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AIRCRAFT PHOTO FILE LOCK ON N2 VERLINDEN PUBLICATIONS The General Dynamics F-16 FIGHTING FALCON VERLINDEN (44) PUBLICATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ‘Compiling this monograph of the F-16 was an undertaking that could never have been accomplished without the aid of many persons and offices. They were willing to help us in gathering photographic material and technical background information. Therefor we are extremely grateful to the following persons and hope we ‘ean trust them to be just as cooperative in our future projects. Gen. De Deurwaarder, Chief of Staff BAF, Lt.Col. De Heyn, Staff BAF; Maj. J-P. Sparenberg, VSI IRP Staff BAF; Col. Wirtz, BaseCo Kleine Brogel AB; Maj. Willy Blendeman, CO 31Sa. 10FBW; all pilots of 31Sq. 10FBW 'Tigers’ and especially Adj.Ch. John Lemmens, Lt.ll Philip Verhaegen, Lt.ll Danny Parijs and Lt.lf Bob Bomans: Cpt. J.B.G. Maat, intelligence and Security Bureau and Sqtsl Bert van Gijn, Run-up, both at Volket AB; alt officers, NCO's and specialists, especially Adj.Ch. Ketelbuters and 'Loco', of the ground support units on Kleine Brogel AB; Joe Z. Thomton, Public Affairs of General Dynamics andi last but nol least our ever-coope- rating friends Paul Van Herck and Jean-Pierre Van Regenmortet. ABBREVIATIONS AB = fer Bumer: Air Bose hs Ihstrument Lent Systm Ai Air Interenpt Mise Kya nto fon Regie oF Attack aro = Kort Atungic Treaty Orgasation cite = Gontinna Computes Relea Pte ROU < Remote Centred Unt es Environmental Contr System fe kW Rasir ABOUT THE VP-TEAM The three members of the VP team, as we call it, got together a few years ago. When Francois Verlinden contemplated on making a second book, he joined up with Willy Peeters and Hans Wilms in order to get a better product. Who does not know Frangois Verlinden as being a world famous modeler. Willy Peeters is an artist with the pencil and Hans Wilms knows his bits and pieces of aviation technology and history. Both are dedicated modelers. So, what started out as a thursday evening get-together culminated in a full-grown enter~ prise. You are now looking at one of the resutts. Verlinden Productions has an ever-extending range of modeling manuals, aircraft monographs, armor modeting publications and a wide variety of modeling accessories. And if it is our dicision to make, we will go on for many more years to come. All photography by the VP team unless otherwise stated. ‘The photos in this book were taken with Pentax ME/MX, Mamiya ZM and Canon FTB cameras with 28-80mm, 35-L15mm, 55mm and 200mm lenses using Fujichrame 50 and Kodachrome 25KM135 and 64KM 135 color slide films. ‘opyright: 1984 by Verlinden Publications Project Manager: Francois Verlinden a Verlinden & Stok pvba division Text & Research: Hans Wilms Berlaarsestraat 38 Lay-out Willy Peeters & Hans Wilms 2500 Lier/ Belgium [iuistrations and scale drawings: Willy Peeters All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in Printed in Belgium by Lithos, Wommelgeim. a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission of Verlinden Publications. ISBN 90 7093203 2 FOREWORD The selection of the F-16 by the Belgian government as the successor of the aging F-104 has marked a drastical change in the quality of the Belgian Air Force's fighter aircraft With this acquisition a technology of the 70s ‘was introduced in the BAF inventory. This techno- logy is marked by an extensive use of micro processors which not only control certain elements, such as the engine and flight control system, but are also used for solving navigational and fire control problems. A statement in the tine of ‘a pilot does not have a stick and throttle to fly his airplane but controls the various com- puters abound it’ should not be considered as an exageration. In fact, the F-i8 is designed for a maximum maneuverability, and as such it is a very unstable airframe -the so-called Relaxed-Static-Stability concepi-which would be very difficult to handle without some technical assistance by the Flight Controt System Computer. The chatlenge to obtain an excellent thrust-to-~ weight ratio has obliged the engine manufacturer to we new and light materials in the design of an engine with optimum performance. A thrust which amounts to eight times its weight is the result of this design in which micro-processors are not forgotten. The combination of the high maneuverability and the high thrust developed by the engine provides the F=16 with the possibi~ lity to engage any modern fighter airplane in an aeriai combat with a better chance to be the victor. The avonies package of the F-16 can be considered as one of the most complete state-of- art systems. The navigation system offers a six-time better precision than that of the F-104. But the fire controt system using a high speed binary computer and a newly developed radar provides the necessary flexibility allowing air-to- air and air-to-ground weapons delivery with @ precision the F-104 pilot would never have dreamed of. For thase who have the opportunity to have @ closer look at the airplane, the number of available hardpoints, with a total of nine, is very impressive as well as the variety of weapons or external fuel tanks. At ite maximum take-off gross weight, the F-16 has a better payload than most WWI bombers but in Its clean air-to- air configuration its reduced size makes it very small and a hard to detect target for the opponent. Since its first delivery in january 1979 to the BAF, after an extensive testing program at the Air Force Test Center, in whieh I took part, the F-I6 has become a. familiar airplane in the European skies. Although more than five years have passed since the event, it will take many more before any airplane ‘will be able to beat this extraordinary flying machine. LiCol. J. De Heyn Belgian Air Staff DEDICATION We wish to dedicate this book to Ingrid, Bart and Katleen, spouse and children of our dear friend and feltow- modeler Cpt.Com. Roland Janssens, an enthousiastic and dedicated BAF pilot, who passed away at too young an age. We shalt miss his critical advise that helped us in many ways, but most of all his cheerful presence. May his spouse and children look upon this book as a reminiscence of their husband and father and a token of our gratitude for having had the pleasure to know him. Front cover: A Belgian F-16 en route to Corsica, INTRODUCTION We are very proud to be able to present you this second Book in the ‘Lock-on' series.» The first book on the Lockheed F-104 is quite succes~ ful. Reactions from our readers indicate that we are on the right track. Many reviews in trade magazines are not arty less positive. Some reviewers wondered whether we would be able to accomplish the same, let alone do better, on the F-16. Well, they are in for a surprise. Choosing the F-16 as subject for our second 'Lock-on' was quite logical. First of all it is hot stuff on the market, secondly it was an easy aircraft to cover since we have several of them next doors, The first book caused many people and offices to be wry cooperative on our F-16 venture for which we owe them a great deal. You will find that this book is quite an improve: ment over the first. We felt it to be desirable to give more and bigger, thus clearer pictures. To satisfy the hunger of the technically interested we have included more technical information. Where we felt it useful, explainatory drawings are included. The scale drawings are 160% correct as they are based on GD supplied tofting plans while the panelling has been double-checked on an actual F-16. The scale plans of the ACESI seat will prove very popular amongst modelers, no doubt. Amongst ‘the dozen or so kits of the F-16 only one features the ACES. That is where serateh-building comes in which will be facilitated by the scale plans. (General Dynamics) Which brings us to the heart of the book: the pictures. We feel nobody has yet been able io cover the Fighting Falcon in full colour the way it has been done here. We have been able io virtually undress the aircraft without revealing restricted or classified information. The aviation freak and super-modelier will go. out of their wits. Electronics, radar, engine, it is all there in full cotor You will notice that we have cut back on the Gallery part. The reason is very simple. Most F-16s look alike in colouring and the magni- tude of detail pictures is our main concern. ‘There for you will only find a few nice shots of F-16s in special dress. Of course we have not forgotten our friends the plastic modelers. The F-16 pilot, flight-line equipment and start-up procedures have been covered to enable them to compose a_ life-like diorama. Although it 1s unusual to make such a statement ‘on your own work, we dare say we are very pleased with this book. "We are confident you will be pleased as well. Yete.e your comments are most welcome, be they positive or negative. We will try to do a little better next time. GENERAL AIRFRAME DETAILS The F-16 is probably one of the most contro- versial aeronautical developments of the post-war era. While the USAF was happy with the complex and expensive F-15 Eagle, a group of smart people at the Pentagon and various aircraft manufac turers decided it was about time to create some~ thing simple and cheap. After a few rounds of tough arguing with various opponents this resulted in the F-16, a remarkable aircraft which is some- times nicknamed ‘the deal of the century’. Many people still say it is either too tight or too heavy, too complex or too simple, too expensive or too cheap. Whatever, pilots’ find the aircraft a delight. It is fast, powerful, agile, Smart and hard to beat. And that is what a fighter is all about. Moreover, the possibilities for improve~ ments are almost timitiess and when future F-16s will get the rardware for the AMRAAM they will be just as good as the F-I5, just more than @ toueh cheaper. Actually, the limits are imposed The air data probe in close-up. The natural metal part is heat resistant material in view of the anti-icing heater. This probe replaces the yaw string as seen on top of the nose of many fighters. The rounded tip features four holes at an equal angle in relation to the centerline of the aircraft. Any yaw thus results in a differing static pressure in the holes which is relayed to the flight computer. by the pilot, not the machine and that Is what {8 $0 revolutionary about the aircraft. in what way ever people may judge the F-16, they cannot possibly deny the fact that it is an innovation in aircraft design. It is the first airplane to fully rely on flyrby-wire without @ conventional back-up system. Wherever needed new technologies have ‘been incorporated, but whenever possible the designers used well-proven systems. The use of large quantities of strategic material, like titantum, has been avoided to elimi- hate the posstbitity of shortage in times of cris The days of ail-titanium aircraft, like the Lockheed Blackbird, are history. However the composite materials have entered in full scale. The modular design, which facilitates jast turn-around times, is quite new as well. Although this design calls jor a complicated ‘logistic back-up, it seems to be worthwhile to be considered jor all future military aircraft. And let us not forget the fact that the Falcon can detiver any kind of weapon in any kind of weather on a target the size of @ matchbox without the pilot being unaware of any form of threat. if that isn't a pilot's aircraft, what is? Besides that, it simply is a nice looking bird. This picture offers an excellent impression of the very smart design of the F-16. Ease of mainte nance was a prime design goal and resulted in All important equipment being within reach without having to use a step. The modular lay-out of the major system components enables fast. tur: ‘around times. Replacing malfunctioning equipment is a matter of minutes as seen here. However, it calls for a large back-up stock. Close-up of the lower TACAN antenna cover made from FRP. TACtical Air Navigation is similar to the civil VOR (Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range) navigation, the only reat difference being that these systems work on other frequencies. Many civil and military airfields operate a combination of both systems called VORTAC. The strut in the fixed geometry intake is heated through the anti-ice control system. The intake is oversized to accomodate a more powerful engine in the future. The length of the upper lip is carefully calculated. Tests with shorter lips indicated that engine stalls would be very likely. There really is a lot to designing aircraft. This overall view of the cockpit area of an F-I6A Block 15 clearly shows some of the external differences of this type compared to the Block 5A and 10. The canopy is of a new pattern. Note the slightly more bulged outline. A second diffe- rence is the large hinged panel with vent just beneath the canopy. * A close-up of the area under the intake just ahead of the nose gear well. The oval plate blanks off the mount of the threat waming receiver antenna which is not used on Belgian F-16s as these will have the Rapportill system in due course. This system has different antennas as seen on the picture to the left. One of the two Rapport Ill threat warning system antennas mounted on the intake. The biue/green navigation light is mounted on the cover. Note esi ies oe Dame M am ectamanien This is a feature of all Block 15 and updated Block5A and 10 aircraft. The antenna cover is made from FRP os are all antenna covers since the material has no negative effect on the antenna performance. The Block 15 external power hook-up. On earlier production blocks this hatch was smaller and positioned slightly lower and more aft. The panels in this area are different from those on earlier aircraft. Also featured on this picture is the EPU safing pin which is not removed until the engine is running at idle power. Directly above it is the EPU fired indicator window. Note the various mounting points for the EO-FLIR pod. ‘The LAST pod is mounted on the opposite side of the intake. BLOCK 10 External power and i ns receptables Plane capt: headsets with mic Top: ‘A’ wealth of detail to satisfy even the most demanding freak. The opened hatch in the under- side of the strake on the right side of the picture reveals the fire control computer, TACAN, antenna selector and the amplifier detector and processor of the ALR-69 threat warning system ‘with their respective circult breakers. In the middle in the upper strake/body biend ‘are the electronic paris of the fuel control system like inerting relay, timing modules, air refuel amplifier and fuel level sensing unit. Through the bottom hatch you can see one of the main cable packs of the aircraft and on the cover itself again a circuit breaker unit. The top right bay houses the KPU hydrazine monopropellant_ tank. This cilinder is armoured and not very likely to get damaged in a crash. ‘The tank is devided Into two sections by a piston. The forward section Is connected to a nitrogen tank. When the nitrogen expands into the fuel tank it moves the piston tus pressing the hydra- zine into the EPU. The intake of latter is just Visible on the extreme left of the picture in the underside of the strake. Lefts The tower formation light is positioned just aft of the nose gear well slightly to starboard of the aireraft centerline. This picture again illustrates the sometimes poor fit of the skin. When looking at. the hinge and fasteners one might suspect that the F-16 is subject to quite some fuel-consuming parasite drag. This does not seem to have bothered the designers too much though. The equipment bays forward of the starboard main gear house the receiver controller, receiver ‘and RF switch of the ALR-69 system, the secure voice group A, the IA/TSEC kit, the roll, yaw ‘and pitch gyros and the liquid oxygen converter which has been removed here. All systems related circuit breakers are again mounted on the cover. This being a Belgian F-16, which will have the Rapport III shortly, the AL-R-69 equipment has been deleted which is illustrated by the almost empty large bay. The ground interphone and external power receptable are also shown in detail. The several types of fasteners can be easily compared here. The interphone and EP cover has the quick-release type, where the large cover has the structural fasteners. It also has a small cover with quick-release fasteners in the midate. The right picture again shows the two right-most bays of the top picture, this time in detail. The lower bay takes the oxygen tank. It also houses the gyros which can be made out clearly. From left to right you see the pitch and yaw gyro and, on the lateral bulkhead, the roll gyro. Immediately under the strake some fuel and hydrautie piping can be made out as well as electrical wiring on which a word or two may be in place here. The F-16 features the revolu- tionary multiplexed databuses. This means. that several avionics can transmit their data to the FLCS through the same wiring on a time-share basis. A computer program determines who comes first and for how long. This system avoids lots of heavy and complexed wiring thus increasing the payload and easing cross-servicing. The many black dots at the circumferance of the panels are crosshead structural fasteners. This may indicate the number of panels that are removable. Note that as a mule the leading edge flap is in a 2° up position on the ground. The starboard under wing/body area where the flaperon mates up with the wing. Detail of the various types of hinges is very clear. The underside of the starboard forbody strake. ‘The most forward panel covers the ammo loading fixture. Aft of this is the EPU exhaust. Aft of that is the EPU servicing panel with the hydra- zine leak detector paper behind the small window. The two outboard panels are for hytraulic system A servicing. Detail behind these panels is shown below. EPU lemergency Power Unit! a. ‘The armoured hydrazine tank is located in the top of the strake. 10 The ‘Electric Jet’ is equipped with an EPU (Emergency Power Unit) which is automatically activated ‘upon failure of the main generator, hydraulic pumps and/or the engine. The unit comprises a turbine that uses 13th stage bleed air or hydrazine monopropellant or both which drives a 5kVA generator and a 23 GPM hydraulic pump. The monopropellant is sufficient for 10 minutes of contintous operation which should be enough for any pilot to land the aircraft safely The monopropeliant fuel is H70(70% hydrazine N2H4 and 30% water) usually simply called hydrazine. When hydrazine is released into the decomposition chamber it comes into contact with @ catalizer on irridium base. It then decom- poses into a hot gas of 1,200°F consisting of steam, nitrogen, hydrogen ‘and ammonia. This expanding gas drives the impeller During cross servicing the aircraft is jacked up and stripped of all panels. Here n°3304 is removed to reveal the starboard side of the air- frame mounted gearbox. Clearly visible is the system A hydraulic pump with two natural metal pipes running forward into the main gear well where they hook up to the respective oil filters. Directly behind the pump is the 40kva main gene rator mounted on a constant speed drive. The gearbox is connected to the engine gearbor through the power take off shaft. The engine gearbox only carries equipment essential to the normal engine operation being the main fuel pump, engine alternator and engine oil pump. The right picture also offers a good view on the aft inboard side of the port main gear. E The ventral fin is made of composite material. As both fins are symetric they are interchangeable which saves cost. The fuet filler cap on the centerline external tank is merely a formality only used in inspection. Normal refuelling of the internal ond external tanks is effected through a single point refuelling receptable The nozzle in full open position. Note that the lower ‘feathers’ have sagged down due to loss of bleed air pressure on the nozzle actuators. " The underside of the left airbrake. Note that the panelling is much different from that on the kits. A load of detail for those interested in aviation technology and the detail freaks amongst the plastic modelers. On the left you can make ‘out the port horizontal tailplane pivot with access cover removed. Immediately ahead of that is ‘one of the two tail fuel dumps. The entire engine compartment is of a double wall construction with heat resistant liner in between. The natural metal sheet is additional heat protection around the AB section of the engine. The T-shaped forging is one of the two engine mounts. Just two shafts of approx. 1.5" relay the 25,0001bs of thrust to the airframe. 2 A very clear overall detail shot of the right airbrake. In normal flight, depending on traffic pattern speed, each half opens up to 60°. However, in gear down configuration extension is limited to 43° thus preventing over-rotation, which means the lower halfs would hit the runway. For those who want to take a crack at super detailing the airbrakes on their model, the whole system is explained in the sketch below. Note that the brakes open when the actuator retracts. AIRBRAKE The opened tail fairing on a Block 10. Fairings on all but Reigian and Norwegian Block 15s are similar. The white rudder actuator is clearly visible. In the compartment below is the flow The ECM-housing on a Belgian Block 15. The control servovalve. This picture also offers a container is quite similar to the parabrake housing good view on the navigation light and the lower (on Norwegian F-16s except for the cool air scoop. rear RWR antenna. Note the small diagonal ‘This housing is to accomodate the Rapport Ili strip on the end of latter. threat warning system developed in Belgium. The Israeli Air Force also uses Rapport ill in their F-16s but it is stowed elsewhere. An excellent overall view of the engine compartment. Note that the entire aft fuselage bottom is removable. Immediately forward of the titanium heat resistant tiner are the two engine mounts. The engine also hangs in the rail on the top centerline, but this does not take any forces. The airframe mounted gearbox can be made out below the intake. It accomodates from left to right the JFS, the hydraulic JFS starter motor, system B hydraulic pump, main generator and system A hydraulic pump. On the sidewalls are various hydraulic accu mulators and fuel piping. 3 ARRESTOR HOOK ASSEMBLY The sketch and pictures on this page offer about all detail on the arrestor hook assembly you can think of. The reinforcement plates astride the hook bay protect the fuselage in case the cable hits same upon engagement at a high AOA attitude. The top right picture shows the lower UHF antenna which was moved back between the ventral fins on block 15 aircraft. Note the centerline external tank attachment on the lower right picture. 4 The forward tail fairing houses two flight controt ‘accumulators and the speedbrake control valve. Overall view of the vertical tail. Note the anti- collision strobe light on top and the static dis- chargers on the rudder. igh: The entire left side of the ECM housing. This side of the Norwegian parabrake housing is exactly the same, apart from one detail. As Rapport lit will eventually replace itek-69 threat warning system on Belgian F-163 there are no RWRS on the housing. On Norwegian F-16s there is one on each side close to the rear opening. Note the colouring of the exhaust nozzle. The increased horizontal tail in detail. Our scale plans compare both the old and new tail. Botlom: ‘The underside of the exhaust nozzle features a vent hole. Note that the 'NO STEP! signs are stickers. 15 Panels on the top aft fuselage give access to the aft fuel tank. The ‘fit’ of the skin is not too hot. Large gaps are ever-present. Note the formation light on the strake. Most prominent detail on this picture is the chaff dispenser. JES and brake hydraulic accumulators are revealed when panel 4301 is removed. 16 and right wing again illustrates the large gaps between the panels. Note the spill from the aft tank. ‘opened in-flight refueling slipway door reveals the receptable. The latter also provides a direct voice communication connection to the tanker aireraft. Detail of the panelling on the left wingtop. There is no difference between left and right wings here. The skin is one single large panel. The black streaks are caused by graphite oil. Al servicing panels of the ECS have been removed. The system comprises two heat exchangers. The exhaust of the main exchanger is shown in detail below. The large spherical container is the water seperator. Left of it is the regenerative heat exchanger which vents outside the aircraft. The ECS provides for cockpit heating/cooling and pressurization, radar and avionics bay cooling and pilot's G-suit pressure. As source of heat 7th and 13th compressor stage bleed air is used. Cooling air is taken from the small inlets on top of the engine air inlet. not A ‘wast © wa tage ete cee nee eon page is shown opened as it normally is on the ground. Dorsal servicing panels aft of the gunbay are removed showing hydraulic equipment. On the right is the main hydraulic oil tank. In the top compartment is the leading edge flap control and drive unit. The compartment below houses the le. flap transmission and hydraulic piping as well as the hydraulic gun drive unit. “ee # Be cacei fic ican The gun port on production aircraft is somewhat ieee aguee) iaoldrives/ unt couttmnad. different from the one featured on most kits. The opening is somewhat bigger and the shape and size of the purge slits and holes as well. ‘The flexible cable drives the linkless ammo feed system which is detached on this picture. MSIAl 20MM CANNON The empty gunbay. The rear of the gun hooks up to the hole in the rear wall. The lower purge alt ,MBT, Yutean six-barreled ireraft cannon door is in the lower right comer. The large pipe ee ee ee is part of the ECS. past 25 years. This is not only because the thing is extremely effective, development af new aircraft guns in the western world has been neglected for many years, This is mainly due to the general opinion of the late 50's and early 60's that aircraft guns were no tonger needed as AAMs were considered to be the final answer in air-to-air combat. However, it turned out that the AAM was not as reliable as it seemed at first and the opponents could outmaneuver them. The advantage of the gun is that the enemy does not know that there are bullets flyi around until they hit him. So the Vulean came to birth and it is still going strong. Anyone who is on the receiving end of the 100 raunds/sec. cannon is in trouble. Initially the installation in the F-16 caused some problems with nasty results. Some F-16s crashed and firing of the gun was forbidden until the causes had been sorted oui. It wmed out that vibrations upset the accelerometer The only way to get- good insight of the M6IA whieh resulted in undesired yaw commands. Vulcan assembly is by taking a picture of the By insulating the accelerometer from all vibrations gun in its display stand. the problem belonged to the past. 19 Detail on this picture includes the video recorder ‘on the top right and the IFF transmitter mounted fon the hatch cover. Piping is of the ECS. There is a difference here between the early and latest production blocks. The pipe opening to the top right of the IFF transmitter which mates up to the stub on the cover is an extra intake for instrument cooling. This is not featured on earlier production aircraft. ‘A ground cooling receptable is provided for elec~ tronic equipment ground testing purposes. The sensitive electronic components easily overheat during long operation without the engine, thus internal cooling, working. ‘The small intake mentioned above is visible directly under the gun port. The zipper like stripes on the nose cone have been called many names, but they simply are static electricity conductors. Whitout them thunderbolts would go right through the FRP nose and hit the radar antenna with all nasty results. Note the cover on the jine is a real pick-pocket. intake. Foreign object damage to the engine is a constant concern. The hungry ei We have seen puddles being sucked empty within half a minute. 20 AN/APG-66 RADAR ano RELATED avionics The APG-66 radar unét equipping the F-16 is quite a remarkable piece of electronic enginee: ring. Not that the system is so. breathtaking, we find medium-PRF (pulse-repetition frequency) pulse-Doppler radars in the F-I5 and Saab Viggen amongst others, but it is the size of the unit. Tne people at Westinghouse suceeded in developing @ pulse-Doppler radar of adequate power that fits in the relatively smalt nose of the F-16. In took-down mode {¢ can track a target head-on at 30nm whien ts quite sufficient. Trying to explain what pulse-Doppler means would carry us too far so we suggest you check your encyelopaedia. We can however’ enlighten You a little on some of the capabilities. To eliminate the puzzling ground clutter so typical for earlier radars the image presented to the pilot is synthetic. This means that in look: down mode the computer software (program) ‘acts the speed of a target relative to non- moving echoes on the ground from the massive radar return and transtates it into a clear image on the electro-optical (EO) display while stationary echoes are filtered out. In ground mapping mode the set presents a real beam image. This can be used for navigation updates, locating and detecting targets and direct or offset delivery of various weapons. In CCIP (continiously-computed impact point) - attacks the radar offers information on the slant range The radar assembly of the F-16 does not take up much space. The antenna was custom made to fit in the limited space fibreglass nose. Special care has to be taken not to damage the inboard paris of the AOA sensors on. the nose when it is being opened. The antenna has to be placed in the ‘stored’ position (rotated port and up) to sway the radome fully open. Note the static electricity conductor leads visible just below the antenna. The circuitbreakers related to the avionics are positioned right under the pilot's feet. a COCKPIT DETAILS In order to make a better overall picture of the front office the ejection seat has been removed. At the same time you get to see what is under and behind the seat. The ejector rocket motor is attached to the airframe. The gold colored barrel leaves the aircraft with the seat. 23 op: Block 15 instrument panel in full color. ‘The left auxiliary panel in detail. The yellow contraption cages the canopy up/down switch and actuates the canopy seal. 4 The front office of the F-16 wi around the most important factor in aerial combat: the man that operates the machine. Pilot's expe rience and judgement was taken into account when the lay-out was set up and improvements are carried out as operational experience increases. It seems to be very logical to design a cockpit in such a way ihdt the workload on the pilot is as low as possible so he can devote his time to fighting opponents instead of having to monitor all sorts of gages to keep track of his speed, heading, fuel management and so on. Non-combatants thought differently. Tt was not before the F-15 emerged that pilots had to constantly look down into the cockpit and release stick or throttle to operate a vital Jor combat or he needed a backseater do it for him. The head-up, hand the P-15 and F-16 finally allows nim to keep his thoughts with the target. A mere glance at the HUD tells him everything he needs to know. All switehes for radar and weapons manage- ment are on the joystick and throttle. The F-16 cockpit has a particular advantage over the F-15. By reclining the seat and raising the knee and line, the pilot not only has a better g-tolerance, he also is much more com- fortable. Most people lke to lean back instead of sitting upright all day and a fighter jock is just as human as you and me. The main disadyan- tage of the raised kneesteg line is the necessarily small instrament panel which makes it hand to house all necessary instruments and Electro-Optical displays. On the other hand the developments in electronic design may do away with this problem. Instrument panel with the HUD and video camera. TrEMRitgen frcietesoe anepyeicr vest henibea Next to the HUD is the AOA indexer. The slits ‘around view ever seen on a fighter, in the cover are for canopy defoging air. Note still than on the F-15. The polycarbonate ma the canopy lock cut-out and the right aux. panel. Cera ariitalerd lamers ema ueesticmurulee rel optical quality is outstanding and distortion of Some detail of the rudder assembly is visible Pate aeaner num rani ts here as well as the main warning lights on the The side-stick controler is a force sensing right auxiliary panel. imitis-withi-very: limited movement AS alnnditer of fact the first units did not move at all, very much to the dislike of pilots who missed the’ ‘cor tact’ with the aircraft. Even now that the stick does move, it still takes a lot of getting used to. Nose-up commands take 38ibs input for maxi mum effect, nose-down pitch requires 18tbs input while maximum roll commands take I7lbs input both ways. The side stick in the flight simulator is more touchy so young pilots, accustomed to this, are very carefiil when first flying the real thing. Although the F s called cheap, tt Is The right side of the HUD and video camera with its electric connection. Astride the HUD is the air refuel status/NWS indexer. 26 ‘The Radar/Electro-Optical display with the horizontal attitude and altitude indicator imme- diately above. The latter has changed places with the AOA indexer and instrument mode selector compared to the block10 aircraft. Behind the seat rails are some electrical connec~ tions normally covered with canvas. The canopy actuator is a simple electric motor with gearbox. It not only opens and closes the canopy but, through a set of links, also locks it mechanically. The canopy is not attached to a fixed hinge but moves up and down in between a set of roliers. Note the cockpit air outlet under the transparency. Beton The rear of the seat rails with ejector rocket This picture illustrates the hook-up of the canopy blast tube. Note the canopy pressure seal. to the actuator. The shaft rotates in the canopy frame to lock it through a set of links. 27 F-I6B rear instrument and auxiliary panels. Because of the absence of a the HUD combiner glass and control panel, the Radar /Electro-Optical display could be moved up. The F-I6B is not any less combat able than the F-16A apart from a somewhat smaller fuel capacity. The side console lay-out of the aft cockpit is a lot simpler than that of the front consoles. There are however many blank panels for future versions such as an all-weather strike aircraft with a WSO in the back seat. P. Van Regenmortel) Top left The area behind the back seat of the F-I6B has not. much to show for. Top rights The seat rocket motor is actuated by sequencers on the seat rails that are connected to the canopy by steel cables one of which can be made out here. Atowee ‘The right side of the aft instrument panel cover. Note handhold on top. Bottom left The canopy of the F-16B is opened by an electric motor placed between the front seat and rear instrument panel. Although this is a detail shot of a single seater canopy, the locking claws and handle bar are the same as on the B canopy. Inside detail of the huge F-16B canopy. Note Canopy locking link detail on the center frame the shape and thickness of the frame. looking at it from the rear. An F-16B of the 421'Black Warriors' 388 TFW based at Hill AFB, armed up with inert practice bombs. Note the shape of the canopy near the center frame. EJECTION SEAT 32 Top tefty right ¢ ‘The various items on the sides of the seat are described in the scale drawings on the next pages. Here you should note that the emergency oxygen line runs through the back seat padding. The picture also illustrates how the slack in the para~ chute risers is routed behind the padding. They are fixded with a thin ripcord . Bottom lef The bottom of the seat carries the seat stabili- zation package. On the right edge is the trajectory divergence rocket wich directs the seat slighly to the left of the aircraft's flight path. In a two-seater this would be the aft seal. The front seat has the divergence rocket on the other The survival kit holds a dinghy amongst other things. In the lower right corner you see the distress radio transmitter. Further the kit contains nutritious food and water, matches, first aid material, etc. In the backlean of the the seat are the drogue, the environmental sensing unit and the recovery chute mortar. The recovery parachute is one big pack behind the headrest. Strapping the pilot in the seat is very simple compared to older aircraft. The parachute risers are hooked up to the harness, the seat belts wrap around the waist and that's iL! Leg restraint garters are no longer needed. The two YF-I6s had Escapac seats whi the eight FSD F-16As were equiped with Stencil SUIS seats. The production F-16s have the McDon nell Douglas ACES II as ejection sea the F-15A and B have been retrofitted with a slightly different version of the ACES it while the C and D models leave the production 1 with this seat. This would mean that it is very popular and indeed it is. In earlier days pilots telling about their bait- out often said: and the next thing T knew 1 was hanging under the dome.' There are in fact very few pilots that can give full account of their ‘ejection, the majority having experienced @ short black-out. This was caused by the instan- taneous acceleration of the seats that were Meanwhile 33 Top left right Detail of the connection of the ejection sequencers commanded by steel cables hooked up to the canopy as described. Also visible is the canvas covering the area behind the seat. shot out of the aircraft by an explosive charge. The ACES II is powered by a rocket motor which gives it a much smoother acceleration thus preventing a black-out. Pilots that had to bail out of an F-16 can tell you exactly what happened from one split. second to the other and what is more, their backbone is not shorter by a few hundreds of an inch as used to be with old type seats. For the rest there is not much more new about the ACES, apart from the fact that somebody was finally smart enough to mount the flight recorder on it to facilitate recovery and that it simply makes the ride more comfort- able for the pilot. 1/32 nd scale 1/48 th scale 34 V/l2th scale HUD teas up Display information vital to safe operation he HUD in several modes. is when comparing the sym: bology on the HUD combiner glass and the readout gon the basic light “instruments. Meanwhile all funetions of various sys selected through the’ buttons and switches on the throttle grip and control stick. Throttle Quadrant FLIGHT SIMULATOR Modern fighters are too complicated and too expensive to just let an inexperienced young pilot go loose on them. You may be the best of an advanced fiying class, it does not mean you can operate the F-16. Flying it is not too tough, the plane ts very forgiving and easy to handte. Just landing it on the narrow track gear calis for some practice, especialiy under crosswind circumstances. The ‘Eleetric Jel’ is however stuffed with very fancy systems that require intensive training Before an acivanced flying school graduate gets to fly the real machine he has to go through Some 30 hours on the flight simulator. Although the amount of money such a unit costs would buy you three F-I6s it is stiil worthwhile simply becailse you cannot actually erash it. As is obvious from the pictures on this page the flight sim is fully static. Other sims can move on ail axis, this one however does give the trainee the same feel as the real thing. Any control input that would resuli in a g-load on the real aircraft gives the same effect in the simulator. The seat cushion is inflated and the pilot's g-suit is pressurized. Meanwhile the com- puter projects moving images on a large screen in front and astride the pilot which gives him the impression of actual flight. You cannot think of any situation that cannot be simulated. Apart from training the pilot on the various complicated aircra/t systems, he can also. practice navigation, — touch-and-goes, ILS, air-to-air and air-to-ground combat, ete, and this of course at day or night, in excellent weather or under adverse conditions, Even thunder- storms with actual lightning can be simulates And not to be forgotten are the very extensiv emergency procedures that consianily need the pilot's devotion. Even experienced F-16 jocks spend many hours practicing them in the flight sim. All these computer programs are controled by one or more flight sim operators behind a large control desk seen on the picture. The scopes enable them to check ail systems and instruments in the simulator and impose emergency conditions at will, The computer stores alt information ‘on the flight conditions and the pilot's reactions and it can be retrieved through a printer at any time so the trainee can check where he went wrong. it is understood that the F-16, being such a demanding aircraft system-wise (anybody could fly it), puts a lot of strain on the pilot's intelli- gence. Freshmen spend their days in the flight sim and their nights behind a desk working their ways through all the manuals. That is, if they want to get up in the air one day. And just do not think that he is all through with that when he has finished the initial training. The 'dash 1’ is constantly updated while tactical flying is subject to change as well, so it Is back to ‘school’ every month or so. Should you have a chance to visit a base one day, you would be amazed to see how many captains and majors still spend time in the flight sim. Kis a very comforting sight though. At teast they will not crash into your home while learning new pro cedures. As a taxpayer you can rest assured that the expensive flight sim is money well-spent. 3 LANDING GEAR The nose gear is located aft prevent FOD. It is extended and retracted hyxirau- lically and the wheel rotates 90° to fit into the well. Nose wheel steering is limited to 32° each way and can be assisted by main wheel braking. The drag brace is attached to a pivot inside the well. There obviously is not much space in there. For that reason there are not many systems installed. Actually you are looking at the underside of the intake channel. 38 The scissor torque link has to be disconnected for nose wheel steering to prevent damage to the steering servo. Drag brace assembly This picture clearly shows the routing of the hydraulic power lines on the shock strut and drag brace. The strut is kept at length by filling it with nitrogen through the valve on top of the assembly. Note the wear on the tyre. The main landing gear is retracted hydraulically but extends by free-fall assisted by pneumatic pressure from two accumulators that are charged when the gear retracts. A manual gear-down emergency system is provided. Through a T-handle and flexible the pilot can mechanically unlock the gear. It locks itself when fully extended. When the gear is fully extended it activates @ switch which cuts off power to the radar trans. mitier to prevent hazardous conditions caused by the microwaves. For inspection the technicians can override this system. The main gear wells not only house the gear and related hydraulics but also accomodate the hydraulic oil low and high pressure filters. The blue box is the aircraft battery. The right shock Strut carries the taxi light. The natural metal tubing visible on the top right picture originates, at the hydraulic system A pump and leads to the oil filters. One is visible Just above the Shock strut attachment to the bulkhead while ‘another one is next to the right tube. From here the oil is routed to the systems or back into the tank. 39 Main gear assembly Rudder pedal/ Gear brake assembly 40 ‘Mere is enough detail on these two pictures to satisfy any modeller. Hydraulic lines, oit filters, battery and various sequencers are clearly visible. ‘Te landing gear uplock in the center of the picture engages the uplock roller on the shock strut. The lock itself is linked to the gear door which actuates it. The gear-down lock can be seen in the center of the drag brace. Note that many airframe components are made of sheet stock instead of being expensive forgings or machined parts. One of the hydraulic accumulators was leaking which resulted in a mess in the aft section of the well. The port main gear well features a liquid halon tank which vents into the fuet tanks. Halon is an inert gas. which means it is not inflammable, Tt is better to have this in your fuel tanks than air that contains oxygen. Right of the halon reservoir is the hand pump to manually charge the pneumatic accumulators for the JFS. On the shock strut ts the tanding light. Shock strut ~ a The wheel is mechanically twisted to fit into the well. The assembly is shown here. It be noted that many F-16 components are inter- changable left and right. This goes for many gear components as well. a ‘The main gear doors are simple sheet stock assem- blies. Only the hinges are forgings. Note that this picture should be rotated 45° counter clock wise to get the right impression of the position of the door. The alluminum alloy wheels manufactured by Goodyear feature thermal pressure relief valves. For those interested in figures: the main tires are Goodrich 25.5x 8-14 while the nose tyre Is a Goodrich 18 x 5.5-8. a2 Above & betow: The multiple disc brake has two independently ‘operating channels and features an anti-skid system with touchdown skid control, anti-skid failure detection, proportional skid control and locked wheel skid control. The picture below shows the two seperate brake channel hydraulic lines. F100 PW200 ENGINE The Prati& Whitney F100-PW-200 powerplant of the F-16 is an innovation in itself. It is @ two-shaft high-augmentation 0.7 bypass turbofan of the ,000Ibs thrust class with an effective output in full AB of some 23,840Ibs. With it's tremendous power it was the first engine to enable an aircraft to accelerate white climbing vertically. It entered production in the ‘dash 100' version to equip the Two of these engines powered the Streak Eagle which smashed about every time/ climb record and set new standards that will be hard to beat in the near future. The engine is built around the core of the JTF-16 demonstrator ordered by the USAF in 1965. The modular design makes it very easy to maintain. Functionally and physically associated parts can be removed and replaced as one unit The F100 has an excelient mean time between failure (MTBF) and an ever increasing time between ‘overhaul (TBO) record. By the beginning of 1981 it had logged over 1,200,000 hours with an extreme- The engine on it's service cart. For shipment the AB can and nozzle assembly are taken off and the three parts are packed seperately in sealed containers to reduce the risk of oxydation. After general overhaul the F100 has to be retuned. It ts rigged on a test stand and hooked up to monitoring equipment. Note that the FOD screen carries intake pressure sensors. ly low rate of accidents caused by engine failure. Next to the high thrust another advantage of the F100 is the almost smokeless operation. Anyone who fas ever seen a Phantom blazing through the sky must have noticed the enormous smoke trails. USAF pilots in Vietnam soon learned that the enemy did not really need a tracking radar, they just had to trace the trails of smoke back’ to ‘their source. Still not satisfied with the result, P&W has meanwhile designed new combustors to further reduce the smoke output. Before the engine was released for full-scale production it was put through a series of gruelling Static and flight tests. These revealed some severe temperature and engine stali problems, the lati frequently being caused by AB backfiring. Pratt& Whitney engineers have meanwhile ironed out these ‘problems by some clever thinking. The only problem still encountered is the possibility of oll tank rupture at sustained high negative g's. Solving this is a matter of time AL present P&W people are working on the PW1120, a further development of the F401 (the sister of the F100 intended for the F-i4). Changing an engine on the F-16 takes about haif an hour compared to half a day for an engine change on the F-4 Phantom. Some 23,000Ibs of thrust are released at full AB. The blazing flame causes a true hurricane and the noise is far beyond human limits. Taking @ picture like this is quite an experience. 43 The afterburner itself consi f five concentric sprayrings in the engine core flow and another two downstream in bypass airflow. Ignition is high-energy electrical giving a staged light up. Seen here are the so-called flame holders. ‘Actuator detail of the convergent nozzle. The floats freely in conjunction with the convergent nozzle. In dry (non-AB) operation the nozzle area would be too large for effective use so it has to be reduced by closing the no; Only in full AB the nozzle is wid ‘open. Idle engine operation on the ground thus means a fully ‘closed! nozzle. divergent nozzle The inner liner of the AB can is made of refractor material covered with ceramics. The small holes introduce cooler air from the bypass duct into the can. This not only cools the AB but also reduces the noise. The cooler boundary layer reduces the friction of the hot AB gas and the cold static atmosphere. It is this friction that produces the screaming noise of an engine in full AB. 44. Here you are looking at the actual hart of the engine. What you see on most pictures of complete F 100s like on the previous page, is the bypass duct with accessories mounted on it. On of the assembly is a mounting jig. The 3 rings directly below actuate the variable stator trailing Further you can see the 7th stage dled let, the fuel lines connected to the spary s and the 13th stage bleed air outlet under the fuel lines. The lowest part is the annular combustor. The turbine underneath is not visible on this picture. EXTERNAL STORES Toner Dyna) The F-16 must be the envy of many veteran pilots. They feet sure they coutd have done @ much better job would they have had the Fighting Faleon's capabilities at their disposal. Not only can the F-16 deliver the various weapons with a high degree of accuracy while the pilot can feel relatively safe under the protection of the threat warning system, but {t can also carry an impressive payload of 20,450tbs. Compa- ring this with the B-17 capabilities (which many think to be a must) is true nonsense. There are some 40 years of aviation technology between the two types. So let us compare it with the F-4E Phantom. True, the Phantom has a payload of some 30,000tbs, but it needs two engines to get it off the ground and a backseater to deliver it, And we should not forget to mention that the F-16 is much more agile. That brings us to air-to-air combat. One can truly say that there is nothing that ean outmaneuver the Faicon. Anyone who gets trapped in @ dogfight with an F-16 and forgets to disen- gage in time is going to get hosed. F-15 jocks will tell you that the F-16 can never get them and they are absolutely right, but what they mean is'that they have more power to disengage and run off. Then it is the F-i6 pitot's concer to watch his six as the F-15 may have turned around and sneak in from behind. When he has Spotted it he will however be able to outmaneuver it again and get on his tail. Any other aircraft is going to get it, period. Now, keeping in mind that the Soviets know all about the F-15's perfor- A USAF F-16 block 10 from Shaw AFB in normal air-to-ground configuration. It carries two 370 galton fuel tanks, two inert AIM-9L Sidewinders ‘and six inert Mk82 500Ibs bombs. The centerline pylon would carry an AN/ALQ-131 ECM-pod in wartime. mance from the Middle Kast wars, just imagine how they must feel about the F-15. I'd hate to be in a Sukhoi when there are F-16s in the neigh- borhood. The 370 gallon fuel tank in close-up. Note the differences with most tanks in model kits. The three external tanks double the range of the F-16 while it is still able to carry a fair payload. $220. (4.8. Var Regenmorted) 46 Most F-16s carry the peacetime SUU-20 pra bomb dispenser/rocket launcher. Four rockets are carried in the tubes while a total of six practice bombs can be stowed in the bay in the bottom. Note the angle of the leading and trailing edge of the pylon. This is to not obstruct deflection of the flaps. ‘The intercepter configuration features Sidewinde on stations 1, 2, 8 and 9. The underwing launchers are exactly the same as the wingtip launcher ‘The pylon on station 7 is not standard, but used here to carry @ travel pod. Underside detail of the station 3/7 weapons pylon, The weapons or ejector rack are hung on pyrotechnically actuated claws. The threaded studs on the stadying braces keep them from rolling on the points. The front section of the Sidewinder launching Some detail of the attachment of the belly rail can be swung inboard to slide the missile tank. The external tanks indeed have electrical ‘on the rails. The connection on the missile which connections as well. How else can the fuel quan: feeds Uquid nitrogen to the seeker head hooks tity be measured. The plugs are of the quick up to a receptable behind the spring toaded disconnect type. It is quite sloppy to have a brace. The spring on top and bottom hook behind tank dangling on the electric lines after it has the forward fins of the missile. been punched off. There is a specific difference For those that don't already know: the Sidewinder between fuel tank and weapons pylons. For feeds an audio signal to the pilot when it has one the electrical connections for weapons can Getected infra-red signature from the target. be quite complicated and some stores even need The lower the signal frequency, the closer the @ cooling source, as is the ease with some ECM target is. All that is left to do ts push the button. pods. The stress demands want a word in this matter as well. Three Mk82 Snackeyes and a LAU rocket launcher await the ship that will carry them to their final destination. Snackeyes are normal bombs with a special tail assembly that retards their falling time and makes accurate bombing possible. LAU rocket launchers contain 19 unguided rockets that have a devestating effect on anything from a jeep to armor. a An inert version of the so-called Smart Bomb. an Regenmorted This is either a 1,000lbs or 2,0001bs bomb with laser guidance. The forward fins are movable Detail shot of the deployed retarding ‘chute! in onder to steer it. They are commanded by on a Snackeye training bomb. The four sections the laser sensor on the nose. The target must are held in the closed position by a steel band however be illuminated by the parent aircraft that is tor off by @ ripcord attached to the ora second plane that carries a designator. pylon or ejector. It is said that the Israeli Air Force used these bombs to destroy the Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad in Iraq. ‘Simulated chemical warfare conditions on Hahn AB in West Germany. A weapon crew is practicing the arming up of an F-I6 while being dressed in a hot, uncomfortable protective suit. Note the steel band around the fins of the Snackeyes and the steel cables that arm the fuses when the bomb is released. 4B Good detail shots in color of the Sidewinders are rare. This is an AIM-9N. Note the shape of the forward fins. The red flag covers the proximity fuse. The section with the yellow bands is the warload. ke Front and rear detail of the rocket tubes in an SUU-20. Note the contact pins that fire the solid fuel. VarZzY 4 Very few people are aware of this detail on Sidewinder. The threads burn up when the missile is launched thus releasing the locks on the yaw control rollers. brand-new TER's (Triple Ejector Racks) where waiting to be installed when we spotted them to take this excellent detail shot. Detail in the ‘bomb bay' of an SUU-20 dispens The six practice bombs leave a puff of smoke where they hit. Note the two sequencers in front of the bombs One is for the rockets, the other for the bombs. 4g This picture illustrates the serviceability of the F-16. The inertial navigation n platform developed @ malfunction. ‘The aireraft is hooked up to an external power unit and ground cooling equipment and the entire platform MISSION PREPARATIONS Preparing the F-16 for a mission is not just patter of minutes. Modem aircraft rely ona tol of vital systems and these better be in good working order or someone is going to be in trouble. Although they are thoroughly checked at specific intervals they have to be double-checked before every mission. This is the job of the plane captain who is assisted by specialists. Today's fighters all have BIT (Built-In-Test) equipment which considerably factlitates the job of the specialist. The system enables easy testing of a few dozen of aircraft systems by This is the external power unit used by the 50 is removed and replaced by one that is in good working order. External power and ground cooling is needed to be able to test the operation. The whole procedure Lakes about ten mirutes. just flipping a switch or pushing a bution and of course it is much more easy to localize a maifunction. ‘The weapons load has to be programmed into the SMS (Store Management System). This is etther done by the pilot or by the weapons master. The SMS is not only important for the pilot to know what exactly he has at his disposal at a certain moment (ail info can be displayed on the HUD) but also feeds the information into the FLCS whieh processes it to determine the flight envelope in @ particular configuration Specific lads impose certain performance limits on the aireraft and the computer software is programmed to take this Into account when relaying commands to the control surfaces. No matter how hard he tries, there is no way the pilot can exceed these limits, The computer simply will not allow it and there is no way he can override it. This is quite a step forward. Instead of constantly having to monitor his speed, AOA, g-load, etc. in order to keep the aircrajt from stalling, the pilot can now fu devote his attention to combat. The ground cooling unit. ‘A weapon crew loads an SUU-20 with four practice rockets. All fuel tanks of the F-16 (internal and external) can be replenished through a single refueling point located in the port wing/body blend. hs eee Above / Below Welgtan Air For A belly tank ts being installed on the centerline ‘The ammo drum in the fuselage is loaded and pylon. The lifting fork of the locding tractor emptied by a special independently powered had to be adapted to deal with the limited ground unit through the access in the starboard forbody ciate strake. The linkless feed removes the spent cartridges from the drum in the aircraft and The power unit of the ammo loading assembly. stores ‘them in the space that becomes available It delivers pneumatic pressure to the motor when the new shells are fed into the aircraft. on the ammo cart. Most of the power units It is thus an endless circuit. Note the flexible we have seen are driven by the renowned Volks~ drive cable to the aircraft and the pressure wagen ‘boxer! engine that we all know from Une from the power unit. the famous 'Bug'. 51 (Belgian Air Force) Not one briefing room tooks alike but they all have some commonalities lke a large aerial map, a TY set plus video recorder to go over the parts of a mission recorded on tape, a chart with radio call signs and many, many NOTAM's (NOTe to Air Men) with a lot of ‘do's and do not's', airport. information and so on. The equipment room often holds a colorful variety of helmets. Some air forces still allow artwork. 82 FIG PILOT Compared to the F-104 pilot the F-16 jock has it quite easy as the one on this picture can tell you. Ch.Adj. John Lemmens has 3,000 hours on the Strarfighter. No longer does he have @ heavy parachute on his back but an easy to wear hamess to which the parachute risers hook up. No more vulnerable spurs on his boots, they remain clean. The bag is to haul the helmet, kneepad and video casette around. Of course the badges on the coverall are not worn in battle. They would tell too much of a story. BRIEFING The pilot's briefing is probably the most time-consuming part of a mission. Pilots may well spend an hour or so in the briefing room before they leave for the dispersal area. In peacetime navigation excercise missions are often combined with a few runs over the weapons range to drop some bombs or shoot up a target. Intercepter jacks will be looking for someone to jump on. ‘The nature of the mission determine the briefing time. ‘The pilot starts by plotting the route on an aerial map and wherever necessary visual check points are noted. At a one-minute interval they note the travelled distance on the track and the data for the nav-computer are written down fon the kneepad so they can be punched in once the power is on. Fulure improvements in the F-16 program include a tape casette on which all data are recorded by the ops and can be inserted into the nay-computer. This will cut programing time from some 20 minutes to just a few, plus that it reduces briefing time consider ably. “When the pilot has double-checked his data he is all set to pick up his gear in the equipment room and head for his ride. AIRCRAFT INSPECTION Any good pilol will tet you that you better count your wings before you step into the bucket. After all, humans make mistakes. But that is not the only reason. When you assume all of 1 to be there in good order, you fall into routine. All good drivers will say routine Kills, the bad once no longer can, they are dead. That is why you will see a pilot signing a technical status report, checking control surfaces normal functioning, checking hydraulies and tires and making sure that the weapon load is securely suspended on the racks, because he hates to loose something over a village. STARTING UP When strapped into the seat the pllot will start the engine almost immediately, because nothing works without the engine running in (dle. The man needs ‘power-on’ to program the com- puter, SMS, ete. Many aviation enthousiasts will be familiar with the sight of a fighter taxiing along with ‘open canopies. The F-16 jock closes the hood as soon as Re got in. The air conditioning works better with the shell closed and furthermore the engine might suck ali loose equipment out of the cockpit and swallow it. 53 The JFS inlet and outlet covers open automatically when the pilot hits the button. When the main engine accelerates through 50% RPM the JFS is shut down automatically and the covers are closed. A mechanic cheeks that the engine picks up normally by holding his hand in the airflow. He will withdraw it as soon as the combustor is fired up. 54 AS soon as the pilot is strapped into the seat, he closes the canopy. Modern jetfighters have airconditioned cockpits so it ts better to close the hood whether it be warm or cold. This is however not mandatory. The F-i6 can very well taxi with the canopy opened, bul then it is adviseable to stow all loase equipment so the engine will not digest It. Te EPU fired indicator is very touchy. One rough touchdown and the thing goes off. As nobody can be sure whether the KPU has fired (which would mean possible hydrazine leakage) or not, a specialist has to check the EPU bay first. Here he is seen being dressed up in protec~ tive clothing and an oxygen unit assisted by two colleagues. OC GALLERY (R. Janssens) An updated Belgian F-16A Block 10 banks to display the weathered under surfaces. Note that the outlet nozzle is fully ‘closed* which indicates the engine operates at military power. 55 The Egyptian Air Force received it's first F-16 in march 1982. The initial order stands for 34 F-IGAs and 6 F-I6lis. A future order for another 100 is expected. (Genera Dynamics) a. pd Dutch F-16A of 311 sq. based at Volkel. This base is the home of 311 fighter-bomber sq., 312 intercepter sq. and 306 recce sq., all operating F-16s. < EN eh : ewe ‘ te. Israeli 7-18 baring aver desert country displaying the effective camouflage. Note that th 56 Norwegian early block F-16 in the intercepter role. Note the RWR antenna on the brake chute housing. (General Dynamics) The F-16s of the RNeAF replace the outdated F-104 which has for long been the mainstay of many NATO air forces. (B. Van Herek) Smoke trails from the main gear tires of this Belgian F-16 as they accelerate instantaneously from 0 to approx. 125 knots. You can see why aircraft tires don't hold very long. 87 A Belgian F-16 photographed on Bitburg AB. (P. Von Here) ‘An excellent in-flight shot of an F-16 from 10 FBW BAF from Kleine Brogel AB. (, Janssens} 58 A flight of F-16s of 10th TFW bank over an atoll in the Pacific on their transfer flight from the US to Kunsan Air Base, South Korea. For the first time in history units from the Air National Guard are receiving brand new aircraft instead of having to take over the obsolete stuff of the USAF. 59 It is our policy to only deal with the recom: mendable kits In’ various’ scales in this section. Reviewing all other kits would take up too much KIT REVIEWS ‘pace and they are not really worth mentioning. Bspecially where the F-16 kits are concerned there are inany that are way off. This is due to the fact that every manufacturer rushed lo be the first 10 release a model of the F-16, even before anybody knew what the production type would iook like and often with a complete lack of information. This resulted in a lot of hebrids, kits that are part prototype, part produc: tion type. So unless you want to make a proto type, you better forget all about them Listing all available decals is out of the question. The list would be outdated by the lime this book is published, so you better keep yourself informed through your local hobbyshop. As you can see we have illustrated this section with colorful pictures of finished models. They will give you some idea of what the models could look’ like. Do you want to learn more about aircraft modeling, try ‘The Verlinden Way! volume I 'On plastic wings’. It tells you all” and much more you want to know about this fascinating hobby. 1/72 nd scale Modeling by Frangois VERLINDEN uniess otherwise stated. ESCI The ESCI kits are by far the best available on this scale. You have to see the exterior Getail to believe it. The engraved panels are extremely crisp and... almost cor You only need to add an extra few on top of the rear fuselage. The landing gear is a modelers dream, almost too fine to handle. The kit has block 5A and 10 horizontal toil planes and allows you to make the Norwegian version with parabrake housing as the aft tail fairing is a seperate piece. ‘AS the perfect kit is not yet made, this one has a few shortcomings as well. Because it is available in the single-seat and two-seat version, the manufacturer has chosen to make the fuselage section at the canopy area as a seperate piece which of course cuts moulding costs. This item does however not always fit ‘Model by Herman Mertens Model by Herman Mertens too well. It is adviseable to add a piece of thin plastic sheet under the entire section or it will sit too low. The canopy cannot be assembled in the open position but this is just as well, because you would need to detail tie poor cockpit The major drawback is the fit of the wing to the fuselage. Because the manufacturer obviously removes the sprues from the mould too fasi, the wings show quite some undercut where they mate with the body blend. Careful filling and sanding (s in order here. The choice of external stores is’ remarkable for a 72nd scale kit. External fuet tanks of the correct shape, 1,000Ibs iron bombs, smart bombs and Sidewinders are on offer. The perfect Cartograph decals enable you to make a Dutch F-I6 of 312Sq. Volkel AB; @ Belgian F-18 of 1, AU weather intercepter wing at Beauyechain, a USAF F-16 of 4287FS 474TFW at Nellis; an Israel F-16 (sorry, no unit info is allowed); a Norwegian Falcon of 32289. and finally a Danish F-16 of 727 Eskadrille. The two-seater can be made into an F-I6B of either the RNeAF 323Sq from Leeuwardens BAF 10FBW from Kleine Brogel; Kongelige Danske Flyvevabnet 7275q.3 USAF 428TFS 474 TFW or Kongelige Norske Lufiforsvaret 331Sq. OCU. ITALERI This kit is good enough for those that do not demand too much. The panel lines are en~ graved, although too deep and with many mistakes. 1/48 th scale HASEGAWA This superb model beats just about all others. Modelers have been waiting for this basic quality for years. When you open the box you cannot but hold your breath for a momeni and then 9 out of your wits. The quantity of super-detatled that the kit offers is more than worth Hasegawa also got the message that engraved pane! lines are what we need. They are very well done, especially when you consider the fact that it is their first crack at it. There is only one slight error which is easy to correct. The kit however combines two-in-one. You can either build the A or B version as the box holds parts for both. A nice detail is that you can choose between either a fully opened’ or closed nozzle. The canopy area is the same as with the ESCI kit, seperate pieces for the single and two-seater and one-piece transparencies. The landing gear is nicely detailed although the assembly is somewhat complicated. The external stores are limited to wrong type fuel tanks, Sparrows, which the F-16 cannot fire, and two Sidewinders. The Cartograph decals, which are incomplete, allow you to make a Dutch or US version. The cockpit instrument panel and side consoles are outstanding and... finally we have an ACES il seat and pretty well-done too. The landing gear struts might be a little on the heavy side but it does not really show and the wells are just great. They leave however the opportunity for super-detailing. The pilot figure finally looks like a human being and no longer like Frankenstein as was frequently the case with Japanese modelmakers. There are some areas that need your attention when assembling. The intake can’ do with some 6 filler or better epoxy putty. Another problem is the fit of the wings to the body. It may be necessary to sand the underside of the wing/body blend. ‘The horizontal tall plane is of the increased area type, thus the model is a block 15. The canopy” transparency comes in two pieces, so you can leave the cockpit open. The tinted glass is first rate and of the right bulged shape. The moulding seam can easily be removed with very fine sanding paper and car polish. We would have liked to see two more items in this kit being a centerline tank and a seperate parabrake housing. The external stores are itmited to two external tanks and some missiles. But who needs them included in @ kit when Hasegawa had the brilliant idea of issuing various kits with all possible armament you can think of. We should also praise the company for their decals. There were times when Hasegawa decals were a genuine nightmare, but the anes in this Kit are outstanding. No negative comments what so ever. The kit ts available in two versions. 1/32nd scale HASEGAWA 62 One of the 351FS 8TFW 'Wolf Pack’ rom Kunsan AFB, Korea and one of the "Thunderbirds’ USAF demo team. The blue of the decals of latter is however a little on the dark side. You might be better off airbrushing it. The flagship amongst all available F-16 kits Is undoubtably the 32nd scale kit by Hasegawa. it offers you a big, well-detailed modet that looks Impressive as it is. It is however a model of an FSD(Full Scale Development) aircraft and therefor lacks many details of the production F-t6s plus the panelling ts not atl together correct. Let us see what is wrong and what you can do ‘about it. Worst things firsiz the ejection seat. Beig an FSD aircraft it has the Stencel SUIS so you will have to make your own ACES Il using otir scale plans. Although this may not seem to be easy, you should take a crack at it, it will turn out not to be that tough. The panel tines should pe filled with eyanoaerylate ‘ond reseribed refering to the scale drawings. Navigation lights should be added on the intake ‘and ‘wingtips. Then you have to make an extra RWR antenna for ine aft fairing of the vertical fir. The antennas on the spine should be deleted and it is better to cut off the static dischargers and replace them. For those who want to super detail the cockpit, a great deal can be done here. Although the kit parts are nicely detailed, they could do with a finishing touch. The canopy is badly in need of the interior frame and the raising mechanism. The external stores on offer are quite numerous but most of it is protoype stuff. You ean make production type underwing tanks of the ones provided in the kit, but the belly tank is useless, unless you are into making an FSD. aircraft of course. The Sparrows are best put in the spare parts box, the F-16 hardware is not lald-out for firing them. 1/12th scale ESCI Cockpit Here they are at last! Which dedicated modeter has not dreamed for years of a large-scale cockpit of a famous fighter. Many must have spent hours discussing the possibilities they would offer. If you are one of thase you ean now start your collection with this beautiful piece. An F-1048 cockpit is forthcoming and tet us hope that they prove to be so succesful that many more will follow. When you start checking out the detail after ‘opening the box you will be amazed. The detail fon instuments and side consoles is extremely realistic and many of the switches are seperate items which facilitates painting. There being no such thing as the perfect Kit, there are a few remarks to be made on this one as well. For one the top part of the seat is not all together correct and the throttle could do with some additional detail. The rest is just superb and lends itself’ for extensive super-detailing using such gimécks as film type instrument dial faces, optical fibre for light effects, colored lights ‘and so on. For the cracks amongst the super-detailers it may be an idea to go for sidewails. The lay-out of the cockpit is that of a biock 10 airerajt, but by using the plans on the foldout in this’ book you can change it around into a ‘The kits come in two versions, one with decals for FSD aircraft and one with decals for a 'Wolfpack' F-16 jrom Kunsan AFB, Korea. You should however have second thoughts about using them, they still are the old bad ones. You'd better try Sealemaster for a change. REVELL, For those who do not want to spend much money on a large scale kit, Revell is your best buy. “The scale checks out fairly well, although you should not try to interchange parts between the Revell and Hasegawa kits. 1 for instance tried 10 use the aft non-tinted transparency of Revell on the Hasegawa model. Forget it, they do not match. Of course this kit does net feature as much detail as the Hasegawa kit, but what do you want. The cockpit transparency is a one-piece moulding which is a shame, however, you get beautiful rubber-like tires. The spine antennas should be removed ard lights added as with the Hasegawa brother. The panel tines should be rescribed correctly and the cockpit interior can do with some attention. Extemal stores are exactly the same as those in the Hasegawa kit which means, no correct belly tank on this scate. But then, scratchbuilders want their share as well. Revell decals are, as always, excetlent and they allow you to make F-16s of the various well-known nationalities. block 15. You start by cutting the panels from the consoles and sanding the underside flat. After making new consoles from plasticard you can re-arrange the lay-out. You will find you have to make some new panels as well, but that is a piece of cake. Some instruments’ have to be re-arranged as well. This is a more daring project, but with some patience it will turn out just fine and you will have a model that 63 nt from all those others. tting a Tamiya le to pl you ean convert it into @ pilot. But you should not use the helmet from this kit though, it is monsterous When you very bi @ guide to L you ar