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Chaos, Fractals, and Dynamics Mme saosin a VTS Robert L. Devaney UUM naaiatag Chaos, Fractals, and Dynamics Computer Experiments in Mathematics Robert L. Devaney Department of Mathematics Boston University Boston, Massachusetts ‘¥ Addison Wesley Publishing Company MenloPark, California Reading Massachusetts New York Don tts Ontario: Woltngham:Enaland = Amsterdam Bonn Shing“ Sagupore olga Sen. Jaa For my mother Feb ape copter dpe een “histo pba dey ana Dien, dpenipteeeniedn carer moron ee i ee con, ‘alte. tna lary any mean stot sine pty ror nepoaarapinn token eauloePemen Preface ‘There ae = sember of reasons why Inve waitn tls book. By far he ont portant my cowieton that we Sn mathematics edaeaton — the onthe secondary o collegiate eve fai miserly to commune the vty of eactemporary matlemates to ur students. Let's face i ‘now hgh schol ance mathematis cones emphosse centuries ld Iathematics. Ara consequence; many stadete hk hat sew mathematics (ded inthe tine of Enc and Pythagoras ori they know eae, Sa the ie of Newton and Tabs). Many students el that mathemati ‘dead iin, that, ara career, t leeds sowheve but to teaching an ‘hereby the perpetuation of «dead din). "They Bare no appredation crundteanding of what tmathematcen ally does or thinks soa, ‘Teas onl imgine the outer thet would ecu if phys, chernist, or ‘oli taught ey seventeenth century sclence i thot sonny school ‘ous. Yet wear mathematicians tink nothing of doing exacly tht! tis ‘nett sateen active” alec bu tet are excepto this and we should sive at every opportunity to ie our stadents a inpse of whale new and exciting in mathematics 1 Sal hat oe each epporuniy is presented by the fld of yam ‘al stem the beach of tater tha stl proce that move ot ‘ange in ime. Dynan rome are encountered in al branches of {nce For nance, the chnging weather pater intetoroloy, the ope ‘Sl dowan of the ok snare! in sonoma he guth and delin of pop ‘hton in esp and the motion ofthe planes nad guano in atronorsy ‘Sr all examples of dynamical spelema. The fl of dynamical eters Ie fe importa arn of contemporary reset in mathematics which enor ‘he aditinal advantage of being git accoible tothe nonmalbematican. (Onc pect of uamical eplensfvole soraing tmnt fonction Iv cmos, meicrats, axp ormamacs cover and over, and then aking what Bappent.Asnasingy, for even he sa ‘lot mathematel expesons uth an quads cue fancons of ra {x complex vale, nobody Bows the complete aawer lade there are ‘any mathematica worldwide werking on precuely tit question Note ow emit sto explain this unaeved probes high tbo sents: With {he guadete forma ad elementay graphing tchriuey, thee siden. fel they know ceerying there io kon abot quadratic fascias ly cxpeionce i that they ee quite surpsaed to oom that no eveything brows, and then many re eit enero plnge in and expla on their oma, Since computers ae rouily aval to st sadents, ow i an expe ally auspicious Gime to itodacestdent to dyoatia sytem, ead this inp second redo for wating th book. The proces of erton pow tie ary out by hand bt extwmely ey faery nt with eestor or computer. A very simple i or setenline BASIC progam aloes x st. ‘eat to compute undtede nod thourande of teratoar of gle funtion Stadeote ge the fnting tal they have the power to explore the uncharted vedere ofthe dynes of quadratic fonctions ot eno the tay, ttany other simple factions whose dyaaie ar lar weil unertood. This Is taal sew derdopmest in mathenatie intrction. It gives athe ‘alee an expudnstl cnmponent, laboratory Much tbe lyst ‘hemi and biologists have long ted the laboratory aa etl con ‘ponent ef their introductory eourer sew wea mathematics hae the sine Spportnity, ad the rene should be such higher appreciation for an ‘ecogiton of thelportace a research nthematisby Contepoacy Ha ‘ete My lr cen fo ting ha bok io expone seen to the eau a the Rl of dynamics We i oalenatca tinely {lou students hor beta matic tod nd the ttre th the intra ons btwn the ton bch of mathemati whi int us an mathont cane send ethate so stp lo emma ike others armel Dut re fe oe st wesw oa den the bea that eae. However, nom wth te omer oS eat ie at ou fgetie. The ez ith wich stents can cope sod 1, epetedsqusing tends to ‘Smoe the rie Inf, after nly fow Heraonn epeted sania itso av oreriow ang fom te elle. Ths happen cae the Imumbers have bec to age forthe clelator. If we mote TU) fnothor way a ning thi in Te)-e we ‘a > 1; th nlaion P(e) + co mean thatthe mth Sterne of any > 1 tenet gt laeger and larger, evetully becoming larger than any postlve ‘amber whatever. I lan Bagh wey that (2) approaches infty em tends (oni. ‘What #0 <= <1 Then teflon of yids a diferent answer. Sue- eaings of ach umber ied smaller and amaller postive ess T(a)-+0 mw no then 0 l [Bxercee 1.2 Exton this analysis tothe ese of negative ales. What an you say about T™(2} (a) 2-<-is(0) Lea e0y(e) el? ‘The list of sucrsv tert of «pnt or numer i called the ori of ‘hat pont For example, thee of 2 ander the equig faction P(e) = =? lnven by the it 2,416,286, 65598, Sia, the rit of ie 5.25, 85,000, ‘Theis of numbers that make up an oeit may not rseble ny “oi| ‘that you bare ere ne, ach atthe obi space the of lane, but ther is eonecin. eration of function i itimaly sc ‘Sted withthe Bld of mathematics known a dierent equations This eld ‘Ses calls to stndy the Behar of provers a scion. Fr exami ferential equations ened Newton to formulate his they af groves sitraction which in Turn allowed isn to predict the motion, ost of heavenly bodies Our snp eration pocen alo dees system i ‘oton, and we therefore apt sila erin ‘Let's ae the caleltor to compute sme other orbits. For exemple, let us use the dns ballon on the eaelator to compute he orbit Gin rang) of any intial apa to the sine feo, Ire et (0) = ne ud chooe hentia aoe 2= 137, me id 1.37) = 90. S151) = 381 S451) = 185 stast) =m. S37) = 30. sms7) = 305 8.81) = 366. (ust) = 358 Sloly, ever to lol, scoesve eats of sins fend to P37) = 18. ‘sMus7) = 196 Sst) = 196 sist) = 3am. ‘sq1.87) = 108. ‘SI™(187) ~ 1358. (1.51) = oma. emi) = m8 (151) = owo100 So the sil of = 1ST he aeguene of bers 1.7 480. 81 145. and we have SUS) 0 a nse “Tha ithe oni of 1.57 tend to 0 roark. To compte te oi f 1.5, we have asumed tat the se reeneccpe mats ane rake the im degre ipl: Om your ealelater, there should be a button whic llows you to wlet either ‘aan mode odie mode. In ths bok we wil ays nese that Inputs {0 the sine and cote fenetone are sven a radia H you ie degree, will ten get diferent anawer fo our, Alo, se elclaar te Alegre tmode when they are tarned on or ae in radian mode. You ‘ould ares hack which mode your enclosing. Bxercse 1.3 Veify thatthe obit of ender the sine fnetion tends to 8 so mater what iv inal input. That ches that Se)=0 neo for maay diferent «values, Bxercse Le Lis theft 1 points on the it of Soren of he flowing function, Cen you preiet what happen oral subsequent erating? wFe)aset BRenacsn € Hel=4er3) nse nFe)ae? the proses of unertandng allo the orbit oa gven dynamical rage. Let's se it enlist understand all of the ete 2. Cea, F(0) = 0,0 F°(0) = 0,0) ‘ach point onthe ori f 0 0 Using the terinelagy ieiodueed Dis ase pint never owes wer eration, Oni the hand, ie > 0, the we bare Fle)soo uw no Indeed we have Fle)=25 Pleat Pears td these muobers clay grow larger and larger atm increas, IC i egtive, hea these numbers beeme lage nogaive mur, "hereto, ‘tit ain of F(a) = 2 pede 16 cuos,raactuss, AND DYNANICS 1. PMe)-+ Fooite>0 2, Pe) +o ita <0 8 Fe)=0ite=0 “Thus we know what hppens to the ort fall pnts under iteration of Fa)", Exercise 1.5 Use ort amiss to understand the behavior fal tits of fick oft lowing funtion = Fe)= He be FG)= nae © Ple)=—2 a Fa)ae © Fe) “hintuiags tothe se qenton in goa estes: Can me predict theft fall rita under Stn? Cae we pt ahead of Ue at ‘il pen hea wt torte secon? Pop tte seme we hve dred ing the etn, name, “fish and na toe sees hs bon go Hee eat example were TEs We ot ebm be Sed, bu te co tw eny to predic ‘Sad tine Win hsppem when the one fancon rtd Lat’ ove and Chere ey ipa 2218.4 a aa. The cusss) = 208 ere) = 500 M884) = 807 fs Fuse) ¢ 720088 commas) = T3086 oman) = T0085 4 6a earn of suber that ends to T3085, So the ot of Experiment 1.0 Uses clelator to compat the exit of vais point Ader erten of he cosine funtion ‘Outcome, Again, no matter which ss inally inp int the exelaten, the rl ise ae: al ers fend to 790085. Remember, po ge, Siren answer IF you wedges Wel see Inter why me laps ge 1.5 Fixed and Periodic Points ‘At ths pint you might bein to usec thatthe only pes feria ‘dynamical system ae the fel poised the orite which tend them {to infty). However thie far rom the rath here ar anyon Aire pes of erie in © toil dynamical system. Uadoubtcly the ‘not important typeof orbit a faed point, Recall apt sald fad point for Pit Play) = a. Note tha Sued pal Feraion: Since F(z) = tit illows that F(E\ay}) ~ Pee) on adn general, F(z) ~ a To example a we ur inthe preys sections, both (and 1 ae fe points for Sx) = and Tle) = 2% Snialy,Dis « ae peit for S(e) = in 2, whe the pont we ound experientlly above, 39058.. eed by coine. Another type foil the predic orbit or eee. An nite pride itt venta fur to her gu Tal yh lf ys ee ‘thee integer N each that (op) ag" The pot yin ealled Patil pint of prod The lat warhpontive flag We ealled the rime period of the ori. ‘As en example, consider the reciprocal fenton is) = 1/s. We muy lnput nny © 7 U inl the fnction, Note that #= 1 and x = 1 are both Sed pointe for My see A(t) = 1 and R(-1) = 1. Howeve, ey ote Inia egenerlee «ee of pesod 2 Indeed i= 1 and's 0, we ave Rle)= ite ps 4G) = ROY) = ence and) le onthe eme proc obit for 1A solar pattern gore for the function (2) ~ —2. Clo 0 ‘ved point for ¥, but all other points eon epee of peed two [Exercise 1.7 Consider (2) = 3. Can go find cycles of period 2 for F? Consider azo Gz) = (e+ 1)(—fr +1). Sham that in a pte poi for G. What inspite ped? Wat i be ot of 0 18 crs, emacrats, ano pyvasics Notice seer! importast properties of pede obits. Suppor 20 Ts on on bt thal in epl pod 4. We say write 0) n= Fle) = Feo) (a3) = Fa) c= Fles)= Pee) since 2 bas pesod The oto ythereare repeats eel ‘Ala, what aboot the obits of 1,29, 408 237 They oo ar cyl, see we Tow for example thot That ete orbit of ale pets over and ver aga: ‘Asa coneoqunge, ech point onc of pio for F wil be Sed by F* alec by Pan in general by Pfr any integer ADL these Alte of tar eed pesode ofthe eee. Homerer, we re the test rine pei for the let pero of he pe ‘The importance of peo ote or eyes stems fom the fat hat they eprneal eyo epeting phesimena a ature ach athe eon {tclutions ofthe poultice of etn snielo insect populations To ‘Sdenfally there tothing spec about ont cole ofa yee of pesod ds = See pi sn pi : ‘One fal important type of rt the even eventual ‘evo ort. These ae pois whe obit ot Sel pote bat for ‘ich some Tae pct on the orbit rfid pecodie. For example the Fits ncvetuly feed forT(s) =o? TMnletue since (1) 2-1 (loa to not fied polat), but 7(-3) —1 and 1 ina Sued pot Slay, the pint o'r, By Aral eemtualy ed for S(2)= ina, ance Jefaed by Syd o 508") = S{0) = (2) st became FU) = Finally, the poet 1 really peso for Fe): and Ofer on 0 eye of peed 2. Bxercoe 1.8 For eck of the towing factions, decide whether 0a fe nt ison «cyl, o eventually period, © A) = =e =He=2y8+) 1.6 An Application from Ecology ‘Wis not our imi ths book to presen appietin of dynamical tem Acer. Rather, we wil content curls wih presenting the mathe, ‘which a we Wl se, becomes quite ineretng nie on sgh But or {he rece wa os onheowig why sone wos ere dream of ering ‘simple fenton, ne provide hese ove semestaryapplion that ae in the study of population dynanic We wil me tat thi simple pater, tia mch ofthe materi hat cone ter er « population logit reno who stud he growth or dedne ‘ofthe popiltions of dierent pein of of anne sa ota ‘problem's the constrston of got athens mod that il low hi bes to predict accurately the population in fate gencatinn or Yas ‘Wil the popoltion bosoms exit? Wil tere bes opalation capi? Wil the population Gactanseycaly obs totaly uprecsy? ‘To asower these questions the eclgi errs Yo one of aay nate ‘matic model thet are devgned to adn predicting population sroth or Sec, ‘Mint on, hr al ni tyne af on pe ‘One ofthe simplest dyzamicl systems tha sie in this wy ie the logit equation. Tir Wealved model may be wed to sib the beanie pep «ag pcs tnt my pode, a dnb ‘ontredenviweot veka aborioy within ny unerpeied extemal infencs. This pees tay be a colony of ball evs o tte or Alcan ‘sow fogs — th exact nature ofthe best ne nl concen beet, ete 20° cudos, eracrars, ano pews suppor tht the eclogite cot srry the population of he ees {flag coc generat “Then te question Besoe what happens to the san the peeiony goon?” Con the slog ie hs complete etig fhe poe poplin lo pei im nace he ppaaon ‘me epth mberr manageable trek f ol th pscentage cf some Ening poplin tet i alive dog ech gencralion In cy ‘heroes asin rber of th opeces tt can be pent ‘tay one tine Ths ning open gene for fal, by he Hytalsae of he Inbraory oon i wich the seen cone. ‘ler al there eas be av mote of he specie than ean phyla 4 int telaerlary, We i oes boro be our mana Hating Pvt, Lal eae he he nso tea gunn mS compe Fe = ten ‘acl popuation eL/f et peneasionn- Cleat, 0 Py ©. The optic Shot let elope compute the popsaon a eettion m1 ee noweig othe popation inthe preceding gneaion, yy The squatin Pras = Pall Po) Tee cisaneclogcl constant that depend ops uch things a the amount Which he lemperstas flan Th coat ie tered Ghee un forall the clog Por razon we wil cs ter, cis wally ‘oven bctwenn snd Using chirequdtion, und given any ntl population ‘Potbe ceo nny then poet the apece® popeltion wt any ruceeding loeaton. For example, i= 24 andthe starting population ie Fy = 9, ve A= 240541 05) = 118 aanaja— 114) = 2420096 dso forth. Tati given ny Fo me may compute B=eR0—A) ‘Theres ofthis computation alors wr to compute PP, and soon: = eRG-A) R=cO-A) yo ePes(l~ Pea) ‘Note tat thi presi spy the procs afterting the quadratic faction lz) =eo(1 a) indeed gen Pye have AaRA) AFR) = PIR) Paw FUP) = PUR) Thecelore, the question sake by the eclogite exely the same 4 our ign queation Profiting the fate of the population the sme a re ‘ition of the fate of eite generated by Fs) = en(1—e). Tew fancoce ‘called the lope factions. [A couple of remarks az in ont,Ft the logic equation, a ple si ia a respon fast npprioaton to = taheretel model fr ‘opolaton growth. Foe exuply if thee i no species prevent (Py = 0) tbe lab completly fll (P= 1), hs there no species present dara the enming geeraone The i rs, since me have FCO) = FU) urthermore if yi mall, the popalaon lend to Increase, where CP slags the population tends to Getrns, an we woul expect Om these Sandi hy way hat all the empleo of and death an be ‘cored in as simple an equation ae the lngate equation, ths equation Barto be taken with grin of acl. Beso ae tach ore sophia tmatheratiel tone to mabe staal prediction, Neverthe tte bal {his simple model lads to ll Made of anexpectedy completed behasor. [eration f the lite etn tare oat be on of the chet tad sel tring xls os mail ram magia, nd we rears ok Further Exercises and Experiments 1, Uses scent ealeslator to id the fist fie points on the ei fp foreach ofthe following fonctions. 2 Usea een nlelaor otra ach ofthe fllonng factions. Some of thee Heaton demand more than eve Ieyerae to compu tach Prot onthe ott, Can you pede he fate fal it? = Belen EAs ome inrie eo ain As} zrdans Gave apt f=) 60 4. Vien seni neler of st many Seed pints and psi eyle pole for ech othe flloningfanetions ae) =2 Cle) = cone 4. Pecorm ort analy on each of he allaming fncions Cuupren 2 reeaniow usiNo 24x couoraR 23 Chapter 2 Iteration Using the Computer In this chapter we tra to the computer and compar graphics to hep = understand triton of fnetionn. Ari apparent, eat fancons att fot repreented by eye on sclelator tad eo feraton with clulslor Ie not often ese. Fr example oie single felon toch athe legit function 25(1~'2), me mond have to “emer” the value of (cr store it in memory) wile "2 is being compatd In onder to compute ‘he product 2s(12)rabequenty. Sch task ae much cert» handle wt compute or programme cllter One dy mmc ight see [roduc clelator with 2e(15) baton for sme cry reason, bt all ate, we mat be content with poprsining the erations onal, Desde, there ar many, may more ntereting function a terts tha can ver be ncommodated bythe nited ner of batons on w clear! 2.1 The Program ITERATE BASIC programs to iterate simple fonctions are ot very difcat to ite, They invalve only one tiple lop, ch rte un given ni input. For example, Pigue 2 dopa w Called ITERATE to erat the Snetion s(1~ 2) 25 ee Input a. The progam prompt the me to snl awl ont the ext 25 poate onthe oti fo nae ha hi function i one ofthe loge fanctine me deserted i the at capi, vies 2 24 cos macrass, amp mrwanmes REM program ITERATE INPUT “730 FOR |=1 TO 25 xe B90) PRINT L.xt Next | END igure 2: The pope ITERATE! ‘We ue aly he INPUT, FORNEXT, otha singe hs program's, We ue oly on and PRINT sates fm BASIC. Whe the prog tan te INPUT [en promi rote nan tl ed op Te compet then com, Sort Gog thn patron ttt Taco BN POW NENT lupo he program In thi lop, wf te of the fnetion sntett-=) “thn we pnt oth the Mean count ads- inl, weeplce Bis TPM he bss top ing ery wet wo se ante tesa of ele fancton en ote Hare ening thou ak terns fant oe ad va et es neon ner tga om evoping seco iy computing lang obits on elelator ‘Remark. In ITERATE! andi ner pograns we wil fen se XO one eS iemntin rneoel Hither tsie"an? not oh " SE TES pena ol be Sled yong th eae ane XO 2+ X04 (1—X0) ‘Thi tenet cba hep fates wie2ex0e(1- x0) oom Baperiment 21 Use ITERATE! to compete theiteraey of vasou ating ‘erloes What happens? Can you us he opt of thie propam odie what happens tothe oto any given starting nrc! Outcome, The prints 29 =O and xe = 5 ace fied points. Te pot de inten onto O afer one eration, soit eentaly fae All ter pte stthfring 0 < 26 <1 end (o8 under eration. When <0 oF on 1 the Staal Is quite feet: ll orien o non ae the cade wi qd tie became ofthe overow seme that Bl 9p the tren, We wl sce hy al ofthis occurs inthe ext chapter when we decane grape ealy ‘Project 2.2 Mody ITERATE] so thai pra theft 25 points onthe bit ofp, tiie incug 2p Alo, modify ITERATEL otal acepie ffm the ber anew baz nomber of tertiony MAXITER, aber 1B. Use another INPUT state, 1 this book, we present all progam sting BASIC programming I singe, We ange readers ho know other languages such av PASCAL of {fo rewste the progam in thee language: In gel, prgeans wren ‘ese languages wills gical fser, Wie eped soot xt tae or ‘simple rogram ike ITERATEI, i wl become sch move important Inter when we wit programs thal soy Hake hous or eer ys to Pet ‘ote that its very simple to modify ITERATE] wo thet the progam ompates the oritegeerated by otberfancions, For example ie cane {he fourth ine ofthe rogram ead 2123204 50RX0) 4 21 SIN(XO) + C0510) ‘re wil compute the crite ofthe functions Pz) = $e + Y% or Gla) + covey petits alo euy to td che munber of peo ‘ack orbit tat are computed by changing the 25 Inthe thin Haw to ay ‘Sead mite Tole 9 Mot TRA nt gan mp te Pees 26 cakos, raxcrrs ano prunes dens “Thea ne the computer to perform et eal for ech of hee fncions. (lens, ITERATE ia vere programs A simple hang nthe fan sion deinen alls fo expriment with completly difereat dynamical systems. ‘Bxperiment 24 Use ITERATE! to help you perform ott paysite (r/2ine a Fle) =sinle 2.2. ‘The Logistic Function Ve now hegnon of he moet acinting subject all of namin: We wo ERATE! to fvetgate te nuns of thetic fn describ ‘chapter 1. Recall Unt be logit function ithe guar enti ve be Fle)=ee(t-2) =e Here ci costa which early choses beeen Oand 4 Tn esogs, the il ced ne forthe tera a pereatoge of exe Linting population, fois unoly chosen betwee O sd "We age you to eaertake the following project and experiment becuse moc of ont sebuegoent work and saay of the major themes ofthis Book Ti ake a ft poet aoe rac ps nn nog "0 day dni afte ott (om a INPUT een) waa tk yoann MARITER hed BUT ‘When ei the ue of MAXITER a tibet to eep MAXITER TORTS Eva aa to bp cutee ad periment 2.0 Now stirred von of ITERATE to etaloge {many ila dune phenome you ean er the ae og faction. Specialy, ete progr So compat she taro ony = with OC ey <1 Record whl you fed iy the faowng e-aloy st the very let I ime pera cee es nerd oc rl What do Jon above? ow stall nesrd herent Your sera {beconpaon wih thereof ater epee oul ey oer cf to ep iad vce te fhe ‘Outcome, The outcomes of then experiments ray wth . We hare Ted {he fist 88 lertonr of 05 fr threw value in Table 22. Tor ype tal of 9 with O< 2» < you should seth felowing bene. For c= 5, all ori tend 1 Ror e= 8 all ois tend € Fore = 1 all rit tend to 0, But very alow. You wil have to Increase MAXITER santas to or hie 4. Tore= 1.5, all eis tend For e= 2 al ria tend tof. We cbnrved thi in ou lst exper ree inthe lat econ {Ber © = 3) all erie tend to 3, bat very slowly. Moreoer, thee onitecucilt rom one eof to the other at they aprons Bor 8.2 all orbits approsch the period eye SIQDIS8 td 086. 1, Fore 35, all rita sppconch »pesiod 4 cycle given by $8282. 12004. 50088. and 7800 4, Ror e= 865 all atte appre perod 8 cyl 4 For c= 380 all orbit appronc «period 3 eye there lo pater whatever fers ven 2. Some nt The ito Boao 0 ‘ut the oi of 501 quite diferent neve Deore ied, The le 23 oplay fale of eutconnr this epermest for various ie rlcn hen =. Each poi onthe obit i Tsted up o only ‘ince dial plocn Note tat there i very Ble pattern to be Cincraed le hud cemack tht the table of ae ont Yur eom- peter genrace ny ot be these our, lent wt the Sst En trotions. Thi nn consnquene of the dierent ays that di fers compere ound off ambers a well atthe *chaotie™ mare ibe terton, We setara Co this pa ate, 1, Fore = 5yall its apparently tead tooo. We ay “apparent” {onan lee three etal sae t donot behave ‘hie mane although they ae if to se on the computer. ‘Asa consequence of thi expeinest, we so hat ren avery sme yaaa pte ae Spl es qudral fanetion — em exhibit hy ‘lmplicaed behave Aoeorer, she bebvior changer ax the constant ¢ ‘anges, This constant i called prameter- For each diferent parameter {alas ne gets ae fancionfo teate Thar oar experiment ale foc the ‘ohm of fay af paris ystems fo diferent parameter ven Remark. 1f you ty ete parameter vals inthe preceding expeimen!, {Journ cedoabedly find way outcomes that ae not led The more You ‘Tlpetimeat withthe Inge tine the more complex the dynaies will pps to booms hight even me tobe hope tak to understand ‘reything tat sous! But dott be dacouagels After yeas of wok, {iathematcane hee suseoled in understnding the major fears of tbe Carino thew functions only i the Tate 170 ven with the wo {lnc computes al hand, understanding all that pens in the loge ‘ly ea frmidble a ‘Bxereis 2.7 Use ITERATE! to 0d (last approximately the values of the paramere for which all ortite of the fanction F(z) = er. =) Mente e215 en 32 c= | Web 22 Theor flr msou ele. Thi his . hn ace od pst when c= Listes quel peied whee 3d; d oa ‘cycle of period 4 when ¢ = 3.5. aes SERESE * BUREEREUREREERERRESSSE22508 cuipren 2 rrexamox vsive a8 couPorsR 91 Sto tending oO nd bein tending to 8 diferent Sse pt 1, Stop tending ofc pint and stat tending to a prod 2 xe Stop tending to period? eye and stat ending tae pod eye oe only avin between Oa ‘Tobe Bonet i iia to fd he erat mines namerclly where ‘hose cbenges oer. The sty of where dpramical behavior change se 8 Parameter i aed sealed Wfsreaton Weary abject Yo wich we wil "Waa appt that the Iegember of diferent barons at we be secre inthe previous experiment wee duo the spc quadratic mai of Ihe loge ection. Thi, howere i not tvs, Man, may diferent fae tions exit the sue dvoamialpatterae ne parser are aed. Tey {he flowing experiente and se to what extent your rele age with ‘buervtons about the ligt ection, Bxperiment 2.8 Consider the fay of factions S{=) the parameter d> O. Modify your program no tha orbit of thi ry are fomputed. For O he rita that ted vo nity Figure 3.5 Graphical analy of (2) Ta Chapter 1, esa that ll nits of the cotne fenton tended to ‘he point “sH088. Graphical analyse explaine why this happens. ‘The staph of Cle) = cons is shown in Figure 36. Note that there en onigee ‘at of fnteroton of this graph wih the Sngoeal y = 2” Ths plat Ine e-epordinte 75008... alchough none ele forthe ale zaiy. Graphical nals shone tha ll other rit tend oth pot. > be efective, graphical analysis noesitaten am acearae graph You shold tty your hao ata few simple erampee Beerclse 3.1 Using graphical analy, describe the bubavor fll orbit of cach ofthe lowing fanson a Fe) Bre) a Fe) We can omeimes Sed periodic cpl wing gragieal analse, Bor ‘xample ase have ean Chaper the faction x)= a8 na tcf 44 esos, reacts, ano prnanres Figure 8.6 Graphical alse of C(2) = coe ‘of pecid 2 geen by 1 and —1, since F(2) = ~A and F- [epee by he bor ia Fire 37, 1. This pele Figure 2.7 A eye of pend 2 for Fle) = [Rxerciae 1.2 Use graphical analy to show that O and —1 Ue on acrle of peed forthe funtion Fe) = 2? Sonrtne piesa oped! the eat anion. sex aoa Sa ate pea anaanat a) = Hel Racthe ply ctbentt de het we tnered tpl TCE cme rng te ae tn (lial fo tac nth thie method. N77] [igure 8.8 Graphical analy of F(a) = da — 2). 3.3. Attracting and Repelling Fixed Points ‘There ean important diferece in the quatre behavior nese certain Sao pot tha ay be edly eplaioed wing graphical alse, Conder the tre factions M(x 2 Both ofthe fnctons have (oem Szed point. But the dyonnica nen U ae diferent in ech ese, Tor I, graphia sali chews tht alerts tend oO wade eration 0 trace the orbit fl pata, Ti of coure can be ready tried wing ‘calealsor exon of our progam We therfore cll wn atracting Bed bt fr I. On the other band ll ones ott or G tha eet ‘hey more enay fom 0 I ths ease Oem repling Sed pot. See Figute rs ‘To be more preci seppee function F hassel poi. The pint ‘is called trating if thee an intra e <2 y then Fae) sn nein, ll hn eae stable ny renning Che tae te tepeing ford pnt) and = (an evel fae hin) Then ile are sel bene nest oie at ast erent [cn hey tend to Dart. depetng spon wheter hey ree Shor eater han nat ee Tate hw orsing dope pot ator tbe whee a sepeing ptt acer lec laos tee far oy) 1 {Sirs in any pnt nthe bi i atacon fw ating edo est at We Bxerese 8. For cach of the fllorng nein determine which of the ‘rita are Hable ad which oe unstable xperiment 3.7 Use ITERATE to determine whens the obit ofthe {Gren ayn able for the following fenton: S{e) = 2eine eer ary © t0= ty Qe) =Se(1~2) Qe) = 26(1 =) ‘Outcome. Il bet oe ae unstable! 3.5 Attracting and Repelling Periodic Points ike Seed points, pede obits may ali be sther attesting or se pling: Pr ecaopley mids the fncon Po) = es Te points and <1 feon a eee of psod 2 Thi ree eelng pero wt, You may se thi ins numberof wap. Using the computer nd ITERATE or FRADE, me ye a ie = On thet ai 4, appenc that allots of Q. end to inst When -2 << J, thre appears to bean atrial of rales tt do mt ‘ape, And when e < ~2;i¢ again appears that all erie eoape (ve will ses later that thst oberaton ea Sem the tat). ats erp ans undenand te eat thi cine ‘he grph ef @eia parol which opens pat depen Figure. ote that the graph aren ther ‘St a ns oe Ss pening cu whcbere>fye= fy or c= fe When > 4 the gmph lo ‘Shore the digonly when e'= she graph jst touches the degoal and (When te uaph neste te agonal ino eatin pts o e igure 4:1 The graphs of Qos) = 2 + foe aje> 4s (B)e= bal (e)e xerese 42 Use graphical only to ahow tat all orbits of end to Indl when ©> Dyas peaking, a0 pare both ed pointe for Qu Hence we see ir of co pola ne "boa athe parameter cdecresss trough ‘This iran example of» bforstion Bifureation mea «change, = ling ‘pact oa dion ia Cw. In tho example, wesw tha a faed pot for Qe ‘tet appears when | and then suddenly opt into two Sed pln 22 © deere: Thine ote of tia ra aubdlrnede lend, Uifraton, Wo wil we tmay ole example of thr Hind of Wieetion a ve go along. “Were doc the interval of vac whowe cite do not escape when 2. } come from? Agun graphical analy ils the aver. oe rat thal peg pr alle f Tose why hie tea, we et aoe hat Vitec VImE ence 1-vizR<1+vIze weide --VITRe1-VIER Plting tha to negli together MitR<1-VimRe14vIme slong at 1—4e> 0. Ife vide ac term in the inequality by 2, we ge {he dened eel lee aole Chat —p i an ewentelly ed pa, boca (itp) =P which Bed point. [Exercise 4.3 Use graphical analyse o show that if zp > por zy ITE since 2641 «negate umber. gazing both sides then git Meteo inte se ster set 9)>0 ‘hic at product ie postive fe < ~2 or fe> 0. Tas, sng the cect thal ec fy wee thatthe lowest pial on the graph of Qa) == re foes inded potade fom the baton of te bo when e< “2. ‘Let's summarise what we have accomplished far, We hav found tha llth ineerting yams of Q ear hen < f-Morover aren uch the iterating panier oct on te interac given by p22 SP 4.2 The Interesting Orbits Now we tua oa dscussion fhe ais hat donot tend oat, the snot itrestingoriteof the sytem. The ispertance ofthe bo in Figure 4421s that eae ll the oie of Qe whine nhon 2-20 =f All he ‘erleal and hrieoatal ins sociated with raph alse emia win this boe fr these parameter values. See Figze 3. Thi eae that if out ty Figure 43 Oils rapped ia Je for 2 <3 {nil seed 6 ay pin ten the eae obit of ye srapped forever fe That ll the intereting cits of Qe hea ‘When e <2, there are point nuda 0) whose hit nape fom {cand then tend to nity Bat there oe tty oe pint whew tits {emainfe We slur to this eae ater hen ve deeb Casto st Fer tbe semciner af th ection, however, dea withthe dyn of Qs hen 2c, To understand the dyanc of thi fncion, let bes icone nome expe [Experiment 44 Motify ITERATES and/or ITERATE oo that the new ‘propa does the lowing: Accept inpot sn inkl sed ap and & paramter value. You ‘hou choose wp beeen ~p atid p29 = Oe always a good chee 2, Displays the Bret 10 Herts of 2p dr Qin the intereal =p < Note tha your program muat compute the vl of» that depends one via eration WliviEe acm ‘ae thie moet progam oor the obits of Qe fo age sumer of fevaluer inthe conge =? ¢ ©. Record your obras ‘Outcome, There are» rarety of diferent behaviors depending one, och {he mune ta we obered Inout expetnent in Chaper 2 with elite clon Fe) ~ex{h-s) For -f Se yale appear tobe attacted cuspren «ram quapearic put 09 to un attesting Seed point. For f. When 2, «i atinctng, bt when e< —E,g becomes reeling. Note that points ot ‘eabyovtte eae fn one ade qt the ober. When <4, pint tear que father ay under QP. However peat hat are far aay fo {tend fo ve lve ser Qa depicted fa Figure 48. The seas tat “lemewher fn benewn these stb api hat mover either farther aa) irom oor cloer tog tha x pitt Bed by QE. So somewhere in betwen there mart be # eee af prod 2 “Tie mort nly een by looking a she ene graph of Q, which i Aepiced in Fgue 4. Note the bir of two new feed pint for 2m ¢ Cecenses thought —f. Graphinl analysis showe hat eve we arcing ned pene for 2. ‘Since they are not Szed by Qu they st ie ox a, attmcting cyl of pring 2 "This typical peso doubling freon. Ae parameter vases, ven periodic et changes fom attracting to repaling: Meanie,» ne ‘Sl trie pesiod appear ‘We can rey all of hata. The ped 2 pols ae solutions to the equation Gite) = Working ths out, we find siratetdsene cuapren rum quapeanic aur 08 @ » © igure 4.5 Portions ofthe graphs of Q. {or (a}e= 88, (@) e= 75, and (e) = 8 Figure 4.0 A cyl of period 2 for Q, for e= 8 "This ie a fourth degree paiorial whose ts gv the pesos pinte with patod 2. Generally ich equation ne ifcal o sole there we ae 66 crs0s, sRActALs, axo pymanTes Figure 4.7 The graph of 2 for evalues nent 4 Whe pins pt undp eon cpl of patio 2 tow weed bth p and ariel pit othe esl sl STegunce "titans at fe) sed (©) re tow of he at SESS gut Dt snes otk 9 aed oe tote of be (eden enon ie te Secon 1. 5 we may die te rth dept tie en td) Tare nhs uae fmotay hve oat SEDI ened iy te gone onl Were ht ou towel {Sach gente pean ab seterieo aa sit et eee "Tie quadrate qoation ns real roots when € < Clmplcated semewber ll he coefsote dependon ) 2 we lene the {edioe dtl for you to work out. Thin ot excl fy but you ean [Experiment 4.5 Use ITERATE] or ITERATES to fvetgte the psiod thing aca tnt acer nthe logit fly ex(1 =) when = 3 (Can yo find experinentaly evalu for which df bfreations oes (he blowing fnction? ‘cuapren« Tem qvapRamic ALY 6? Sle) = dane ‘Outcome. You should ws the graph of thee fentions te Bele you fd Approite value fet and then expen, (nr ener experiment Showed that, ae decree through —f, et “rit begin tobe attract to ptiod 4 ple. How des thi occa Les ‘te replica aralyinagain, this ime appted to Q2. Figure 48 shors the ‘gph of @ for vious eraee We have eva sal borin each igure. Gampare te portion ofthe graplot QF ith hee of Quin Figure 4.2 Note ‘he laity If we tink eel a We dd belre about whats happening yan inside thi bor we expect QE to undergo « paid doublng ‘tetion, ost ae Qe did before. Thali at = fe expt the Period 2 eto undergo period doubling bifraton. ‘it this evalu, new ‘ele of pesto tie Bor, while the period? exe becomes spaing. ‘hie sera cotlnen as deceats, ‘The period 4 ele eventually undergo» pestod-doubling bifreaton, spuvning nse cectiog cyl of beiod 8, whch then double and gives ax srt of period 16, and wo forth [A each stage» cycle of period 2 haces rpeing nan arcing eye of peo 2°" ie bore Unirtnatly, ts very Bad Yo ding eee bis when m gets neger thas. “Thin called the periad-dubing rote chaor x phenrmnon int hat ‘only recoly been shows to occur ita great many dypasieal seme. [Exerete 4.6 Use ITERATE! ox ITERATES ond expertly the re, ‘ow patiod-dcblng bifurcations in he fling fra of ancien, Sle) = dine, 0c eee b Fle)men(l 2), 0<2 <1 when eco fe Fle)=snen, Dene? Bxercoe 4.7 Consider tefl of ui functins given by Te) = 2c, ‘here the perater eater << 3. What are be aed pie or et Zire they altrnctog or eplng? Use ITERATE] o ITERATE to hp sou Acide Show tat Ze" len ona ce of ped 2 when «> 1 Hence ' pevou- dong breton ocears when © =I. Explnn thi wing the staph of and T? for vaso cals (08 casos, acts, ano priaMes © » © igure 4.8 Compare the potions ofthe graphs of Qy side Tih bt tothe grag of Qn Figure 42 A The Chaotic Quadratic Function sowed sdramatie dang in th dynamics of Qu. Fr {hoe piel ae file up the interval ~2 << 2 (val thal 7 = 2 (Mien c= 72), Wes thir in Problem 4 a the oad of Chapter 2. Thi Uribe one af ou pcp exnropen when we dss he concept of cos Inte, Othe: pede pointe em hard to nd (except forthe epeling Sed frist pon)? We sc if there are any oer eyes fr Qa. The surpsing tne ie tet tee ate aGsitely any The Fearon fortis sacl the Sve forts) in fhe previo chapter. We ay understand this by ‘hing graphic arly. (cuspten « ux quapeanc rusmy 69 o o Figure 4.0 The graphs of @2, sad Q?, at ft draw the graphs of a it lerater inthe bo centred at (0,0) with verona (~2,=2) and (2:2). This isl done wing grb progam or graphical angi. Note thatthe graph ef Q's = 22D poet {rough the poate (2,2) and (2.2, The gap ew parson who veriet Ws leat at (0,-2), Ale aote that Q.(¥2) ~ Oran Q-a(-v3) ‘Thera, Q2(2) = 2. Using graphical analyst flows that the iggph of @2, hae? Prey” ax depicted ia Figue 43. Aepeng sea, (bas four vals, G8 hae ight alleys and oom. QBs 2 allege inthis box: Consequently, the graph of Q crue he dagen 2" tines {he itera -2 =» © 2. Tia menne that Qh at eet ed pate ‘his infer. Not ll hee point are aed by Qj most have pte peso ‘m Inany event, me have shown tht, by the ine «har decruse fn | 10 {his quadratic family as developed inisitly any esate pnt. ‘otis the slaty between Quand what we fun nthe lat cha tee forthe fenton d{.~2). Tho next selon wil show that there ‘tong resamblanee beeen ll the member of the qudraic nd the logic fone ‘You shoul spreite the power of thi gultatveo emetic tho, Ax we need before, oid thee pial ageracally we would ed to lv ‘he evaton ale)-e=9 ‘hie in polyol equation of degree 2 wate roots we mut find. I ie Inge tie oon impomible tank. We have ano seen atthe exmpler doce ot lp mach either, 70 cakos, FRACTALS, AND DYNAMICS 4.5 The Orbit Diagram ‘Tosummnsiee ne have son that decrees, the numer of periodic cats of Qc Intense od there at aoe wi compened obit rcs ‘Gar nex projec allows uta put al the information Logether. We wil onttct the ert agra fr Qe, Thies ingen that plot the obi of ‘Tperiealr pot weet the parameter alae e” Wel ove 960 ely ped mcr fc btween | and 2. We wil then compute the bit of for ‘heh of thee evalu and pay enc of thse obits on a diferent wera! fae, ‘The Ductal con wil represent the prater cS that we ‘aly et the lint Berio Chee oD we wl not plot the st 50 erates ofthe ot We wl only plot the subeguest polts onthe ot REM program ORBITOGM. FOR en-2 TO 025 STEP 0.0625, x0 m= 160° (0 +2) FOR 120.70 200 1 1<80 GoTo 11 ne 75°(@-3) SET (mn) 11 NEXT | Next END Figure 4.10 The program ORBITDGM, re 410 gre» program called ORBITDGM, which produces the cot dngrams The pretty hough 350 eet ales fe betwen ‘Band ve the mae FOR ¢=-2 TO 2% STEP 0825 Sine 2.25/90 = 00625 thin FOR-NEXT statement alts 360 equally fpoced cmt beeen 25 and ~2, and then pcos the noesny exe Titon for ech eh fe 20 piste ow the eit of 0 ae alent for sux quapraric ry 71 ee 975 02 igure 4.11 The ontpt of ORBIEDGM, cach e but eal the Inst 150 pointe ae plied ‘This llows ws to see the ental cr enmpatic behaior of he titan encamped va the ‘Setemest in he progra ‘Noe that this program cntsne «nated lop. For each ealue, we fis ‘ompate an then plo be orbit funder Qcy aad then we ieretent ‘The otpat ofthis program is how n Figure 4.11, Note that ciereases| fom ~2 5 at we move from lef to ight. ‘This picare weraats sme ‘splanation. Remeber tat vet! ner contain he dynamics of par Weal Qe Since only the lv 160 pita oa the abit of Oar pleted, tis sean that when small suber of pists appear on given etal ne sre can ature that O hasbeen atracted to an atacting eye With tl | mind, we selec the ped doubling rom 4 faed ait tow eel of etiod 2 toa cycle of eid dard beyond. There fave «ped $ window, ‘here Di altcacted fo an atcctng el of period 3 an there ae ott ‘rls fr which the obit of 0 appre to be gute nate, Thee lacs form the “Chaotic eine" whereorite ee a move about raadoaly rater 72 crdos, Pracrazs, amp prasics ‘cuseteR sts qvapnante pay 13 Figure 432 A magiction ofthe orbit dagram of Qe tee marcela eet Sona eeen cuca Experiment 4.8 Modify ORBITDGM so tht the program compute the Cr arn ein he percent fr 1. ‘tp Ths ori darn played in Figure 412. Here we we ces ped doing tafuraton that ire Bit othe ey of pod 24nd sperinent 49 Compe hh gra i th pind 3 window PEeee i tSanrelesinctber set in wit te ot appento Fee agente ar yer penee gar So Saciour Outcome. each cae, apents thal the atracting orbit dergpes Dei doling oe bn parameter ince. The pod window i depicted igure 4.18 The povod 3 window in the orbit agra, Note the peri douiings hee fom 36 to 12 (barely wil) In Figure 413 Experiment 4.10 Compute th ot dag crraponding to the fia seed forthe following fame of anton. Do you nolo say anos ‘th he cei agra f Qt & Fle) ex(l=2),02 $115 6c 4a9 = J Sle) =deinn, 0S 0c, ¢¢ may —a/2 (Outcome, Upto a change af seule ac ofthe ori digzaieniel! Wis one ofthe amaning ft of namie that simple ncn ie thane ways tend to become hn a the sane sane Note the dency ‘le peciod doubling sequence with which ea family eyin he rong ‘Not lo the peiod 3 window saw other regions i which the ic liractngpetiodi rit Using the mageton docused carer con soa ‘keermine the pecode ofthe base cyclen these windows? Remark, You may wonder why we chose the ale sy =D to plot the obit Alngram fr 2? © (or sy = | frex{-2) ory = 2 for dns). We wil {plsn this cite much late when we dtc the Mandelbrot st, Forno, ‘Se seay mention tat you wl get “sentially” the sae oi diagrams So miter which inl seed you choose within the designated inter ‘Oceana thie wil af for example, you andverentychoowe an that ‘ost on oplng cpl. Batts rarly occurs a we hae se, Further Exercises and Experiments 1. Compute the orhitdgram for Tie) = #?~ ex fr -2 <2 < 2 and Oe , Une the inital sed a9 = Vo/S Consider Ti) = =~ 3e. "= Show iat the Bed point for 7 ze 02,2 BAe thee aed polte paling ov atracing? Show that V3 lie on» cyele of period? for T skrnctng or rpling? 4. Bind al pls» hat stly Tyo) =2, Remember, 2 = is oe of {her there ony ne other. Find all pints tat ety 5 4. Une the information in se teste carly the graph of for eset ov sketch the graph of 7 on thi iterval Als aheteh 73 4 ow muny fed pointe do ow expec for By 19s 78 TTR 4h Can you Had ay ef thee wing ITERATE 8 This experimen eae with the fay of fenctone Ce) = ceo 1 Piet te obit Garam for Ce nbeee—= Sa < and OS e- Use syn 0 arial ved 1, ing mgaiation of the ori dlagram, fn (at last approx Inui) itera of els for wehbe 9 apie arecting ‘aed peat a atrcing psd cyl, na atrecting period 4 Slr and forth thee a peiod 3 windor? «. Something range happen fo he rit gram for ¢> 27. Use ‘aphical nla to explain whet you se. thieepdle 2, There ae only two euch Chapter 5 Iteration in the Complex Plane ‘Wo urn now to one af the mont facinating topes in dpoamice Herta of functions of «complex rather then ave! ysabe. Since any pea ‘rocewes depend on more than one wasn Hissar to conser y= ‘ama sens ie bore than one dimension” Alto the dase ofthese eon el om rn ng Sa die ‘ Interest. Before uring fo the cmpuler experiment, we ned {oveve some facts about complex somber 5.1 Complex Numbers ‘ecilthat the iainary number sts = 1, that is, = VT. Cleat, ie not areal number setbe,ian example of «complex autber ‘A compler numbers amber of te fata s+ iy whee sol oe ‘eal numbers, Sometinae we mite «Intend of #4 ip, Bor expe, 243i, 7=74 Oy and 80 +8 areal sampler aumbere, The member © Iscaled the rel pat of «iad yi the iampaney pore Clos munis ae cleely not sed or courting They mse ray | ‘cane of the nee fo ave cera equation that have no real bere a sshtions Forename, the eqeation 2rin0 sleacy as no cel sltions Bt it dies have the compler soos # = 4 Suny, the uation Patt sao Fe caaos, scr, a prmamies ‘sing the quadratie orm, to complex root, 2 Another reson forthe fae fcmples mer is geomet, inse ‘compen suber ny be pte the lane a the nara vay, wth 2-449 ‘pled athe poll with coordinate (29) Just as we may me ay pst abe namber ne wingers umber, we ay ane not nthe lane (Shag complen suber Sots plotted s (0,1), whereas el number ke 4 vere ploted slong the ase, In parc, the ogi corresponds {othe complesmanier 0 0+ 0. The maul |r iy defied tobe the Adstance fom » iy to te gn. That, += oR Consus 2 w)=VEF0= VB ad f= ‘Not thatthe mous of x ral number i Jot ite abst vl, which is the ean for ang the sme ain fr thse tre concepts ‘Weimey operate algebraically with complex numbers in the natural way Bur eaumple weal wo complex number y adding thst rexpectve ral parts ond iagiary pate Thi th sm of2-+ Sand 44 O24) + Bitojr mor 3s The prodct ofthe to complex aunbers 2 +iy and wf Ie detoed ting the dtbusve property of maliplicaton (ein) -(e ie) = ne eae or ta (eu — ye) + en +98) ine 249-446 4-18-4024 1) Aa titan) Addition and muipienion of comple sumer obey oll f the nul rules af alin, inleding the commutative, aeocatie, and dsibative Ine, Without digresing to prove i here fare it aban exercie (0 ‘hk thee rales fy comping the flowing sme sed products in several Bleeat ys (eine tin) = Exercise 6.1 Compute the flowing e+e b (6) +6429 +5 © (0)-@-39) € Gear © (152). (429 +1479) +a)-(0+u) (144) 99) sass sii ea) (raya » comets, ion f to comples bere my be nlespreted | Seon: wlth campler pees eva wo Sew or a ate fat 1 to'r and frm 0 (ow. To find the complex sumber =} wwe snl teanlte the srw Serminaling at 0 ht it now bene nthe po ‘The endpoint of thie new arr i=} w. We ean sybian = by teandating the aro to 90 tht it bepae aw. See Figute 5. Figure §:1 Addition of complex number. Note that thie gamete interpretation of aon inmate gives ut ‘the tangle equ leu sel ‘This mportan inequity maybe iterpre eying he side he tran- tdeln Figure 5. stretching fom Oo 2 has length that nas a {he sum f the sides fom 0 to wad fom = Yo = Fm. Stated thin nay, the negative 78 crdos, PRACTALS, AND DrNsaACS ‘here aze oer versions of this important iecualty that we will we ner and over For example ime replace w by 2, Ret ing the wean engl inequality api to = and y=. If we brag to {he othe ie of is equation, we Bnd w-a12 ile) re now place «by 2, ind ‘Therore snce | i we have lot al > i=l ‘Wo wll oc thse veins of the engl ineuity sever ties inthe next 5.2. The Program ITERATE4 ‘Since mulation of complex suber makes sense we can consider no tind, the unin foci, nea complex fancion Let T(2) =, (Whee 27 ay is compen number In ter ofthe sel snd Sagi) Posteo, Die given by Tle iy) = Py +1209) ‘Tho the el pst of Tey) 22 ~ #2, andthe imginary par is 2 ‘This ea patel good funtion: When we aply T to « complex mnber, sre qet sme complex umber, sacl We ay ask what happene wes tre cate 7. The ort of xy complex number under this fanetion Is ‘Cietion of points in the compler plane rather than on the ra ine, a Teor. he may plot thee points we did before emerberng that ere ‘Se now two crdnaer to lt steno atone. Figure 8.2 giver «BASIC program called ITERATE to iterate the squat tng fenton 7. The program crept oipate the rel an imaginary paris ts complex suber soo aod then plots nthe comple lane the est [REM program ITERATES INPUT “x0 x0 PUT Yor:y0 FOR |=1 TO 100 m= (0+2)°75 n= @-y0)"75 POET (nin) FOR i= 1 TO 1000 Next | PET (my, 30 FOR |= 1 TO 100 Next | x=10"10-y0"y0 yizax0*yo soon yoy! Next j END igure 6.2 The program ITERATE. 100 pints on the ott of z+ ap. We plot only pnts tha ie wihin the eis2 iuis2 ta point on the ort ee outside this equate, we do nt plo i. I ac, ‘when sou compat certain orbits ung progam, ou wl note that ou ‘ery sui et orerow bssge rom the compte We wll se wy Cit Ippon shorty Ar alney, me mut cavers pinte nthe complex plane thet screen cooriaate. Inthe example ne have tantra he eqoae 2.39 © 2,2 <2 the comple plane inte 2007 300 egere oo ‘he wee, The sree cootdanes (mn) are given by the rnaeration 2 900 = (09 +2) +18 +300 = (2-99) +75 0 cxos, rmactars, ano prmases "The tanformation i depicted in Pique 3. Note that 20+ fn = 0-410 {strane fo (150,190), the center ofthe sren, wheeas ~2-+ 12 tensed to (00), tbe upper el-hand core the xen. he comple plane to seeen coordinates Figure 8:3 Teanstormi “rcfrning sures inthe complex ple ure he een emt aa pvp a ge Welty? as became ote nly he dma te we ‘Nghe cares wil be eed thee tC nd we Saag yur had at cutting rman hat hs ESI Irultan ea tos 955 90 do he ee Exercise 5:2 Convert the fllovingaqure in the comple lan into tren foordinis by extiting the requltedtanformation: oul <3, bol <3 be cbeanS8 159055 © 8S e050, bal 25 We have incaed in ITERATE weve empty lop of he form FOR I =1 10 100 NEXT? posses, which allow ut ink points on the omit a they ae pated {i lop, the eempatr singly sean to 1000 Before moving on to compute ‘he net ott on the obi Aa belo, the statement PsET(M,),30, simply erect the pil that had been plotted prevouly This allows a teeth rkt ey att Bela pots Experiment 6.3 Use ITERATPA to dsetbe the fate of any oi of 7 ‘Outcome. It appears that any inital pont op +p with leo + ip] < 1 ae ort that converges to 0, where if | 4 > 2 the obit tend 10 ity. Thi apparent ecaae ofthe ever teens you wl ete (your screen. Ar we ma foe, when an orbit converges to 0k doe no ‘ny uly: Thereore, appear hat enya few pst on tbe ae lta eft the rit ances 8 ole a ecto i xt gm wav nd wc ve edi Ge sla Te se ps TE Te sill tad oOo cone tt mee abe ar een = (ed) eo = VeeE= + Goon? = Veh +d — Behe + dia aaa ate = leet inl? Stn 1 a ney tr fat hat + <1 36 Price raetory Toney ey te what ptt ay fore| sien Uae ere attteewa ar oat BEASTS 2 oven te hci are ert ‘Ely Tepes pl ee al aaa a Se Sy (wis, arate eenereednneee ier fib eee ind ckat ees ete oh Be ets naa oe a ds ine nim wk meow lorie! eae aa ee Lopes ae ou ane mg tn Cee ny i See Sparen eee pare ee aa SiC cet pan, Tantei ee wate see i Saat afr e petted ate tna queue noha meas dn We ee mot Juli ste are ach moe spect, geometrically apeeing, cha te Sse of aos "The poceding ngument canbe ey adapled to show that ie be] = 1, hen [len tipo) = Ln well. That i pat tats on the Jala et ‘ts it seca rei thee forever, Becase of hit we sy that the Jiueetnneriat under. Even though we ow tht oie are topped athe Tui scsi fel to find an exit shut actually de stay thee (Gacep forte 4) Ty the following experimen! to oe thi ‘Exerciae 5.4 Use ITERATE to compete the ors of he following ponte tides Te) = 2 Note that each of then plus hae sods 1 1 oa Ratan ‘Outcome, Hach of thee points et onthe dede of ras 1 comps the ‘potulus to check thi), However, hen computed wing ITERATEA, their 2a Senay tl ofthe cle and tnd ether oOo tiny “The calpt cepontiblefor thi Ie aain sound ero. Sal or made im computing te it trom of tbe Julia wt. Once ti och, ‘Tekno what mt happen —~ the oit tends to 0 or to innit. This [Greshadows sething we wilson Inter — the Jala st preci the oe of uetale one of compler daar este Project 5.5 Modify ITERATEA so tht the new peogram rls ech poi rit plated, thew a momest Inter eaves the ce, This can be aceon ‘ihe by eeplacing the Eve ine after the al PSET command with {CIRCLE( m,n) 3 FORT =1 4 1000 Next’ (CIRCLE( Mm) 3,30 ‘To summaste we have se that Sor he complex aquzing festin, 8 ‘ype tit leat oe of tne exlgorie 2 The okt eecape toni. 5: The rit doe other ofthe above bat ether ean forerer on tbe Julia. tn this cae the Tin et he boundary between the ecaing eis sod tho tht none scape We illace ha the Jaa se general cosine ‘1 the compa ort hat we nr in the Rt four chapters, Moreover fox fnctios othr then the ouning Fanci, we il se hat the lin at Selle quite complied ial. 5.8 The Julla Set “The Jae et of» compl fant ina rth Pech mien cian Gut lay rho dorered any ofthe tte pope he ht bse he ly fentthenuy A pre deo {82 dana oe pagans ent ithe Bonday of tot lps Seto ig Tt pt ne a a et tha dow ot cae ony ay ey hr ap vie orbits do escape. sae “ts agin ou say of Ja by oping the pram ITERATE stat hgnew po sop i nye pyc {heteom ste Bem both set's be copa ees Projet 5. Modi TERATEA to compute rit of Qd0)= 3? + Your ‘new program should accept as input: bees) [Ey aera he tnt om + 2 iy Slpda women 4 Aa ded near ene ‘Call this new program ITERATES, We tse this program offen jn ater Experiment 5.7 Use ITPRATES to compute some of the ortite ofthe polfmomial Q-s(2)=+!—=1 Heres = shy iw compes vase, ale +i) in the complex plane 1 +209) teams A i te el pana 1 there rev pred ‘at bebaviar Titer nits ecape, rele hey esto an atracing cle ‘ped at ones etree and 1. The poate ne reseller ‘Seape nor endo the cyl compe the ull set though dif to ‘tre what thie ook ihe right sow 4 cos, rractats. amp penamics ‘Outcome. 1 sppes that all rite exept shove between 2 and +2 on the ease tend toil. Project §.9 Moly ITERATES xo tht 1 Tection hope ifn pint onthe obit has modal larger tha 10 2 Intend Spl pting suzesive points onthe ei, the com: puter dems engine tgaes connecting sccesive pots on Ej ort Tae gvs a diflereot and more geomesie method of view ng orien Ue copes ple. ‘Experiment §.10 Ue ITERATES to compate some ofthe obits of (2) Pest 6 Cvicome. Some of he its that donot ape sppear o “lot” cles Sound wfaed pot. What i this Seed pont? Further Exercises and Experiments 1. Why ie i rae tha i eo-+5| = 1 hem (20+)? alo has mois 1? 2. Write forma forthe land imaginary part f 2+) and (iy 13. Ua the prevonsexercie to modify ITERATEA to compute the oct the flowing, = Aa)=2 Brae 4. Bach ofthe following complex ontins ifthe farm Fs) = ex, where isa complencontat, Use ITERATEA to compute a rely of ite foreach fanction Resord what you see Con you daw any conclusions ftom these obwraton! Use uae eae tbe you decd which ‘incon have ll ooneo ori tending to iat aad which have al bie tending 0. Chapter 6 The Julia Set: Basin Boundari In this chapter we begin a detailed study of the geometry ofthe Jain st. Persil and alto Gein without previous work encenrate (om qeadeate faction of th forth Qda)= 2 +e where cies complex pathteter, That i = 6p, where ad ate ‘eal mus In thi section we present agorithn Wo compute the Dla fet of Qe that works well when Qbns an itecting pevog rit Ae we $ave seen befor aot aways tae tat Qe an acting yee. hae the algsithm we prsest hee wil fa far sany evalu, Homere in the feet chapter we presen » diferent algo eat work better when tte 1S no attracting eye prea Alo, ie difialt to predict ahead of time ‘hich values vill yd a dynamism that hasan atenlng cpl Tater, when we deste the Mandelbrot set, we wil ind fle map sceompih he, In this chapter we conde nly e wales with el <2, for ranone that ‘wl boat apparent in Chapter § ioe vied tre are therefor ooking at thwe evalue that Il on o inside the ele of fadius 2a the cpl. Reel om Chapter 4 thay when i aly all he Interesting dyaumiee occur the intern! “2 2 edie then we have Ieetep = 2 el 2 la? ‘one of sr versions ofthe tingle inequality daused in Chapter 5. But IeP —le> la ~ el = (el aes lh Now > ean theeore > i-t>a sinc e|> 2. Thane, we ay write le for some number €> 0. Thos we hare Iaatenl> +41 (CHAPTER 6 ‘THE JOLLA SET: RASTE ROUNDARIES 87 In pastel, (Gate > Ie ‘Tis means of ons, that Qs) faces from the rg tha +. Now we Ear ee loo renig io 2) = Q4Q4e) snes [> [92] = lauaueyi> +4104, >(4es ‘hoe (2) (area, eS ven further fom the on than Qs). Continuing in hi [Oee)1> a4 ar ‘Now recall that €> 0,0 that 1 +€ 1. Hence the numbers (140 gow sem gee lange, We hoe Crepe sec 401 flows tht Ie) +20 seco, That the ilo s xcapes to init "Tie then gives ut the otto decide if ano ends to ini Hany ‘sit om thee ae modal tha exceeds then ne Know hn the erie ‘at alimatly tend ony. 6.2 The Program JULIAL spo it tn og SULA a Fg fa pee sia ae eager Boneh und Wraps oie oa sie ot Sle eae indi dot br? ed of i ogee cadations: ieee create te tetctoe ) oa ecka net Bee crete iedartaballi in given by the following: 2 Tipe me 2 en ga the pase REM program JULIA PUT “et"sct nur *e2 2 cis FoR m=0 TO 200 x02 2+ 80 FOR n=0 TO 100 yo=2-n50 x0 yoyo FOR i=1 To 20 Hiaxnecy*y sot Beary 62 zextaryey We z>4 THEN GOTO 10 Next | PET (min) SET (200- m, 200-n) 10 NEXT o NEXT m END, igure 6.1 Th program JULIAL {For ech pat my nthe rid compte the fist 29 penton the crit Tres Gala utah stg ofthe ieration wheter the corerpondng (i Hirota the dle of radia 2 4 any point onthe ot outside f the cee of ro 2, then op tertng aad aloe the ern pointe white 15, al120 pine on tbe oto le ie the el of adn 2 then fol fhe ong pint = Usk. ‘Seven omens avin order Ths program thes quit a Tog ine un, We ne computing op to 20 erations of Qn each psn 200 200 (Bid That menue wet compute upto 80,00 iterations of Qe in order to draw the st! ach tration in fra invsres a numberof editions and imultpcations, o thir lot of computation fr n petro compute. ‘Wen eunsng iis progre, we sgset that you fed srahng ee do, sch a homevork o while say the Une! You soul ls remeber ty ‘the ntact, the computer may oly be plolting vite pint nthng Ima appear on your ern forget whe "As usal, we must chage coordinates frm the zy- 2. ‘ote ta tae ile ete Toop in be pogram, We ep th tesco enrdiaesby fiat hing ie prevalent and sling enh ‘coordinate, Note that the n-oorhates on only fu Oo 100, ie Sects apt a oye ite dana sen, Aer onto, fhe otis of = and =r wre the same; doo, 12) = Qas) Thor me to that i rit of tapes then doe teri of“. Hence tw on ‘ut on he pot (9)-we othe sro el er (0-200), sie cron to" Ve stb ca ther hi ry rere only works you “window tn th complex lane teed the orig. Otherwise, in SULIAT,m on eye os Oe 200 aad te 'PSET(200— 34,200 1) mot be elininte, Experiment 6.1 Cech be score ou JULIAY poz yr ithe doe eines 28 ope Outcome, ‘The output ofthis expeimect shouldbe a disk centered at (20, nae rit wks 9p (Te ie ensuing way to drew = di!) 90 cos, smuctats, ano mvxanics Experiment 0.2 Use JULIAL to generate the st of pile whose hit does fol ecape under eration of Qe 1 ‘swoae + 00376 dena ‘uteome. The rls of thee expesimece are depicted in Figure 02. ‘emrk. Ibis ute temackale tht pictures such ae thw in Figure 6:2 trove sen forthe fet ne ly inthe Ite 19706 and esl 108 tis ‘Tov thatmbematciane Enew whet cetin Jas nteooed he (or ‘Eample che sngleJln et the goaing encton), butt also re hat Soboty telly undectood how incredibly diferent an complicated thee Pears sould bear fhe paneer chased until very fast computers ‘come cuily trl. 'We invite ou ue the emputer ond JULLAT to fapeiment by cheaing diflret eraiee and then plotting the Jali ‘Youmay be the et human ever tore the Dla et you compute! [As we noted eatin, it the Boundary, or edge of the black eon computed ty JULIAL that ald the Jala sel, "The ate black regi fometie called the fla Jali se "You uy sghly object that our we of nly 20 ‘trains in JULIAL to ec fem ob extape wrong, tobe pele corel ne wou Sve to check alpina onthe ot cleey a pole tak te a fact ‘ha fo ony Din sets of, 20 Seats eet ive «very aerate picture Yow muy check thi by runing the preceding expeimeat with 0 {rte trations sod comping the ser Not that ey Yo hang ‘he program to accompli hy bat he rnin Sree un tales hous 6.2 Magnifying the Julia Sot ‘Thre a illo diferent modifcaions of JULIA that canbe wed to produce neenting imager One aatral progr to wite mould enable the ue o Aeon inom preiesiy eompeled portion ofthe Hedin Toa ~- ¥ ® © Figur 0.2 Ja miso , (9) = 1, (jena iinide= butn ¢10aNeE ea 8 Project 6.8 Modify JULIAL so tht, after ransig JULIA, the new pro ‘go prom the ner to ales the lye left verona the ede length ‘te emule aquaria the plane. The ogra chold then reompste th Dortion of the ed-in Jaa act within tht square sing n 200 200 yi ‘Thien qd sla higher rroltion maguieton of peston of the Figure 6.8 Magifestions of the Jain st of ‘ida Iain experiment 64 Ue th mndention of JULIAT tempt scene ‘ilmenite lea Jn et of) ou shad ave coe» Part previa eur tht contain» portion ot J set (er Hea ra Un ego este een id hy ae le Tested tect) Rem: oe the myanty mt ot be wed whe {peng megane tn arent cnered 00. Osteo, Se Fe 6, Note hat mse age oh Jl ‘Sore seein ni ek SUSE ser andre “deren ‘SunSia Gee ita es You vy avd fo nee the mabe ae tua hry a Te ater deine ‘he flledin Jain et, the more decorations we see, but the pitas gener ed is miller windows beat swag serlanc o ou pital lcue This etre i elledsl-sondeiy wnder magneton, base propery of [rasta lopic we lake up ater Boao Peter V3 Ie your computer basa mone it would be mf to incorporate the fear into your progam by allowing theater to sl athe tae the portion of «previufildin Jl sl tobe mgd ‘The only diet in weting thi program en converting the new (=) ordinate oth 200% 0 gud in cen cordinion By now, you shoal ficient experience in tramfeing between there tm cordate ty tems 0 we lee tis srmpataion a an exer Project 6.8 Instead of wing» 200 x 200 grid, titer eoton can be hinined by using more punt Inthe gid and sors than 20 enon to Seternain the led in Jue ae You sould be foewasned tha ae exer sive namber of tertions and age gi som the computations dora ‘ieee, renga» program tat may take hous or ven dai ta a Project 6.6 Avotheriteretng may to Septare” he filein Jain ie {oven fret esr to pnt the at of excaping ois depeading por the tine of eseape- Ror eamply the exit pal va eocpe fer ieeations (hati the it ha poi modal lpr chan 2 ett 2), we might color the egal polt blak ifm i odor white meen ‘We ean leave the orignal point white i vin theft Jali e The rerl of his project sw utcenon of wit an lk “Ying tha survound the Metin ln Project 0.7 your computer be clr, sting image nny be obi by ‘sighing ifr clr to ferent excpe ney a determined der the [previous projec. For example, your sseen eat pay fou lbee clots [esis bac, you might colo poate that espe before eration 6 ith ane fcler, before iteration I witht second clory and ao forth. Ths method ‘Mowe o get a fring fr the “ynansce” Qe aca the Jun wet The tering images give bands of poise whose ecap rater range fers very {cht very slow: Our ith moe clos mal, you ean make te Color bade Be, thae ging a more accurate piace the dynamics ob Well as a wore etre image. Se Plates 17 Recall that ia Chapter 4 re stud the sdlenede bifurcation, We ® » a fee © @ Figure 0.4 The ude node tifercation for 2? where (a) ¢ = 25 (iyien 25th, fe) c= 2548, and (ad) e= 259 ung 5 erations. ‘xneenirated onthe ail of el fncione de) wrth e near}. We sr thal fa €> yal pointe om the real in need Tatty, wheres there wa am inter o pints that didnot eeepe ‘The net project aliows you to ae thi me bifrenton in the complex Plone Project 0.8 Compute the la e214 for a mumberof erate inthe ge Se Outcome. You wil e be fillinJain vt “implode” the parameter inreer through 28. Soe Figute A. When e > 25, mont pene hove ‘ble that evap under eration. You may tnt by Bing» lee with {> 29 and then comping the fllesn Fain met ing 2,40, sl hen 60 Hertione Note hw the Dak eon grows mer nthe sation count fr up. You cold check thal he dows not heppen i 0 < eS 28, A atral question iy What has happeot tothe led in Jala ata Snerents though 257 We ee later tat tit hn dltegraed ito wt Stcaled ctl ut ua we pus throgh te biforstion pets Project 0. Ifyou hn os of compat at your pul (a, exanpe, Ina dasroom or compater ab) ory have lotro rade nih compere, ou can makes move of the sale node bifureation by eompating tans ‘irate in Javea int ange 24 Sc 3 Project 6.10 Iovate the pei. doaing hifareston at = —2 ina sina fashion, What cages inthe Juin st do you ee at destense {iroogh “3? Further Exercises and Experiments 1 Lat 2 = iy and ee $x. Wate tthe form forthe complex lege faction Fs) = c(t) i em of tye, and ‘he Jl et fr he comple lpi fnction Fs) ~ c(t») whee ¢ is son a comple permetr my alo he cmpued Hove we ed to modi the agit mrewtat. We neo t tne check hes an ‘etitseape tty Ung tenga of hap rabo tir . b> aa Wea thee [F(2)| >: Conch that when + ios the receding resi (Gn he nde ay 2 Une the rls of exerci and 2 to compute the fledhin Jin at of {he comps log ents fr the lowing parameter rela: ath 4 re the progam JULIA and it sdietins to aetgnte the Jun tet forthe quadratic fncions Q.2) = +e where Sante — 53165 ena an Weve out the real and imaginary parts ofthe expression 3) +6, whee bth and ate compl Let Tz) = 2) +6, Uw the tangle inequality to enc that i | > 2 del 2, then [f(3}] 00 ae n= Use Hae 5 and 6 to write a program snalogus to TULIAL that Aioplage the Tuli sto Ui cab function Tea) == + Chapter 7 ‘The Julia Set: Other Algorithms (Our msin goal inthe chpter i to preset alternative methods for de playiog the Jala vet «polynomial function. The major tthe aes isthe fechuond eration method. ‘Tis ethos the advantage of rrking ‘much more quichly than ur previous tethod the turer trplaye are ‘ccaionaly ls pel, Other nrantage acute fat that prodoces ‘nage of he Juli set itl ether han th filed in Jan a nd the fact ‘hat it works wal when the previous matod fl, notably when tke Tula fete “rctal daa.” Ite dadeatage in he fc bat we fen find oly the “heleton ofthe Juin et — many pons th relly Hein he Jai state sot fad ty th algoritn At the ed ofthis chaper me onlin a thisd method fr comping Jala ets the Soundaryscanning etd. The method combines tinny f the ‘Mrantogor of the previous tro bu tle een lange to ra TL Polar Representation of a Complex Number nthe lat two secone, we compte the orbit of x complex auber + under iteration of he guadeaefoneton Q,(s) 4 «ado thie we ‘headed ono Bow to square a cmplex cae, To compte the bated bit this seein, we will ned to kx how to undo ths operation, hat to compute the rare ook fs compler maber, "To explain the operon of taking aunce soo, est need Yo cae the paar vepeventaton of = compler nuther, Suppoee 2” 22 iy 8 8 temples umber. Ty the Cartesian plane, «is located at tbe pit with 98 cusos, reacras, ano pruaMres coordanis (3). Wespy ually wel dsrbe tis pot by ving ts ‘Sonfiatr, aes the medals oft andthe polar ange. The pla gle eee har he srg ine connecting +o the oigia males with the toate sae, We tera thi angen rans and in the eunterlokive ‘Erection fom the was Rec that redon mesure of angles St quite diferent rom degree [When we tae cadann, we ave searing the length ofthe ae of the i (Gea eis 1 that i tbleded by tht ange. Therefore, an ale of 2° isthe ame os an angle of De tadans, since the reusferene of w re of Sta Tn cxety 26 Solty ange of 190 or x redone are theme, Sad ight ange an ange of 7/2 radians "Therefore, any pat onthe postive agian ai as polar angle #/2 and tay pols on he neglve val asi he polar angle = We agree 0 {ec aegutve angie ime smarre polar agli the eave drection, 20 unto the negative ral uel hove polar anger, whereas pnts on ‘enagatveimaiany ei ave pot angle —=/2 aswel as 8/2 ‘Wen the notation + forthe medals and 8 forthe polar angle, Ths Haw dng then ps Vund @ = r/4 Sime Ws 8 then += 3 find 02/2, Note int » given point may bave many pla representations, cet ways an sty renting tbe polar angle: or xa, {he polo has pole eeinnen p= Land 0 = s/2 But an angle of pele alm determine the postive imaginary ai So alo bathe polar fepresnaton fl and @= e+ 2/2. Cle, any maltpe of Brean be ‘Slit tothe polar agle without changing the erga pt Bcrese Tl Determine the odalus and the polar sole ofeach ofthe follwing comer somber Given the pla ropreentaton of complex amber we can deterine ts ‘Catena coorlater ming le igonomety. I= bas pola oodinates ‘ood thn we sna dew the gh tenagle depicted in Figure 7.1. The Types ofthis tng has length 0 the side oppoite the angle @ as [ingen rsindssodtheadjcet ede hs length eon. So2 = rcon Oar xe rood Figure 7.1 The polar representation of Convery if we know the Cartesian coordinates of empl nner, ‘then enya the ste tangle fo deter the pola corontn It 2s ig then the tang in Pigare Bae opposite side with length ‘od ejocnt sd of length =. Consequently, tad maf ‘Therefor, the polar anges gven by ‘ 0 =acta(y/2) ‘long at = > 0, since the azetanget fonction thes only vas between “y/tiad r/2. M20, = achala/s) +4 For eam, the peat with modus? #/b a given by =F, ae oa als 2a angle /6 ven by 248, = 2eodr/6)=v5 y= Baal /8)=1 ‘Using the polar operation of we an now compate the square oot ‘oss Tort atm the veal eam each complex mb hes tno equne fot Suppowe we ze give he complex suner + reed irin@. Then oe of {he sans rol fs bas sodas YF and polar angle #2, 0 that YE VF copa) +i on/2) ‘Av in the ral ent, the other quar 0 of simply the negative of hi ‘amps amber | "To chk that ll ofthis tv, we simply square the number v/F and Yi Vim Lio loo FivevF(ten( 8/2072) om rel the to ation feral om ignometry c(h +B) = coe coe B sin Asin sin(A-+ B) =n Acos 4 con Asin B we aply these to formas inthe cate where A= B= we Sind shat Vie VE = rsoo/2 46/2) +s /2+ 9/2) cont iran comples number swe may find is tmoequae soos by igi pla epenenttion, taining the model + and pola Then the two sun Fo egret by con 8/2) + iF @/2) =v ead /2)— wri) For example, to compute vi, we fst od the polar sepeentation of i id O='2/2. Hence one of the une foots of bw and bother Vi = ext /4) + sin) = ‘Bxercine 7.2 Compute the square rots ofeach of the following complex abet cuapreR? Tae s0uA sen oTueR ALcORITAMS 101 see ‘The operation of taking the complex square rots an exp seometic Snteprettion: Weslmply take the squace ot ofthe dala tad hale he pole ange Se Figure 72. Figure 7.2 1 and ws are the two sqoee rot 1.2 The Squaring Function Again oft pace I 1, the ori tend 0, bt i | > Iy laf. Thu the sce of uns 1th boundary been pots ‘that ae attracted to D aod pints whow orbits eae, Ths the Jak st ot. ‘hie uggs that we can Sind the Julia set of 7 by computing ‘mchward sing the une rot If 2p ster |n) = 1'> 1, then te two square rots of ty have modular VF, and ne have 1- Vor 1 the {wo quar rote of ye nearer the ete a ais | than oct Soe ehoose one of the wo square ote of 2 cal hie new oit that sre have chen ty. Since Tei) = mye thnk of sy ns beng the Sat 102 aos, crus, xp prams igure 72 Backward orbit of (2) = 2 point om ons of the ochwacd” abit f- Wesmay now pen thie proces {Ty choning one ofthe tno pre aguaze root of Cal hie ure ok en We then colin ote facion ~elcing = partiaaeaqece rot ‘ed then fang one af ie squce rots, By ou eae esoingy ach time ‘elect oe of he two pote sare sot, te pat we fae secede (Sree to he Jali ets We thar ental the rrling backward orbit of the ‘qui fonction en to the eco rae, the Santo Tn this proce a each lage one of tne agate ata mart be chosen. We sehr that tie best aot lo coor the poste” o the “egaive”equre {ot cach te. Rather, it ir Best to choo on ofthe two poe Tandomiy Figure 73 itsrater the procedare, Note tht we have not ‘vey chowen tbe some aqunce rot in thier and hat the auceare ‘The only poiat wove beckwaed cbt falls Yo end tothe Jia et is 0 Alles pata ave ackwaed orbits that approach the a net 1.3 ‘The Program JULIA2 “The preceding procure work in general to produce 2 rough pctre of the Jala of (2) = 2? re To compute a backvard ort of Q., emote thai then aivere ‘Th complex number w~c as two square os theve ace the to peng of under (Our eater remarks mig he flowing gst for computing the Inn et a 1, Select any pot win the complex ple 2, Compute oe of the tro agate root of wy, chosing the postive of mgaive auc rot randori. Let mp denote the ral of hs 3. Replace hy 2. 4. Peclor Steps? and oa of 15,00 tine, loting at ech sage ‘he point in the plane, Homer, do not plot the ae 50 pointe FREM program JULIAZ INPUT “et ct INPUT ez e2 INPUT “10% 20 INpur yor yo pia s.natea cus. FOR |=1 TO 15000 wonx0-e1 wt y0-e2 TF W0=0 THEN theta pi2 IF wO> OTHEN thota = ATN (wt / wo) IF WO OTHEN thota.= pi « ATN (w/o) 1 = SAR (w0" wo + wt “wi theta theta + INT (2* RND) * pl aR (7) X01" COS (thats) yO=r* SIN (theta) IF 150 THEN GoTo 77 m= (0 +2)*200/4 n= (2-0) 800/4 PSET (m,n) 77 /NEXT | ND Figure 7-4 The program JULIA2 104 cog rnacpiss, ano omwantes In igure th pga JUAD a i sth Tp ces ont pre an anil rd re ea computer 16000 pocoags of Stach sings the Po ‘non ct eof the no premage, This ecole by wie TU'END Steemest foun BASIC. ack fine the progam excoste BS Bet BOD, tune sand mabe betes Bal 1 Hees 2+RND setae random muner bytmeen and 2, Therefore, the tater INT 2+ RND) ctor ithe the value Oot endomls since the INT function rund dow {oe nena itor Hence he satement [THETA — THETA/2 + INT(2+HND) «PI sums oe of he tw pole polar anes amocitd with the square rok eatin tne ne polar agli eoorly ade ob ber 9/08/24 Aepending pon whether WT (2+RND) = INT (2+ RND) oe hate JULIA we tlt he nt rime JOGA Toad eh we ery dw of Qe for the flowing ‘Experiment 7.8 Ue JULIA? opt the Jali comic. See cesar Outcome, The Jae sts for these values sume a yrs of diferent shapes. See Figure 15. The Sula wt a paste (a)-(@)appete to cont ‘of jt one pte. Fore = 1, the Janet renee the collection of Ascraed cices wesw bere In pate (c) and (ay te Dalla net “dente” which seningly Mounds nora, a do te Taste f pit (a) and ("Tn pare (e) and (1), the Tansee appear to cot of ac joint Sala” of pte Experiment 7. shows tha the bacwad iteration method ye much sicker method of producing the ua st Wo need compute oly 15.000 eon inl obit rater than the 850,00 iterations tba we node {or JULIAL I has some dandrantagen, bomeres The Tule st foe ‘Produced by tht method doe aot soem ofl oat te ene boundary de ‘lyed i Figure 62. Bren ifwe inns the numberof bachvard rte {TULIAR, we seston some of the ponte in the Juba st, Neverthe, ‘his method dows yield mgood apparition ofthe Tumse. The bow? esnning method dsannd ltr reedin thi eect, SULIAR prodaces pictues of certain Jai sta that are impossible to obtain by JULIA, seme, howe Il see that te ot besa Bound, ‘This othe cave in pats 6)-{h) of Expert 73 Bxperiment 1.4 For « given eval, compute the Juli vet of Qe eng & umber of dierent inital sods. Cmmpaze the pictues you shal, Outcome. The Juin wt of @y generated by IULIAR ang «fed erale ‘but difereat inal sols ae etal ideal. Te only szepion to tis forthe quadratic fnctions Q, overs oh inital sa O when € =. Tor Gols) = 3, the oly preimage af 0 ae Ota, the backed rit of 0 dies not ted tothe Jl set. Remarably hee the only exceptional case ‘tong alo the quadratic functions Experiment 7.5 Use JULIA2 to compute the Jala ete of Qe fr a vasety of cent cals, How many diferent sheper can vou fad? “Keep & “erapbook of at any ferent Linde of Juste snd tne corresponing rales as you find, We se nthe net chapter how the Mande! set Sable of contents for your scrap 74 Fractal Dust There is ne obvious qualative difeeace among the Jn sa Figce| 1, Im some eaves, the Teli sete appen to farm ssn, coasted poe, ‘cusos, Actas, ano prwancs Figure 7 nin sto Q for (2) =, 0) om — Geran Gen-silee ee ahand whereas i other arr, the aia et apport ona may pisces, From the pictures we be gered far, it wonld appear ta these Inter ain set const of fly many lated pes. Acie noting eo ie frthr fom the tath The nxt pet laws le dere ore dcp Into the fail entre of thee Jaa ate We give pre dfn ofthe srr fran Chapter Project 7.6 Modify JULIA2 2 thatthe new program allows v tong {portion ofthe Jul get of Qe. Your progam sould accept input ‘cull quar within the ogi pon ad hen recompate so pay the ‘card orbit within hereon You may need to we me erations to ‘compat the magna picture. “Experiment 1.7 Use this modifed program to magaly vais seis of the Dla set of Qe hen ® 4 Outcome In och ase if we maguly what appears to bean elated pec ofthe ab ewe ve tat thi pee elf hae up of wpa cated ‘hunks. Moreover thve soa ce beara femariabersblnee othe ‘rol Julia st! Soe Figure 7. Agsin we se that the Jain ste of Q. pases the property of el arity onder magaiaton. This oe of te baie proper of rca In Expeiment 77 ech ace magsienton sevens thal thee ce lolnied chunk ofthe Juliane re carey oat this agafiston oer aad over, we ind thatthe Jali et consis of ond” of pointe each of which Tes in separate pec ofthe Jin et Thaw type of ul ete theeore rewemble fecal dt albough the techies er fo thie Kd fester: [4 Conor set We disease Cantor sin more detail Chapter 9. ono We simply note that Cantor sts ttlydsonnacted. Tae sea hn We ake say two pint in the Cantor wet fo iatance ap andy there Iwadwaye a cloned carve tat never ct he Cato a nad that euros 2 but tot wy See Figze 77. Thar we an always late two poten 8 totally iceonnected st by meant of «ond eure tha doe ct intrest these 108 cxsos, macrais, ax orasics [es eon eee? © ci aes % 3 fa + Lae C2 w © gry 14 The alent 0) de mci rescence oft Cora Pa Te he iy toe (0 (- [At the opposite end he spectra ae cece ts, Aub ofthe lae conse i pon fo e's ned re hat Salt {fom the et ad hat separates the st oto dan pices Fr expe, Ah nero connesedy bt spi ft fatras wot w connected Now let's ar tothe gueton of what ken certain Jain ete totaly izconncted un thee appar connected. The answer fr hie ple td itu sii by the ftowing expen, [Experiment 1.8 Use the pvgrams ITERATES and JULIA2 to compute the forward orto 0 fr Qe and the Jia st corresponding tothe sae of ey Ss oon see [igure 1.7 The cave eseparte fom. eralue Use avast of eas inlding obit of 0 exces to infinity, tines (Fs the ‘ui et resembles fatal dunt When the rit of 0 dom nt supe uf ‘ses (a)-(o) the Jas appears tobe eonseted. You can ee gable ‘alps o cha tht the ort does at xeape ln eases (oP). Cae (6) rears that you compute he obit of esly do this amd ave Ibn 012 ‘rentualy pedi (aad so nover eens) ‘The act that the scape af the ri of gorenawhther or ol the Julia ‘sof Qs enctal dust ira tre statement, mich canbe proved Hepovaly ‘This the ia instance a which wens tht the eit 0 plage tole in deteminig the dyease of Qe wl ober 1 ego along, partially when we dacae the Maelo ae inthe eat Shaper 410 casos, reaczais, an owns ‘Whencrer the rit of Deacape fii the Ja st of Qe ctl us the iio totaly daconneeted. On the other han, ithe orbit of 0 out not eocaps the Jn nt and the Sled in Tin et ze connected ret ‘Th amating prt ofthe nerent he fact hat there eno in betwen: ithe the Jai tof Qy const one piece or et cosine finitely nny, orth reson be polt Oe eld weal pin. The obit of ealed th erica! ori The etal obit thos play «dosnt clei ‘etcmining what th Jala st of Q, lok de We mate ach we f this {het nthe ton hopes ben we debe the Mander! wt "Tine aod aoe ovetun gun to the sade node ifreation, which sre ain the lt chapls,La' te TULIA2 to explore the ele et of Qe for cvaluen see “Experiment 1.0 Uso JULIAR fo compute the Jain sts of Q(2) = # +e fox raions val eva ne Outcome, For €< Jy the Juin set of Q. appears to be connected set — a Serve, When ¢> fy thie earve breaks up Stoffel many pices. Tobe SIE TW noc cer tht ts cheage ocats precy at 25, but ther fi cley a change os clnerentes ftom 210 3. Alo wy e= A and = 5 "The rene of the experiment bear out what we decid before ‘Exercise 7:10 Use grophial analysis to check that the obit of 0 under Gals) nz? re cacopen to indaly ihe > | bat doe ot eecape 0 Se < ‘We ay so explin ath point apoter phenomenon acid to the sadlenodeifventon, Foc he pet few ofl djuaaee ft pears {hat Q. bn no Hard pointe when e-< {and sone when > {Ths wae shows a Figure rom the pint f view of the complex plane, however, theres no andden appenrnon of now fed pots a e= Inde it esr the equation Pe ing the quadcatc forma, me ton that this equeion has tro comple (lution when ¢'> fe Th mea that Q, has two fied pints Ja the Complex pe when ¢ >} These tro Sed point imply come together fd est when e~ and thereter say on the elie So hers the freaon nthe conple ane? Ou daca cn step th sare We bre ena ke alin of Qe dere Silo change when ceca trogh fs For > the fla ste sy cel fn. ue ot finplirctona e= | ha te il of "ag ot 0. We dha that any pnt» wih [el > Ie emapes ‘nde tran of Q, (on parila, eel scapen, ead e = Qo ‘he obit of 0 eatapes). Tie appene Beet if [| el > thee IGele= [e+ [a lel by the single nogaiy >i =Heel—1) ehki+) ‘hie meane shat [.(2)] > [+ slog a o> fel But 1 46> 1 ‘Therefore, [Ql] > [Thierens maybe interpre wnyag tha ot log a louie the cde of au > 2 nthe pane then sage (2) ies farther say fom the xg than» does. Tat under one es ‘tion, sock points move clover fo nity. Therefore, we ay apy the sae Segumeat to way that ubder two erations, such ponte move even futher ‘ar from the oiin. recede say apply the preceding sang to le toed IO2Le = 1Qaate 2 eda NCL +€) soc (| is lager than 2 Bie +ot 216 c40s, peuctats, axp prwaxcs thee eve wed the fat shat (Qe > (1+. Continuing i tie fain, we ind losten2 leo" [ow 146 1 Thai the mth pomer of € gee leger and lege as increases ode, (4g ton em Thera 909) ‘hee eommanence, we nom know thatthe Mandelbrot st Hee within the ince af seine >in the copes plane. Equivalently iff] > 2, then the ‘Shel oe of Qe mut exeape, andthe Jin wet of Qs cal dat. To Tin the Maelo ei, we therfore ned uly check eras inside the ‘Scie of nine 2 Weel hay Bong to. Tie may be done by wing our ‘Srstion fon Chapter 6 1th to eer let the dk of rade {hon loecwuy eveapes tia, Thin given he lg o compe the Mandelbrot sty ne spy compute te eri f 0 te ete Crates (erate) +6 and check whether any pinto thi nit has module age than 2. Once soca we are guacateed thatthe rial ert exper and dos wot ‘lng tothe Mandelbrot wt 4.3 The Program MANDELBROTI Let's now we the Hoes to wit «program called MANDELBROT, which dia the Mandliat set The sgesthm fe aaightormardy gies ‘hat we already hoor 1 Dine the nguare -2 < ny 2 in the plane nto 30 30 2 Theat cach id point a ele 2 Foreach mth check wether the orbit of O under Q scapes within the at Heratons 4 He, aor ewhite 5, Irn sore back. Figure St displays « BASIC pogram hat ue thi algpithms Note the sini beinen this program aad ow eree JULIAL. The only fer ‘ice hee ele for neh pid pn is the plane, me mat remeber he crreponding valve of etheoughout the erin. "Tht ie why wen the he outet andthe efor alo the computations ang = andy REM program MANDELBROT! cus FOR i~1 To 300 FOR j=1 TO 150 e-244°1/300 o2n2-4"4/300 yre FOR n=1 To 90 Mextxoy"y sel yiearxry ser Fextixteytsyt IF f> 4° THEN GOTO 1000 yey NEXT n PSET (i) SET (,300-)) 1000 NEXT j Next i END Figure 8.1 The pogram MANDELBROT We have agin sade ue of» symmetry to spend up MANDELBROT, Unlike the Talla sete of Qe AM ir not symmetric about the origi, M i ot preserved by replacing bth ey and ey the egies, Howey the ‘Mandalbro sets sete sbot the sao the leleing wae: Support wih >, ‘ne bao that the pint c= 1+ es inthe Mandlirot ‘Then yum alo Bein i “To wetland why thi es, we ated to inrodace the atin of the complet eonugte, I~ tye complex umber it comple conjugate new comple mums given by =i. Thali, difer fom # thot the sign ot maior pact congo Figure 8:2 shows Interpretation of eomplex conjugation Figure 8.2 The complex conjugate of: = 2+. Comptes conjyption bas evra imple algebra popes that you aay culy eck Forename its and w ae complex nae, then Ta pastel i iow hat ce) ia hcl enue hinge + mec Qi pay th is eee Sle oe tinct mene a ce kth SRLS MENG occas mt er eb min: Tastee Restate So Pen pute ht Figure 8.3 The ot fs under Q. and Funder Qe 1 under Qe ie prety the complex conjugte of the oi of «wader Qe ‘Thos the tea exit of @ eeapes, eo Lo dos the eel exit of Qi ‘We have wed thi fct to atin half the amber of computations nec ‘ney to produce M. Indeed, I the pitel coresponding toe eco Lc, then we iumedintly ear ® ack too. Thier acme by the PSEN(,3) PSE, 300-3) igure 8:4 The Mandatiot st, gute 84 dopey the image generated by MANDELBROT!. Remen- ber that this es picture inthe cplane~ the preter plane, Uae the 120 clos, practass, ano ovsanacs ution tI i, where eg ie pte fr ah eet SESE the ony ong tM coh pl ht coed ack Smt end ncn wie wt cone. A were SEES se emer n arty of hp ad se The Manin. ‘Tianhe cue apond fo Jl twit the me bs ope TUSK nie tenon ane moe oe he ue Spi ot tat costa pe on with ny rat hated Pp teed err sel a UREN CLP Sie teste ta nropond to the ede teeny oth et te ala ed ne cra pon ‘bird teas wept ding Melita pm Fel hare spp be aly of aceon ch sees mM nad pi oa he Thal es log tesa i TOUS uty co whee hep e h re WasSTpahy unr pse pein carer We ile ones mach sera eter ay ef tend what al of ewe dcr and eienue Sra A iets mong MANDEDDROT! m ta wean he Ae ‘alin M. {8.4 Refinements of MANDELBROT! wl fen et tothe Mandelice wl nthe reminder of i chase, "he ayn ced tae ules wet eompate he ee AL Theoret wud bo wie ore he mage le {iattceompte ech ine ne seed ok a Snes mune ary ost ug Oe wy tha sigh smote itd ets tune of eres nar oS he ein TSP BROT Ths tr ech plete wen heigl MANpd ace param sae coping these Ti il ean 8 Sorta aoe neg. Ge her ores pete ie we ae'e nore | 108 byte of inormaton While this nt = TRIMAAT let ritemtion ob red ning oar ely Encompass Project 8. Devise an ficient method for tcng you imag of the Man {Et ets that yo ca epg ito the serena at wil, without re ping al of he orbit Sang the tration coun (ox opposed toa ample black/white indenter) srl be wea iyo ae om of he ater programs tha tlie clr As inthe cate of Jule st there are more sophisticated alot that prodice sharper imager of tbe Mandelbrot wt. We dics one of ‘hem mer Our goal ro derstand what the Mandell: wet wenn, To fompreend the selatenehip between Joli moe andthe Maclin sl it iehelpal tobe ae to magafy certain portions of M. Thi accomplished bythe flowing progam ‘Project 8.2 Wite a program eld MANDELBROT® that allows the wee to lets aquare from the output of MANDELBROT. The ew progam then tecompates the potion of JM ina 300 0D gh inside thls same, ‘You: program abou alow te dtr to tee and compute in scene smaller and salen aque in order 1 vntle the foe seacase of M. Sine many ore than 30 iterations wil Be necoary to vow 1M in fe ‘etal, your program should allow Ihe ser ose the mami nner ot pins onthe tel oh tht Wl be compsted noe eng» Remember that the symnety explaited ip MANDELBROT! wil no longer be ali for program (nl the chosen agua ayes aot the wai). So you wil ave to compate the etal ot for lf he © ‘luce in your nate and ntnae toe second PSET command, xperiment 8.3 Use MANDELBROT? to compate the potion of M that erin the floing small genres in thee plan, {The hor with ide of length 2 centered wi -1.256-+ 38% 1 The bor with side of ength 3 centered a 1185 = 0 Outcome. fn both case ou wil se anal copie ifthe Mandelbrot Inside here windone. Set Figue 8, Tha one of the truly vemartable ad suring fate of Al the comply thal scar ia the “ain ‘ody of Af ecu a well within thee smaller cpio tar ae baby Masdefot ste wtin tes sll nes of Madeley and eon ult toe the smeler Mandel sets without resin to doubles rooncompattons and higher-redation seam hvere, ‘here are many, ny other ntecsing rep in the Manlio et ‘hat you cam explore wih he program, Experiment 8.4 Uwe MANDELBROT? to compte vious potion ofthe 1M. Keeps teotd ofthe eoodintes ofeach image you generate a wel ns 122 cmos rRAcrats nD DYvAICS igure #5 Baby Mandelbrot ste within M. ‘place hook of thes mages Can you Sod the msious regimen depicted {allele plaes a Chapter 0? Jatcome, To penton of M ae dpe ia Figue 88 The et iage Seat Gal yl tht op of he man card M Tn (Sch po ayes tht we ol ei te The co Shlein i complex pln te nate e'<2 tnd 6p 212 The mea Teg crime oft ur uted natn cop in fhe mln er Tercera ae 28652 A ad IT SY ST ‘gure 8.6 Detal ofthe Mandaliot at. Despite appearances tothe contrary, the Mandelbrot ete «connected set, Thien a remarable recent there, whieh was proved by the mathe Ilias Adsien Doundy an John Hund in 1982, Not that Figures Bt fod &5 sera to suggert that bar al ian?” hick ent iach {othe nnn body. In fac, however then lands are Connected tothe in ody by thi laments tat are vine a he calaton ‘he boundary seaming method wed to display Juin st ay lo be ed to generate the Manele set, Tasco lovee flown Divide the aguate 2 < 2.9 <2 iat «300 00 grid in the ple. Foe ach peel (my thi gi lt be the va in the plane corresponding to (mn). Compute the St 20 pts on the eel ot of any pein on thie thar module lager than then cle (rn) nie Te this rit dows not eae, then compete the ciel erie ofthe & spss) (mn Oy, 1 Ifa eat one ofthese additonal eis eeape, then elo (m,n) back by al for of thee dion eis donot ecape, then clr (mn) vite {This method yield quite dierent pete of Mealy the boundary of Mt Ie eolore. Cam you explain why? Project 8.5 Use the boundary-seanning method to waite «program called MANDELBROT. Ue the progam to cxplore vious rine of M1. Itt init ntreing to examine tbe blln of M sing thie method, especialy hee aca the cup of the main cad "The nage ofthe Mandelbrot st generated by MANDELBROT is de aged in Figure 8 Figure 8.7.4 competed by the boundary seansng method, 8.5 What the Mandelbrot Set Means ow le’ writ he granddaddy ofall Mandetrot et programs. This ‘rogram wil low ufo nderstand the lationship between the Jala sets Tor Gr andthe coneaponding elas is M. Project 8. Comstrct «program clled MANDELBROT, whic MANDELBROT sn allo be wart see » porter evalu from the ‘nme diplayed by MANDELBROT. The wer shouldbe able owl hie ‘rue nga an or eos he pil, fee by sing the bebo {o'Ghoonpastiearsren sorsatn, In any event once «partial © {aloe Seen slesied, the we hou be ven the ele of edecting one ocr previous progr ITERATES or JULIA2, as aplied to Qe forthe ‘wun value, Thy sren shoud then be cleared andthe appropriate ort Juba st doled Note that i eer that we be able to restore [Mo the screen euhiy in ode be abl to ne this pogram ete ‘ecompating 1M cach Gime mates to i? [Experiment 87 Use MANDELBROT to compute the ot ofc and the lst of Qa, where ein ay rae he card ape rein a M (he inegnt black lb tthe ep ate = 9) (Outcome. For uch evalu inthis repos; the ete! obit i attrstd to ss attracting Sed pote and the Tun et i cloned exe Experiment 8.8 Use MANDELBROT( to compute the ito ad the Julia st of ay where eis ay vl inthe lage ese bal mental to the let af the ead ‘Outcome, The critzal oni is attracted to an atrctng ey of pid 2 sd the Jl ate rovemble the Ta set of Q-(3) = 2? = Bxperiment 8.0 Use MANDELBROT to compute the eta rit of Qe shen ele nde one f the lb in ‘Outcome. You wil se tha tanga sty within on ofthe lb, {he etn orbit attracted to an attrctng cle, The ped of cycle fepends very much upon wich bulb en but remain the eae forall ‘clus ina given ull. Foe exnnlaf the mall ball ety to the aft of the period two regime diced inthe al expesinn the eal chit In akcactd to a eyo prime peo 4 “Experiment 8.10 What happens loth ial orbit whence anid one the laget Ble tached tothe op ad bolton oe saa sn? you have store ober image of portions of auch a the i Figure 15 or 8 you can farther invetgte te selalionatip betes Man the Jill sets! For example what happens ten eles inside the man ne ‘tench ofthe baby Mandel stein igor 8.5 Ths we eta he Mand tet dyn norman ‘owl, thie means that the crea rkt i aiared to 0 eple of some ‘ied pevod. To be het, body Kaows whether hs aleaye happens bat ‘sentve mini experinenttion sopra tha hie te 326 cos, meactass, ano pysanics “Thus we may assign fo eck boll nM a sumber that corerponds to the period ofthe sttrctng ele foreach Q. the that bl Bxperiment 8.11 Comput the period of the atracting eye for at many Upulbe in Mf hat your eompater alow you te. ‘Outcome. Patil rere of this exprizen ze doled in Figure 88 Figure 8.8 The pede of the bulbs M. Fecal the rt diagram forthe gundraiefamily Qa) = =? + that snc contuced in Chapier Te construct thie diagram, we looked 3 the Tn 00 of 200 pits onthe ot of under tration af fora rsl vale (Fe. Thien emlywhal we dd to eompute M. Thiatoenos tha there {dict rolonhip between the orbit Garam and the horizontal slice through the idle of M. After all, thie breotl ae lls what happens to the cated ert for ral mane of Figure 69 juntapones thee to images. The ra values for the rit lager sl ave tc pve orzo heal as been chosen {hte nceses fo 2 fo hin each giture with cotesponding evalues Iecacd nelly above and belo one soother, Note thatthe trating fed ‘ot rege cotesponds exactly to the maln cardi, as we know from et ‘receding experiential, the pid 2 and 4 rene correspond. ‘Rot thet the prod 8 window ia the abit gram site czctyabore the ‘aby Mandelbrot set located inthe a of 44. Th expan why his ped 8 igure 8.0 The ot diagram and 02s gle undergoes peiod doling nt derees; he preter pases though ‘ithe peed deablng bale ofthis baby Mandeliot ata dereass "There ir ach more to hn sor, a Many of thecal orbits do nt seem to ad un altacing ele, This i facto malic ow ay teratone you choosen the program ORDITDGM. “Thee eels do ot ein the lb attached 10M. Rater, they Be on the {iin Bameste and sorespond lo vals for wick thee ave no attracting {elo halves, Thee oven ie ymin tt ae extremely como (Shek. They othe parenteral for ich Q rebel We wil pend fut of Chapter 10 fnvestigatng what ths tera mens. Forno we ply ote ha, tris spate! frm Figure 89, many’ of tbe evalce between 2 (M25 lead to cutie dynamic. Further Exereises and Experiments 1. Wate sprog sailas to MANDELBROT! to compote the analogue (be Mladen et forthe fenton P=) = 7 es whese 7 isthe “hnpes conjugate ofa intcodaced in Seton 83. Thi et le cled {Be Ture Beene of te eerblance to cornered bat 2 Utyou hee li of ends with computers, you can make large “ra” Othe Mandell ot y sing up the sein | 2 into many equates hd then computing the portion of inde each aque: You can the at and peste ogetber all he output rm hi experiment to obtain © (iad pico ofthe Mandelbrot set. OF core, Jour fiende who ave ‘Spent aac elon of J wil ot have oo tuck fan 3: Compute the analogue ofthe Macdelrot st for the complex lite ‘incon F(2) = cals). In tha eat, te xl pot not 0,29 ou mest compute the oi off towel xenon, One et to decide ‘Pest ofthe loge sp eee van gt a Probl 2 of Chapter 6 Chapter 9 Geometric Iteration: Fractals ‘The word focal hee aes several ines thas fr in our dcuion of Ty then the obit of = tends to eli Went remaias ee the pointe om the ice of dio 1, and is these tne oils are can. So our sm therfore becomes to explain the Eiktrnr ot thee ori and why they ze chaste. Remember tt the dee apes ie pricy the Jul ct The Behari thal we wil cone it (ote all Fla stot jt the inet of fo do we woderstand the behave of thn rte Recall that poi on the ref aan {ean be wien In plas form a8 cont Hind We image ander the eqesing fonction i gies by 7) 2 acon 0 sak 0+ Dita Beont (28) +2. That nthe pit with pols angle @e moved by to the pit with polar ogi Ave can wae grapkial anys to wndereand bow theee pot angles chong sader ication, Recall thal the pola eagle of = point deed SAG mune of 2, The mans tat the angles 8, 8-25, 4, ssp tn pi on he ee, Wo lang esa ptt by Seah #93, Te nn tht pene oe Shiga so bntes dv sad el cy sac Ee ‘Satie mn wd tpn a Solakntlint ote gy malay sagen Ste is decagfcon yD hadlgne 7 et2e: Newt (0) =28 mod 2 Bavivalealy or 0 <6 2, pa { Woster 22 fects Note that if 08 <2, D) ee than 2 “his frmul lis o ue graphic] analy fo underntand the quar ing fanetin. "The raph of Din shows in Figure 101 Ths faneon maybe trated ing ay feu program Chapter 2 a Figure 10.1 Th gap ofthe deublng faction, Experiment 10:1 Use ITERATE! or o apeiment 101 Uc ITERATE o ITERATE topes ri Sutcome. For al any > 0, spp tha he cil fla? “entire interval 0 < @ < 2n. 5 ee ee niet nea Tie by mena the at, graphical analyse shows DDD ‘Exercise 10.2 Une zaphicl ase o heck the graphy ot, D?, DI, How many faed poate do you find for DD, Diynct How many fixed ponte doce D® hae? ols 2 2, shen [P)] > [eP="(L + Os where €> 1 FCeLLEde dom por a) tha i fel > 2, then the ea kit of Neos tony Cette an that if | £2 the Se inSain wot of Fe He inside the del fro 2 entered af the oii “Thin exerci alors ws to modify our easier Jala se programs thet they compute the Julia st for PAs) = 3" +e ‘Project 11.2 Modify JULIAL snd JULIAS 0 that they compate and display Dictalicsetsof Be) re Your progan houd allo the wert nat both mand [Experiment 11.3 Use thee Juin set programs to invetignte the dynnice eerie {e) 2) ef el rales of What do you observe cee ee asbiing? Can you Bnd wdle-node bifurcations? Can 78 seating graph aan of the el fncton Tes) = =¥ + 6 ‘Outcome, I appears tht ier the Jain et ically daconneied o ee eae nc Lage regjon, Grail stages shows tat ibe Tb 8 sam tng Heed point or ele the orbit of the een! pink 0 ccapes TaRedlgt in Figue 1 me saamine « Wuretion near €= 384D..~ Can yon explain this Bxperiment 114 Use ther moifed programs to check that the pono BERT re tatealy he sesnepropetin a the gundrtic functions, For came vee xin eritexeapen the Ja st eect dat. EC InP bar amalecting eye thes the iio fated tot (ae ITERATES), IEP hn ttnting cyl, then the Ja et of Fee connected the backrad iteration method for computing Jain ets work for Pe as weit bathe algo ie more complicated. To wie thio metbd, we earn oe ihtote rater than sqeae zoos. Tach nonzero complex a ee lym of thee nth rote This can be aren by wing the care cpmansaton of m complex umber introduced In Chapter 6 se rood in8) » igre A The Jl of (0) 2+ 38,8) 2+ 3989 snd{0) 2 a) compel lg JULEAT wh ets. ‘Then we boow that (con20+isin28) ‘Therefore we my we compler mullplction to fnd ten So out sito 7 (coa(l + 28) + isin(@ + 28) u Eee ‘ain theft nd complex mulipction gan, we fd sot in een, shar eoent sisinn®) “Tha nisin «othe mh power i th ame a ang is mods tothe ‘nth pover and alg te paae aa By ‘rho do we te thi ond th Tota Racal hat for square rot ve imply tok the ence rot of he medal und then elected ther 8/3 Ur o/2' forthe plo angle. For mth sot the proedare oda ut ‘Sore compat. IF se r(cond+ inn) then the nth rot of z hae modulus! and polar angle one of O62, ide oe ane or example the cae cots of al have modula 1. The polar anges ae srhich we find by sting @ = 0 and m = 3 the precoding Tt 1 allows {hat the cae root of are inf B= cost) + isn 26/9) ceo te/) + s(tn/3) ‘You may check this ay by simply ening al of thea complex names Sina, te orth rots of 16 al have modus 2. The pel anges ae Exercte 11.5 Compute the wth rots of ech of the fllowing complex abet CHAPTER 1 sou Sers oF omuER FUNCHIONS 168 era Bin 2 Project 11.6 Use thee fete prwnted inthe ection to mudify JULIA so thatthe ew program computer the Jolin et of Pr using the backrard eceion method. The major change from out pevoae JULIA2 will be {he random scacton of one ofthe mth eote, How wil you eccomplh "hist Use this program to erpeiment wth aroun Jalna higher degree Prooci Since the polynomials F hve a sing tel ot there an analogue sf the Mandel wt foreach integer mA forthe quadratic ts ‘et isthe collection af evar for which the etal rt doesnot escape 3B our expeientabor, thi ie peiny the set af eral fer whic toe Sin soli connect. Ths et eld the deem bferection sn ‘Project 11.7 Moly MANDELBROTI-440 that he new programs display the degre nbifureation set Some of the rete of tose dictions are Alapaged in Fgure 12. a igure 11.2 The deice 3 and 4 bifurcation sts Mh penis) = ul el cn ar st ent Nt hci etn ra ee Te eptatuat eel “aires gnenme serie efe SHC pie wey he pln a hh etn es eee ole hess or tts er cae na hae at cle ae Paya Pde Is two etl ponte gin by /=AT oe geeralplyanalthealgethon wed to proce Ja sets before sa work, ine the Slash Boundary betwen the obits that weap od hoe tht do ot Therefor, you may easly modify JULIAL o TULAAS {woe fr m general polynomial, The Backward iteration metho isnot ‘roclcal however becuse ie generally imponsble to salve an quation fecha for», Thi wold be the eseatl sep i backward iteration Project 11.8 Use JULIA? and JULIAS to compatevsius Julia sete of Aegon polyoma Sime typical patterns ave displayed in Pigue 113, © » ‘Figure 11.8 Jain ce for) 2? +4 and (b) «8 — 5144216 computed using JULIA. 11.2 Buler’s Formula Jn the ation we intros oe of be mt ntereting and surpeing ‘ermine nal of oath, Eales onde, Wel ned the cat intent cen when we engl the aban francesa fae toe e's formal rates the exponential fection to the enemas functions sine nad core” The wal expo noni donee by orerpoy haw the bane ofthe atu ligation, The mene pperintcly ean to 27198. This fen importa a many was ‘tmntematie and sence, writs ed to mene pont sd dng oct sh m popelation growth, compound tent, ced radiative Seay. Te raph see dapaged i Pigs gure 1.4 The gragh of the exponential fenton Euler's formula alone ws to hein dicusing complex analogue ofthe ‘exponeail and tignomet functions, ‘Theat fanetions ave ol a wel Known a their counterparts, bot we will tha thi ste ae ule spectnclar ftom goomele and dyenmic pont of view. Ener esa 100 cios, macrars, amp prases ‘We canot prov thie formala bere. You wil se why is tae if you study Ini ses npr ear cue Weak you hs age ny Ao scepl thief tthe defen ofthe exponential of Gon Note the ursing fc that the exponential fncton, wih i ‘Witney fas sohiag whatsoever odo wth igonomery, ata a sume ‘tains and osness Tie formala ae wanyrescietions is matematics SE Su Sac in the tay of ileal eqaaton, «fl that Is oe ofthe ‘hen important apleaton of cles Tetting = rie Bue’ rsa ide the rnsing fact tha “Ther ary pehaps no Strange” amber in lof matics han TRS Scher we tre umber are combined w above, ny gv he inpk valent M's omala ws ws de he oper exponential fonction. By the wal lr exposing, we shold have By Baler focal fx = 2+ we must therefore have (ooay ising) “Thine the omnia that allows ut ou th el exponent sin, nd cine te compute the empl exponential fanetion Bxercie 1.9 Gompate the va of french ofthe following 2 cael tilt a pndnaeo, ‘One major diferene betwee the exponential faction and polynomials se the he tha ptt are in sn the oi i the compe lane ce wtnge take even farther sway by the Fanci, For example, i= = ~10, Sen ‘ 0008. rhch i very dove fo 0. Tis fact will become important when we dass The dln st of the exponential in the nex sees. 11.3 Julia Sets of Transcendental Functions anctons euch asthe exponent, the sine and the cose te called ‘uasacendeaalfnctios. Unlkeplyaomine, they cael be competed by ‘ine uber a cteetie operations. Neverthe, ung the empl, sremmay al eaunte and erate tev futon or tansendental fartins, we cneetrate othe at of pots hove ovbis escape. Pot eck essa het conti te us oe. Thi say ‘ppen to contradict the definition me gave for plpnomie (th ln et wat the Boundary ofthe wet of excaping pints for polyoma), but actualy it dove nt, Foe trencendetal fection sch the sie or Soe ny pei tho ov exape i cul on the boundary of the ot of xaping ort ‘hatin altrany cove to any pint whose orbit scapes there amt he Dulntwhove ott ee wot (a rpeling period pln, forfetance) hie ‘ena that all escaping pnt inthe Jl wt or tranrcendetl fntone, oie vay scp tft in tin preferred dvectins thal depend upon the faction. For the amples expo. ‘enti any oni ha eseapes met do ao with an ever ncreing rl pr ‘To vee why this so, cmd pit om the negative real ae such at 10. "The inage ofthis pnt a mesa eave, = OODOIS.- which ie ‘very lve oO. Saat we take a pst ofthe form 10+, the mage = Moaey + sing) "The mada of hsp is gain ¢, (Do you ae wy?) So the image of 10 iyi agen oe oO, no alter what y ir On the other haa, is pprsintely egal fo 22,028, which i ute large nd Meng + sing) ich ba made, “Thus to compote the Jae wet of the exponential, we will make ae of ‘the alloming agri 1. Slot a 200 200 gun the ple 2. erate each pont nthe gd upto 20 Kes, ‘Ifthe ral part of ny punt onthe nite nee than 80, top the leeation aed colo the oil pint hits, 4 Otherwise cor he ecg pont Mek. Tho, hago pro Goce ican whove white peat le nthe Julia et As pat oftheir ne ae the Bound 50 to check wheter ax ‘nse tape, Tals my sor kes rlairely small suber, but tink of the fange of 50 under the exponential > 310" is hoe, and the nex feoge il be astsononicaly lore! Project 11.10 Wt «peogram called JULIAEX® that wes the preceding ‘Soesthm to compute the Dalia oct of Bs) = ce, wheve ex complex ae Remark. On many compstes f you encounter a small number rch 2 FIRE competer wil ound ff tie somber sod gve you 0 asa reat “Tic epee cceptabe i hs program. On woe computer, however, {ou may ele an hunderfe”ero mevege hist ene, 708 WEnaly tis by simply edeniag 2° = O whenever © 90. This wl Tive the eft of liniatng the wader. [Bxperiment 11.1 Use JULIAENP to compute the ui ete fe" for the falling evalu Yow seat compe these Julia arts in he aguare 8 S 8 $3, ~3< 50 GOTO 20 yen Next Poet.) 20. NEXT | Next END Figure 12.6 The program JULIASIN. In each aes i et to Bega th the uae [ll < & Clem For cuz, eal that ll points on the real ais tend to the fied fant TGOIG. under Weretion ofthe cnie fein. ‘The Black region main igure 118 repreete the basin of atrecion of this xed point i the complex plane. See lo Figure 112 11.4 Exploding Julia Sets ecl shat the Jala ef pynomnocaionalyundernent deumaiie changes when the fanton experienced a meddenode o¢ petod-doabing Figure 11.8 The Jali st of ee Uutection. The same is trun for transcendent functions, Often, thee shanges are gute spectasae for the cpl Sey cone of exponential The following experiments alow oa to ane ste e thesbfescations srhichwe cll epleios. This compler daca behaine mex were er {he fiat Gein the ed 108 174 cmos actus, anp ovwantes igure 11.0 The Julia sts of 29808» and 2067 cons. [Experiment 11.16 Gonsder the faly co with e> 0. Sketch the graph (tee fr ats evalua. Por wich evols do you expet to fd a ‘String Enel poln? Tor which evalu da yen expel al real numbers {ohare ete which escape? Now campate the Tuli sets fr the complex ‘yeaa with £> h What do you see? Record jour obverains. ‘Outcome. For smal, poe vals of «the graph of cet crocs the ‘Sagona stro paces, wherene fc age enough, the graph never costes, ‘helogoal: The previo eit at which the graph changes coniguration feewife= S816. whore le the be ofthe natural Jogi The Taine of ce® cage dramaicly ate 1 In faci known the {he Joa st gute all hen <1 and thatthe Jalal ithe whale tomples pane 'e> Ije, Thin'n uit «dramatic change indeed! Experiment 12.10 A snis phenomenon occas the fly eons foe E50. Can on tec whee the oeur? Onn ou explain thi? iment 1.47 Compute the Toi sof (+n fore 0, When 20, wend the Jain tof in, ae depiced fn Fgure 11.8. When ¢ {cena thre un seta bein change ta inreing fakin, However teed can explain tee chang ally. uspren 1 JULASE9S0OF OTHER FUNCTIONS 17S Further Exercises and Experiments 1. Consider the fay of functions F(2) 1 Show that Pproeres he igiary ans the sens hat (iy) = we 1, Une ITERATE! or ITERATE? to experiment withthe el fnesion ig) = ey For which aueeofe dove hs fanetion andere © pend dealing Wuraton? Are thre sny subsequent peiod Sot Sings? Use TULIAL or SUTIAR to plo the Jun sets often atin for tees onions Tor which ovals doe eon «cpl of peiod 27 ‘Use JULIA Yo determine expecimently ch alone of ed to Ii ste that resemble fractal dt (Cas you expan al ofthis wing graphical analy? 1: What doce the dre 3 Etreaton st predict eet this family and ite peod doablings! 2. Compote the Jala st of (6+) sins and (1 + S)sing. Use 200 lertins vo determine wheiher op aot = point eacape nthe ter ase Do you se another explosion? 5 The bifreaton sl fr the fay coxp may ala be compte All we ‘owl fo Labi which ite ply the tle ofthe rel art a he ‘eof the Mandlbot st, For exponeail factions, he eel okt Stalways the rit of D, The reason fortis i tht Othe ited vale expe Theres no 3 fr which exp = 0. The algorithm is then to est ‘ch pont ine gid in the comple eplane to ve fhe corepanding| {teal onis of cexps ever ba «vel part exceeding 0. I am ele Back, if act, lee e-nite Wie «program called EXPDIP that ‘ete thi alot and then ote Ht to compute the titration st | {he expaentil fein te wher ral pares For Further Reading “There ae a numberof books that have appeared im recent yuss and ‘hat hed ight onthe topes of chs, acas, and dynamical estes om tlt of potts of view. We paticalnly comizend the lowing (Gee, J. Chacts Making « New Scenes. New York: Viking, 187 “his book isthe sary of how chow and fatale were found play ch sn important oe in all arn of lence and mathematic inthe 130 tis boelly sven of portraits ofthe slits who dincnerd ‘hee ideas ud how they worked ination at nt Ikea wonder end ‘edablescount of how th snes! den developed eigen, HO, and Richer, P, The Besuy of Fractals. New York: Springs. Verlag, 1986 ‘The “coe table™ hook fears many benaifal clr stration of Jia stg, the Mandelbrot st and ees lagen frm yeni sytene hoor) The tnt elf ine more advanced tentment of seo te open sre bee cused inthis book Thea ales suber of esac tothe Teenie memrch Herta Paigen, H-O, aod Soupe, D. ole. The Sens of Pract Images. New York: Spinges-Verag, 108 ‘Thin book presente a mit of fie artis which give» Show-o" ap- proach ote the compete fo geerte the fractal ies on dynamic ‘stema henry. Many ofthe gens peseted inte Book ate refine ‘tent aad exteason of the agai presented inthis book. Conseqealy, Ue Ter ofthe pretation tor advance, Mandel 1088, 1B. The Bractal Gometry of Nelwe. San Fracac: Peeman, 17s crsos, seacrats, ano prunes "This books the autho’ deiitive statement on the scope and purpose ot tect guoetry. At times be Book sy be difiel to rad, even for SRC crap contain weal of den and aplication. arnaley, M Fractal Beryutere. Boston: Acadeic Press, 188. "Ph isome ofthe Bvt extbocks on fractal geomet. Ite more advanced in he ou hat teders sould befor with bot clelos and Ener ree a cutnnn a mmber of epplctiny ofthe bjt he cea of (ite and sge compression Devaney, Raber Ls An Intacton to Chase Dama Systems, 2nd el Menlo Pack Addon Wesey, 1989 "We motel recommend this book to readers who ave a tnckround in ees sad who wih ty pumue te stad of the mathematical aspects of feat dynastic wsteme theory. Index Aeymptatie 371 ‘Aiecting Hed pot, 45-48 ‘rating peso point 81, 52 ackrard eration, 102, 100, Bachar rit 102 Barnes, M13 Basi boundary, 88 Basin of atracion, 4,86 Bifreaton, 80, 6 Bilaceaton theory, St ‘owndary scanning method 11, 2 Cantor ay 1,183.13 (Changing coordinates, 8, 80 (hao, 08, 157-158 ccRCLE, 32 Ls, 35 (onplee number 15,78 Complex convene, 118 (Connected sty 108 Cosine (expe), 368, 100, (Cea! pois, 110, 13,150 (reat et, 110,118 Ope F DBF PN, 170 Des, 158 Degree ifocation e163 Dingons, 40 ound, A 123 Dowadys mbit 3 yaaa este ales ora, 165 ently fe 18 ently pedi 18 eplosions 173 Exponential fanton, 168 1190 casos reacTats ano DYNAnacs File in Jali ot, 0-96 Fed poly 1,17 POR-NEXT, 4 ental, 3, 8, 120180 FRACTAL, 102 intl ant, 95,97, 10711 rela dinero, 190, rd Fanclonl notation, 1012 coro, 7 Graph, 29 (Grpbial analyse, 38, 4049, Higher erates, 82.54 Hobbar, J, 128 Hyperbai entlone, 170 mm IP-THEN, 98 INPUT, 24 Invi, 82 imaginny prt, 75 ITERATE, 18,79 ITERATES, 83 Juin #186 85112, 198, SULIAEKE, 168 soLIAGOS, 1. ‘uuuasty, 11 SULIAL, 88 soLta2, 108 Koch snore, 187138 Logit equation, 19 Vogt function, 2, 26-3, 128 Mande, B. 115, Manel! wet, 4 118128 MANDELBROT!, 117 MANDELBROT? 4, 12.194 Modal, 76,98 Maltpeatin (compler), 16 Next, 24 sh root 102 Operation, 18 Ont, 13 Orbit nays 18 ‘Obi ding, 70,227 ORBIT, 1, 128 Pararnter,28 ‘Posed doubling fzcetion, 68, 160 Petdie ott 7 ole ange, 8 Polar section, 97, 100 Prime pecod 17 PRINT, 20 SET, 8 80 ondeatefaily, 7 Random ori 141 ‘Real pat, 7. Revorals 190199 Repelng Seed play 45, 48, 40 Repeling paid point, 51, 52 BND, 108 10 Sade node fection, 5 Sasi, 9,199 Seaitive dependence, 184-156 Serpina taal, 190132 Sine (complex) 168, 168 Sua oot (#omles), 99 sQq, 103 Stabe, 50 ster. Symbolic dynamic, 169 ‘Tangent breton, 89 ‘Tent faneton, 147 ‘Totally dconneted 17 ‘Transendental fein, 167 ‘Tange feat, 7,86, 115 asta 50