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Teacher Candidate ________________Lisa White_________________________________________________

Grade Level ____7____ Subject/Content:__English______________
Title ____________Inferencing___________________________
CONTEXTUAL FACTORS (e.g. ethnicity, gender, exceptionalities, ELL, GATE, etc.) which need
differentiation in instruction and assessment.
24 students, 15 male, 9 female
Ethnicity: White: __17____
Hispanic/Mexican: __7___ Native American: ___1__
Four students ESL, two of which are advanced. Spanish is an alternate language.
Eight students with an IEP. One student has cerebral palsy with low motor skills. Two students are emotionally
disturbed. One of these students can exhibit violent behaviors if pressured too much in the classroom. Others
have learning disabilities. To encourage equal participation in the classroom, the mentor teacher has created
notecards with each students name on them. The teacher can then shuffle the notecards and begin calling on
students to answer questions as their names come up on the cards.

WALK-AWAY (what do I want students to know, understand, and be

able to do?)
Include: Big Ideas/ Essential Questions
State Standard/Objectives
Reading: Literature Standard 1
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the
text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Big Ideas
Using inferencing skills helps me learn
more from a text than what the author
says directly.

Content Walk-Away: Unpacked Curriculum

Essential Questions

Students will use inferencing skills to understand what a text implies, butw
does not explicitly state.

How can I use inferencing skills?

Why are inferencing skills useful?

Reading/Language Content Walk-Away:

Students will read passages to infer meaning; students will define

ASSESSMENT EVIDENCE (formative/summative checks for learning)

(Match the Content Walk-Away)

Modifications/Accommodations (ELL,

IEP, GATE, etc.)

Formative Evidence (checking for understanding throughout the lesson): I

will check for understanding by asking questions during direct instruction
and throughout the group activity.

Content and Language Walk-Away Evidence (Summative): Students will

complete a worksheet that gives them short paragraphs that asks them to
make inferences about the paragraphs. Students will write the definition
of inference on a notecard.


Ask questions by using name cards of

students in the class. For lower-ability
students, ask them questions that they
will be able to answer that will still
benefit their understanding.

Those students from different cultures

and backgrounds may have different
experiences and come to different
conclusions than their peers. Keep this in
mind while grading.

(ELL, IEP, GATE, etc.)

Activate Prior Knowledge/Experiences

I will begin by showing a cartoon on the projector that depicts a melting
snowman and a sign that reads Welcome to Florida. The caption then
reads Ive got to find a new travel agent. Cartoon image can be found at
77/343x477/snowman.gif (A formal citation of this source is also found in
Appendix A).
I will then ask students what they think brought the snowman to Florida.
Based on what is on the caption, students may say something like, He
wanted to go on vacation. I will then ask students if the snowman had
intended to go to Florida. Using clues found in the cartoon, such as the
snowmans melting figure and frowning face, students should recognize
that the snowman did not want to go somewhere sunny but instead wanted
to be somewhere cold. Students can also use their background knowledge
of snow and snowmen to make this inference.
I will then show another cartoon, this one depicting a scene in a pet store.
A fish in a bowl bears a for sale sign advertising a piranha and providing a
price. A cat sits on the floor, the fur on its front legs gone, leaving only
shaved hide. Cartoon image can be found at (A formal reference to this source can be found in Appendix
I will then ask the students to tell me what happened to the cat. Students
will use their prior knowledge of the behaviors of piranhas and cats to infer
that the cat put its front paws in the fishbowl and got attacked by the

Monitor for understanding of all

students, including IEP and ELL.

Ask questions by using name cards of

students in the class. For lower-ability
students, ask them questions that they
will be able to answer that will still
benefit their understanding.

Focus Lesson (I do it)

Students were introduced to inferencing earlier in the year, using my
mentor teachers formula. I will begin by reminding students of this and
showing them the formula: Inferencing = what they read + what they know.
Guided Instruction (We do it)

Require input from all students in the

class. Use the name cards to call on
students as their names come up,
adjusting questions for lower students.

I will then show a powerpoint that has a few short paragraphs and
questions that ask students to use inferencing skills to find out the meaning.
Students will read the slides and answer the inferencing questions. Sources
used on the presentation are provided in Appendix A.
Collaborative/Cooperative (You do it together)*
In table groups, I will hand out a short reading selection that corresponds to
inferencing questions. They will read the selections together and provide
answers. I will check for comprehension by monitoring groups as they
work and checking their answers.
*Note: the collaborative/cooperative section of the lesson plan was added
later, after reflecting on the lesson that was taught without including a
collaborative/cooperative component. This inclusion is what I would do
differently if teaching the lesson again.

The two emotionally disturbed students

may not want to work together at their
table. If this is the case, provide each
student with a reading selection and

Independent (You do it alone)

I will then provide students with a worksheet that tests their inferencing
abilities by reading paragraphs and answering questions that require
inferencing skills. A formal citation for these sources can be found in
Appendix A.
Explain to students the importance of inferencing and how it will help them
become better readers and interpreters of texts.
Revisit Essential Questions
Use student cards to have students answer the essential questions.
What do I need to remember to do? Remember to monitor ELLs for
comprehension, answering questions and clarifying as needed. Also
monitor students with IEPs for comprehension and understanding.
Materials to have ready? cartoons on the projector, group reading
selections, and copies of summative assessments
Approximate time needed for lesson? 90 minutes

Those students from different cultures

and backgrounds may have different
experiences and come to different
conclusions than their peers. Keep this
in mind while grading.


How can I use the assessment data to reflect on & evaluate the outcomes of teaching and learning? How can I transfer
what I learned from teaching this lesson to future teaching? What was effective and not effective? What goals can I set
to improve my practice and student learning?

Overall, this lesson went well. However, in my own classroom, I would pair it with a novel that is
currently being studied to make it more relevant to the students. Also, instead of teaching any of
these skills in isolation, I would like to introduce them using the novel and continue to use those
skills throughout the novel.
I also needed to include a group activity in this lesson. To incorporate a group activity into this
lesson, I should have had the student tables work together to read different reading selections
answer the questions provided to practice their inferencing skills. I would should have addressed the
"so what?" of the lesson to make it clear that inferencing was an important skill that we use every
day in many different situations. I also neglected to do a summarization or closure to the lesson
because of time constraints, but I need to make sure I have just a few minutes at the end of the
period to do so.