-j-W tI-{w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv -Im]q
5778. a-{n-am-v h-Ip-p-I-fp-sS Np-a-X-e hn-`-Pn-p-\-Im K-hW-sd D-]-tZ-in-p--Xv B-cm-Wv--ap-Jy-a-{n
5779. G-Xv Po-hn-bp-sS im-kv-{X-\m-a-am-Wv tlm-tam km-]n-b-kv--a\p-jy
5780. H-cp tem-Iv-k-`mw-K-n-\v Cw-o-jn-tem ln-n-bn-tem {]-kw-Knm A-dn-bn-m F-n am-Xr-`m-j-bn k-`-bn {]-kw-Knm A-\p-a-Xn \-Im B-m-Wv A-[n-Im-cw--kv-]o-
5781. P-lmw-Ko-dn-s ap-Jy-cm-n-bm-bn-cp--Xv- \q-P-lm
5782. C-y C-n-yq-v Hm-^v k-b-kv m-]n--Xv- Pw-j-Uv-Pn
Sm-
5783. d-jy hn-t-]n- B-Zy _-ln-cm-Im-i hm-l-\w- kv-]p-Sv-\n-Iv
5784. C-y C-v-yq-v Hm-^v s]-t{Sm-fn-bw n-Xn sN-p--Xv-
sU-dm-Uq
5785. C-y C-Un-s]-U-kv B-Iv-Sv \n-e-hn-h- Xo-b-Xn-
1947 Hm-K-v 15
5786. d-jy-bp-sS tZ-io-b Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Zw- kmw-t_m
5787. Po-h-im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-cn-tmn
5788. tI-cf
- \
- n-ba
- k
- `
- b
- p-sS N-cn-{X-n G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X {]m-hi
- yw
Im-n-Mv thm-v {]-tbm-Kn- kv-]o-- F.kn.tPm-kv
5789. thm-bv-kv Hm-^v Z lm-v B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv- ar-Wm-fn-\n
km-cm-`m-bn
5790. --- s {]-hm-l-am-Wv ssh-Zyp-Xn- C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wp-I
5791. th-Wm-n ]p-e-t-Sn \n-tcm-[n- `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- tIm--bw tIc-fh
- -a
5792. d-kn-bm kp-m-\ h-[n--s- h-jw- 1240
5793. Po-hn-p- k-\ym-kn (kn-m ]o) F--dn-b-s- ap-K N-{Ih-n- Hu-dw-K-ko-_v
5794. dm-h-]n-n F-Ik
-v {-v ]-kv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp- Im-bn-IX
- m-cw- sjmbv-_v A-
5795. tI-cf
-
- n ]q-Wa
- m-bn ssh-Zyp-Xo-Ic
- n-s
- - B-Zy-s {Kma-]-m-b-v- I-m-Sn(]m-e-m-Sv Pn-)
5796. dm-jv _n-lm-cn t_m-kv C-y C-Un-s]-U-kv eo-Kv m]n--sX-hn-sS- P-m
5797. Pv-Rm-\-]oTw t\-Sn-b B-Zy X-an-gv km-ln-Xy-Im-c--]n.hn.AJn-em-Wv-U(A-Jn-e)
5798. C-y- D-]-`q-J-Wv-U-n- H-cp- hn-tZ-i-i-Iv-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- tatm-bv-a-bv-p- hn-t[-b-am-Im-- H-tc-sbm-cp- cm-Pyw- --t\-m-

134 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5799. tI-c -f -n B- Z y- am- b n


ssh-Zyp-Xn D-]t- bm-Kn-p {]h-n- hy-h-km-b kwcw-`w- I- tZ-h I-\n
5800. C-y-bn-se G--hpw- h-enb kw-kv-Ym-\w- cm-P-kvYm5801. F-{X Un-{Kn tc-Jmw-is
- bm-Wv A-m-cm-jv-{S Zn-\m-tc-J-bm-bn I-W-m-p-Xv- 180
5802. C-n-cm-Km-n-bp-sS N-ca
- Z- n\w B-N-cn-p--Xv- tZ-iokw-m-\ h-\n-Xm
b ]p-\-c--W-Zn-\w
5803. c-mw tem-I a-lm-bp-- I- n-n--- j - s B- Z y A- [ y- -
kp- K - X - I p- a m- c n
m- e - v s\- h n tNw_-se-bn {_n-o-jv {][m-\-a-{n ]-Z-sam-gn--tm ]-I-c-m-c-\m-b-Xv--k hn N-n
5804. C-y-bp-sS B-sI hn-kvX
- o-W
- n-s F-{X i-Xa
- m-\a
- m-Wv tIc-fw- 1.18
5805. C-y D-]-`q-J-Wv-U-n-se G--hpw h-en-b cm-Pyw- C-y
5806. s\-{lp ]-s-Sp- B-Zy tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\w- _-n-q
(1912)
5807. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-Zy A-[y-- k-Zm
sI.Fw.]-Wn-
5808. s\m-_ k-m-\-Zm-\w \-S-p- Xo-b-Xn- Un-kw-_ 10
5809. tI-c-f km-ln-Xy A-m-Z-an-bp-sS B-Zy-s B-m-\w- Xncp-h-\--]p-cw
5810. d- t_m-Un-s B-m-\w -tIm--bw
5811. D--bn-\n G-Xp \-Zo-Xo-c-v- n-{]
5812. s\-tm-fn-b-s\-Xn-sc {S-^-K-dn Cw-o-jv tk-\-sb \-bn-Xv- A-Uv-an-d slm-td-tjym s\-k
5813. C-y D-]-`q-J-Wv-U-n-se G--hpw sN-dn-b cm-Pyw- `q-m
5814. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Ip-d-p-Im-ew A-[n-Imc-n Xp-S- a{n-k-`-bv-p t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- sI.I-cp-Wm-I-c
5815. C-y H-fn-n-Iv So-an-s\ \-bn- B-Zy h-\n-X- ssj-\n hnk(1992)
5816. D-tm-n-b c-Nn--Xv- tXm-a-kv aq
5817. s]-kn A-hm-Uv G-Xp ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv \-Ip--Xv- hnZym-`ym-kw
5818. D-t-J Km-b-I F--dn-b-s- a-e-bm-f I-hn- D-q
5819. d-tbm I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm-k-^v kzm(1883)
5820. c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-Kq {io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp-hn-s\ k--in- h-jw 1922
5821. H-cp km-[-\w D-]m-Zn-n-p--Xn-\v k-m \-Ip- Ip-h-Im-iw- t]- v
5822. Du-P-n-s F-kv.sF.bq-Wn-v- Pq
5823. du-e-v \n-b-aw G-Xp-h-j-am-Wv 1919
5824. Dw-tdm-bn hn-am-\-m-h-fw G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-eb
5825. s]-K- F--Xv G-Xp cm-Py-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
bp.F-kv.F.
5826. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew {]-Xn-]- t\-Xm-hm-bncp-X
- v- C.Fw.F-kv.
5827. C-y hn-]-Wn-bn-se G--hpw hn-e-Iq-Sn-b kp-K- hy-Rv-P\w- Ip-p-aw
5828. Im-bn-It- I-cf
-
- n-s ]n-Xm-hv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- - tI-W tKmZ-h-a-cm-P
5829. tI-c-f-n D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n ]-cm-P-b-s- G-I a-{n-
sI.ap-cf
- o-[c
-
5830. s]m-m-kyw F- aq-e-I-n-\v sI F- {]-Xo-Iw e-`n--Xv GXp em-n hm-n \n-m-Wv Im-en-bw
5831. tI-c-f-n D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-n-eq-sS ko-p \n-e-\n-n-b BZy Aw-Kw--tdm-k-m ]p-q-kv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

35

cm-jv-{S-]-Xn Xn-c-s-Sp-n a--cn-m-\m-h-iy-am-b Ip-d {]m-bw


tPm F-^v. sI--Un F-{Xm-a-s A-ta-cn- {]-knUm-Wv
tlm-n a--c-n-s H-cp ]-Ip-Xn-bp-sS ssZ-Lyw F{X an-\n-m-Wv
{^-p N-{I-h-n-bm-bn s\-tm-fn-b In-co-S-[m-c-Ww
\-S-n-b-Xv F-{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv
`q-tKm-f-n G--hpw D-b- tXm-Xn A-S-n-bn-cn-p aq-e-Iw C-cp-m-Wv. G-I-tZ-iw F-{X i-X-am-\w
D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn Xn-c-s-Sp-n a--cn-m-\m-h-iy-am-b
Ip-d- {]m-bw
`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xmw-t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv kn-n-an\v A-tkm-kn-tb-v t-v ]-Z-hn \-In-b-Xv
K-h-W-dm-Im-\m-h-iy-am-b Ip-d- {]m-bw
A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v Xn-c-s-Sp-n a--cn-m-\mh-iy-am-b Ip-d- {]m-bw
H-cp _m-c Hm-bn F-{X Cw-]o-cn-b Kym-e B-Wv
2005-se hn-h-cm-h-Im-i-\n-b-a-{]-Im-cw A-kn- v t-v
]-n-Iv C-^-ta-j Hm-^o-k-v k-a-n-p- At]--I {]-Im-cw a-dp-]-Sn \-Im-\p- k-a-b ]-cn-[n
F-{X Zn-h-k-am-Wv
F-{Xmw h-b-n-em-Wv kn-m-Y-\v Zn-hy-m-\w e-`n--Xv
5832. C-y hn-Zym-`ym-k-n-s am-m-Im- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
hp-Uv-kv sU-kv-]m-v
5833. G--hpw Ip-d-v A-Xn-n-bp- cm-Pyw h-n-m
5834. i-Iv-X-X-p-cm- A--cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1805
5835. C-y hw-i-P G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- Zzo-]p-cm-jv-{S-- audo-jy-kv, ^n-Pn
5836. I-Wm-S-I-n-se \r--cq-]w- b--Km-\w
5837. tI-c-f-n \n-e-\n-n-cp- a-cp-a--m-b Zm-b-{I-a-s-pdn-v ]-cm-a-in- {]-Y-a hn-tZ-i k-m-cn- {^-b tPm-Um-\kv
5838. E-jn-tI-in-h-v Kw-K-bp-am-bn kw-K-an-p- \-Zn- N-{-`m-K
5839. e-Lp-`m-kv-I-co-b-n-s I-m-hv- i--c-\m-cm-b-W
5840. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew D-]-ap-Jy-a-{n- A-hpm-Z Ip-n \-l
5841. em a-dm-_v-se F- {^-p-t\m-h a-e-bm-f-n-te-v hn-h-\w sN-bv-X-Xv- \m-e-m-v \m-cm-b-W-ta-t\m
5842. s]m-Xp-Xn-c-s-Sp-v \-S- B-Zy G-jy cm-Pyw- C-y
5843. s]-se-bp-sS b-Ym-Y t]-cv- F-Uv-K A-cm-kv tUm-\m-kn-satm
5844. s]-t{Sm-fn-b-n-s A-kw-kv-Ir-X-cq-]w A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv-
{Iq-Uv Hm-bn
5845. I-Wm-S-I-kw-Ko-X-n-s hm-\-m-Sn F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Xv- Fw.F-kv.kp--e-v-an
5846. C-y m-n-n- C-n-yq-n-s m-]-I- ]n.kn.a-le-t\m-_n-kv
5847. em-e e-Pv-]-Xv dm-bn-bp-sS a-c-n-\p Im-c-W-m-c-\m-b kmtU-gv-kv F- t]m-eo-kp-tZym-K--s\ h-[n--Xv- `-K-Xv kn-Mv
5848. em-tlm {]-Jym-]-\-n H-p-h--Xv- A-S _n-lm-cn hm-Pvt]-bn
5849. C-y in-m-\n-b-aw \-S-n-em-n-b h-jw- 1861
5850. I-fn-bm-w F- kn-\n-a G-Xv tj-Iv-kv-]n-b \m-S-I-s A-Snm-\-am-n-bp--Xm-Wv- H-Y-tm
5851. G-gp I-S-ep-I-fm Np--s- cm-Pyw--ku-Zn A-td-_y
5852. tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew U-]yq-n kv-]o--dm-b-Xv-
B.F-kv. D-n

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 135

5853. C-y Ip-Spw-_m-kq-{X-W-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- B.Un.Im-sh


5854. sa-Un--td-\n-b-s Xm-tm F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Pn-{_m
5855. I-\m irw-K-e hn-]p-e-am-b co-Xn-bn \n-an- Xp--Iv kpm- ^n-tdm-kv jm Xp--Iv
5856. C-y kn-\n-ab
- p-sS X-e
- m-\w F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- apw-ss_
5857. I-dp- a-c-Ww F--dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- t-Kv
5858. C-y kw-kv-Ym-\--fn aq-ey h-[n-X \n-Ip-Xn \n-e-hn
h- Xo-b-Xn- 2005 G-{]n 1
5859. sd-Uv se-Uv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- ss{S w-_n-Iv s{S-t{Sm-Ivs
- skUv
5860. tI-c-f-n H-cp a-Wv-U-e-n-\n-p-X-s G--hpw Iq-Sp-X
{]m-h-iyw hn-P-bn--Xv- sI.Fw.am-Wn
5861. Hu-dw-K-ko-_n-s `m-cy dm-_n-b Zp-cm-\n-bp-sS i-h-Ip-So-cw- _o_n Im a-Jv-_-c
5862. C-y kw-kv-Ym-\--fn kz-w `-c-W-L-S-\-bp- G-I kwm-\w- P-p-I
- i
- va
- o
5863. I-]-\ Nu-f _-ln-cm-Im-i-p-t]m-b-Xv G-Xp t]-S-I-n-emWv- sIm-fw-_n-b
5864. tIm-ssh F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv G-Xv \-K-c-am-Wv- tIm-b--q
5865. H-cp km-{am-Pyw kz--am-n-b B-Zy-s U-ln kp-m A-em-hp-o Jn-Pn
5866. c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-Kq P-\n- ho-Sv- sP-dm-km-tm `-h-\w
5867. C-y kw-m-\-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X {]m-h-iyw ap-Jy-a{n-bm-b h-\n-X- am-bm-h-Xn
5868. c-mw tNm-f km-{am-Py-n-s b-Ym-Y m-]-I- hn-P-bme-b
5869. tI-c-f-n I-fn-a \n-t-]w Iq-Sp-X-ep- {]-tZ-iw- Ip-d
5870. C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s \m-t\m sS-Iv-t\m-f-Pn ]T-\ tI-{w-_mw-q
5871. se-v F- ]-Zw G-Xv Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Z-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- tem sS-o-kv
5872. C-y-bn-se ssl-tm-S-Xn-I-fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X P-Uv-Pnam-cp--Xv- A-e-l-_m-Zv
5873. sF.F-kv.B.H. m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1969
5874. C-y-bn-se ssh-t{km-bn-am-cn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew ]-Zhn h-ln--Xv- en-en-Xv-tKm {]-`p
5875. hn-P-b-\-K-c-km-{am-Py-n-s-A-h-in-jv-S- Im-Wm I-gn-bp lw-]n G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- I-Wm-S-Iw
5876. C-y kw-m-\-v A-[n-Im-c-n-h- B-Zy-s {]mtZ-in-I cm-jv-{So-b ]m-n- Un.Fw.sI.
5877. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`- kv-Ym-]n-m- ap-I-s-Sp--h-cn- {]-ap-J\m-b- A-ta-cn-- {]-kn-U-v- {^m-v-fn- Un- dq-kv-sh-v5878. C-y kw-m-\-v a-{n-bm-b B-Zy h-\n-X--hn-P-b-e-van ]-Wv-Un-v
5879. tI-c-f-n, hy-`n-Nm-c-p-w B-tcm-]n-n-cp- kv-{Xo-I-sXn-sc kzo-I-cn-n-cp- \-S-]-Sn- kv-am- hn-Nm-cw
5880. C-y-bn-se ssS-U Xp-d-ap-Jw- Im-v-e
5881. hn-Iv-tSm-dn-b sh--m-w G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- kmw-_-kn
5882. sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bp-sS k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-m-\w- tSmn-tbm
5883. hm-K {Sm-P-Un G-Xp I-em-]-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ae-_m I-em-]w
5884. Hm-K-v hn--hw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Izn-n-ym k-a-cw
5885. Hm-kv-t{S-en-b-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b \-K-cw- kn-Uv-\n
5886. C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b I-\m- cm-P-m I-\m
(C-n-cm-Km-n I-\m)
5887. hm-kv-tIm U Km-a C-y-bn-te-p ]p-d-s- t]m-p-K Xp-dap-Jw- t_-ew
5888. hm-kv-tIm U Km-a h-n-d-n-b ]--em-bn-\n I-S-p-dw G-Xp
Pn--bn- tIm-gn-tm-Sv
5889. C-y kw-m-\-v ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy k-ym-kn-\n-
D-am-`m-c-Xn
5890. kn._n.sF.bp-sS tI-c-f-bq-Wn-n-s B-m-\w- sIm-n

tNmZyw; Dcw l Inj


l Injs\ \nbanXv dn {]`phmtWm
sNwkvt^mUv {]`phmtWm?
dn {]`p \nban (1882) l Inj hnZym`ymkcwKspdnmWv ]T\w \SnbXv. hneyw
hnk l (18401900) Cy knhn khokv
DtZymK\mbncpp. ]noStlw tdmb GjymnIv
skmssknbpsS sshkv {]knUmbn.
Pmenbhmem_mKv Iqsmesbpdnv At\zjnm\mWv sNwkvt^mUv {]`p l Injs\ \ntbmKnXv.
A`n`mjI, \ymbm[n], cmjv{Sob t\Xmhv Fo
\neIfn {]ikvX\mb hneyw ldpsS (18651957)
t]cnemWv HXwK Inj AdnbsXv.
5891. en-tbm-t]m-Uv _v-fqw- B-cp kr-jv-Sn- I-Ym-]m-{X-am-Wv- sPbnw-kv tPm-bv-kv
5892. sh--kv-en- {]-`p-hn-s-d ssk-\n-I-k-lm-b hy-h-kv-Y-bn- Hp-sh- B-Zy-s \m-p-cm-Pyw- - ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv5893. tI-c-f-n N--\-m-Sp- {]-tZ-iw- a-d-bq
5894. enw-Km-b-p-I-fp-sS B-cm-[-\m-aq-n- in-h
5895. eo Izm bp G-Xp cm-Py-s B-Zy {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-Wv- knwK-q
5896. sIm-- ]--W-n-s m-]-I- tPm-_v Nm-t\m-v
5897. tI-c-f-n s]m-eo-kv ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS n-Xn sN-p-p-
sIm-w
5898. eo-em-hX
- n F- Ir-Xn t]-jy-\n-te-v X-Pa
- sN-bvX
- X
- v- s^bv-kn
5899. Sn-p kp-m-s X-e-m-\-am-bn-cp--Xv- {io-cw-K-]--Ww
5900. C-y kw-m-\-v ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy Z-fn-Xv h-\n-X-
am-bm-h-Xn
5901. kq-cy-Im-n c-Nn--Xm-cv--Pn.i--c-p-dp-v
5902. tdm-f-Iv-kv hm-p-I--\n-bp-sS B-m-\w F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--P-\oh
5903. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s k-m- B-ip-]-{Xn- Xn-cp-h-\--]pc-v- {]-h--\-am-cw-`n--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.Un.1864
5904. tdm-th-gv-kv I-v G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- ^p-Svt_m
5905. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s s{]m-^-j-W ^p-Sv-t_m -v-
F-^v.kn.sIm-n
5906. sP-tkm- sh--m-w G-Xp \-Zn-bn- i-cm-h-Xn
5907. hn-c-ep-I-fn-s-n-epw \-J- D- Po-hn- B-\
5908. m-n Nn-{Xw A--Sn--s- B-Zy C-y h-\n-X- ao-cm-`mbn
5909. C-y kw-m-\--fn ap-Jy-a-{n-m-\w G--hpw Iq-SpX Im-ew h-ln--Xv- tPym-Xn _-kp
5910. tI-cf
-
- n Xp-S-p-hc
- p- km-ap-Zm-bn-I kw-hc
- W
- w G-Xp {]tm-`-n-s ^-e-am-Wv- \n-h--\ {]-tm-`-Ww
5911. eq-bn- ]-Xn-\m-dm-a-s\- h-[-in--bv-v- hn-t[-b-\m-n-b-sX-v-
1793 P-\p-h-cn- 21
5912. tI-c-f-n Xp-S--bm-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-Im-ew ap-Jy-a-{n
kn.A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
5913. eq-kn-m-\n-b C-tm A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- t]m-p-K
5914. tI-cf
-
- n-em-Zy-am-bn C-eI
- vt- {Sm-Wn-Iv thm-n-Mv sa-jo D-]t- bmKn- a-Wv-U-ew- ]-d-hq
5915. eq-Wm Im-n-Iv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- kn-h ss\-t{S-v
5916. C-y kw-m-\--fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X X-t-io-b `m-jI-fp- kw-m-\w- A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-iv
5917. ssh-tem-n-n kw-kv-Ir-Xn `-h F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
5918. eq-tm-ssk-v-kv F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- sh-fp-c
-
- m-Wp-.

136 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

5919. H-cp kv-{Xo t]m-epw A-`n-\n-bn-m- a-e-bm-f N-e-n-{Xw- aXn-ep-I


5920. tIm-SX
- n-bn lm-Pc
- m-Ip-X
- n-\n-v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq cm-Pm-am H-gn-hm-n-bn-cp- G-I hy-n -{io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
5921. H-cp Km-e F-{X en-- 4.546 en-
5922. Nm-Uv- Um-hn- X-s-d- \n-co-W
-
- - \-S
- m- sX-cs
- Sp-- Km-e-m-tKm-kv- Zzo-]p-I- C-tm- G-Xp- cm-Py-n-s-d\n-b-{-W-n-em-Wv--C-Iz-tUm5923. Nm-eq-Iy-am-cp-sS X-e-m-\w- hm-Xm-]n
5924. tI-c-f-n-s ]-Sn-m-dp-`m-K-v n-Xn-sN-p- I-S- A-d_n--S
5925. Nm-eq-Iy-cm-Pm-hv ]p-en-tI-in c-m-a-s\ tXm-]n- ]--h cmPm-hv--\-c-knw-l-h-a
5926. ssl-tm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS hn-c-an- {]m-bw- 62 h-b-v
5927. Nm-eq-Iy-hn-{I-a kw-h-k-cw B-cw-`n--Xv- ]-n-a Nm-eq-Iy-hwi-n-se hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy B-dm-a
5928. ssl--sam-t{Sm-n-b G-X-h-b-h-s _m-[n-p- \yq-\-X-bmWv- I-v
5929. tI-c-f-n-s G--hpw sX-t-b--s \-Zn--s\-m
5930. Nm-eq-Iy-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- P-b-knw-l
5931. ssh-Zyp-Xn D-]m-Zn-n-m ti-jn-bp- a-kyw- Cu
5932. Nm-f--S F-p {]-kn--am-bn-cn-p- k-ap-{Z-`m-Kw- D--c
A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap-{Zw
5933. tI-c-f-n-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I ]-n- th-gm-
5934. Nn-c
- R
- vP
- tem-tm-tam-o-hv ^m-IvS- d
- n G-Xp-kw-kvY
- m-\
- mWv- ]-n-a-_w-Km
5935. Km-n-Pn B-kq-{X-Ww sN-bv-X hn-Zym-`ym-k ]--Xn- \-bo Xmenw
5936. B-cp-sS A-\p-bm-bn-I-fm-bn-cp-p X-hn-p Ip-m-b-m--ln-v-e
5937. a-{n-k-` ]n-cn-p-hn-Sm B-m-W-[n-Im-c-ap--Xv--K-h-W
5938. ssU-\m-tam-bn ssh-Zyp-tXm-Pw e-`n-p--Xv G-Xv Du-Pn-\n-m-Wv- bm-{n-tIm-Pw
5939. tdm-a I-tm-en--cp-sS B-o-b X-e-m-\w F--dn-b-sSp--Xv h-n-m
5940. ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv G-Xp \-Zo-Xo-c-v- ap-kn
5941. tI-c-f-n-se a--gn G-Xv hn-tZ-i---\n-bp-sS A-[-\n-th-i{]-tZ-i-am-bn-cp-p- {^-v
5942. Nn-dm-]q-n-G-Xp-kw-m-\-m-Wv- ta-Lm-e-b
5943. hn-b- G-Xp \-Zn-bp-sS Xo-c-m-Wv- Um-\yq-_v
5944. ssS-K t-v Hm-^v C-y F--dn-b-s-Sp- kw-m-\w- a[y-{]-tZ-iv
5945. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy \r-Xy--\m-Sy ]p-c-kv-Im-c-n-\v A-l-bmb-Xv- I-em-a-Wv-U-ew k-Xy-`m-a
5946. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ss{I-kv-X-h-]p-tcm-ln-X- a-c-X-I-h-n
tU-hn-Uv
5947. ssX-tdm-Iv-kn-s Ip-d-hp-aq-e-ap-m-Ip- tcm-Kw- tKm-bn-
5948. ssZ-h-Z-i-Iw c-Nn--Xv- {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp
5949. C-y kw-m-\
- f
- n G-h
- pw P-\k
- w-Jy-Iq-Sn-bX
- v- D-{]-tZ-iv
5950. hm-kv-tIm- U Km-a ssh-t{km-bn- B-bn- tI-c-f-n- F-n-b
h-jw- F.Un.1524
5951. I-n-b-hm-Vn-se kp-Z-i-\-X-Sm-I-n-s tI-Sp-]m-Sp-I Xo cm-Pm-hv- cp-{Z-Zm-a
5952. C-y kw-m-\--fn i-X-am-\m-Sn-k-Ym-\-n G--hpw
Iq-Sp-X h-\-`q-an-bp--Xv- an-skm-dw
5953. G--hpw Iq-Sp-X P-\-km-{-X-bp- h-I-c--G-jy
5954. tKm-_-t-hv P-\m-[n-]-Xy ]-cn-jv-Im-c- \-S-m-n-b cm-Pyw-d-jy
5955. H-cp t\m-n- ssa F-{X A-Sn-bm-Wv-6080
5956. \yq-tbm-v G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-s Xo-c-m-Wv--A-Xv-emn-Iv kap-{Zw
5957. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ]-n-Iv sl-v e-t_m-d--dn-bp-sS
m-]I
- - tUm.kn.H.I-cp-Wm-Ic
-
5958. sX- G-jy-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b cm-Pyw- C-y
5959. Hm-kv-t{S-en-b I-s-n-b-Xv- Iym-]v- Ip-v
5960. C-y sd-b F-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- N-h-d

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

36

eZzo]v kaqln F{X Zzo]pI Dv


knnans\ Cy bqWnb\nse Hcp kwm\
amnbXv F{Xmas `cWLS\mt`ZKXnbneqsSbmWv
Hcp hmc (bmUv) F{X CmWv
{In]vtmWns AWpkwJy
sSokv tImns hoXn (U_nkv) F{X ASnbmWv
aebmfnse hyRvP\en]nIfpsS Fw
Amcmjv{S GIZn\ {Inn Ghpw thKtadnb
skzdn F t\w tImdn BtUgvk ssIhcnXv
F{X ]pIfn\nmWv
5961. eu-Uv kv-]o- I-p-]nSn- - X m- c v- slm- t d- k v
tjm-v (1900)
5962. tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-s a\p-jym-hI
- m-iI
-
- n-j A[y-- P-n-kv ]-co-Xp]n-
5963. F ssN-\ ]m-tk-Pv c-Nn-Xv- sP.sI.Km-s{_-bvv
5964. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s
kn-\n-am-p-Un-tbm- D-Z-b
(B-e-p-g)
5965. Km-n-Pn hm-[-bn tkC- y- kw- k v - Y m- \ - v - ap- J yhm-{Kmw B-{i-aw m-]n-
a-{n-kv-Ym-\-s-n-b B-Zyh-jw 1936
kn- \ n- a m- \- S - 5966. Im-fn-Zm-k-s ]p-c-kv-IFwPn- cm- a - N - { m-hv- N
- {- -Kp-]X
v- hn-{I-amZn-Xy
5967. sX-bn Umw C-tm A-dn-b-s-Sp- t]-cv- c-Rv-Pn-Xv km-K
Umw
5968. F t\-j C ta-n-Mv c-Nn--Xv kp-tc-{-\m-Yv-_m-\-Pn
5969. F.]n.sP.A-_v-Zp I-em-an-s ]q-W-\m-aw- A-hp ]-o
ssP-\p-em-_v-Zo A-_v-Zp I-emw
5970. sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-se G--hpw P-\-kw-Jy Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw-
{_-ko
5971. C-y sd-bn-th-bp-sS Hu-tZym-Kn-I Nn-w- t`m-ep
5972. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm No-^v sk-{I--dn- ]-m cm-aN-{
5973. C-y sd-Uv-t{Im-kv skm-ssk-n m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1920
5974. t\m-v Cu-t ln bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n-bp-sS B-m-\w
F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- jn-tm-Mv
5975. t\m-h-en-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- s_m-m-tjym
5976. Hm-Iv-kn-P I-gn-m `u-tam-]-cn-X-e-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-Xep- aq-e-Iw- kn-en-
5977. tKm-sm--sb ap-K km-{am-Py-tm-Sp tN--Xv- Hu-dwK-ko-_v (1687)
5978. t]m-eo-kv tk-\-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tdm-_-v
]o
5979. tKm-a-tX-iz-c {]-Xn-a n-Xn sN-p--Xv- {im-h-W-_-e-tKm-f
5980. t]m-tam-f-Pn F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- ]-g-
5981. t^m-ap-e h Im-tdm- a-k-c-n ]-s-Sp- B-Zy-s
C-ym-m-c- \m-cm-b Im-n-tI-b
5982. tkm-f-n hw-i-n-s X-e-m-\w- A-ln-hm-c
5983. t]m-fn-{Km-^n-s a-sm-cp t]-cv- sse Un--Iv-S
5984. tKm-h D-s-sS-bp- t]m-p-Ko-kv A-[o-\-{]-tZ-i- kzX-{-am-b h-jw- 1961
5985. Km-n-Pn hn-hm-lw I-gn- h-jw 1881
5986. Im-fn-Zm-k-s am--]o-kv- A-`n-m-\-im-Ip--fw

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 137

5987. Im-fn-Zm-k-s B-Zy-Ir-Xn- E-Xp-kw-lm-cw


5988. t^m-tm tIm-n-b-dn D-]-tbm-Kn-p- ]-Zm-Yw- sk-eo-\nbw
5989. tKm-h-[w \n-tcm-[n--Ww F--Xv `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS G-Xv `m-Km-Wv tN-n-cn-p--Xv- \n-t-i-I X-z-
5990. _m-sj-hn-Iv hn--hw-\-S--Xv G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- d-jy
5991. C-y So-an-s B-Zy Am-n-m ]-cy-S-\w \-S-n-b hjw- 1982
5992. F.Un.- 644- tI-c-fw- {]-Z-in- A-d-_n- k-m-cn- am-en-Iv- Zn_n-\m5993. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s Iw-]yq--h-Xv-Ir-X ]-m-b-v- sh-\m-Sv
5994. tKm-h-[-s bm-{X-I- c-Nn--Xm-cv- B-\-v
5995. tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s k-q-W ip-Nn-Xz ]-m-b-v- s]mXp-I (a-e-p-dw)
5996. F.Un.B-dmw i-X-I-n ssP-\-a-X-{K-- F-hn-sS-h-mWv t{Im-Uo-I-cn--s--Xv- h-f-`n
5997. C-y sS-e-{Km-^v sN-Sn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- cm-a-\m-Y--
5998. t{i-jvT `m-jm ]-Z-hn e-`n- B-Zy C-y `m-j--X-an-gv
5999. tm-tdm-^n-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- tem-lw- a-o-jyw
6000. hm-ao-In ssS-K dn-k-hv G-Xp kw-m-\-v- _o-lm
6001.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw {]-Nm-c-ap- ]-{Xw- ssSw-kv Hm-^v C-y
6002.- hm-kv-tIm U Km-a I--en-d-n-b -ew- Im-m-Sv
6003.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw D-p-c-kw Iq-Sn-b X-Sm-Iw- kmw-`m
6004.- hm-kv-tIm U Km-a tIm-gn-tm-s-n-b I-- km-thm K{_n-tb
6005.- Hm-K-kv-Xv ]-\n F--dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- C-^v-fp-h-k
6006.- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- A-b
6007.- I-Wm-S-I-kw-Ko-X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]p-c-c-Zm-k
6008.- C-y sS-e-t^m C-U-kv-{So-kv ]m-e-m-Sv Pn--bn Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- I-n-tm-Sv
6009.- F-\n-v \- A--am-sc X-cq, Rm \n--v \- cm-Pyw Xcmw F-p ]-d--Xv- s\-tm-fn-b
6010.- tI-c-f-n P-\-Io-bm-kq-{X-Ww D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sN--s- Xo-bXn- 1996 Hm-K-kv-Xv 17
6011.- G-Xv cm-Py-n-s bq-tdm-]y `m-K-am-Wv t{X-kv- Xp-n
6012.- tem-I-s G--hpw ho-Xn-Iq-Sn-b sh--m-w- tJm (em-thmkn)
6013.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s kv-]o-Uv t]m-v sk- F-d-Wm-Ipfw
6014.- ta-L
- Iq-Sp-Xe
- m-bpw Im-Ws
- -Sp- A-c
- o- ]m-fn- t{Smtm-kv-^n-b
6015.- tI-c-f-n {Xn-X-e ]-m-b-v cm-Pv kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hnh--Xv (1995 H-Iv-tSm-_ 2) G-Xv ap-Jy-a-{n-bp-sS Im-e-v-
F.-sI.-B-Wn
6016.- tI-c-f-n sIm--Wn `m-jm-`-h F-hn-sS n-Xn sN-p-p sIm-n
6017.- kw-kv-Ym-\ ap-Jy-a-{n,- tem-Iv-k-`m-kv-]o-,- cm-jv-{S-]-Xn- Fo- ]-Z-hn-I- h-ln- G-I hy-Iv-Xn- \o-ew- k-Rv-Po-h sd-UvUn6018.- lq-W hw-i-n-se cm-Pm--am-cn G--hpw {]-i-kv-X- anln-c-Ip-e
6019.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Kp-lm-hyq-lw- am-a-v Kp-l
6020.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s sd-bn-th sse- Xn-cq--t_-q
6021.- tlm-q-kv a-e-_m-dn--kv F-hn-sS-\n-p-am-Wv B-Zy-am-bn A-Sn--Xv- Bw--Umw
6022.- tN-c-m- aq-j-I-cm-Pyw- Io-g-S-n-b h-jw- F.-Un.-880
6023.- tem-I {]-i-kv-Xn t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s tI-c-fo-b Nn-{X-Im-c- cmPm c-hn-h-a
6024.- tN-c-cm-Pm--am-cp-sS Im-h-hr-w ]-\
6025.- tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn sS-en-hn-j kw-t{]--Ww Xp-S-n-b-Xv-
e--\n
6026.- tN-cn-tN-cm {]-m-\-n-s ]n-d-hn-bv-p Im-c-W-am-b _m-qMv k-t-f-\w \-S- h-jw- 1955
6027.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b ]-h-X-\n-c- ln-am-e-bw

CONFUSING FACTS
cmPohv Km\v[nbpsS PZn\w (BKkvXv 20) kZv`m-

h\mZn\ambpw NcaZn\w (sabv 21) `oIchmZhncpZn\ambpw (Anti terrorism Day)BNcnpp.


Rv \ Aamsc Xcq, Rm \nv
\sm-cp cmjv{Sw Xcmw Fp ]dXv s\tmfnb
t_mWmmWv . F\nq cw Xcq; Rm
\n- v kzmX{yw Xcmw Fp ]dXv
kp`mjv N{t_mkv .
Warrior from the South FdnbsXv kn.cmPtKm]mem-NmcnbmWv. Firebrand of the South Fdnbs t\Xmhv Fkv.kXyaqnbmWv.
]{XkzmX{yZn\w sabv 3 BWv. Cy \yqkvt]-Zn\w P\hcn 29\v BNcnpp. sPbnkv
AKkvXkv lnn Cybnse BZys ]{Xamb
_wKm Kkv Bcw`n XobXnbmWnXv (1780).
6028.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s Sq-dnkw hn-t-Pv- Ip--f-n
6029.- tem-I
- n-se G-h
- pw ]-g
- a
- p \n-ba
- \
- n-am-Wk
- `- G-Xp cmPy-n-t-Xv- sF-kv-e-Uv
6030.- lr-Z-b-n-\v 4 A-d-I-fp- Htc-sbm-cp D-c-Kw- ap-X-e
6031.- Nm-h-d Ip-cym-tm-kv- G-en-bmkv- A-s
- -d `u-Xn-Im-hi
- n-jS-v wkq-n-n-cn-p-X
- v- am-m-\w6032.- Km-n-Pn A-l--Zm-_m-Zv sS-Ivss bq-Wn-b m-]n-Xv- 1917
6033.- ssU-Cu-ssY ssU Im_m-a-kn kn-t{S-v(Un.-C.-kn.-)
B-Zy-s m-\-]oT
G-Xp tcm-K-n-s {]-Xn-tcm-[tPX m- h v - - - - P n.i- - c - p- d p- v
a-cp-m-Wv- a-v
6034.- sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-se G-hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b cm-Pyw- {_-ko
6035.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b `q-K-`-ssh-Zyp-Xn-\n-e-bw- aq-e-aw
6036.- H-cp tam hm-X-I-n A-S-n-bn-cn-p- X-m-{X-I-fp-sS Fw- A-h-Km-t{Um \-
6037.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s d- ^m-Iv-S-dn m-]n--s--Xv- Xncp-h-\--]p-cw
6038.- P-a s^-U-d dn--n-n-s H-m-a-s Nm-k-e Bbn-cp--Xv- tIm-dm-Uv A-U-t\m
6039.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s Pq-X
-
- n G-Xp kw-m-\
- m-Wv \nan--s--Xv- tI-c-fw
6040.- Nn-{Xm-hn-tiz-iz-c G-Xp-am-bn _--s- I-em-Im-cn-bm-Wv- `c-X-\m-Syw
6041.- C-y-bn-se tX-bn-e-tm-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- A-kw
6042.- Nn-{Xm-Rv-P-en p-Un-tbm tImw--Iv-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--Xn-cp-hw
6043.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sIm-ta-gv-ky ss]-e-v- sP.-B.-Un.Sm-
6044.- P-em--`m-K
- m-bn-cn-p-tm D-]c
- n-Xe
- w ho-n-m ap-n-e
- p-If
- n D-]t- bm-Kn-p- D-]I
- c
- W
- a
- m-Wv- s]-cn-kvt- Im-v
6045.- N-c-n-\p-]-I-cw N-c-v F- ]-g-b-Im-e I-tm-f hy-h-n-Xnp ]-d-bp- t]-cv- _m-
6046.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s sa-Un- k-h-I-em-im-e- hn-P-bhm-U
6047.- lr-Z-b-an-Sn-p-\n-c-v- G--hpw- Ip-d- k-kv-X-\n- \o-e-n-anwKn-ew6048.- tKm-Un-b Ip-Sp-v sh-n-ap-dn--Xm-cv--A-e-Iv-km- N-{I-hn

138 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6049.- h-ep--n aq-mw m-\-p- k-ap-{Zw--C-y- a-lm-kap-{Zw


6050.- G-h
- pw Iq-Sp-X P-\k
- m-{-Xb
- p- tI-{ `-cW
- {]-tZ-iw- Uln
6051.- P-hm-l-em-s\-{lp-hn-s B--I-Y B-m-Wv k-a-n-ncn-p--Xv- I-a-em s\-{lp
6052.- ap-kv-fn--fp-sS G--hpw ]m-h-\ -e-am-b I-_ G-Xv cm-Pym-Wv--ku-Zn A-td-_y
6053.- --- s {]-hm-l-am-Wv ssh-Zyp-Xn- C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wp-I
6054.- C-y-bn-se X-t-i-kz-bw-`-c-W-n-s-d ]n-Xm-hv- dn-- {]`p6055.- l-Wn-aq Zzo-]pw t{_-v-^m-v Zzo-]pw G-Xp X-Sm-I-n-emWv- Nn-
6056.- tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n D-]-Xn-c-s-Sp-p \-S-
B-Zy a-Wv-U-ew- tZ-hn-Ip-fw
6057.- C-y-bn-se-n-b B-Zy- ap-nw- B-{I-aW
- I
- m-cn -ap-l
- Z- v- _nIm-knw6058.- tUm-{Kn `m-j D-]-tbm-K-n-ep- kw-m-\w- P-p--Im-iv-ao
6059.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s cm-Pn-h- D-]-{]-[m-\-a-{n- sam-dmPn tZ-im-bn
6060.- tI-c-f k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS {]-Y-a ssh-kv Nm-k-e--tUm.tPm a-m-bn
6061.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b U-- kp--_-kv
6062.- C-y-bn-se-n-b B-Zy ssN-\o-kv k-m-cn- ^m-ln-bm
6063.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Zzo-]-k-aq-lw- C-sm-\o-jy
6064.- tUm-v-kv G-Xp tcm-K-n-s \n-b-{-W-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cnp-p- -bw
6065.- tUm F-hn-sS-\n-v {]-kn-o-I-cn-p-p- I-dm-n
6066.- l-Xn-Ipw-`-in-em-im-k-\-n-\n-v G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s ]-cm-{I-aW--sf-p-dn-m-Wv A-dn-hv e-`n-p--Xv- Jm-c-th-e
6067.- G-Xp cm-Py-n-s B-Zy {]-kn-Um-Wv ap-kvX
- ^
- I-am- Xpn
6068.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw sN-dn-b cm-Pyw h-n-m
6069.- lyp-bm km-Mv C-y-bn h--Xv B-cp-sS Im-e-v- lj
6070.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tIm-tf-Pv- kn.-Fw.-F-kv. tIm-tf-Pv,
tIm--bw
6071.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s tPm-bn-dv- kv-tm-v- I--\n- a-e-bmf a-t\m-c-a
6072.- lyq-a Po-t\mw t{]m-P-Iv-Sv F- B-i-b-n-\v 1985 cq-]w
\-In-b im-kv-{X-- hm- kn-jo-a
6073.- P-lmw-Ko-dn-s Hm-a-p-dn-p-I- Xp-kp-v--C--P-lmw-Ko-dn
6074.- kv-]o--dp-sS-bpw- sU-]y-q-n- kv-]o--dp-sS-bpw- A-`m-h-n- k`-bn- A-[y--X h-ln-p--Xv- kv-]o-- A--tm- \m-a\n-tZ-iw-sN-p- ]m-\-en-\n-v- H-cw-Kw6075.- tI-c-f ssl-tm-S-Xn-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm-P-Uv-Pn- A-m
Nm-n
6076.- G-Xp cm-Py-n-s ]m-e-sam-Wv dn-Iv-kv-Um-Kv- kzo-U
6077.- I-j-I-s an-{Xw F--dn-b-s-Sp- hn-c--a-n-c
6078.- ku-c-bq-Y-n-se G--hpw Nq-Sp Iq-Sn-b {K-lw- ip-{I
6079.- tZ-io-b-]-Xm-I-bp-sS \o-f-hpw ho-Xn-bpw X-n-ep- A-\p-]m-Xw 3:-2
6080.- U-p-Im-cp-sS I- k-aq-lw B-Zy-am-bn tI-c-f-n-h- hjw- 1604
6081.- kw-L-Im-e I-h-bn-{Xn-I-fn G--hpw {]-i-kv-X- Hu--bm
6082.- kv-{Xo-sb h-o-I-cn-p- i-kv-{X-{In-b-bp-sS t]-cv- Syq-s_-IvS-an
6083.- Po F- t]-cv \-In-b-Xv- hn-lw sPm-lm-k
6084.- kv-am t]m-Iv-kn-\p Im-c-Ww- ssh-d-kv
6085.- tI-c-f-n `-c-X-\p k-a-n-n-p t-{Xw- Iq-S-am-Wn-Iyt-{Xw, C-cn-m-e-p-S
6086.- kv-]n-cn-v- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xn-s cm-k-\m-aw- Cu-ssY B-tlm
6087.- s\-bv-p-Im-cp-sS \-K-cw F--dn-b-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]m-\n--v
6088.- s\-lvd
- p- B-Uv- ln-kv- hn-j- Nn-X
- v- sI B- \m-cm-bW
- 6089.- s\-tm-fn-b P-\n- kv-Y-ew- tIm-gv-kn-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

37

H-fn-n-Iv tlm-n-bn [ym-N-v F-{X tKm-fp-I-fm-Wv t\Sn-bn-p--Xv


a-\p-jy-i-co-c-n-s i-cm-i-cn Du-jv-am-hv G-I-tZ-iw F-{X
Un-{Kn sko-t{K-Um-Wv
F-{X hm-ey--fm-bn-m-Wv ]p-cm-X-\ Zm-i-\n-I-\m-b n-\n
\m-p-d ln--dn c-Nn--Xv
tIm-gn-ap- hn-cn-bm-\p- A-\p-Iq-e Du-jv-am-hv F-{X Un-{Kn
sko-t{K-Um-Wv
au-en-I I--hy- tIm-S-Xn-h-gn \-S-m-m I-gn-bn-
F-v hy-h- sN-p- C-y `-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-t-Zta-Xv
G--hpw Ip-d- {]m-b-n tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b
F.sI.B-Wn F-{X h-b
- n-em-Wv B ]-Zh
- n-bn-se-n-bX
- v
C-y-bp-sS h-S-t A-Xn-n-bn-se A-mw-iw G-I-tZiw F-{X Un-{Kn-bm-Wv
kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-km-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn-bm-Wv
P-n-kv sI.Pn._m-e-Ir-jv-W. A-t-lw kp-{]ow tIm-SXn-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s No-^v P-n-km-bn-cp-p
A-cp-Wm-N {]-tZ-in-\v kz--am-bn \n-b-a-k-`-bpw a-{n-k`-bp-ap-m-m A-\p-a-Xn \-In-b `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn
6090.- kw-Ko-Xw \n-tcm-[n- Xp--Iv kp-m- Kn-bm-kp-o Xp-Iv
6091.- tI-c-f-n b-lq-Z-cp-sS B-Zy k-t-Xw- sIm-Sp--q
6092.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- in-h-t-{X--fn-sem-m-b
I-m-n G-Xp Pn--bn-em-Wv- ]m-e-m-Sv
6093.- Un-n-K-en-se Km-\v-[n-{Kmw- dq-d- C-kv-n-yq-n-s-d kv-Ym-]I-\m-b Km-\v-[n-b--Pn- cm-a-N-{6094.- Un-ssh tIm-a-Un c-Nn--Xv- Um-t
6095.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b A-W-s-v- ln-cm-p-Uv
6096.- I-ayq-Wn-v ]m-n tI-c-f-n cq-]-h-Xv-Ir-X-am-bXmbn {]-Jym]n--s h-jw- 1939
6097.- Cu-^- tKm-]p-cw- \n-an-- h-jw - 1789
6098.- C-cp-]-n-sbm-mw \q-m-n cq-]w sIm- B-Zy cm-Pyw Cu-v Xn-aq
6099.- C-y-bn-se G-Xv k-h-I-em-im-e-bm-Wv B-Zy-am-bn kz-w tdUn-tbm t-j m-]n--Xv- Kp-P-dm-n-se k-Zm ]-t
bq-Wn-th-gv-kn-n
6100.- C-y-bn-se D-cp-p \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Pw-j-Uv-]q
6101. Uok Fn\n Cnj kw`hnpXv Fns
^eambmWv Iw{]j
6102. UotKm Kmjy Zzo]v GXp kap{Zn Cy almkap{Zw
6103. tIcfnse Ghpw {]mbw Ipd kv]o
kn.Fv.aplZv tImb
6104. Kw-K- {_-lv-a-]p-{X- \-Zn-I- kw-K-an-p-m-Ip-- P-e-{]-hm-lns-d- ]-X-\-kv-Ym-\-v- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-p-- tem-I-s- G-hpw- h-en-b- U-- kp--_-kv6105. Poh aimbn- F IYm]m{Xw BcpsS krjvSnbmWv
Xmcmi _m\Pn
6106.- C-y ssh-kv {]-kn-Un-s\ Xn-c-s-Sp-p--Xv- ]m-esan-se F-m Aw-K--fpw
6107.- hm--tK-v hn-hm-Z-s-p-S-v cm-Pn-sh- A-ta-cn- {]-knU v- dn-m-Uv \n-Iv-k
6108.- Po-hn-n-cn-p-tm ]-c-a-ho-c-N-{Iw e-`n- G-I ssk-\n-I-
kp-t_-Zm ta-P _m-\m kn-Mv
6109.- ^p-Sv-t_m kw-L-S-\-bm-b ^n-^-bp-sS B-m-\w(kq-dn-v)
G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- kzn-v-k-e v
6110.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw D-b-cw Iq-Sn-b sIm-Sp-ap-Sn- B-\-ap-Sn
6111.- X-an-gv-\m-n-se G--hpw h-en-b c-m-a-s `m-j- sX-ep-v

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 139

6112.- ssa--em--tem B-cm-bn-cp-p- C-m-en-b in-ev-]n


6113.- ssa-m J-\-\-n-\p {]-kn--am-b sIm-U-a J-\n-I G-Xp
kw-m-\-v- Pm-J-Uv
6114.- C-y ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-n-s ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
[-\z--cn
6115.- Km-n-Pn k-_-a-Xn B-{i-aw m-]n- h-jw 1917
6116.- Im-gv-N \-jv-S-am-b-ti-jw a-lm-Im-hyw F-gp-Xn-b Cw-Kv-fo-jv I-hn tPm an-
6117.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s sd-bn-th sse \n-e-hn h-
h-jw- 1861
6118.- tem-v Pm F--Xv G-Xp tcm-K-n-s e--W-am-Wv- sS--\kv
6119.- tdm-t_-gv-kv Kp-l F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--sU-dm-Uq
6120.- F-\n-sm-cp kz-]v\
- a
- p-v- F-m-cw-`n-p- {]-kn-a
- m-b {]-kwKw B-cp-tS-Xm-Wv- am-n eq-X In-Mv
6121.- sI.-F-kv.-C.-_n. \n-e-hn h- h-jw- 1957 (H-Iv-tSm-_ 31)
6122.- sIm-cm-]p-Sv A-ep-an-\n-bw t{]m-P-Iv-Sv G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv-
H-do-k
6123.- sI.-Un.-bm-Z-hv G-Xn-\-n--em-Wv H-fn-n-Iv-kn(1952) sa-U
t\-Sn-b-Xv- d-n-Mv
6124.- sI-\n-b-bn-se kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-n-\p t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv-
tPm-tam sI-\n-bm-
6125.- X-e-t-cn-tm- \n-an--Xv- {_n-o-jp-Im (1708)
6126.- F-{_-lmw en- h-[n--s- h-jw- 1865
6127.- C-y t]m-eo-kv k-ho-kv D-tZym-K--sc ]-cn-io-en-n-p \-K-cw- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv
6128.- ssk-e v hm-en-bn-eq-sS H-gp-Ip- ]p-g- Ip-n-p-g
6129.- tI-c-f-n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv sk v G--tem tIm-- I-q
6130.- ssk--h kw-kv-Im-c-n-s `m-K-am-b t[m-f-hn-c n-Xn sNp- Zzo-]v- Jm-Zn
6131.- sIm-m-c--fp-sS \-K-cw- sIm--
6132.- sIm- h-j-n-se A-h-km-\-s am-kw- I--S-Iw
6133.- Xn-aq-dn-s X-e-m-\w- k-a-J-Uv
6134.- H-gn- ]m-{X-am-Wv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X i-_v-Z-ap-m-p--Xv Fp ]-d--Xv- hn-eyw tj-Iv-kv-]n-b
6135.- ku-c-bq-Y-n B-sI ]n-Wv-U-n-s F-{X i-X-am-\-am-Wv
kq-cy-s ]n-Wv-Uw- 99.-8
6136.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy a-{n-k-`-bn-se d-h-\yq, F-Iv-ssk-kv a{n- sI.-B.-Ku-cn
6137.- F-p-I-fp-sS-bpw ]-p-I-fp-sS-bpw i-n \n-e-\n-dp-m B-hiy-am-b L-S-Iw- Im-kyw
6138.- Z-n-Wm-[-tKm-f-n B-Zy-am-bn H-fn-n-Iv-kn-\p-th-Zn-bm-b
\-K-cw- sa-_ (1956)
6139.- sa-Un--td-\n-b-s Zzo-]-kv-Xw-`w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- kv-t{Smwt_m-fn sIm-Sp-ap-Sn
6140.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s _m-v- s\-Sp-m-Sn _m-v (1899)
6141.- sb-Im-Sv G-Xp kw-m-\-s hn-t\m-Z-k-m-c tI-{-am-Wv-
X-an-gv-\m-Sv
6142.- tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm a-Pn-kvt- {S-v- Hm-a\
-
- p-
6143.- sh---Sp-h-I-p {]-kn--am-b H-do-k-bn-se h-\y-Po-hn-kt-Xw- \--Im-\
6144.- tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-s hn-Zym-`ym-ka
- {- n- tPm-k^
- v ap-t- -cn
6145.- sh--m--n-\v F-Xn-sc \o-m I-gn-hp- a-kyw- kma
6146.- F-{X-a-s _p--a-X-k-t-f-\-am-Wv A-tim-I-s Im-e-v \S--Xv- aq-v
6147.- kv-]m-\n-jv- `m-j- \n-e-hn-ep-- H-tc-sbm-cp- B-{^n-- cm-Pyw-C-Iz-tm-dn-b- Kn-\n6148.- C-y thym-a-tk-\ cq-]-h--cn--s- h-jw- 1933
6149.- F-tUm-k-^m D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv G-Xv Ir-jn-bn-em-Wv-
I-ip-h
- n
6150.- Km-n-Pn B-kq-{X-Ww sN-bv-X hn-Zym-`ym-k ]--Xn Aw-Ko-Icn- tIm-{K-v k-t-f-\w- l-cn-]p-c(1938)
6151.- ssZ-hw kv-t\-ln-p--h sN-dp--n-te a-cn-p-p- F-p ]d--Xv- ss_-d {]-`p
6152.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b `q-ta-J-e- C-S-\m-Sv

CONFUSING FACTS
X]m mn ASns BZys tIm{Kkv
{]knU v almmKmn. \mWbn BZyambn
ap{ZWw sNs tIm{Kkv {]knU v Phmlem
s\{lp.
\oecap Pohn hn`mKw samfIvk, ]capXv
A\enU.
ssZhns kzw \mSv FdnbsSp Cy
kwm\w tIcfw. ssZhns kzw \mSv
FdnbsSp cmPyw \yqkneUv.
{_ns hyhtbm[nI Fp hnfns {][m\a{nbmbncpp hneyw Fhmv mUv (18091898).
CybpsS hyhtbm[nI FdnbsXv ZmZm`mbv
\htdmPn (18251917) BWv.
6153.- sX-bn A-W-s-n-s ]p-Xn-b t]cv- c-Rv-Pn-Xv km-K (l-cn-bm-\)
6154.- sX-ep-p-tZ-iw- ]m-Sn- kv-Ym-]n-Xv- F- Sn- cm-a-dm-hp- (Nn-lv-\w ssk-n)6155.- tI-cf
-
- n-se G-h
- pw h-en-b ag-m-Sv- ssk-e v hm-en
6156.- sX-t A-ta-cn--bn-se G-hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- n-n-m-
6157.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b
A-W-s-v- a-e-p-g
6158.- t]m-jW
- s
- -p-dn-p- ]T-\w t{Sm-t^m-f-Pn
6159.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-enb cm-k-h-f-\n-am-W-im-e-
^m-IvS- v
6160.- sh-t tm-v sS-v GXp tcm-K-hp-am-bn _--sdm- h - ] n- n F- I v - k v - { ]- k v Fn-cn-p-p- F-bv-Uv-kv
d n- b - s - S p- Im- b n- I - X m- c w-
6161.- sIm-n-bn-se G--hpw {]-isjm- b v - _ v A-
kv-X-\m-b cm-Pm-hv- i-
X-p-cm
6162.- s\m-t_ k-m-\w a-c-Wm-\--c _-lp-a-Xn-bm-bn e-`n- BZy hy-n-bm-b F-dn-Iv A-Iv-k Im-s^-v G-Xp cm-Pym-c-\m-bn-cp-p- kzo-U
6163.- sIm-n-bn-se I-eq C-\m-j-W t-Un-bw B-cp-sS t]cn-em-Wv A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- P-hm-l-em s\-{lp
6164.- B-[p-\n-I P-\m-[n-]-Xy-n-s B-Wn--v F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- am--Im-
6165.- ssh-Zyp-Xn-bp-sS {]-k-c-W-hpw hn-X-c-W-hpw kz-Im-cy-h--cn B-Zy C-y kw-m-\w- H-do-k
6166.- Xn-cp-h\
-
- ]
- p-cw Zq-cZ- -i tI-{w {]-h-\
- a
- m-cw-`n- h-jw1982
6167.- ssh-Zyp-Xn-bp-sS C-kn-n-bp-sS bq-Wn-v- B-n-b
6168.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` C-S-s]- B-Zy-s bp-w- sIm-dn-b bpw
6169.- B-[p-\n-I C--en-sb G-Io-I-cn--Xv- Km-cn-_m-Un
6170.- A-cn-tm-n-en-s in-jy-\m-b am-kn-tUm-Wn-b cm-P-Ip-am-c-A-e-Iv-km-
6171.- tI-c-f-n sk v B--tem tIm- F-hn-sS n-Xn sN-pp- I-q
6172.- Cw--n-se-n-b B-Zy-s {_m--W- cm-Pm-dmw tam-l
tdm-bv
6173.- tI-c-f-n ssk-\n-I kv-Iq n-Xn-sN-p- -ew- I-gp-w
6174.- tI-c-f-n sXm-gn-en-m-bv-a th-X-\w \-S-m-n-b ap-Jy-a-{n-F.-sI. B-Wn

140 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6175.- bp.-F-kv.-F.-bn-se kw-m-\--fn G--hpw P-\-kw-Jy Iq-Snb-Xv- Im-en-t^m-Wn-b


6176.- a-Z sX-tc-k A-y-\n-{Z sIm-p--Xv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-
6177.- sS-v {In--n sk-z-dn t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s C-y-m-c-
em-em A-a-\m-Yv
6178.- t\-Xm-Pn kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv hn-am-\-m-h-fw(Uw-Uw) Fhn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm--
6179.- tem-Iv \m-b-Iv F--dn-b-s--Xv- P-b-{]-Im-iv \m-cm-b
6180.- t\-Xm-Pn- kp-`m-jv-N-{-t_m-kn-s-d cm-jv-{So-b-Kp-cp- Nn--c-RvP-Zm-kv6181.- t_m-v kv-{So-v G-Xp \-K-c-n-em-Wv- e-
6182.- t_mw-s_ ssl F-n-\m-Wp {]-kn-w- s]-t{Sm-fn-bw J-\\w
6183.- t]--n-hn-j-n-\p {]-Xn-hn-[n I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- eq-bn ]m-
6184.- t]-jy-- N-{I-h-n-bp-sS {]-Xn-]p-cp-j-s\- \n-e-bn- A_vZ- p d-km-n-s-d tIm-gn-tm-Sv- k--i\
- w- G-Xv h-j
- n F.-Un.-1443
6185.- tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn- Im-tdm--a-k-cw- \-S-- cm-Pyw- {^m-kv6186.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-se-G-Xp-cm-Pm-hn-s-Im-e-m-Wv-X-e-m-\w-]-\m-`-]p-c-p-\n-pw Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-t-p am-n-b-Xv--[-acm-Pm-hv
6187.- tdmw \-K-c-n-\p-n n-Xn sN-p- cm-Pyw h-n-m
6188.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s kv-t]m-Sv-kv kv-Iq F-hn-sS-bm-Wv-
Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw
6189.- tem-Uv-kv {In--v t-Un-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- e-
6190.- tem-I-m-Zy-am-bn P-\-kw-Jym-\n-b-{-Ww B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw-
C- y
6191.- t{Sm-n- s_m-m-Wn- Km-U F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--]m-temSv
6192.- 1957 se B-Zy tI-c-f a-{n-k-`-bn-se hy-h-km-b a-{n- sI.]n.-tKm-]m-e
6193.- B-Zy-s Iw-]yq--Iv sK-bnw- kv-t]-kv hm
6194.- tm-dn \n-d- _-_n-se {]-Im-i-n-s \n-dw- ]-
6195.- sI B- \m-cm-b-W-- P-\n-- kv-Y-ew- D-g-hq
6196.- {]-Ir-Xn-bp-sS I-e- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv -a-n-c
6197.- F.-]n.-Pn.-bn-se L-S-I-- ao-tY-bv, _yq-t, s{]m-sbv
6198.- C-y tj-Iv-kv-]n-b F--dn-b-s--Xv- Im-fn-Zm-k
6199.- ku-c-bq-Y-n-se G--hpw sN-dn-b {K-lw- _p-[
6200.- H-fn-h Szn-v B-cp kr-jv-Sn- I-Ym-]m-{Xw- Nm-kv Un--kv
6201.- tem-I-n-se B-Zy-s sa-t{Sm sd-bn-th- e-
6202.- ssZ-h-n-s A-h-Xm-c-sa-pw tem-I
-- n-s ]n-Xm-sh-pw Adn-b-s-Sp- tKm-{X-h--K-t\-Xm-hv- _n-km ap-
6203.- t-{X-ta-f--fp-sS cm-Pm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]-m-cn tafw
6204.- ssZ-h-n-s kz-w-\m-n F--Xv G-Xv kw-m-\-s Sqdn-kw-h-Ip-n-s B-]v-X-hm-Iy-am-Wv- tI-c-fw
6205.- Xp-ey-am-b A-f-hn kq-cy-{]-Im-iw In-p- -e--sf _n-n-p--Xv- sF-tkm-sl-kv
6206.- tem-I _u-n-Im-h-Im-i kw-L-S-\-bp-sS B-m-\w- P-\o-h
6207.- C-y tZ-io-b ]-Xm-I-bp-sS ho-Xn-bpw \o-f-hpw X-n-ep-
Aw-i-_-w- 2-:3 (\o-f-hpw ho-Xn-bpw- 3-:2)
6208.- kp-h-W-I-hm-S \-K-c-sa-v A-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- km-{^m-knkv-tIm
6209.- F-m-h-j-hpw Xym-K-cm-P-kw-Ko-tXm-k-hw \-S-p- -ew X-an-gv-\m-n-se Xn-cp-h-m
6210.- kq- tkm-Wn-Iv hn-am-\--fp-sS th-Kw {]-kv-Xm-hn-p- GI-Iw- am-Iv \-
6211.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw [m-Xp-k---am-b kw-m-\w- Pm-JWvU
- v
6212.- C-y-bn-se- G--hpw- \o--fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- -Kw-K6213.- cm-am-\p-P kw-Jy F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- 1729
6214.- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b {]-hn-iy-bm-b t\m-t sS-dn--dn-bp-sS Xe-m-\w G-Xv im-k{v- X-s
- kva
- c
- W
- m-Yw \m-aI
- c
- W
- w sNbv-Xn-cn-p-p- -Nm-kv Um-hn

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

38

Dc sImdnbsbbpw ZnWsImdnbsbbpw
thXncnpXv F{Xmas kamc tcJbmWv
]nbpsS t{Imatkmw kwJy
ISphbpsS t{Imatkmw kwJy
cmPys hnhn[ P\hn`mK Xnep AkaXzw
Ipdbvm tv ]cn{ianWw Fv \njvIjnp
Cy `cWLS\m A\ptZtaXv
kvt{Smjyns AWpkwJy
2011 skkkv {]Imcw Cybnse \Kc P\kwJy
F{X tImSnbmWv (37.7)
{Inv _mn\v F{X Cphsc \ofapmIpw

6215.- kq-hw-iw- kv-Ym-]n--Xv--tj-jm6216.- th-Uv ssh-Uv sse-^v ^-n-s B-m-\-am-b m-v


G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- kzn-v-k-e v
6217.- F-m-h-cpw Xp-ey-cm-Wv, Nn-e Iq-Sp-X Xp-ey-cpw- B-cp-sS IrXn-bn-ep--Xv- tPm-Pv Hm-h
6218.- ssl-Z-cm-_m-Zv t-n-s m-]-I- \n-kmw D ap-v Ak-^v Pm
6219.- t^m-Iv-em-Uv Zzo-]p-I G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv- Z-n-W AXve
- mn-Iv
6220.- sI.-]n.-kn.-kn.-bp-sS B-Zy sk-{I--dn- sI.-am-[-h \m-b
6221.- ssl-Z-cm-en-sb tI-c-fw B-{I-an-m -Wn--Xv- ]m-e
-- m-Sv
tIm-an A-
6222.- F-an-\-dv- C-Uy-kv- c-Nn--Xv- i-- Z-bm- i-a
6223.- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \m-a-tZ-h `-n-{]-m-\w {]-N-cn-n--Xv- a-lmcm-jv{- S
6224.- X-tam-K-w F- B-i-bw A-h-X-cn-n- bp.-F-kv.-im-kv-{X- tPm B-n-_m-Uv ho-e
6225.- ssh-v Sm F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- \m-^v-X-en
6226.- ssh-kv Nm-k-e ]-Zw h-ln- B-Zy C-ym-m-c- Kp-cp-Zmkv _m-\-Pn (1890-I--)
6227.- sIm-n-bn {]-Pm-a-Wv-U-e-n-s cq-]-h-Xv-I-c-W-n-\p \nWm-b-I ]-p-h-ln- t\-Xm-hv- hn.-B. Ir-jv-Ws-- \-gp--
6228.- sIm-n-bn {_n-o-jp-Im-s-Xn-sc k-a-cw \-bn- {]-[m-\-a{n- ]m-en-b--
6229.- C-y-hw-i-P-bm-b c-m-a-s h-\n-Xm _-ln-cm-Im-i bm-{XnI- kp-\n-Xm hn-eyw-kv
6230.- sIm-- ]--W-n-s m-]-I- tPm-_v Nm-t\m-v
6231.- kp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn P-Uv-Pn-bp-sS hn-c-an- {]m-bw- 65
6232.- sX-p h-S-v B--am Zzo-]p-I-n-S-bv-p- I-S-en-Sp-v-
U- ]m-tk-Pv
6233.- F-tam-f-Pn F-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\-am-Wv- {]m-Wn-I
6234.- C-y X-]m-m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy C-y h-\n-X ao-cm-`m-bn
6235.- sIm-bm-en F-n-\p {]-kn-w- F--ip-o-I-c-W-im-e
6236.- bp----en bm-{X sN-bv-X C-y-bp-sS B-Zy-s k-h
ssk-\ym-[n-] ({]-kn-U v)-F.-]n.-sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
6237.- C-y \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw th-K-n-sem-gp-Ip--Xv- So-
6238.- {^m-kn-s\-bpw- Cw--n-s\-bpw- th-Xn-cn-p-- I-S-en-Sp-v-
Cw-o-jv- Nm-\
6239.- -tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b F-v Umw- _m-Wm-kp-c-kmK (h-b-\m-Sv Pn-)
6240.- sX-s C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b X-e-m-t\-X-c \-K-cw-tIm-b--q
6241.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Im-b- th--\m-Sv
6242.- bp-K-]p-cp-j F- kn-\n-a B-cp-sS Po-hn-Xw B-kv-]-Z-am-nbm-Wv- {- io-\m-cm-bW
- K
- p-cp
6243.- C-y-kw-m-\--fn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h-\-ap--Xv- a-[y{]-tZ-iv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 141

6244.- sS-o-kv Xm-cw tdm-P s^-U-d G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-Wv kznv-k-e v


6245.- ssP-\-sc ssa-kq-cn-\n-pw Xp-c-n-b-Xv- enw-Km-b-p-I
6247.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b ]-gw- N-
6248.- kp- h - W a- b q- c w- G- X p- a m- b n _- - s - A- h m- U m- W v - kn-\n-a
6249.- Z-n-Wm-{^n-, \-ao-_n-b F-o cm-Py--fp-sS A-Xn-n-bmb \-Zn- Hm-d-v
6250.- Kp-cp-ap-Jn- F--dn-b-s-Sp- en-]n G-Xp `m-j-bp-tS-Xm-Wv- ]m-_n
6251.- tIm-gn-tm-Spw- t]m-p-Ko-kp-am-bp- s]m-m-\n- k-\v-[n- G-Xv
h-j-n- F.-Un.-1540
6252.- B-Zy-s k-q-W C-e-Iv-t{Sm-Wn-Iv Iw-]yq-- G-\n-bm-Iv
6253.- tem-I
- n-se G-h
- pw Xn-ct- -dn-b D-\m-S P-e]
- m-X- sk v
tem-d-kv
6254.- Kp-cp tKm-]n-\m-Yv 1963 Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-v B-cw-`n- I-emtI-{w- hn-iz-I-em-tI-{w
6255.- C-y X-]m-m-n {]-Xy--s- c-m-a-s C-y
h-\n-X- Qm-kn dm-Wn
6256.- Kp-cp-hm-bq k-Xym-{K-l I-n-n-bp-sS A-[y--\m-bn-cp--Xv-
a-p ]-Zv-a-\m-`
6257.- Z-imw-i k-{-Zm-bw B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- C-y
6258.- kpw-K-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- ]p-jy-an-{X-kpw-K
6259.- sS-en-hn-j I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tPm t_-Uv
6260.- tem-I-v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X N-Ww D-]m-Zn-n-p- cm-Pyw-
_w-m-tZ-iv
6261.- s]-Kzn ]-n-I-fp-sS hm-k--e-n-s t]-cv- dq--dn
6262.- s]-q-kn-kv- F-p-a-dn-b-s-Sp- A-kp-J-am-Wv- hn--Np-a
6264.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` m-]n- k-am-[m-\-n-s k-h-I-em-ime G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv- tIm-m dn-
6265.- tI-c-f-n-se I-ayq-Wn-kv-v ]m-n-bp-sS B-Zy sk-{I--dn- ]n.Ir-jv-W-]n-
6266.- tI-c-f-n-se, {]-Xn-jvT-bn-m- H-cp ssl--hm-cm-[-\m-tI-{w Hm-n-d
6267.- tIym-tm t{]m-tm-tm H-p-sh- h-jw- 1997
6268.- tk-\m-]-Xn ]p-jy-an-{X-kpw-K-\m sIm--s-, A-h-km-\-s
au-cy-cm-Pm-hv- _r-l-{Z-Y
6269.- tKm-X-v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]m-Z-n-p- kw-m-\w-
D- {]-tZ-iv
6270.- tlm-n am-{n-I F--dn-b-s--Xv- [ym N-v
6271.- C-y-a-lm-k-ap-{Zw, A-d-_n--S, _w-Km D--S
F-n-h kw-K-an-p- -ew--I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
6272.- tZ-io-b ]-Xm-Ib
- n ^p-St-v _m-fn-s Nn-{X-ap- cm-Pyw- {_-ko
6273.- U-ln Km-n F- A-]-c-\m-a-n-e-dn-b-s--Xv- kn. Ir-jvW \m-b
6274.- Un.-F.-F.-bp-sS L-S-\ I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- hm-Sv-k-Wpw {In-pw
6275.- X-an-gv-\m-n Sm-p \n-am-W-im-e F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- B-h-Un
6276.- Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn-bp-sS ]-g-b t]-cv- ap i-
6277.- X-Iv-e a-m a-cp-`q-an G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- ssN-\
6278.- Xm-]-n-s G--hpw an-I- Nm-e-Iw- sh-n
6279.- {]- i - k v - X - a m- b Xn- c p- h - p- h {]- X n- a F- h n- s S- b m- W v -I-\ym-Ip-am-cn
6280.- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-v \--{X-_w-m-hv B-cw-`n- cm-Pm-hv--kzm-Xn
Xn-cp-\m
6281.- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-v ]-n-Iv {Sm-kv-t]m-v kw-hn-[m-\w \-S-nem-n-b Zn-hm--kn.-]n.-cm-a-kzm-an A-
6282.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq k-h-I-em-im-e m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1937
6283.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-Zy Nm-k-e- {ioNn-n-c-Xn-cp-\m _m-e-cm-a-h-a
6284.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b P-e-tk-N-\ ]--Xn- I--S
6285.- -sX-t C-y-bn-se a-e-I-fp-sS dm-Wn- F--dn-b-s-Sp- kp-Jhm-k tI-{w--D-Z-I-a-Wv-U-ew- (Du-n)6286.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw- h-en-b tIm-- t_-6287.- sX-t- C-y-bn-se- G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b- \-Zn- -tKm-Zm-h-cn6288.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-Zy ssh-k-vNm-k-e kn.-]n.-cm-a-kzm-an A-

CONFUSING FACTS
{_nojv Cybnse KhW P\damcn Ghpw
IqSpXImew B ]Zhn hlnXv hmd tlnMvkv
BWv(1773--85). Ghpw IqSpXImew A[nImcn
XpS ssht{kmbn enenXvtKm {]`phmWv (1936-43).
Nncnp arKw IgpXpen, Nncnp ]n Ipm_pc.
ttm m]n hnZymebamWv AmZan.
AcntmnemWv sseknbw m]nXv.
kap{Zn\Snbn a{nk`mtbmKw tN BZy cmPyw
amenZzo]v. Fhdn a{nk`mtbmKw tNXv t\m.
6289.- Z-n-tW-y- kw-kv-Ym-\--fn- G--hpw- Ipdhv h-\-{]-tZ-iap- kw-kv-Ym-\w-- tKmh
6290.- Z-n-W Zzm-c-I F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Kp-cp-hm-bq
6291.- Im-m-cn-n \m-S-I-n-s P-\n-bn-Xm-hm-bn I-W-m--s-Sp-Xv- sIm--I tI-i-h-]n- B-im
6292.- ssN-\-bn cm-P-`-c-Ww A-h-km-\n-n- t\-Xm-hv- k-bm-Xv
sk
6293.- Im-c-v B-Zy-am-bn Ir-jn sN-bv-X cm-Pyw- A-^v-Km-\n-kv-Xm
6294.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw D-b- _-lp-a-Xn- `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w
6295.- cm- a m- b - W - n- s A- [ ym- b - A- d n- b - s - S p- t]- c v Im-Wv-Uw
6296.- cm-Pn-sh-m- D-t-in-p--]-w- {]-kn-U v- B-m-Wv- cmPn--v- \-tI--Xv- ssh-kv- {]-kn-Un-\v6297.- C-Sp-n Pn--bp-sS B-m-\w- ss]-\m-hv
6298.- Ip-m-t\z-j-W-n-\v t]m-eo-kv D-]-tbm-Kn-p- \m-b- kv-\n^ \m-b
6299.- Z-n-tW-y B-{I-an- B-Zy ap-nw `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- A-em-hpo Jn-Pn
6300.- Iw-Km-cp F-en km-[m-c-W-am-bn Im-W-s-Sp- `q-J-Wv-Uw- h-St A-ta-cn-
6301.- Z-n-W Ipw-`-ta-f F--dn-b-s-S--Xv- i-_-cn-a-e-bn-se a-I-chn-f-v
6302.- tIm-iw I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- tdm-_-v lp-v
6303.- tIm-kn ]--Xn-bp-sS \n-am-W-n _o-lm-dp-am-bn k-l-I-cn cm-Pyw- t\-m
6304.- jn-Iv sS-v G-Xp tcm-K-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p- Un-^v-Xocn-b
6305.- k-Xy-Pn-Xv td-bp-sS A-h-km-\ Nn-{Xw- A-Km-p-Iv
6306.- Z-n-tW-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm K-h-W im-c-Zm apJ-Pn (197778)
6307.- G--hpw h-en-b amw-k-t`m-Pn- kv-t]w Xn-anw-Kn-ew
6308.- tlm-p-kv- a-e-_m-dn--kv- F- {K-\v-Y-n- {]-[m-\-am-bpw{]-Xn-]m-Zn-n-cn-p--Xv- a-e-_m-dn-se k-ky--sf--n6309.- Z-n-W sd-bn-sh-bp-sS B-kv-Ym-\w- -sN-ss
6310.- G--hpw h-en-b I-S Po-hn- \o-e-n-anw-Kn-ew
6311.- tIm-gn-tm-Sv- \-K-cw- kv-Ym-]n--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.Un.-1295
6312.- h-ep--n F-{Xmw m-\-am-Wv C-Sp-n Pn--bv-v- -c-mwm-\w
6313.- tkm-Un-bw t^m-kv-t^-v \n-am-W-n-se D-t]m-]-w--Im_ U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
6314.- tNm-f-am-cp-sS {]-[m-\ Xp-d-ap-Jw- Im-th-cn-]--Ww
6315.- H-fn-n-Iv-kn ]-s-Sp- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-X- ]n.-Sn.-D-j
6316.- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Pq-X-am-cp- cm-Pyw- bp.-F-kv.-F.6317.- Xm-k k-m-\w-\-Ip--Xv G-Xp kw-m-\-s K-hsam-Wv- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
6318.- {]-Xy- P-\m-[n-]-Xy kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn-ep- bq-tdm-]y
cm-jv-{Sw- kzn-v-k-e v
6319.- Xr-q ]q-cw Xp-S-n-b-Xv- i- X-p-cm
6320.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s I-b-{Km-aw--h-b-em

142 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6321.- Xp-S--bm-bn B-dp-hjw C- y \m- j W tIm-{K-kn-s


{]-kn-Um-bn-cp--Xv-
A-_p I-emw B-kmZv
6322.- a-eb
- m-f
- n-se an-n-Iv
I-hn F-d
- n-bs
- -X
- v Pn.-i
- c
-
- p-dp-v
6323.- tlm-n a--c-n-s
ssZ-Lyw- 70 an-\n-v
tI-c-f-n-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I
6324.- tN-c-cm-Pm--am-cn
]-n- th-gm-
G--hpw {]-[m-\n- sNp-p-h
6325.- tdm-a-m-cp-sS t{]-a-tZ-h-X- Iyp-]n-Uv
6326.- tem-[n hw-iw m-]n--Xv- _-lv-ep tem-Zn
6327.- a-Z sX-tc-k-bp-sS A-y hn-{i-a -ew- a-Z lu-kv
6328.- B-[p-\n-I c-k-X-{-n-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
B-tm em-thm-kn-b
6329.- C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn hn-f C-jp-d-kv G-s-Sp-n-b kwm-\w- l-cn-bm-\
6330.- tI-c-f-n t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im m-]n- B-Zy-s sk-an\m-cn- hm-cm-p-g
6331.- tI-c-f-n tX-v ayq-kn-bw n-Xn sN-p--Xv- \n-e-q
6332.- D-c
- m-[t- Km-f
- n-se G-h
- pw ssZ-Ly-ta-dn-b ]-I- Pq
21
6333.- Cw--n-s\-bpw- {^m-kn-s\-bpw- I-S-en-\-Sn-bn-eq-sS- _--n-np-- sd-bn-am-Kw.-- Nm-\- S-W
6334.- C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn tm-v F-Iv-kv-tN-v m-]n--s-
\-K-cw- apw-ss_
6335.- B-cy-`- P-\n- B-a-Iw F- -e-n-s C-tm-g-s
t]-cv- sIm-Sp--q
6336.- tUm.-hm-Sk
-v F- I-Ym-]m-{X-s kr-jS-v n-X
- -v B-X tIma tUm-b
6337.- U-v Cu-v C-Uo-kv- F--dn-b-s-n-cp- cm-Pyw- C-sUm\n-jy
6338.- D--tc-y-bn ho-ip- Nq-Sp- {]m-tZ-in-I hm-Xw- eq
6339.- Um-en-b-bp-sS kz-tZ-iw- sa-Iv-kn-tm
6340.- D--tc-y-bp-sS am-- F--dn-b-s-Sp-, bp.-]n.-bn-se \K-cw-I
- m-]q
6341.- Um-hn-n tIm-Uv c-Nn--Xv- Um {_u
6342.- D--tc-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn hn-f C-jp-d-kv G-s-Sp-nb kw-m-\w- l-cn-bm-\
6345.- Z-n-W-Kw-K F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Im-th-cn
6346.- D-p I-gn-m I-S-sh--n-\n-v hm-Wn-Py-]-c-am-bn G-hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]m-Zn-n-p- ]-Zm-Yw- A-b-Un
6347.- `-c-W-L-S-\ {]-Im-cw K-h-W-dp-sS A-`m-h-n Np-a-X-e-I
\n-h-ln-p--Xv- ssl-tm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-kv
6348.- a-e-bm-f-n-se B-Zy-s Un.-Sn.-F-kv.-N-e-n-{Xw- an-t-\n-bw
m-kv
6349.- G-Xp Po-hn-bn \n-m-Wv Aw-_-{Ko-kv F- kp-K--h-kvXp e-`n-p--Xv--\o-e-n-anw-Kn-ew
6350.- tI-cf
-
- n-se G-h
- pw h-St- -b
- s
- {Km-a]
-
- m-b
- v- a-tiz-cw
6351.- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im-sc U-p-Im sIm-n-bn-\n-p ]p-d-m-nb h-jw- 1663
6352.- tPm-k-^v m-v 1754- I-p-]n-Sn- hm-X-Iw--Im-_ Utbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
6353.- tS-_n Hm-^v {]-kn-U-kv {]-Im-cw kw-m-\-v G--hpw Db- ]-Z-hn-bp--Xm-m-Wv--K-h-W
6354.- t]m-p-Ko-kv Cu-v B-{^n--bp-sS ]p-Xn-b t]-cv- sam-kmw_n-Iv
6355.- t]m-fn-{Km-^v sS-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- en-tbm-\m-Uv Io-e
6356.- In-Mv Hm-^v jm-tUm-kv F-d- n-bs
- -Sp- Nn-{X-Im-c- dw-{_m-Uv
6357.- C-y-bn-se-n-b B-Zy-s {_n-o-jv k-m-cn- dm-^v ^n-v

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

39

ss{IkvXhcpsS ]gb\nban s{]m v


aXhnizmk {]Imcw F{X ]pkvXIfpv
kv{XoIpw ]pcpjampw XpeythX\w \IWw
Fv \njvIjnp `cWLS\m A\ptZw GXmWv
F{Xmw hbnemWv amn eqX InwKv (Pq\nb)
h[nsXv
{][m\a{n ]Zns PpUojy kv{IqnWnbvv
\nb{Ww hyh sNbvX `cWLS\m t`ZKXn
F{XmatXmWv
kzman hnthIm\ AcnXv F{Xmw hbnemWv
6358.- c-mw- tem-Ia
- l
- m-bp-I
- m-e
- v- t\m-a-Un-bp-sS- tam-N\
-
- n\m-bn- sF-k-t\m-h-dp-sS- t\-Xr-Xz-n- k-Jy-tk-\- \-S-nb- B-{I-a-W-n-s- t]-cv- Hm--td-j- Hm-h-tem-Uv6359.- c-mw tem-I-a-lm-bp-m-\--cw P-bn tam-Nn-X-\m-b, tI-c-fn-se A-h-km-\-s cm-jv-{So-b X-S-hp-Im-c- ap-l--Zv A_v-Zp d-m km-ln-_v
6360.- D-n-s D-]m-Z-\-n H-mw-m-\-ap- kw-m-\w- KpP-dm-v
6361.- tkm-p-Ip-an-f kq-cy-{]-Im-i
- n \n-da
- p-X
- m-bn Im-Wm Imc-W-am-b {]-Xn-`m-kw- C-s^-d-kv
6362.- ap-K `-c-W-Im-e-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I `m-j t]-jy
6363.- A-Izm t^m-n-kv G-Xv B-kn-Up-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
ss\-{Sn-Iv B-kn-Uv
6364.- aq-n-tZ-hn A-hm-Uv- G-Xp ta-J-e-bn-em-Wv \-Ip--Xv- kmln-Xyw
6365.- aq-J ]m-n-s I-Sn-tb-m hn-jw _m-[n-p--Xv- tI-{\m-Uo hy-h--sb
6366.- A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Um-b G-I A-hn-hm-ln-X- sP-bnw-kv
_p-m-\
6367.- A-p-lr-Z-b--fp- P-p--a-n-c
6368.- au-em-\m A-_p I-emw B-km-Zn-s P--tZ-iw- sa-
6369.- au-em-\m B-km-Zn-s C-y hn-kv {^o-Uw Cw-o-jn-te-v
X-P-a sN-bv-X-Xv- lp-a-bq I-_o
6370.- B-[p-\n-I m-n-Iv k-P-dn bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv- F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv kp-{ip-X
6371.- bq-_-I-p-am-bn _--s- Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Zw- _m-Uv-an
6372.- bq-m-en a-c-n-s P--tZ-iw- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b
6373.- B-[p-\n-I B-{-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ho-tc-ienw-Kw
6374.- B-\--aTw- F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- _-nw-N-{ Nm--Pn6375.- bq-tdm-n-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- e-tUm-K
6376.- bq-m-en-]v
- k
- v a-c
- n-s C-eI
- -am-{Xw Xn-p Po-hn-p- Pohn- sIm-hm-e
6377.- bq-tdm-n-se G--hpw h-en-b Zzo-]v- t{K-v {_n-
6378.- B-\-ap-Sn-bp-sS D-b-cw- 2695 ao. (8841 A-Sn)
6379.- B-`y--c A-Sn-b--cm-h--m-e-s tI-c-f ap-Jy-a-{n-
kn.-A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
6380.- B-`y--c A-Sn-b--cm-h--m-e-s tI-c-f B-`y--c-a-{n sI.-Ic
- p-Wm-Ic
-
6381.- B--n-s w ]p-n-Mv am-Xr-I X-m-dm-n-b-Xv- dp-Y-t^mUv
6382.- B-[p-\n-I C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s a-\p-jy F--dn-b-s--Xv cm-Pm-dmw tam-l tdm-bv
6383.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw- \o-fw- Iq-Sn-b C-S-\m-gn- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- -cm-ta-iz-cw- t-{X-n6384.- Hm-kv-t{S-en-b I-gn-m G--hpw sN-dn-b h-I-c- bq-tdm-v
6385.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw \o-fw Iq-Sn-b A-W-s-v G-Xp \-Zn-bnem-Wv- a-lm-\-Zn
6386.- bp--n-\v tdm--p-]-tbm-Kn- B-Zy-s C-y `-c-Wm-[nIm-cn- Sn-p

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 143

6387.- B--n-se N-en-p- `m-Kw- C-e-Iv-t{Sm


6388.- B-Zy-am-bn `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w _-lp-a-Xn-v A-l-\m-b Nn--I-
tUm.-cm-[m-Ir-jvW
-
6389.- bp--hn-am-\-n bm-{X-sN-bv-X B-Zy -C-y {]-kn-U v-
F.-]n.-sP. A-_v-Zp I-emw
6390.- B-Zy-am-bn ]-c-a-ho-c-N-{I-n-\v A-l-\m-b-Xv- ta-P tkm-a\m-Yi
- -a
6391.- C-y F- hm-v B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn--Xv- {Ko-p-Im
6392.- C-d-t]m-fn-s-d- B-kv-Ym-\w- en-tbm-kv6393.- Cw-Kv-fo-jn-se 5 kz-cm--c--fpw t]-cn-ep- cm-Pyw- sam-kmw_n-Iv
6394.- tem--dn-I-fp-sS am-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tI-c-fm tem--dn
6395.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s sa-Un- tIm-tf-Pv- Xn-cp-h-\-]p-cw
6396.- td-Un-tbm-bn-eq-sS P-\--sf A-`n-kw-t_m-[-\ sN-bv-X B-Zy
C-y t\-Xm-hv- t\-Xm-Pn kp-`m-jv N-{ t_m-kv
6397.- te I-_p-kn-sb tbm-P\
- m \n-am-Ww \-S
- n-b B-Zy C-y
kw-m-\ X-e-m-\w- N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
6398.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s sd-bn-m-X (Xn-cq--t_-q)- Bcw-`n--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-1861
6399.- C-t]m m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1923
6400.- hn-kv-sU- F-n-s\ kw-_-n- B-[n-Im-cn-I {]-kn-o-I-cW-am-Wv- {In--v
6401.- C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS c-m-[n-Im-cn F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn
6402.- B-cp-sS \n-t-i{- ]-Im-ca
- m-Wv K-h-W kw-m-\ a-{n-k`
- mwK--sf \n-b-an-p--Xv -ap-Jy-a-{n
6403.- d-jy-bp-sS tZ-io-b ar-Kw- I-c-Sn
6404.- C-y-bn G-Xp h-j-am-Wv k-Xn \n-tcm-[n--s--Xv- 1829
6405.- {_n-o-jp-Im C-y-bn m-]n- B-Zy-s bq-Wn-th-gv-knn- sIm--
6406.- B-[p-\n-I s]m-eo-kv kw-hn-[m-\-n-\v Xp-S-w Ip-dn- cm-Pyw {_n-
6407.- C-y \n-an-X-am-b B-Zy-hn-am-\w(1951) ln-p-m s{Sbn-\
6408.- h-nk
- vX
- o-W
- n- H-m-wk
- vY
- m-\a
- p-- A-ta-cn- kvt- -v- Aem-kv-I6409.- hn-kv-Xo-Ww- G--hpw- Ip-d-- A-ta-cn- kw-kv-Ym-\w- tdmUv- sF-e-dv6410.- hn-lm-c--fp-sS \m-Sv F- A--n t]-cp e-`n- C-y
kw-m-\w- _o-lm
6411.- Pn-m P-Uv-Pn-am-sc \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv--K-h-W
6412.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS A-h-km-\-s P-bn-hm-kw- ]q-s\-bn-se BKm-Jm sIm-m-c-n
6413.- P-ssa- G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv- h-S-t A-ta-cn-
6414.- Q-ew, Nn-\m-_v, c-hn, _n-bm-kv, k-Xv-e-Pv F-n-h G-Xn-s
t]m-j-I-\-Zn-I-fm-Wv--kn-p
6415.- Rm-s\m-cp Ip--hm-fn-b- cm-Py kv-t\-ln-bm-Wv F-v {]-Jym]n--Xv- -`-K-Xv kn-Mv
6416.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s G-Xv k-t-f-\-n-em-Wv
tkm-jy-en-k-n-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-b hy-h-n-Xn Xo-cp-am-\n--Xv-
B-h-Un
6417.- hn-y- km-Xv-]p-c \n-c-I-n-S-bn-eq-sS ]-Sn-m-tdm-v H-gp-Ip \-Zn- \-a-Z
6418.- hn-P-b \-K-c cm-Pm--am t{]m-km-ln-n-n-cp- `m-j- sXep-v
6419.- cm-Py-k-`m-[y--\m-b B-Zy- a-e-bm-fn,- cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-b B-Zya-e-bm-fn- sI B- \m-cm-b-W6420.- cm-Py-k-`m-sN-b-am-\m-b \ym-bm-[n-]- Fw.-ln-Zm-b-p-
6421.- c-mw ssP-\-a-X-k-t-f-\w \-S- -ew- h-f-`n
6422.- h-n-kv-Xo-W-n- tem-I-v- A-ta-cn--bv-v- F-{Xm-w- kv-Ym-\am-Wv- \m-em-w- k-v-Ym-\w6423.- hn-kv-Xo-Wm-Sn-m-\-n tem-I-v C-y-bp-sS m-\w-
G-gv
6424.- c-mw tem-I a-lm-bp--m-e-s P-m {]o-an-b- tSm-tPm
6425.- C-Sp-n ]--Xn-bp-sS m-]n-X-ti-jn- 780 sa-Km-hm-v

CONFUSING FACTS
1857se hnhImev Cybn KhW P\d

Im\nwKv {]`p, {_nojv cmn hnIvtSmdnb.

Km\v[nPnbpsS a\mnkqnpImc Fdn

bsXv kn.cmPtKm]memNmcnbmWv. almPnbpsS tijnbp Ic FdnbsXv Aen


ktlmZcamcmWv ( aplZenbpw juen
bpw).
BZys h\nXm _lncmImi kmcn hmeo\
sXcjvtImh BWv. BZys h\nXm _lncmImi hnt\mZkmcnbmWv A\utj Akmcn.
-Ingns
sh\okv
Fv
Bepgsb
hntijnnXv
Igvk {]`p. sImnsb
Ad_nSens dmWn Fv BZyambn hntijnnXv sImn Znhm\mbncp B.sI.
japJw sNn.
6426.- h-{P-J-\n-bm-b ]- G-Xp kw-m-\-v- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
6427.- H-n-bw bp--n G-p-ap-n-b-Xv- {_n--Wpw ssN-\-bpw
6428.- C-Sp-n A-W-s-n-s \n-am-W-n k-l-I-cn- cm-Pyw-
Im-\-U
6429.- Cw-o-jv `m-j-bn-se 5 kz-cm--c--fpw t]-cn-ep- H-cp k-kyw tIm-fn-^v-f-h
6430.- sIm--s- hn-h-cw td-Un-tbm-bn-eq-sS tem-Iw A-dn- BZy A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v--tPm F-^v. sI--Un
6431.- sF-kn-sF-kn-sF _m-n-s B-m-\w--apw-ss_
6432.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s N-cn-{X-n G--hpw IqSp-X {]m-h-iyw A-[y--]-Z-hn-bn-te-v Xn-c-s-Sp--s-
h-\n-X -tkm-Wn-bm Km-n
6433.- sa-lv-tdm-fn en-Jn-X-n ]-cm-a-in-p- Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv--N-{Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
6434.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s N-cn-{X-n G--hpw IqSp-X Im-ew A-[y--]-Z-hn h-ln- t\-Xm-hv- tkm-Wn-bm
Km-n
6435.- sa-tm-Mv \-Zn G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv--G-jy
6436.- lp-a-bq-Wpw sj-jm-bp-am-bn I-\u-Pv bp-w \-S- h-jw-
1540
6437.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv B-Zy-am-bn ]n-f- h-jw-
1907
6438.- D-Uzm-U G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS B-cm-[-\m-e-b--p {]-kn-w-
]m-gv-kn
6440.- h-{Pw G-Xn-s G--hpw ip--am-b cq-]-am-Wv- Im-_
6441.- e-lc
- n-]m-\o-b
- {]-[m-\a
- m-bpw X-et- m-dn-s G-Xp `m-Ks
- bm-Wv kzm-[o-\n-p--Xv- sk-dn-_-w
6442.- D- {]-tZ-in-s-bpw D--cm-J-Wv-Un-s-bpw ap-Jy-a-{n-bmb hy-n- F.-Un.-Xn-hm-cn
6443.- F--b \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- \yq-tbm-v
6444.- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv tUm-tUm F- Po-hn D-m-bn-cp--Xv- au-dojy-kv
6445.- F-hn-sS-sh-m-Wv A-Iv-_-dp-sS Io-co-S-[m-c-Ww \-S--Xv- I-e\m-hq
6446.- eo-em-h-Xn F- K-Wn-X-im-kv-{X {K-w c-Nn--Xv- `m-kv-I-cmNm-cy
6447.- Fw.-Pn.-B-dn-s\ tZ-io-b A-hm-Un-\v-A-l-\m-n-b Nn-{Xw-dn-m-m-c
6448.- eo-Kv Hm-^v A-d-_v t-v-kn-s B-m-\w- Syq-Wn-kv
6449.- D- {]-tZ-in-se ^n-tdm-km-_m-Zv F-n-\m-Wp {]-kn-w- mkv hy-h-km-bw
6450.- d--a-c-n-s P--\m-Sv- {_-ko
6451.- F {_o-^v- ln-kv--dn- Hm-^v- ssSw- F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- kv-o-^- tlmn-Mv6452.- F sse-^v C ayq-kn-Iv B-cp-sS Po-h-N-cn-{X-am-Wv- Fw.-F-kv.kp--e-v-an

144 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6453.- F-]v-kw km-v F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- a-o-jyw k-t^-v


6454.- G-Xp a-e-I-n-S-bn-em-Wv C-Sp-n A-W-s-v- Ip-d-h--Ip-dn a-e-I
6455.- tPm-[v-]q sIm-m-c-n-h-v `-y-hn-j-_m-[-tb-v A--cn-Xv- Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
6456.- H-fn-n-Iv-kn B-dp kz-W-sa-U-ep-I t\-Sn-b B-Zy h-\n-X {In-n Hm-tm
6457.- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X s\-p-]m-Zn-n-p-, tI-c-f-n-se Pn--
]m-e-m-Sv
6458.- H-cp _n a-Wn _n-m-tWm-sb-p Xo-cp-am-\n-p--Xv- kv-]o
6459.- hn-p-s-n-epw Im-bv-I-fn-m- H-cp k-kyw- ss]-\-kv
6460.- Cw-o-jv A--c-am-em {I-a-n B-Zy-s cm-Pyw- A-^v-Km\n-kv-Xm
6461.- H-cp {]m-h-iyw lr-Z-b-an-Sn-p--Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b k-a-bw- 0.-8 sk v
6462.- G-Xp am-k-n-em-Wv s\m-t_ k-m-\w {]-Jym-]n-p--Xv-
H-Iv-tSm-_
6463.- sF-_o-cn-b D-]-Zzo-]v G-Xv h-I-c-bp-sS `m-K-am-Wv- bq-tdm-v
6464.- F-^.v F
- .-I
- v G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _-s
- -n-cn-p-p- ^p-St-v _m
6465.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S A--tZ-io-b ssP-h ssh-hn-[y h-j-am-bn BN-cn--Xv- 2010
6466.- F-{_-lmw en- A-y-hn-{i-aw sIm-p- -ew- kv-]nMv-^o-Uv
6467.- F-n-\n-tb-gvk
- v Zn-\a
- m-bn B-Nc
- n-p-X
- v H-cp `m-cX
- c
- X
- v\
- w tPXm-hn-s P--Zn-\-am-Wv. B-cp-sS- Fw.-hn-tiz-iz-c-
6468.- lyq-bm-kn-n-s-d tI-c-f-k--i-\w- G-Xp h-j-n
F.-Un.-630
6469.- hm-p-I-fp-sS D-`-h-s-p-dn-v {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p- th-Zmw-Kw-
\n-cp-w
6470.- hn-{Iw-in-e k-h-I-em-im-e m-]n--Xv- [-a-]m-e
6471.- F-p-ap-X-em-Wv tUm.-cm-[m-Ir-jv-W-s P--Zn-\w A-[ym-]-I-Zn\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv- 1962
6472.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S k-` \n-e-hn-h--tm-gp-m-bn-cp- 51 cm-Py-fn G--hpw H-Sp-hn Nm--dn H-p-sh- cm-Pyw--t]m-fv
6473.- F-hn-sS-sh-m-Wv- s\-tm-fn-b- A-y-izm-kw- h-en--Xv- AXv-em-dn-n-se- sk-dv sl-eo-\- Zzo-]n6474.- Fw.-Pn.-B-dn-s-bpw A-m-Zp-ssc-bp-sS-bpw k-am-[n--ew--sNss-bn-se a-do-\m-_o-v
6475.- G--hpw sN-dn-b k-]p-jv-]n- hq-^n-b
6476.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv F- t]-cv \n-t-in--Xm-cv-
Zm-Zm-`m-bv \-h-tdm-Pn
6477.- lp-Sp- Xp-Sv-kn- h-K-- X-n-ep-- I-em-]-n-\v- th-Zn-bm-bB-{^n-- cm-Pyw- --dp-hm--

t^m- a p- e h Im- t dm- a- k - c - n ]- s - S p-


B- Z y- s C- ym- m- c - \m- c m- b Im- n- t I- b

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

40

F-{X i-X-am-\w t^m-am-Un-ssl-Uv em-b-\n-bm-Wv


t^m-am-en F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv
a-\p-jy-s i-co-c`- m-c
- n-s F-{X-iX
- a
- m-\a
- m-Wv t]-in-I
{Km-a-]-m-b-p-I-fp-sS cq-]-h-Xv-I-c-Ww {]-Xn-]m-Zn-p-
`-c-W-L-S-\m A-\p-Nv-tO-Zw
^o-Uv-kv sa-U-en-\v F-{X h-b-n-\p Xm-sg {]m-b-ap-h-sc-bm-Wv ]-cn-K-Wn-p--Xv
G--hpw Ip-d- {]m-b-n C-y {]-[m-\-a-{n-bmb-Xv cm-Po-hv Km-n-bm-Wv. F-{Xm-a-s h-b-n-em-Wv At-lw B ]-Z-hn-bn-se-n-b-Xv
Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-ew `-cn--Xv [-a-cmPm-hv F--dn-b-s- Im-n-I Xn-cp-\m cm-a-h-a-bm-Wv.
A-t-lw F-{X h-j-am-Wv `-cn--Xv
e-Pn-t-o-hv Iu-kn-en-s G--hpw Ip-d- Aw-K-kwJy F-{X-bm-bn-cn--Ww
C-y-bp-sS k-ap-{Z hn-kv-Xr-Xn-bp-sS A-[n-Im-c-]-cn-[n F{Xm-a-s t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv \n-e-hn-h--Xv
6478.- lw-t_m-v {]-hm-lw G-Xv k-ap-{Z-n-em-Wv--]-k-^n-Iv k-ap{Zw
6479.- G-Xp- \m-hn-I-s-d- t]-cn- \n-p-am-Wv- A-ta-cn--bv-v- B- t]cp- e-`n--Xv- A-a-cn-tKm- sh-kv-]p-Nn6480.- hm-\n-e-bp-sS P--tZ-iw- sa-Iv-kn-tm
6481.- hn-u-v ^n-b Hm t^-h- c-Nn--Xv- \o-ew- k-Rv-Po-h sd-UvUn6482.- I-_-\n G-Xn-s t]m-j-I-\-Zn-bm-Wv- Im-th-cn
6483.- I-_o k-m-\w \-Ip-X
- v G-Xv kw-m-\ k-m-cm-Wv- a[y-{]-tZ-iv
6484.- I-]-kq-{Xw c-Nn--Xm-cv- `-{Z-_m-lp
6485.- I-- \-K-cw m-]n--Xv- tPm-_v Nm-t\m-Iv
6486.- hn--h I-hn-bm-b ]m-tm s\-dq-X G-Xp cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cpp- Nn-en
6487.- I-- k-h-I-em-im-e N-S-n 1932 B-[y-yw h-lnp-sIm-n-cp- k m-en Pm-Iv-k-s\ sh-Sn-h- C-y
kzm-X-y k-a-c-\m-bn-I- _o-Wm-Zm-kv
6488.- I-ayp-Wn-v am-\n-s^-tm {]-kn-o-I-cn- h-jw- 1848
6489.- hn--h--fp-sS am-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s--Xv- {^-p-hn--hw
6490.- G-Xp \q-m-n-em-Wv ^m-ln-bm C-y-bn-se-n-b-Xv- F.-Un.A-mw \q-m-v
6491.- I-ayp-Wn-k-n-s ss_-_n F--dn-b-s-Sp- Zm-kv Iym-]n {]-kn-o-I-cn- h-jw- 1867
6492.- i-_-cn-Kn-cn ]-Zv-[-Xn G-Xp \-Zn-bn- ]-
6493.- hn-n-U a--c- \-S-p- -ew- e-
6494.- tdm-_-v ss-hn-s Ip-dp- F--dn-b-s--Xv- an Pm-^
6495.- m-\-]oT ]p-c-kv-Im-cw G-s-Sp-n-b hy-h-km-bn- im-n
{]-km-Zv P-bn
6496.- lp-a-bq-Wn-s ]n-Xm-hv--_m-_
6497.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS A-h-km-\ hm-p-I- tl dmw
6498.- s^-bv-kv _p-v F- C-s\-v Iq-m-bv-a-bp-sS m-]-I-
am-v k--_-Kv
6499.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B--I-Y Cw-Kv-fo-jn-te-v ]-cn-`m-j-s-Sp-nb-Xv- a-lm-tZ-hv tZ-im-bn, ]ym-tc-em
6500.- s_-dnw-Kv I-S-en-Sp-v h-S-t A-ta-cn--sb G-Xv h-I-c-bn\n-v th-Xn-cn-p-p--G-jy
6501.- s{]m-- v tdmw F--dn-b-s-Sp- \-K-cw--P-\o-h
6502.- sam-lm-en t-Un-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv N-Wv-Un-K-Vv
6503.- Q-m-c--n-(lnwKv t_Uv)I-fp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp-Xv- {Sn-\n-Um-Uv
6504.- t]m-n-t-cn m-]n--Xv- {^m-kn-kv am-n

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 145

6505.- ap-n--v H-cp {]-tXy-I {]-hn-iy F- B-i-bw B-Zy-am-bn


A-h-X-cn-n--Xv- ap-l--Zv C-Iv-_m
6506.- a-n-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- s]-tUm-f-Pn
6507.- A-Im X-v m-]n-p-I-bpw A-ar--dn-\p Np-pw tIm- sIp-I-bpw sN-bv-X kn-Jv Kp-cp- l-tKm-hn-v
6508.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS A-h-km-\-s k-Xym-{K-lw- 1948 P-\p-h-cn
1318
6509.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-` c-m-k-an-Xn-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ncmw-K- D- h-I-c- bq-tdm-v
6510.- sh-bn-kv cm-P-Ip-am-c-s _-lp-a-Xn (1922) \n-c-kn- a-e-bm-f
I-hn--h--tm \m-cm-b-W-ta-t\m
6511.- sI- Ku-U m-]n- \-K-cw--_mw-q
6512.- sIm--s- hn-h-cw sS-en-hn-j-\n-eq-sS tem-Iw A-dn- B-Zy
A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v--tPm F-^v. sI--Un
6513.- s]-Kzn-\p-I Im-W-s-Sp- h-I-c--Am-n-
6514.- U-ln-bv
- p--]p-d
- v kw-kI
- v- c
- n-s
- - B-Zy-s {]-[m-\a
- {- n sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
6515.- tlm-an-tbm--Xn-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- km-ap-h lm-\n-am
6516.- U-b_
-
- n-Iv tcm-Kn-If
- p-sS aq-{X-n G-Xm-Wv i-cm-ic
- n-sb-m
Iq-Sn-b tXm-Xn Im-Wp--Xv- ]--km-c
6517.- s]-v-kv-Im G-Xp k-co-c-`m-K-n-s ]T-\-n-\m-Wv D-]-tbmKn-p-X
- v- a-kvX
- n-jvI
- w
6518.- C-y ]m-e-san Aw-K-am-b G-I _n-j-v- tPm
dn-m-Uv-k
6519.- sF-Iy-cm-jv{- S-k`
- b
- p-sS G-I B-IvS- n-Mv sk-{I-d
- n P-\d
- - k
m-Uv-hn sP-_v
6520.- A-ta-cn--bp-sS D-]-{K-l-hn-t-]-W tI-{-n-\v G-Xv {]-knUn-s kva
- c
- W
- m-Ya
- m-Wv t]-cn-n-cn-p-X
- v- t- Pm F-^v. sI-Un
6521.- ap-e-m-en-e-S-n-bn-cn-p- ]--km-c- em-Iv-tSm-kv
6522.- C- y ]m- e - s a n K- h - s a n- s ap- J y- h - m- h v {]-[m-\-a-{n
6523.- tlm-fn-hp-Uv F-n-\m-Wv {]-kn-w- kn-\n-a
6524.- C-y ]m-e-sa v n-Xn sN-p--Xv F-hn-sS \yq-Uln-bn
6525.- C-y-bn Im-p I-gp-X-I-p- km-Mv-Nz-dn- dm Hm-^v I-v
6526.- tI-c-f ]-{X-{]-h--I bq-Wn-b {]-kn-Um-bn-cp- I-hn-
F.-hn.-Ir-jW
v- h
- m-cy
6527.- C-y- \-Zn-I-fn- G--hpw- P-e-k---am-b-Xv--{_-lv-a-]p-{X6528.- tlm-bv-km-e-am-cp-sS X-e-m-\w- Zzm-c-k-ap-{Zw
6529.- sh--n-se ]q-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp- P-tem-k-hw- B-d-pf D-{X-m-Xn h-w-I-fn
6530.- X-an-g Xn-cp-\m F--dn-b-s-Sp- B-tLm-jw- s]m-
6531.- ap-n- F--n-epw i-X-am-\m-Sn-m-\-n-epw Iq-Sp-X-ep Pn-- a-e-p-dw
6532.- am-Pym- F- t]-cv m-n D-]-tbm-Kn-p- cm-Pyw- lw-Kdn
6533.- tZ-ho-N-{-Kp-]v-Xw, ap-{Zm-cm--kw F-n-h c-Nn--Xv- hn-im-J-Z
6534.- tI-{ a-{n-k-`-bp-sS X-eh- {]-[m-\-a-{n
6535.- ap-dn-hn-se c-w I--]n-Snm k-lm-bn-p- hnm-an- hn-m-an sI.6536.- B-Zn-hm-kn-`m-j-bn \nan-, tI-c-f-n-se B-Zys kn-\n-a- Kp-U
6537.- C- y
\m- j - W
tIm-{K-kv k-t-f\
-
- n\p th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy Z-ntW- y \- K - c w- sNss
6538.- s{]m-
- mn-kw B-cw-`n-Xv G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv
Cu- ^ - tKm- ] p- c wbq-tdm-v
\n- a n- - h- j w- 1789

CONFUSING FACTS
sk]vXw_ 27 temI hnt\mZkmcZn\hpw(World
Tourism Day) P\hcn 25 tZiob hnt\mZ kmcZn\hpamWv.
CuPn]vjy kwkvImcns en]nbmWv lotcmn^nIv k v ( hnip Fgpv ) . IyqWnt^mw en]n
D]tbmKnncpXv saskms]mmanb kwkvImcamWv ( kptacnb). sskhP\X D]tbmKnncpXpw CXphsc hymJym\nsnnmXpamb
en]nbmWv Nn{Xen]n (Pictographic).
lnpaXnse Imhn FdnbsXv Zbm\v
kckzXnbmWv. icmNmcycmWv lnpaXnse
AIzn\mkv Fp hntijnnsXv.
6539.- C-y-bn C-Yw-{]-Y-a-am-bn H-cp h-\n-X-sb \m-a-\n-tZ-iw sNbv-Xv Aw-K-am-n-b \n-b-a-k-` G-Xm-bn-cp-p- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq
6540.- B-K-a-kn-m-w G-Xp a-X-m-cp-sS {K--am-Wv- ssP-\
6541.- B-Km-Jm I-v G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-p-p-
tlm-n
6542.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS A-[y--X-bn B C-ym Jn-em-^-v
tIm-^-d-kv \-S- -ew- U-ln
6543.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS a-- l-cn-em,a-Wn-em,cmw-Zm-kv,tZ-h-Zm-kv
6544.- kw-m-\-v sk-k-kv B-cw-`n-p--Xv B-cp-sS hn-h-c-
ti-Jc
- n-p-Xp-S
- p-t- Xm-sS-bm-Wv- K
- h
- -W
6545.- m-\-]oT-tP-Xm-hm-b sF.-F.-F-kv.-Hm-^o-k ko-Xm-Im-v
a-lm-]m-{X
6546.- A-ip--c-w h-ln-p- H-tc-sbm-cp [-a-\n- ]-a-W-dn [-a-\n
6547.- A-Iv-_ \m-a, A-bv-\n A-Iv-_-dn F-o Ir-Xn-I c-Nn--Xv-
A-_p ^m-k
6548.- t{K- ln-am-e-b \n-c-I-fp-sS a-sm-cp t]-cv- ln-am-{Zn
6549.- B-lm-c-n-e-S-n-bn-cn-p- Du-Pw A-f-p- bq-Wn-v- Item-dn
6550.- t]m-n-s \-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tdmw
6551.- tZ-i-_-p F--dn-b-s--Xv- kn.-B.-Zm-kv
6552.- t]m-v kw-Ko-X-n-s cm-Pm-hv ssa- Pm-Iv-k
6553.- t]m-fn-tbm-sb A-Xn-Po-hn- G--hpw {]-i-kv-X-\m-b hy-n-{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
6554.- tI-cf
-
- n-se B-Zy-s I-b ^m-IvS- d
- n-bm-b Um-dm-kv sa-bn
m-]n--Xv--sP-bnw-kv Um-d
6555.- tSm-n-tbm G-Xv k-ap-{Z-Xo-c-m-Wv--]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Zw
6556.- t]m-v Hm-^o-kv tk-hn-Mv-kv _m-v kw-hn-[m-\w C-y-bn
B-cw-`n- h-jw- 1882
6557.- tPm-k-^v ap--t-cn-bp-sS B--I-Y- sIm-gn- C-e-I
6558.- A-m l-km-tc G-Xv kw-m-\-m-c-\m-Wv- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
6559.- t]m-p-Ko-kp-Im {_n-o-jp-Im-v kv-{Xo-[\
- a
- m-bn t_mw-s_
\-In-b h-jw- 1661
6560.- B-lm-cw I-gp-In-b-Xn-\p-ti-jw Xn-p- P-p- dm-q
6561.- b-lq-Z-a-Xw m-]n--Xv- tam-k-kv
6562.- \m-k-tcm-h- X-o--Sw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- Kp-P-dmv
6563.- -a-dv- B-v-en- C-y-bp-sS kzm-X-{yw- {]-Jym-]n-p-tmssh-t{km-bn- B-bn-cp--Xv- th-h- {]-`p6564.- -b-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b _m-Iv-So-cn-b- ssa-t{Im _m-Iv-So-cn-bw
Syp-_-p-te
6565.- S-Iv-kv F- I--\n-bp-sS Nn-w--s]-Kzn
6566.- sN-hn D-]-tbm-Kn-v C-cp-n ap-n-se X-S-- Xn-cn--dn-bp Po-hn -h-m
6567.- sN-kv- I-fn-bn- H-mw-kv-Ym-\-v- \n-p-- cm-Py-ta-Xv--d-jy6568.- G-Xp cm-Py-n \n-m-Wv Cu-bn-sS tam-n-s\-t{Km kzm-X{yw t\-Sn-b-Xv- sk-_n-b
6569.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS am-Xm-]n-Xm-- I-cw-N-v Km-n-bpw ]p-Xv-en`m-bn-bpw

146 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6570.- N-{-bm--c-v ]--Xn-bn G-Xp cm-Py-hp-am-bn k-l-I-cn-m\m-Wv C-y e-y-an-Sp--Xv- d-jy


6571.- N-{-Kn-cn-tm- \n-an--Xv- _n-Z-\q-cn-se in-h--\m-b-Iv
6572.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B--I-Y-bn ]-cm-a-in--s-n-p- a-e-bmfn- Pn.-]n.-]n-
6573.- N-{-\n-te-v bm-{X k--]n- t\m-h-en-v- jq thm
6574.- tSm-tm-bn-bp-sS `-h-\-am-b bm-kv-\-bm t]m-fn-bm-\ G-Xv cmPy-m-Wv--d-jy
6575.- t]m-v-am- B-bn {]-h-n--ti-jw A-ta-cn- {]-knUm-b-Xv- F-{_-lmw en-
6576.- tUm.-Aw-t_-Zv-I 1956 kzo-I-cn- a-Xw- _p--a-Xw
6577.- t^m-kn C--\w G-Xp-cq-]-n-em-Wv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X e-`np--Xv- s]-t{Sm-fn-bw
6578.- B-Zy-am-bn ku-c-I-e- hn-I-kn-n-s-Sp- cm-Pyw- ssN-\
6579.- G-Xp cm-Py-n-\n-m-Wv \-ao-_n-b kzm-X-{yw t\-Sn-b-Xv-Z-n-Wm-{^n-
6580.- Km-n-Pn-bp-sS B--I-Y F-s k-Xym-t\z-j-W ]-co--W
6581.- \m-b k-ho-kv skm-ssk-n-bp-sS m-]-I- a--v ]-Zv-a\m-`
6582.- A--co--n-se B-{Z-X A-f-p- D-]-I-c-Ww- ssl-t{Kmao-6583.- ]-d-n-p-v F- t]-cn-ep-a-dn-b-s-Sp- tcm-Kw- kn-^n-en-kv
6584.- \m-b-km F--dn-b-s--Xv- F.-am-[-h \m-b
6585.- B-[p-\n-I H-fn-n-Iv-kn-s ]n-Xm-hv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]n-bdn Un Ip-_-n
6586.- \m-tm \n-e-hn-h- h-jw- 1949 G-{]n 4
6587.- B-[p-\n-I H-fn-n-Iv-kn-se B-Zy hn-P-bn- sP.-_n.-sIm-tWmen
6588.- \-ho-I-c-W {]-m-\w Xp-S-n-b cm-Pyw- P-a-\n
6589.- ]-dp-Zo-km \-jv-Sw F- Ir-Xn c-Nn--Xv- tPm an-
6590.- ]-g-- Ir-{Xn-a-am-bn- ]-gp-n-m- D-]-tbm-Kn-p- am-c-I-amb cm-k-h-kv-Xp- Im-ss_-Uv6591.- ]m-c--cy-\n-b-a- B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv- {Kn-K sa-U
6592.- ]m-co-kv I-ayq Xn-c-s-Sp--s- h-jw- 1871
6593.- G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s- ]-Z-am-Wv ]p-v- tKm-^v
6594.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s ko ^p-Uv ]m-v m-]n-p- ew -A-cq
6595.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s I-ayq-Wn-v {Kq-v- I-ayq-Wn-v eo-Kv
6596.- tem-I ss]-Xr-I-n- D-s-Sp-n-b tI-c-fo-b kw-kv-Ir-X
I-em-cq-]w- Iq-Sn-bm-w6597.- Imw-{K Xm-gv-h-c G-Xv kw-m-\-v -ln-am-N {]-tZ-iv
6598.- Im-X-a--F--dn-b-s-n-cp- X-an-gv \-S--P-an-\n K-tW-i
6599.- in-em-bp-K-a-\p-jy Xm-a-kn-n-cp- _nw-t_-Sv-I Kp-l-I GXv kw-m-\-v- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
6600.- tem-I-_m-n-s B-m-\w- hm-jn-Mv-S
6601.- G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _-s
- - ]-Za
- m-Wv en-t{_m- thm-fo-t_m
6602.- ]m-e-m-Sv Pn--bn Hm-d-p-tXm---p {]-kn---am-b
-ew- s\-n-bm--Xn
6603.- B-Zy-s tdm-a N-{I-h-n- A-K--kv
6604.- ]p-cm-X-\ C-y-bn-se, tlm- kw-hn-[m-\-ap-m-bn-cp- BZy k-h-I-em-im-e- \-f-
6605.- ]q-h-tZ-i-s B-n-e F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- an-ln-cmIp-e
6606.- ]p-cm-X-\ H-fn-n-Iv-kn-se B-Zy hn-P-bn- sIm-tdm-_-kv
6607.- hm-kv-tIm U Km-a-sb B-Zyw kw-kv-I-cn- sk v {^m-knkv ]-n F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- t^m-v sIm-n
6608.- hm-Wn-Py-]-c-am-bn G--hpw {]m-[m-\y-ap- k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-emnIv k-ap-{Zw
6609.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b \yq-\-]- a-X-hn-`m-Kw- ap-nw
6610.- \n-Xm- l-cn-Xm-`-bp-sS \m-Sv F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- t\-m
6611.- \n-Xy-\-K-cw F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- tdmw
6612.- ]-c-ip-dmw F-Iv-kv-{]-kv F-sX-mw -e--n-bn Hm-Sp-p \m-K-tIm-hn--aw-K-em-]p-cw
6613.- ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn- a-en-\o-I-c-W-n-s-d A-]-I-S-- h-c-p-Im-p-
td-- Im-gv-k-s-d Ir-Xn- \n-i-_v-Z-h-k-w-

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

41

tIcfn ]SnmtdmsmgpIp \ZnI F{X


sXmgnenmhpw hrP\pw tcmK-

_m[nXpw tv AXns kmnI


]cn[nbvpn\npsImv Ignbp klmbw
\IWw Fv \njv I jnp `cWLS\m
A\ptZw GXmWv
kwm\ ]nFkv k n AwKfpsS dnbsa v
{]mbw 62 Bbn DbnbXv F{XmaXv
`cWLS\m t`ZKXnbneqsSbmWv
6614.- \o-Xn-km-cw, ssh-cm-Ky-i-X-Iw F-n-h c-Nn--Xm-cv- `-Xr-l-cn
6615.- \q-dp _-b-W-p-I-sf-m i--am-Wv \m-ep ]-{X- F-p
]-d--Xv- s\-tm-fn-b
6616.- A-l--Zm-_m-Zn-se A-`-b-L-n A-y-\n-{Z sIm-p- Cy {]-[m-\-a-{n- sam-dm-Pn tZ-im-bn
6617.- \-S-\p- tZ-io-b A-hm-Uv B-Zy-am-bn t\-Sn-b a-e-bm-fn- ]n.sP.-B-Wn
6618.- C-y- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS F-{Xm-a-s ]-n-I-bn-em-Wv- cm-jv-{S]-Xn,- D-]-cm-jv-{S-]-Xn,- K-h-W-am- ap-X-em-b-h-sc--n- {]-Xn-]mZn-p--Xv- c-mw- ]-n-I-bn6619.- am-\-hn-{I-a-tZ-h km-aq-Xn-cn-bp-sS k-Z-n-s\ A-e--cn-n-cp-
]-Xn-s\--c--hn-I-fn A-c--hn F--dn-b-s--Xv- ]p-\w \-qXn-cn
6620.- G-Xp- c-m-Py-n-\p-n-em-Wv- km-am-cn-t\m- F-- cm-Pyw- kv-Y-nXn- sN-p--Xv- --C--en6621.- G-Xp k-h-I-em-im-e-bp-sS B-m-\-am-Wv tX-n--e-v
n-Xn-sN-p--Xv Im-en--v
6622.- Xp- tdm--v tem-n-Mv t-j {]-h--\-am-cw-`n- h-jw 1963
6623.- G-Xp Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hn-s k-Z-n-s\-bm-Wv \-h-c-Xv-\- A-e-cn-n-cp--Xv- hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy (N-{-Kp-]v-X c-m-a)
6624.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\--fp- kw-m\w- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
6625.- Hm C-ym In-km k-`-bp-sS B-Zy-s {]-kn-U v- k-lPm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
6626.- d-jy P-\-kw-Jy-bp-sS `q-cn-`m-K-hpw G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv- bqtdm-v
6627.- am-\-h-cm-in-bp-sS hn-Im-k-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b {]-[m-\ I-p-]nSn-w- N-{Iw
6628.- C-y-bn ]n-tIm-Uv kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn h- h-jw-
1972
6629.- H-fn-n-Iv-kn A-Xv-e-n-Iv-kn \m-ep kz-Ww t\-Sn-b B-Zys A-ta-cn--m-c- sP-n Hm-h-kv
6630.- {^m-kn-s-d- B-W-h-]-co--W-tI-{w- ap-dp-tdm- A-tm6631.- dn-k-hv _m-v Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS tI-{ Hm-^o-kv n-Xn sNp- -ew- apw-ss_
6632.- \-s-p- Po-hn-I-fn G--hpw h-ep-Xv- \o-e-n-anw-Kn-ew
6633.- C- y- b n B- Z y- s Hm- s se _m- n- M v m- ] - \ w F-v.-Un.-F-^v.-kn.6634.- \-thm-m-\w B-cw-`n- cm-Pyw- C--en
6635.- dn-k-hv- _m-v- K-h-W-dm-b ti-jw- {]-[m-\-a-{n-bm-b B-Zyhy-Iv-Xn- a-tam-l- knw-Kv
6636.- D-dp-p-I-fn-m- h-I-c--Am-n-
6637.- \-S-cm-P-t-{Xw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--Nn-Zw-_-cw
6638.- C-y-bn Cw-o-jv hn-Zym-`ym-k-n-s am-m-Im- F--dnb-s- in-]m-i B-cp-tS-Xm-bn-cp-p- sa-m-sf {]-`p
6639.- \-thm-m-\ Nn--bp-sS ap-Jy-kz-`m-hw- am-\-hn-I-X
6640.- D--bn-\n X-e-m-\-am-n-b Kp-]v-X-cm-Pm-hv- N-{-Kp-]v-X
c-m-a
6641.- am-Xr-`q-an ]-{X-n-s B-Zy ]-{Xm-[n-]- sI.-]n.-tI-ih
- t-- a-t\m
6642.- A-e-Iv-km-{n-b \-K-cw G-Xp \-Zo-Xo-c-m-Wv- ss\

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 147

6643.- dn-t_m-^v-fm-hn G-Xp hn-m-an-s cm-k-\m-aw- hn-m-an _n-2


6644.- a-e-bm-f-a-t\m-c-a I--\n- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n-
F.-Un.-1888
6645.- bp-s\-kv-tIm tem-I ss]-Xr-I-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- `nw-t`-Sv-I Kpl-I G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-[y-{]-tZ-iv
6646.- Xn-cp--sIm-n-bn-se B-Zy-s Xn-c-s-Sp--s- a-{n--k-`-bvp t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv- F.-sP.-tPm
6647.- D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n-\v Km-n-Pn-sb A-d-p sN--s--tm
A-S-bv--s- P-bn- sb-hm-Z
6648.- d--dn-s em-b-Iw- s_-ko
6649.- N-{-Kp-]v-X au-cy-s-d Im-e-s {Ko-v- Aw-_m-k-U- sa-Kkv-X-\o-kv6650.- N--n-kzm-an-I-fp-sS P-\-\w- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-1853
6651.- D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n Km-n-Pn-bv-sm-w ]-s-Sp- k--`-S-am-cp-sS F-w-78
6652.- Pm-J-Wv-Un-se cm-J J-\n-bn-\n-v e-`n-p- tem-lw-
-sN-v
6653.- Z ss\-v I-t^ B-cp-sS s]-bnnw-Km-Wv- hm-tKm-Kv
6654.- G-Xp ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv A-e-lm-_m-Zv \-Kc-n-\v B t]-cp e-`n--Xv- A-Iv-_
6655.- C-y C-y-m-v F- B-lzm-\w B-Zy-am-bn ap-g-n-b-Xv-
Z-bm-\-v k-c-kz-Xn
6656.- tI-cf
- ap-Jy-a{- n-am-cn Im-em-h[
- n ]q-n-bm-n-b B-Zy-s
hy-n- kn.-A-Nyp-X-ta-t\m
6657.- B-Zy-am-bn ]m-e-sa v \n-e-hn-h- K-^v cm-Pyw- Ip-sshv
6658.- D-p k-Xym-{K-lw \-S- h-jw- 1930
6659.- N-{-bm hn-t-]n- h-jw- 2008 H-Iv-tSm-_ 22
6660.- N--n-kzm-an-I-v m-t\m-Z-bw e-`n- -ew- h-Sn-hn-izcw
6661.- dn-l-v P-e-ssh-Zyp-X-]--Xn G-Xp kw-m-\-v- D- {]tZ-iv
6662.- Po-h-Iw sI-bp-sS cm-k-\m-aw- ^n-tm-Izn-t\m
6663.- dn-tbm Un P-\o-tdm G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv- {_-ko
6664.- sa-tU- I-v ^p-Sv-t_m a--cw \-S-p- cm-Pyw- a-tejy
6665.- d--dn-s A-Sn-m-\ L-S-Iw- sF-tkm-{]o
6666.- sam-ss_ t]m--_n-en-n \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy kw-m-\w l-cn-bm-\
6667.- sF-F-kv-B-H sN-b-am-\m-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- Fw-Pn-sI tat\m
6668.- sh--p-k-{-Zm-bw G-Xv I-em-cq-]-hp-am-bn _--s-n-cn-pp- I-Y-I-fn
6669.- sS-v {In--n-se G--hpw D-b- _m-nw-Kv i-cm-i-cn-p-S-a-bmb sUm-Wm-Uv {_m-Uv-am G-Xv cm-Py-m-c-\m-Wv- Hm-kv-t{Sen-b
6670.- sS-v {In--v I-fn-p- F-m cm-Py--fn-epw sk-z-dn t\-Snb B-Zy {In--- cm-lp {Zm-hn-Uv
6671.- am-Pm-c-Ip-Spw-_-n Iq--am-bn Po-hn-p- ar-Kw- knw-lw
6672.- ssa-kq-dn-se {im-h-W-_-e-tKm-f F- -e-v ssP-\-k-\ymkn-bm-bn A-h-km-\-Im-ew I-gn-p-Iq-n-b au-cy N-{I-h-n-
N-{-Kp-]vX
- a
- u-cy
6673.- sse-e a-Pv-\p F- {K--n-s I-m-hv- A-ao Jp-{kp
6674.- tdm-o-kv a-e-\n-c-I G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv--h-S-t A-ta-cn
6675.- B-Zy-s Ir-{Xn-a d-- \n-tbm-{]o
6676.- P-a-\n-bn s_-en a-Xn \n-am-Ww Xp-S-n-b-Xv G-Xv Ata-cn- {]-kn-Un-s Im-e-m-Wv--tPm F-^v. sI-Un
6677.- P-a kn-h-dn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X A-S-n-bn-cn-p- L-SI tem-lw- sN-v
6678.- P-b-Iv-hm-Sn ]--Xn G-Xv \-Zn-bn-em-Wv -tKm-Zm-h-cn
6679.- G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-m-Wv Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dpw a-{Zm-kv kwm-\h
- p-am-bn ap-s
- -cn-bm A-Ws
- -v kw-_
- n- I-cm-dn
G-s--Xv- {io-aq-ew Xn-cp-\m
6680.- a-lm-cm-jv-{S-bn Ipw-`-ta-f \-S-p- -ew- \m-kn-Iv

CONFUSING FACTS
apnv Hcp {]tXyI {]hniy F Bibw

BZyambn aptmpshXv aplZv CIv _ m


BWv. ]mInkvXm F hmv cq]hXvIcnXv
dlvav AenbmWv.
sImn I\namWimebpambn klIcn
cmPyw Pm\mWv. sImn FipoIcWimebpambn klIcn Atacn
I\nbmWv Phillips Petroleum Company.
ssXtdmIvkn F tlmtamWns Ipdhv Ipdhv
IpnIfn s{In\nkw F tcmKhpw
apXnhcn anIvkUna F tcmKhpw
Dmpp.
6681.- ap-p-km-an-Zo-n-Xc
- p-sS ]n-Xm-hv cm-ak
- zm-an Zo-n-X cq-]w \In-b {]-i-kv-X-cm-Kw- lw-k-[z-\n
6682.- A-P-m Kp-l-I I-s-n-b h-jw- 1819
6683.- C-_-Z-Xv-Jm-\ ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- A-Iv-_
6684.- B-[p-\n-I Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-s in-ev-]n- am-m-Wv-U-h-a
6685.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s kz-Im-cy C-s\-v s{]m-ssh-U-
k-Xyw C-t^m-th
6686.- sS-e-kv-tIm-v I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- K-eo-en-tbm
6687.- sS-en-hn-j-\n-se {]m-Y-an-I \n-d-- Np-h-v,]-,\o-e
6688.- B-{m-Iv-kn-\p Im-c-W-am-b A-Wp-Po-hn- _m-Iv-So-cn-b
6689.- bp-Wn-v {S-v Hm-^v C-y-bp-sS B-m-\w- ap-ss_
6690.- kz-X-{ C-y-bn-se X-]m m-n {]-Xy--s- B-Zy
hy-n- a-lm-m-Km-n
6691.- tI-c-f-n-s h-S-t-b--s \-Zn- a-t-iz-cw ]p-g
6692.- s\m-t_ A-m-Z-an F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- kzo-U
6693.- D-d
-
- n-s N-Xp-v (am-jv Hm-^v o-v) F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- N
- {-
6694.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Xp-d-ap-Jw- apw-ss_
6695.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s B-Zy-s P-\-d sk{I--dn- F.-H.-lyqw
6696.- D-a-b--dm-Wn- th-Wm-n-se B-Zy- h-\n-Xm-`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bXv G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-167884
6697.- sjhse F t]cp-ambn _-s DXv]w Hmtm
samss_kv
6698.- B-Zy-am-bn hr- am-n-h-bv- i-kv-{X-{In-b \-S-n-b-Xm-cv-
B.-F
- v.e
- m-e
6699.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b P-bn- Xn-lm
6700.- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-k-`-bn-se G--hpw hn-k-Xo-Ww Ip-d- Aw-Kcm-Pyw- sam-Wm-tm
6701.- dm-Wn- Ku-cn- ]m-h-Xn-`m-bn- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn- {]m-Y-an-I hn-Zym`ym-kw- \n-_-\v-[n-X-am-n-b-Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-1817
6702.- k-Xy-ta-h P-b-tX F--Xv G-Xp-]-\n-j-n \n-m-Wv F-Spn-p--Xv- ap--tIm-]-\n-j-v
6703.- kp-c-km-K-cw c-Nn--Xv- kq-Zm-kv
6704.- tI-c-f-n \n-e-\n-n-cp- a-cp-a--m-b Zm-b-{I-a-s-pdn-v ]-cm-a-in- {]-Y-a hn-tZ-i k-m-cn- {^-b tPm-Um-\kv
6705.- ssh-kv-do-K tem-Uv-Pv F-hn-sS-bm-bn-cp-p--jnw-e
6706.- tI-c-f \n-b-a-k-`-bp-sS N-cn-{X-n A-hn-izm-k {]-ta-b-n\p t\m-o-kv \-In-b B-Zy Aw-Kw- kn.-Pn. P-\m--\
6707.- sse-kn-bw F- hn-Zym-e-bw m-]n--Xv- A-cn-tm-n
6708.- tI-c-f-n ]-Z-hn-bn-en-cn-s A--cn- B-Zy tI-c-f K-hW- kn-- `-v
6709.- tem-I-n-se G--hpw h-en-b em-Uv tem-v-Uv (I-c-_-nX) cm-Pyw- I-k-Jv-m
6710.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s a-\p-jy-\n-an-X Zzo-]v- sh-n-Mv-S
6711.- tem-I-s G--hpw P-\-km-{-X Ip-d- cm-Pyw- aw-tKm-fn-b
6712.- Z--h-Im-i \n-tcm-[-\ \n-b-a-{]-Im-cw {_n-o-jv C-y-tbm-Sp
tN- B-Zy \m-p-cm-Pyw- k-m-d

148 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6713.- G-Xp cm-Py-n-\n-m-Wv 1827 {Ko-kv kzm-X-{yw t\-Snb-Xv- Xp-n


6714.- ssh-Im-cn-I-X-tbm-sS I-p-\o s]m-gn-p- G-I Po-hn--a-\pjy
6715.- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dpw- U-p-Im-cp-am-bn- am-th-en-c
- D-S
- S- n- G-Xv hj-n- F.-Un.-1753
6716.- sj-jm Nu-k bp--n lp-a-bq-Wn-s\ ]-cm-P-b-s-Sp-nb h-jw- 1539
6717.- G-Xp `q-J-Wv-U-n-em-Wv F-m cm-Py--fp-sS-bpw a-Xw {In-kvXp-a-Xw- h-S-t A-ta-cn-
6718.- Km-n-Pn B-Zy-am-bn tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\-n ]-s-Sp-
h-jw 1901
6719.- Im-f-tm-cv G-Xp-cm-Py-s tZ-io-b Im-bn-I hn-t\m-Z-am-Wv- kvs]-bn
6720.- G-Xp kw-`-h-n {]-Xn-tj-[n-m-\m-Wv Km-n-Pn ssI-k-C--ln-v Xn-cn-p-\-In-b-Xv- Pm-en-b-hm-em-_m-Kv Iq--sme
6721.- sIm-gp-n e-bn-p- hn-m-an-\p-I- F,-Un, C, sI
6722.- tI-c-f-n k-ly-\v Ip-dp-sI-bp- G--hpw h-en-b Np-cw- ]me-m-Sv Np-cw
6723.- sIm-k-thm G-Xp cm-Py-n-\n-m-Wv kzm-X-{yw t\-Sn-b-Xv sk-_n-b
6724.- A-p-X-n-\v G--hpw Iq-Sp-X N-cn-hp- {K-lw--bp-dm-\-kv
6725.- sIm-Sp--q t-{X-n-se {]-[m-\ D-k-hw- `-c-Wn
6726.- C-y-bn h-\-a-tlm-k-hw B-cw-`n--Xv- sI.-Fw.-ap-jn
6727.- B-{K tIm- \n-an- ap-K N-{I-h-n- A-Iv-_
6728.- tI-c-f-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Im-kv-n-Mv thm-v {]-tbm-Kn-
kv-]o-- F.-kn.-tPm-kv
6729.- sI-bv-_p-emw-Pm-thm-tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w-G-Xp-kw-m-\-m-Wv a-Wn-q
6730.- am--ss-v G-Xn-s A-bn-cm-Wv- C-cp-v
6731.- kp-{]ow tIm-S-Xn No-^v P-n-km-b B-Zy a-e-bm-fn- sI.-Pn._m-eI
- r-jvW
-
6732.- P-bv-ln-v F- ap-{Zm-hm-Iyw C-y-bv-v k-m-\n- kzm-X-{yk-a-c-tk-\m-\n- kp-`m-jv N-{-t_m-kv
6733.- s_-ko I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- ssa- ^m-c-tU
6734.- Xn-c-s-Sp-p-tI-kn C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn P-b-ap-m-b-Xm-v Sn.-F.-cm-a-N-{-(1945)
6735.- G-Xp a-X-n-s hn-`m-K--fm-Wv tiz-Xw-_-c-am-cpw Zn-Kw-_c-am-cpw- ssP-\-a-Xw
6736.- ssh-w- k-Xy-{K-l-n-s kq-{X-[m-c F--dn-b-s-SpXv- Sn- sI am-[-h6737.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ssa- D-]m-Zn-n-p- kwm-\w- Pm-J-Wv-Uv
6738.- sIm-tm- D-]m-Z-\-n-epw- I-b-p-a-Xn-bn-epw- tem-I-v- H-mwkv-Ym-\w- G-Xp- cm-Py-n-\m-Wv- --tIm-v- Uo- sF-thm6739.- sIm-Wm-n-se kq-cy-t-{Xw \n-an--Xv- \-c-knw-l-tZ-h
6740.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s B-Zy-s {]-kn-U v U-yp.-kn.-_m-\-Pn
6741.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm-{]-knU v- B-\n _-k v
6742.- sh-Sn-bp--tb-m- i-Iv-X-am-Wv- _m-e-v- F-v- ]-d--Xv- F{_-lmw- en-6743.- sIm-n-sb `-c-W-L-S-\m \n-am-W-k-`-bn {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w sNbv-X G-I a-e-bm-fn- ]-\-n-n tKm-hn--ta-t\m
6744.- sIm-m-c-n i-p-n-bp-sS b-Ym-Y-t]-cv- hm-kp-tZ-h
6745.- G--hpw P-\-kw-Jy Ip-d- cm-Pyw h-n-m
6746.- tI-c-f-n D-p k-Xym-{K-l-n-\p t\-Xr-Xzw \-In-b-Xv-
sI.-tI-f-
6747.- H-mw tem-Ia
- l
- m-bp-
- n ho-ca
- r-Xyp h-cn- C-y P-hmam-cp-sS Hm-a-bv-m-bn D-m-n-b kv-am-c-Iw- C-ym-tK-v
6748.- em-tlm Kq-Vm-tem-N-\-t-kn-se ap-Jy-{]-Xn- -`-K-Xv kn-Mv
6749.- e--Zzo-]v {Kq-n-se G--hpw hn-kv-Xo-Ww Iq-Sn-b Zzo-]v- Bt{m-v
6750.- H-mw tem-Iv-k-`-bn tIm-{K-kv ]m-n t\-Sn-b ko-p-I-
364

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

42

K-m-^n F-{X h-j-am-Wv en-_n-b `-cn--Xv


C-y `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS G--hpw h-en-b t`-Z-K-Xn F-{Xma-t-Xm-Wv
U-ln-bn-se C-ym tK-n-s D-b-cw F-{X ao--dm-Wv
a-lm-ho-c F-{Xm-a-s h-b-n-em-Wv ssI-h-eyw (Zn-hym-\w) t\-Sn-b-Xv
h-\-n-s-bpw h-\y-Po-hn-I-fp-sS-bpw kw-c--Ww \n-ti-I-X-z--fn D-s-Sp-n-b-Xv F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-LS-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv B-ap-Jw
t`-Z-K-Xn sN-bv-X-Xv
tem-Iv-k-`-bp-sS Im-em-h-[n B-dp h-j-am-bn D-b-n-bXv F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\ t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv
ku-P-\y \n-b-a-k-lm-bw \n-t-i-I X-z--fp-sS `m-Kam-n-b `-c-W-L-S-\ t`-Z-K-Xn G-Xm-Wv
an-\n tIm-n-yq-j F--dn-b-s-Sp- `-c-W-L-S-\m t`Z-K-Xn F-{Xm-a-t-Xm-Wv
`-cW
- L
- S- \
- b
- p-sS F-{Xm-as
- t`-ZK
- X
- n-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv tkmjy-en-v, sk-p-e F-o ]-Z- Iq-n-t--Xv
H-cp _m-c Hm-bn F-{X bp-F-kv Kym-e B-Wv
F-{Xm-a-s `-c-W-L-S-\ t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv \n-t-iI X-z--v au-en-Im-h-Im-i--fp-sS ta ap-K-W-\
\-In-b-Xv
au-en-I I-S-a-I-sf `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS `m-K-am-n-b-Xv F-{Xma-s `-c-W-L-S-\m t`-Z-K-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv
6751.- B-cp-sS B--I-Y-bm-Wv Hm-a-bp-sS Hm-f- Pn.-i--c-pdp-v
6752.- 117 Zzo-]p-I tN-v cq-]w-sIm- bq-tdm-]y \-K-cw- sh-\okv
6753.- s_-l F- ]p-kv-X-Iw c-Nn--Xv- eq-bn-kv hm-e-kv
6754.- P-e-n ssl-{U-P-s-bpw Hm-Iv-kn-P-s-bpw A-\p-]m-Xw `mc-n-s A-Sn-m-\-n- 2-:16
6755.- sIm-Sp-m-p-I-fp-sS k-ap-{Zw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--N-{
6756.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kn-s cq-]-h--c-W-k-a-b-v
ssh-t{km-bn-bm-bn-cp--Xv- U-^-dn {]-`p
6757.- sS-v {In-
- v N-cn-{X-n-se B-Zy sk-z-dn t\-Sn-bX
- m-cv- Nmkv s_--am (Hm-kv-t{S-en-b)
6758.- ssk-\y-n-se Ip-Xn-c-I-v Nm- Ip-p- k-{-Zm-bw \-Sn-em-n-b B-Zy sU-ln kp-m- A-em-hp-o JnPn
6759.- ssP-h Ir-jn-bp-sS D-]-m-Xm-hv- k B-_-v tlm-hmUv
6760.- t]-gv-k-W Iw-]yq--dn-s ]n-Xm-hv- sl-dn F-tUz-Uv tdm_-Sv-kv
6761.- t]m--tIm-Uv kw-hn-[m-\w \n-e-hn-h- B-Zy cm-Pyw- Pa-\n
6762.- C-ym K-h-sa v P-\-kw-Jym-\-bw {]-Jym-]n- h-jw- 1976
6763.- Z-n-tW-y \-Zn-I-fn G--hpw h-en-b X-S-{]-tZ-i-ap--Xv tKm-Zm-h-cn
6764.- Z-n-tW-y kw-m-\-n ap-Jy-a-{n-bm-b B-Zy-h-\nX- Pm-\-In cm-a-N-{
6765.- G-Xp kw-L-S-\-bv-m-Wv Xp- tdm--v hn-t-]-W tI-{w
k-a-n-n-cn-p--Xv- sF-Iy-cm-jv-{S-kw-L-S-\
6766.- Z-n-tW-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw- sIm-t-cp
6767.- N-{-Kp-]v-X-au-cy-\v cm-Py-X-{-n D-]-tZ-iw \-In-bn-cp-Xv B-cv- Nm-W-Iy
6769.- kw-m-\ ]n.-F-kv.-kn. sN-b-am-s\ \n-b-an-p--Xm-cv- K-hW

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 149

6770.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s lr-Z-b-am- i-kv-{X-{In-b-bv-p t\-XrXzw \-In-b-Xv- tPm-kv Nm-tm s]-cn-b-p-dw
6771.- s\m-t_ k-m-\-n-\-l-\m-b-ti-jw `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b
B-Zy hy-n- kn.-hn.-cm-a
6772.- B-cp-sS tI-kv hm-Zn-m-\m-Wv Km-n-Pn Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn
t]m-b-Xv- tk-v A-_v-Zp-
6773.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h--am-\ ]-{X- D- kwm-\w- D- {]-tZ-iv
6774.- {_n-o-jv k-m-cn-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I-tc-J-bp-sS t]-cv- \o-e ]pkvX
- I
- w
6775.- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \m-a-tZ-h `-n-{]-m-\w {]-N-cn-n--Xv- a-lmcm-jv{- S
6776.- F-hn-sS-bm-Wv ]-m-b-o-cm-Pn-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xv- \m-Kq
(cm-P
m)
6777.- C-y-bn-se G--hpw h-en-b Xq-p-]m-ew- lu-d ]m-ew (c-_o{ tk-Xp)
6778.- D-j kv-Iq Hm-^v A-Xv-e-n-Iv-kv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- sIm-bn-em-n
6779.- D-p-c-kw G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- k-ap-{Zw- Nm-hp-I-S
6780.- cm-Pm-Pn \m-j-W ]m-v G-Xv kw-m-\-m-Wv- D--cmJ-WvU
- v
6781.- D--S Zzo-]p-I F-p-Iq-Sn t]-cp- C-y-bn-se tI-{-`-cW-{]-tZ-iw- B--am \n-tm-_m
6782.- D-Im-bv ]--Xn- G-Xp \-Zn-bn- X-]v-Xn
6783.- hw-i-hn-th-N-\-n-s t]-cn C-y kn-hn k-ho-kn\n-v ]p-d-m--s-v kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-tk-\m-\n -kp-tc-{-\mYv _m-\-Pn
6784.- `q-tKm-f-n G--hpw h-S-m-bn n-Xn-sN-p- X-e-m-\\-K-cw- sd-bv-Iv-Pm-hn-Iv
6785.- `q-a-[y-tc-J-bpw ]q-Pyw Un-{Kn tc-Jmw-i-hpw ({Ko-\n- tc-J) Xn Iq-n-ap-p-X
- n-\v G-h
- p-aS- p-p n-Xn sN-p- X-e
m\ \-K-cw- A-{I
6786.- B.-F-kv.-F-kv.--s m-]-I- tI-i-hv-dm-hp sl-Uv-tK-hm
6787.- dq-kv I-n-n-bp-sS F-Iv-kv H-^o-tjym A-[y--\m-cv--kv-]o
6788.- B.-Un.-F-Iv-kv--F--Xn-s ]q-W-cq-]w- dn-k-v Un-m-vsa v F-Iv-kv-tm-ko-hv
6789.- dq-t-e o ]v-fmn-s \n-am-W-n k-l-I-cn- cm-Pyw P-a-\n
6790.- C-y-bn t]m-p-Ko-kv km-{am-Pyw m-]n-X
- v- A-_p-v
6791.- dq-tm G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv P-\n--Xv- kzn-v-k-e-Uv
6792.- B-bn-cw Ip-p-I-fp-sS \m-Sv- dp-hm-
6793.- G-gp-a-e-I-fp-sS \m-Sv -tPm-Zm
6794.- `q-an-bp-sS A-]-c F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv ssS-
6795.- B-{^n--bp-sS \n-e- lr-Z-bw F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s-Sp-
cm-Pyw- Nm-Uv
6796.- H-fn-n-Iv-kn C-y So-an-s\ \-bn- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn(C-y\pw) h-\n-X- ssj-\n hn-k(1992, _m-gv-k-tem-W)

tI- c - f - n- s e B- Z y- s sa- U n- tIm- t f- P v -


Xn-cp-h-\--]p-cw

bpn {]tbmKnm
sXntmtbmhph
Kn\nnbvv (Guinea Pig) ]nhKhpambn _an.
CXv Fen DsSp rodent F hn`mKnse
AwKamWv.
CuPn]vXns tZiob ]pjv]amb Egyptian Lotus Hcn\w
water-lily (B) BWv.
Hcmsf completely sealed Bb apdnbn ]qnbnm
acWw kw`hnpXv HmIvknP e`nmXpaqeambncnn, carbon dioxide poisoning
ImcWambncnpw.
cpIpIfn Hp \jv S sm Imgv N bpsS
cnsem, Ansemt \jvSamIq.
Imetmgn Fv hnfnpXv aqsbbmWv.
6797.- h-f-n-s D-]-tbm-K-n G--hpw ap-n-ep- ({]-Xn-io-j)
kw-m-\w- ]-m-_v
6798.- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X- P-\-k-w-J-y-bp-- A-ta-cn- kv-t-v-
Im-en-t^m-Wn-b6799.- H-fn-n-Iv sa-U-t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s C-y-m-cn- I-Ww
a-t-iz-cn
6800.- tlm-]v-In C-n-yq-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--apw-ss_
6801.- H-fn-n-Iv-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b B-Zy G-jy \-K-cw- tSm-n-tbm
(1964)
6802.- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X P-\-kw-Jy-bp- h-I-c--G-jy
6803.- G--hpw ]-g--ap- hn-am-\ k-ho-kv- sI-F-Fw (s\-Xe-Uv-kv)
6804.- B-{^n--bp-sS lr-Z-bw F--dn-b-s-Sp- cm-Pyw -_p-dp-n
6805.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-S-t-b--s tm-v ]-m-b-v-
a-t-iz-cw
6806.- Z-n-W-Im-in-sb--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- cm-ta-iz-cw
6807.- G--hpw ]-g-w-sN- s^-U-d kw-hn-[m-\-ap--Xv -bp.-F-kv.F.6808.- Xp-n-bp-sS G-jy `m-K-am-Wv -G-jym-ssa-\
6809.- Cu-Pn-]v-Xn-s G-jy `m-Kw- kn-\m-bv D-]-Zzo-]v
6810.- C-a-b-h-c- F- m-\-t-cp-m-bn-cp- tN-c-cm-Pm-hv -s\Spw-tN-ce
- m-X
6811.- C-y-bn-se- B-Zy-s- h-[n--s-- ap-Jy-a-{n- _n-bm-v knMv
6812.- G--hpw ]-g--ap- X-e-m-\w U-am-kv-I-kv
6813.- C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn kz-Im-cy--h--cn--s- jn-tbm-\m-Yv
]p-g G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- O-n-kv-K-Vv
6814.- ssP-\-]-Wv-Un-X-\m-b -tl-a-N-{- B-cp-sS- k-Z-ky-\m-bn-cp-p
- P-b-knw-l-kn--cm-P
6815.- bm- tIm-^-d-kn ]-s-Sp- A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v-{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
6816.- G-sXm-s cm-Py--n-S-bn-ep- A-Xn-n tc-J-bm-Wv dmUv-n-^v tc-J- C-y-bpw ]m-In-kv-Xm-\pw
6817.- bp.-]n.-F-kv.-kn.-m-]n-X-am-b h-jw- 1950
6818.- C-y-bn cq-]-bp-sS ap-Km-an-p Xp-S--an--Xv B-cp-sS `-c-WIm-e-v- sj-j
6819.- G--hpw ]-g--ap- ]--Ww -sP-dn-tm
6820.- N-{-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w -sk-e-t\m-f-Pn
6821.- kq-cy-s\-p-dn-p- ]T-\w- lo-en-tbm-f-Pn
6822.- kz-X-{-am-b H-cp cm-Py-s ]q-W-am-bn D-sm-p- G-hpw h-en-b Zzo-]v -a-U-Km-kv-I
6823.- -t]-jy-bn-se A-e-Iv-km-- F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv
-\m-Zn jm
6824.- `-c-W-L-S-\m \n-am-W-k-`-bp-sS Xm-Xv-Im-en-I A-[y-- kn-Zm-\- kn-l
6825.- ]m-In-kv-Xm-\n-se G--hpw h-en-b \-Zn--kn-p
6826.- A--c-am-em-{I-a-n B-Zy A-ta-cn- kw-m-\w- A-e_m-a

150 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6827.- _w-m-tZ-in-s tZ-io-b-Km-\-am-b A-a tkm-\m _w-Kv-f c-Nn-Xv- c-_o-{-\m-Yv Sm-Kq


6828.- G--hpw h-en-b ]p-cm-Ww -kv-I--]p-cm-Ww
6829.- `q-a-[y-tc-J I-S-p t]m-Ip- Zzo-]p-I-fn G--hpw hn-kv-XoWw Iq-Sn-b-Xv- t_m-Wn-tbm
6830.- `q-h-I-n- G--hpw- Iq-Sp-X-ep- tem-lw- A-ep-an-\n-bw6831.- -Pm-v k-ap-Zm-b-n-s t-tm- F--dn-b-s--Xv -kq-c-Pv-a
6832.- `q-h-ev-I-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- aq-e-Iw- Hm-Iv-kn-P
6833.- ln-p-a-X-n-se A-Izn-\m-kv F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv- i-cm-Nm-cy
6834.- \m-ep-kzm-X-{y--fp-sS h-m-hm-b A-ta-cn- {]-kn-U v-{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
6835.- ln-p-a-X-n-se Im-hn F--dn-b-s--Xv -Z-bm-\-v k-c-kzXn
6836.- -C-m-en-b Nm-W-Iy- F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv -am-Iy-sh-n
6837.- \m-p-Im-cy--fn A-`n-{]m-bw ]-d-bpw-ap-v C-y ap-gp-h k-in-m Km-n-Pn-sb D-]t- Z-in-X
- m-cv- t- Km-]m-eI
- r-jW
v- tKmJ-se
6838.- -tI-c-f-n-se A-tim-I- F-p hn-ti-jn-n--s--Xv -h-cKp-W
6839.- am-ln-jva
- X
- n-bn-h
- v i-c
- m-Nm-cy hm-Z{- ]-Xn-hm-Z
- n tXm]n- ao-amw-k-I- a-Wv-U-\-an-{i
6840.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw Nq-Sp-Iq-Sn-b -ew- ]p-\-eq
6841.- Zu-e-Xv Jm tem-Zn B-sc-bm-Wv U-ln B-{I-an-m Wn--Xv--_m-_
6842.- ^-t-_m-Zv \-K-c-n-s m-]-I -^n-tdm-kv jm Xp--Iv
6843.- C-y-bn an-Ivk
- U
- v tIm-f\
- n kw-hn-[m-\w B-hn-jvI
- c
- n- t]mp-Ko-kv K-h-W- A-_p--v
6844.- tI-c-f-n-se G-I kv-ss]-kv ]m-v F-hn-sS-bm-Wv- ]p--Sn
6845.- cm-Po-hv Km-n h-[-n-\p ]n-n-se kp-c-m ]m-fn--sb-pdn-v A-t\z-jn--Xv -P-bn I-o-j
6846.- C-y-bn K-h-W P-\-d-em-b-h-cn G--hpw {]m-bw Ip-d-Xv- U-lu-kn
6847.- tIm-a-sh-n-\n-v ]p-d-m--s- B-Zy cm-Pyw -^nPn
6848.- t\-m-fn F-h-d-v n-Xn-sN-p- tZ-io-tbm-Zym-\w -k-Kam-Xm \m-j-W ]m-v
6849.- h--ta-i-k-t-f-\-Im-e-v {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a-{n- dw-tk a-IvsUm-Wm-Uv
6850.- {_n-o-jv C-y-bn-se K-h-W P-\-d-am-cn G--hpw Iq-SpX-Im-ew ]-Z-hn h-ln--Xv- hm-d tl-nw-Kv-kv
6851. tIcfnse
Hmw
\nbak`bn
F{X
\ntbmPIaWvUefnemWv XncsSpv \SXv 114
6852. t]mpKokpIm tIcfn\p \Inb Ghpw henb
kmwkvImcnI kw`mh\ Nhnp\mSIw
6853. ZnWm{^nbpsS Idp hKmc\mb BZy {]knU v
(19941999)s\kate
6854. {_nojv Cybn Ghpw IqSpXImew A[nImcn
XpS ssht{kmbn enenXvtKm {]`p
6855. tdmb GjymnIv skmsskn Hm^v _wKm
FkwLS\ m]nXv hmd tlnMvkv
6856. lukv Hm^v temUvkn AwKamb BZy Cymc
Fkv.]n.knl
6857. Cy \thmm\ns ]nXmhv FdnbsSpXv
cmPmdmw taml tdmbn
6858. s\tmfnb\nIv bpn Hcp ssI \jvS ambtijw
Cybnse KhW P\dembXv lmUnv Hma
6859. Hmw temIalmbpn Hcp Ip \jvSstijw
CybpsS ssht{kmbnbmbXv thh {]`p
6860. `mcXv amXm skmsskn F hnh kwLS\bpsS
m]I APnXv knMv
6861. Cy tZiobXbpsS ]nXmal FdnbsSpXv
cmPv \mcmb t_mkv
6862. t]mv cmjv{Seh\mbnp cmPyw hnm
6863. tIcfnse Hmw \nbak`bntep XncsSpn
Ghpw IqSpX iXam\w thmp t\Snb ]mn tIm{Kkv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

43

`mcX cXv\w t\Snb F{Xmas hynbmWv kn


sSUp
1983se temIIv {Inv Cy hnPbnXv F{X
dkn\mWv
Ir{Xnaambn \nan BZy aqeIamb sSIv\ojyns
AtmanI kwJy
Ghpw Ipd {]mbn Atacn {]knUmbn
XncsSps tPm F^v sIUn F{Xmw
hbnemWv m\taXv
IpSn hyhkmbw t{]mmlnnWsav hyh
sNp `cWLS\m A\ptZw GXmWv
a\pjyicocn BsI F{X tPmSn \mUnI Dv
{Inn Ghpa[nIw {]mhiyw Uv Bbnp
tImSv \ n hmjv F{X {]mhiyamWv A{]Imcw
]pdmbnpXv
6864. BZyambn HfnnIv \mfw GXp hjamWv sXfnbnXv 1928
(BwUmw)
6865. Snp kpm Xs A[o\Xbnep ae_m
{]tZifpsS `cWtI{ambncpXv ^tdmv
6866. Cybn Ghpw IqSpX t]p sXmgn \Ip
hyhkmbw sSIvsskv
6867. sshw aplZv _jodns BZy t\mh-
_meyImekJn
6868. Cy-bn- Ghpw- Iq-Sp-X- taP- Xp-dap-Jfp- kw-kvYm-\am-Wv- Xan-gv-\m-Sv.- GsXm-sbm-Wh sNss,- Xq-pp-Sn,-Fq6869. ssewKnI tlmtamWpIsf D]mZnnp {Kn
sKmWmUv {Kn
6870. Cybn Ghpw IqSpX XntbdpI D kwm\w
B{m{]tZiv
6871. {KmaoW _mpIfpsS in]n Fv AdnbsSpXmcv
aplZv bq\qkv
6872. Cybn tmv FIv k v t NpIsf \nb{np
m]\w sk_n (skIyqcnokv B v FIv k v t Nv
t_mUv Hm^v Cy)
6873. Cybn tImf\n`cWw ]cn]qWambn Ahkm\n
hjw 1961
6874. temIvk`bnse cmas h\nXm {]Xn]t\Xmhv
kpjam kzcmPv
6875. enbm\mtUm Umhnn hnam\mhfw FhnsSbmWv tdmw
6876. hnPb\Kcnse GXp `cWm[nImcnbpsS ImemWv
t]jy kmcn A_vZp dkmv ki\w \SnbXv
tZhcmb cma
6877. hnIvtSmdnb shmw Isnb tUhnUv enhnMv
GXp cmPymc\mWv kvtImSveUv
6878. lv GXv cmPytp XoYmS\amWvkuZn Atd_y
6879. PohnIfpsS imkv{Xob \maIcWn\v D]tbmKnncnp
`mj emn
6880. F lndn Hm^v Cwojv kv]onwKv ]on cNnXmcvk
hn Nn
6881. Pp Iivaocn\v {]tXyI `cWLS\ \nehnhXv 1957
P\hcn 26
6882. F.Un.Fmw iXIn hwKtZiw FdnbsncpXv
Ing _wKm
6883. NXpp hmXIw FdnbsSpXv aotY
6884. tIcfn tImSXnhn[nbneqsS \nbak`mwKXzw
\jvSs BZy hyn tdmkm]pqkv
6885. F t\j C tanwKv F ]pkvXIw (1925) cNnXmcv
kptc{\mYv _m\Pn

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 151

6886. tIcfn tImSXnhn[nbneqsS \nbak`mwKXzw e`n


BZy hyn hn.B.IrjvW
6887. F.sF.Sn.bp.kn.bpsS BZy ktf\w \S hjw 1920
6888. N-Xp-cm-Ir-Xn-bn-e-m-- tZ-io-b- ]-Xm-I-bp-- Htc-sbm-cp- cmPyw t\-m- (c-p- {Xn-tIm-W- tN--Xm-Wv- t\-m-fns-d- tZ-io-b]-XmI)6889. InSp {Klw FdnbsSp {Klwbpdm\kv
6890. AIv_dns ssk\nI k{Zmbw Andbsncp t]cv
ak_vZmcn
6891. EtKzZImev Pens A[ntZh\mbn IWm
sXv hcpW
6892. ZntWjybnse GI {]IrXnZ sFkv kvtInwKv dnv
FhnsSbmWvjnwe
6893. sNS GXv kap{Zns `mKamWvCyalmkap{Zw
6894. ZnW \f Fp hntijnns, {]mNo\
tIcfnse hnZymtI{w Imq ime
6895. F._n.hmPvt]bn P\n ew Kzmfntbm
6896. XncpsImnbn a{nbmb BZy h\nXB\n akv{Io
6897. F.sF.Sn.bp.knbpsS
BZy
ktf\w
\S
ewapwss_
6898. GXp cmPhwiamWv JPpcmtlm t{Xw ]WnIgnnXv
Ote
6899. XncpsImnbn A hIpv \ndpemnb hjw
1951
6900. Snphns ]nXmhv sslZcen
6901.- kp-\m-an G-Xp-`m-j-bn-se hm-m-Wv- P-m-\o-kv
6902.- D-Pn-\n- X-o--Sw G-Xp kw-m-\-m-Wv- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
6903.- tI-c-f-n G--hpw sX-t-b--s \n-b-a-k-`m a-Wv-U-ew-
s\-m-n-I-c
6904.- F.-_n.-kn cm-Py- F-d
- n-bs
- -Sp-X
- -v A-Po-\, {_-ko,
Nn-en
6905.- tI-c-f-n G-Xp `q-{]-tZ-i-n-em-Wv G--hpw Iq-Sp-X P-\km-{-X-bp--Xv- Xo-c-{]-tZ-iw
6906.- kv-]o- m-\w h-ln--ti-jw cm-jv-{S-]-Xn-bm-b-Xv- \o-ew
k-Rv-Po-h-sdn
6907.- d--dn-s h--ss\-tk-j I-p-]n-Sn--Xv- Nm-kv Kp-Uv
C-b
6908.- dp-]y F- t]-cn \m-W-bw B-cp-sS `-c-W-Im-e-m-Wv ]p-ds-Sp-hn--Xv- tj-jm
6909.- dp-Uv-bm-Uv In-n-Mn-s Pw-Kn _p-n-s ]-m--ew-
I-l h-\w
6910.- Nm-an-\m ]-Wn-I-gn-n--Xv- ap-l--Zv Jp-en Ip-X-_v jm
6911.- Kw-K--b-ap-\ \-Zn-I-fp-sS kw-K-a-kv-Y-ew- A-e-l-_m-Zv6912.- kw-kv-Ym-\ ]p-\x-kw-L-S-\m- I-ao-j-s-d A-[y--\m-bn-cp-Xv- ^-k- A-en6913.- Kp-]v-X-cm-P-k-Z-n-se `m-j- kw-kv-Ir-Xw
6914.- ku-c-bq-Y-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X Nq-S-\p-`-h-s-Sp--Xv- kqcy-s tI-{-n
6915.- bq-dn K-Km-dn B-Zy-am-bn _-ln-cm-Im-i-k-m-cw \-S-n-b hml-\w- thm-tm-Iv-1 (1961 G-{]n 12)
6916.- a-lm-`m-c-X bp--n Iu-c-h-sc B-\--S-bp-am-bn k-lm-bn cm-Pm-hv- `-K-Z-
6917.- Km-n-Pn C-y-bn \n-cm-lm-c-a-\p-jvTn-n-cp- B-Zy k-a-cw-
A-l--Zm-_m-Zv an k-a-cw(1918)
6918.- Km-n-Pn C-y-bn _-lp-P-\-{]-tm-`w B-cw-`n- -ew-
N-m-c
6919.- tem-I sd-tm-Up-I tc-J-s-Sp-p- ]p-kv-X-Iw- Kn--kv
_p-v
6920.- td-Un-b-kv, A-\ F-o A-n-I F-hn-sS Im-W-s-Sp-p-
ssI
6921.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s kv-t]m-Sv-kv kv-Iq- Pn.-hn.-cm-P kvt]m-Sv-kv kv-Iq
6922.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s K-Xm-K-X--sXm-gn h-Ip-p a-{n- Sn.hn.-tXm-a-kv
6923.- B-Zy-s an-kv bq-Wn-th-gv-kv- A-an Ip-tk-e (^n-e-Uv)

CONFUSING FACTS
]mInkv X ms tZiobKm\amWv Izman Xcm\m.
A^vKm\nkvXms tZiob Km\amWv ann Xcm\.
B{^nbpsS sImv skmamenb. B{^nbpsS
]Wbs sImv Pn_qn.
Fs IY cNnXv am[hnpn (Iaem kqc). Fs
PohnXIY cNnXv F.sI. tKm]me.
tdma ]pcmWfn _pnbpsS A[ntZhX
an\hbpw {Kov ]pcmWfnteXv AYo\bpamWv.
B{^nbpsS lrZbw FdnbsSp cmPyw
_pdpnbmWv. B{^nbpsS \ne lrZbw Fp
hntijnnsSp cmPyamWv NmUv.
6924.- G-Xp ]-n-bp-sS im-kv-{X-\m-a-am-Wv {kp-Xn-tbm I-ta-e-kv--H-I--n
6925.- C-y \m-j-W tIm-{K-kv k-t-f-\-n h-t-am-X-cwB-Zy-am-bn B-e-]n--s- h-jw- 1896
6926.- Kn-bm-kp-o Xp--n-s ]-g-b t]-cv- Km-kn-am-en-v
6927.- C-y X-z-Nn--bp-sS A-Sn-m-\w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv-
D-]-\n-j-p-I
6928.- C-y-bn F-n-\o-tb-gv-kv Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-p--Xv- sk-]vXw-_ 15
6929.- bq-tdm-]y-cm tIm-f-\n-h--cn--s-Sm- G-I sX-p-In-g-t\-jy cm-Pyw- Xm-bv-e-Uv
6930.- ar--I-Sn-Iw c-Nn--Xv- iq-{Z-I
6931.- B-j-kv- {In--v a--cw G-sXm-s cm-Py- X-n-em-Wv-
Cw--pw Hm-kv-t{S-en-b-bpw
6932.- B
- j
- m-ta-t\m- F- Xq-en-Im-\m-a
- n A-dn-bs
- -Sp-X
- v- sI.{io-Ip-am
6933.- lp-a-bq F-hn-sS-bm-Wv P-\n--Xv- Im-_q
6934.- sl-dnw-Kv t]m-v F--dn-b-s-Sp- k-ap-{Zw--A-Xv-emn-Iv k-ap{Zw
6935.- Sm-tKm P-\n--Xv- 1861
6936.- {_n-o-jn-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ssh-t{km-bn- Im-\n-Mv {]-`p
6937.- Z-n-tW-y-bp-sS A-cn-n-w F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- Ir-jv-Wm-tKm-Zm-h-cn sU-
6938.- Sn-p kp-m h-[n--s- h-jw- 1799
6939.- G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-m-Wv cm-a- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn Z-fh-bm-bn-cp--Xv- am-m-Wv-U-h-a
6940.- C-y \m-jW
- tIm-{K-kn-s B-Zy-kt- -f\
-
- n-s thZn- apw-s_-bn-se tKm-Ip-Zm-kv tX-Pv-]m kw-kv-Ir-X tImtf-Pv
6941.- Xp-n-I tIm-mn-t\m-n ]n-Sn--S-n-b h-jw- 1453
6942.- Sn-p- s\-Sp-tm- B-{I-an--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-1789
6943.- G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s B-m-\-I-hn-bm-bn-cp-p _m-W-`-- lj
6944.- Sm-tKm, {]-`p-m-\w D-t]-n--Xn-\p Im-c-Ww- Pm-en-b hmem-_m-Kv Iq--sm-e
6945.- Xp-ep-h-hw-iw m-]n--Xv- ho-c \-c-knw-l
6946.- sk-e-t\m-{K-^n F-p-am-bn _--- ]T-\-im-J-bm-Wv--N-{
6947.- Z-n-tW-y-bn-se B-Zy sa-t{Sm sd-bn-th m-]n--s-
\-K-cw--_mw-q
6948.- lp-m-bn G-Xv cm-Py-s Im I--\n-bmWv- Z-n-W
sIm-dn-b
6949.- l-Pq- I-t-cn- sIm--p-\n-v- Xn-cp-h-\--]p-c-t-v- am-n-bXv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.-1830
6951.- tUm-v F--Xv G-Xv tcm-K-n-\p- Nn-In-m co-Xn-bm-Wv- bw
6952.- tX-\o--I-fn-m- h-I-c--Am-n-
6953.- A-tm-an-bw F- kv-am-c-Iw G-Xv cm-Py-m-Wv s_-Pn-bw

152 ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv

6954.- tX-bn-e- D-]-m-Z-\-n-epw- D-]-t`m-K-n-epw- H-mw-kv-Ym-\w- GXp-cm-Py-n-\m-Wv- --C-y6955.- t^m-Wm-{Km-^v I-p-]n-Sn--Xm-cv -F-Un-k
6956.- A-a-c-knw-l-s ]p-c-kv-I-m-hv--N-{-Kp-]v-X hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy
6957.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw h-en-b ip--P-e-X-Sm-Iw- im-kv-Xmw-tIm
6958.- tZ-h-Kn-cn-bp-sS ]p-Xn-b t]-cv- Zu-e-m-_m-Zv
6959.- tUm.-- sl-a- Kp--v- A--cn--Xv- G-Xv h-j-n- F.-Un.1893
6960.- B--tlm \n-am-W-n D-t]m-]-w--Im-_ Utbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
6961.- t^m-Iv-em-Uv- Zzo-]p-I-fp-sS-ta-ep-- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-s-p-Sp-m-b- bp--n- G-Xv- cm-Py-s-bm-Wv- {_-n-- 1982tXm-]n--Xv- --A-P-do-\6962.- A-m-cm-jv-{S sd-Uv t{Im-kv ayq-kn-bw F-hn-sS-bm-Wv--P-\o-h
6963.- C-y-bn Xn-tbm-k-^n- skm-ssk-n-bp-sS B-m-\-ambn-cp--Xv- A-U-bm
6964.- en-n kn-h F--dn-b-s-Sp--Xv- ]v-fm-n-\w
6965.- B-Zy-s io-X-Im-e H-fn-n-Iv-kn-\p th-Zn-bm-b {^-p \-Kcw- N-tam-Wn-Iv-kv(1924)
6966.- eq-Y-d-\n-kw ]n-d-hn-sIm- h-I-c bq-tdm-v
6967.- B-Zy-s Ir-{Xn-a \m-cv- d-tbm
6968.- C-y B-Zy-am-bn A-Wp-hn-kv-t^m-S-\w \-S-n-b -ew- s]m{Jm
6969.- dq-tm, thm--b, tam--kv-Iyp F-n-h G-Xp hn--h-sbm-Wv kzm-[o-\n--Xv- {^-p-hn--hw
6970.- C-y-bn- I-S-am-Kw- h- B-Zy-s hn-tZ-in-I- A-d-_nI6971.- e-v-an-`m-bn \m-j-W tIm-tf-Pv Hm-^v ^n-kn- F-Pyp-tj- Kzm-fn-tbm
6972.- C-y-bn Xo-c-{]-tZ-i-p- G--hpw h-en-b X-Sm-Iw-
Nn-
6973.- B-cp-sS Xq-en-Im-\m-a-am-bn-cp-p t_m-kv- Nm-kv Un--kv
6974.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X D-]-tbm-Kn-p- hn-tZ-i-`m-j-
Cw-o-jv
6975.- G-Xp i-XI
-
- n-em-Wv {In-kvX
- y an-j\
- d
- n-am C-y-bn-se-nb-Xv- F.-Un.-H-mw i-X-Iw
6976.- tI-c-f-n-se G--hpw ]-g--ap- ]-{Xw- Zo-]n-I
6977.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s ^o- ^n-enw- cm-Pm l-cn-iv-N-\v-{Z
6978.- G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s- ]-Z-am-Wv _p-n- tlm-n
6979.- tI-c-f-n-se h-\y-Po-hn k-t-X--fn a-c-n-s t]-cn
A-dn-b-s-Sp- G-I k-t-Xw- sN-p-cp-Wn
6980.- 1790 B- Z y- a m- b n sk- k - k v \- S - n- b cm- P yw-
bp.-Fk
- v.F
- .6981.- G-Xp hw-i-n-se cm-Pm-hm-bn-cp-p A-Pm-X-i-{Xp- l-cy-
6982.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s F--n-W- A-k-an-se Zn-Kv-t_m-bn
6983.- G-Xp hn-m-an-s A-`m-h-n-em-Wv \n-im--X D-m-Ip--Xv-
hn-m-an F
6984.- C-y-bn _-P-v k-{-Zm-bw \-S-m-n-b-Xv G-Xv ssh-t{kmbn-bp-sS Im-e-v- Im-\n-Mv {]-`p
6985.- G-Xp ap-K N-{I-h-n-bp-sS Im-e-m-Wv ap-K Nn-{X-I-e ]c-a-tIm-Sn {]m-]n--Xv- P-lmw-Ko
6986.- -tPym-Xn-_ ^p-se-bp-sS cm-jv-{So-b in-jy--_n.-B.-Aw-t_ZvI
-
6987.- G-Xp cm-Py-m-Wv A-e-Iv-km- m-]n- A-e-Iv-km-{n-b
Xp-d-ap-Jw- Cu-Pn-]v-Xv
6988.- e-yw am-K-s km-[q-I-cn-pw F-p ]-d--Xv- am-n-bsh-n
6989.- E-tKz-Z-n-se tm-I--fp-sS F-w- 1028
6990.- C-y-bn-\n-p-ap--h-v an-kv bq-Wn-th-gv-kv, an-kv th-Uv
]-- H-cp-an-v e-`n- h-jw- 1994
6991.- Xn-cp-s
- Im-n-bn cm-P{- ]-ap-J
m-\w h-ln-n-cp- cm-Pm-hv- Nnn-c Xn-cp-\m
6992.- G-Xp cm-Py-n-\m-Wv 3 `m-jb
- n Hu-tZym-Kn-I\
- m-aa
- p-X
- v- kznvk
- -e-Uv

tNmZy- ]eXv Dcw

44

tUm^ns t{Imatkmw kwJy


F{X hjn\ptijamWv 1996se AXvem
HfnnIvkn Hcnymc\v hynKX saU e`nXv
Atacn
sFIy\mSpIfpsS
F{Xmas
{]knUmWv _cIv H_ma
kzhImis auenImhImifpsS ]nIbn\nv \ow sNbv X Xv F{Xmas `cWLS\mt`ZKXnbneqsSbmWv
tIcfnse \ZnIfpsS Fw
GIoIrX knhn tImUns\pdnv {]Xn]mZnp
`cWLS\m A\ptZw
kmbp[ Iem]apmbmte B`yc ASnbcmh
{]Jym]nmhq Fv hyh sNbvXv `cWLS\m
t`ZKXn GXmWv
samdmPn tZimbn {][m\a{nbmbncns ]mkmnb
{][m\s `cWLS\m t`ZKXn F{XmatXmWv
dptY\nbns AtmanI kwJy
kzhImis \nbamhImiamnb `cWLS\m
t`ZKXn
Ghpw \ofwIqSnb (I\ymIpamcn hmcmWkn) tZiob
]mXbpsS (apv FFv 7) ]pXnb \
`cWLS\bpsS 42mw A\ptZw {]Imcw
Bdphjambn h[nn temIvk`bpsS Imemh[n
Aphjambn ]p\:m]n `cWLS\m t`ZKXn
GXmWv
6993.- Xn-cp-s
- Im-n-bn-se A-hk
- m-\s
- ap-Jy-a{- n- ]-\
- n-n tKmhn--ta-t\m
6994.- cm-Py-k-`mw-K-am-bn \m-a-\n-t-iw sN--s- a-e-bm-f I-hn--Pn.i-c
-
- p-dp-v
6995.- tI-c-f-n e-w ho-Sv ]--Xn B-hn-jv-I-cn--Xv- Fw.-F.tKm-hn- \m-b
6996.- Z-n-Wm-{^n--bn t]m-Im tbm-Ky-X t\-Sn-b B-Zy-s
C-y _m-cn-- Km-n-Pn
6997.- G--hpw Iq-Sp-X cm-Py--fp- `q-J-Wv-Uw- B-{^n-
6998.- G--hpw ]-g--ap- Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq \m-W-bw- I-en-bp-K-cm-b
]-Ww
6999.- I-{I-m-d ]--Xn- G-Xp \-Zn-bn-em-Wv- X-]v-Xn
7000.- B-Zy a-e-bm-fn h-\n-Xm sF.-F.-F-kv. Hm-^o-k--A-m cm-Pw
tPm-Pv
7001.- D-]-{K-l--fp-sS F--n aq-mw m-\-p- {K-lw--bpdm-\-kv
7002.- C-ym-N-cn-{X-n- B-\v-{[-P-m- F- t]-cn- A-dn-b-sn-cp- cm-P-hw-iw-- i-X-hm-l-\-m7003.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X N-Ww D-]m-Zn-n-p- kw-m\w- ]-n-a _w-Km
7004.- B-Zy-s t]-jzm `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn- _m-em-Pn hn-iz-\m-Yv
(171320)
7005.- d-jy hn--hw \-S- h-jw- 1917
7006.- C-y-bn B-Zy-am-bn kz-W-\m-W-bw ]p-d-s-Sp-hn--Xv- Ctm--{Ko-p-Im
7007.- d-jv-tam a-e-\n-c-bn G-sXm-s A-ta-cn- {]-kn-Up-amcp-sS ap-Jw sIm-n-h-n-p-v- hm-jn-Mv-S, tXm-a-kv sP-t^gv-k, dq-kv-sh-v, en-
7008.- F-{Xmw i-XI
-
- n-em-Wv am-en-Iv _n Zn-\m tI-cf
-
- n-se-nb-Xv- G-gv
7009.- C-y-bn G-Xp \-K-c-n-em-Wv sk-p-em t^m k-hokv B-cw-`n--Xv- sIm--
7010.- F-{Xmw i-X-I-n-em-Wv Cw-o-jp-Im tI-c-f-n-se-n-b-Xv-
]-Xn-t\-gv

cP-X-Pq-_nen hnti-jm ]Xnv ]n.-F-kv.-kn.-_p--n 153

7011.- F--f-m-\m-Wv B-n-ao- D-]-tbm-Kn-p--Xv- D-b-cw


7012.- B-Zyw B-{K-bn-se B-cmw-_m-Kn kw-kv-I-cn--s-Sp-I-bpw
]n-o-Sv Im-_q-fn-te-v `u-Xn-Im-h-in-jv-Sw am--s-Sp-I-bpw sNbv-X ap-K N-{I-h-n -_m-_
7013.- E-tKz-Z-n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X ]-cm-a-in--s-n-cn-p- \-Zn kn-p
7014.- en-n tIm--d F--dn-b-s--Xv- s\-tm-fn-b
7015.- C-y-bn-em-Zy-am-bn ]-m-b-v cm-Pv \-S-m-n-b kw-m-\w cm-P-m(1959)
7016.- B-Zy-s hn ]m-cm-enw-]n-Iv-kv \-S- -ew- Hm-kv-{Sn-bbn-se C-kv-{_-v (1976)
7017.- sS-en-kv-tIm-n-s k-lm-b-tm-sS I-s-n-b B-Zy-s
{K-lw -bp-dm-\-kv
7018.- Z-n-W {[p-h-n-se-n-b B-Zy a-\p-jy-\m-b sdm-hm-Uv
A-ap-v-sk G-Xv cm-Py-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p--t\m-th
7019.- C-y-bn G--hpw Iq-Sp-X h-\y-Po-hn k-t-X--fp- kwm-\w- a-lm-cm-jv-{S
7020.- B-Zy-am-bn C-y-bn X-t-io-b-am-bn \n-an- kn-hn-en-b
F-b-{Im-^v-v- k-c-kv
7021.- G-Xp cm-Pm-hn-s Im-e-m-Wv Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn Cw-o-jv hnZym-`ym-k-n-\p Xp-S-w Ip-dn--Xv- kzm-Xn Xn-cp-\m
7022.- Xp-n-bp-sS `m-K-am-b A-\-tm-fn-b G-Xv h-I-c-bn-em-Wv--Gjy
7023.- F-hn-sS k--v A-Sn-bp-p-thm A-hn-sS a-\p-jy Zp-jn-pp F-p ]-d--Xv- H-fn-h tKm-Uv kv-an-v
7024.- hn-{I-am-Zn-Xy- h-c-Kp-W-s ]m-en-bw- im-k-\w- G-Xv h-j-n F.-Un.-988
7025.- G--hpw km-{-X Ip-d- c-m-a-s {K-lw--bp-dm-\-kv
7026.- G-Xp h-jw s]-cn-bm-dn-ep-m-b sh---sm--am-Wv sIm-Sp-q Xp-d-ap-J-n-s \m-i-n-\p Im-c-W-am-b-Xv- 1341
7027.- Im-fn-Zm-k-s ta-L-Zq-Xw ta-L-m-b F- t]-cn a-e-bm-fn-te-v sam-gn-am-w \-S-n-b-Xm-cv--Pn.-i--c-p-dp-v
7028.- G-Xv cm-Py-s \m-W-b-am-Wv _m-v -Xm-bv-e-Uv
7029.- C-y-bn-se B-Zy-s h-\n-Xm tIm-tf-Pm-b t_-Xq tImtf-Pv F-hn-sS-bm-Wv \n-e-hn-h--Xv- sIm--
7030.- 1857-se H-mw kzm-X-{y-k-a-c-Im-e-v {_n-o-jv {]-[m-\-a{n-bm-bn-cp--Xv- hn-kv-Iu-v ]m-a-tm
7031.- N-{-{]-` h-\y-ar-K k-t-Xw G-Xp kw-m-\-v- D--{]-tZiv
7032.- G-Xp Im-e-m-Wv A-P-m-Kp-l-I-fn-se Nn-{X-I-e-I c-Nn-s--Xv- 300 F.-Un.-700 F.-Un.7033.- tI-c-f-n-se B-Zy-s A-m-cm-jv-{S hn-am-\-m-h-fw- Xn-cph-\--]p-cw
7034.- F-^v.-Un.-B. F--dn-b-s--Xv--{^m-v-fn Un dq-kv-sh-v
7035.- D-tm-e-I \n-b-aw B-hn-jv-I-cn- im-kv-{X-- B-n-anUo-kv
7036.- B-h--\ ]-n-I-bn Ip-dp-sI-bp- tIm-f--p ]-d-bp t]-cv- ]o-cn-Up-I
7037.- B-Im-i-hm-Wn-bp-sS 1930-se t]-cv- C-y t{_m-Uv-Im-nMv k-ho-kv
7038.- D-Z-bv-]q m-]n--Xv- D-Z-bv-kn-Mv
7039.- C-y-bn h-v A-Xym-Uw-_-c-n Z-_m \-S-n-b {_no-jv N-{I-h-n- tPm-Pv A-m-a
7040.- Z-n-tW-y-bp-sS am--kv-- F--dn-b-s-Sp- kv-Y-ew--tImb--q7041.- G-Xp aq-e-I-n-s A-bn-cm-Wv ]n-v-s-Uv- bp-td-\n-bw
7042.- Sn-p kp-m G-Xp cm-Py-s `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp-p-
ssa-kq
7043.- C-y F-Uyp-km-v hn-t-]n- Xo-b-Xn- 2004 sk-]v-Xw-_
20
7044.- F-\n-p ti-jw {]-f-bw F-p ]-d--Xv- eq-bn ]-Xn-\-ma
7045.- sNm--bp-sS A--co--n G--hpw Iq-Sp-X-ep- hm-X-Iw-
Im-_ U-tbm-Iv-ssk-Uv
7046.- G-Xp I-fn-bp-am-bn _--s- ]-Z-am-Wv thm-fn- sS-o-kv
7047.- G-Xp `m-j-bn-se a-lm-I-hn-bm-bn-cp-p hn-Pn- em-n

CONFUSING FACTS
kpmt\v ImeLnse cmPhwifn Ghpw
IqSpX Imew `cnXv Xppamcpw Ghpw IpdpImew
`cnXv JnPnamcpamWv.
{_nojv Cybnse AIv_ Fdnbs KhW<