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Safety

hazardapossiblesourceofdanger
precautionanactiontakenbeforetoguardagainstpossibledanger
safetyequipmentmaterialssuchasgoggles,gloves,orprotectiveclothingto
keepussafe

ScientificInstruments(Tools)
calculatorsand
computers
organize
data

microscopesand
handlenses

magnifysmall
objects

magnets
pieceof
ironthatexhibits
magnetic
properties

collectingnet

usedtocollect
livingthingslike
insects

notebook
usedto
recorddataand
observations

mirror
ashiny
surfacethatreflects
light

prism
a
transparent
geometricobject
thatrefractslight
andseparatesit
intothespectrumof
colors

panbalanceand
triplebeam
balance
measure
massingrams

hotplate
usedto
heatsubstances

metricrulersand
metersticks

measureslengthor
distanceinmeters
orcentimeters
Celcius
thermometer

measures
temperaturein
degreesCelcius

graduated
cylindersand
beakers
usedto
measurevolumein
millilitersorliters

camera
record
observationsusing
imagesorvideo

springscale

measuresweight
orforceingrams
ornewtons

timingdevices
(clocksand
stopwatches)

usedtorecordtime
terrariumsand
aquariums

habitatsforliving
things


EarthChanges
AgentsofChange

TypeofLandforms

weathering
weatheringbreakit,breakit delta
afanshapeddepositof
the

sedimentatthemouthofa
breaking
river
downof
rockinto
sediment

erosion

erosionmoveit,moveit
the
movement
ofsediment

fromone
placeto
another

canyon
avshapedvalley
erodedbyariver

deposition
depositiondropit,dropit
thelaying
downof
sediment

sanddune
amoundorhillof
windblownsand

wind,
water,and
iceare
agentsof
weathering,
erosion,
and
deposition

ushapedvalley
valley
createdbymovementofa
glacier

Slowvs.RapidChangestoEarthsSurface
SlowChanges
weathering,erosion,depositioncreationofcanyons,
valleys,deltas,mountainformation
Rapid(fast)Changes
volcaniceruptions,earthquakes,tsunamis,
landslides,floods

Constructivevs.DestructiveForces
ConstructiveForces
forcesthat
buildupthelandexamples
includedeposition,delta
formation,sandduneformation,
mountainformation,volcano
formation

DestructiveForces
forcesthattear
downthelandexamplesinclude
weathering,erosion,formationof
canyonsandvalleys,earthquakes,
landslides,volcaniceruptions


Soil
TypesofSoilParticles
clay
tinyparticles,holdlotsofwater,
smoothandsticky
silt
smallparticles,holdswaterpretty
well,smooth
sand
largerparticles,doesnothold
waterwell,gritty
humus
richdarkorganicnutrientrich
soilthatsupportsplantlife

SedimentaryRocks
sedimentaryrocks
formedwhenlayersofsedimentarepressedtogether
andhardenovertimeexampleslimestone,coal,shale,sandstone
LayersofSediment
+Pressure+
MillionsofYears=
SedimentaryRock

FossilFuels
fossilfuel
nonrenewableresourceformedfromremainsofdeadorganisms
examplesarecoal,
petroleum(oil),and
naturalgas
fossilfuelstakemillions
ofyearstoformand
forminsedimentary
rock

RemainsDeadOrganisms+SedimentLayers+
Pressure+Time=FossilFuel

burningfossilfuels
releasesenergyfrom
thesunstoredinthe
deadlivingthings


Fossils
fossil
thepreservedremainsortracesofalivingthingfromlongago
formedwhenanorganismisburiedinsedimentandslowlyhardensinto
rockoristrappedintar,ice,orsap
fossilsgiveevidenceofpastlivingorganisms
whatorganismsate
whatorganismslookedlike
whatorganismslived
howorganismsmoved
howlifeonearthhaschangedover
time
fossilsgiveevidenceofpastenvironments
whattheclimatewaslikeinthepast
warmorcool,dryorwet
whattypeofenvironmentiswasinthe
pastforest,ocean,swamp,desert,
etc.
howtheenvironmenthaschanged
overtime

fossilsarefoundin
sedimentaryrock

NaturalResources
renewableresources

nonrenewableresources
resourcesthat
resourcesthatcanbereplaced arebeingusedfasterthancanbe
replaced
exampleswind,water,solar,
wind,geothermal,biofuels

examplesfossilfuels(oil,coal,natural
gas),minerals,soil

AlternativeEnergyResources
Wemustconservenonrenewableenergyresourcessuchasfossilfuels,
whicharerunningoutandfindalternativeenergyresourcesthatare
renewable
solarenergy

energyfromthe
sun
windenergy

energyfrom
movingair
hydroelectric

energyfromwater
geothermal

energyfromheat
insideearth
biomass
energy
fromlivingthings


WaterCycle
watercycle
thecontinuousmovementofwaterbetweentheearthssurface
andatmospherethatrecycleswater

The
sun
isthedrivingforceofthewatercyclethatprovidesenergyfor
evaporationtohappen.

Weathervs.Climate
weather
theconditionofthe
atmosphereatagiventime

climate
theaverageweather
conditionsoveralongperiodoftime

Examples:
Examples:
o
Itis72
Foutsidetoday.
Theaveragetemperaturein
O
Thewindisblowingsoutheast
forthemonthofJulyis90
F.
at10mph.
Theaverageyearlyrainfallin
Itwillberainytomorrow.
ourareais25inches.
Thetemperaturethisweek
Texashashothumid
O
willbebetween50
Fand
summers.
O
60
F

WeatherMapsandForecasting
A
mapkey
tellswhatthe
symbolsonaweathermap
mean.
highpressure
cool,dryair
thatbringsfairweatherwith
lightwinds
lowpressure
warm,moist
airthatbringstormy
weatherwithhighwinds
warmfront
bringswarmer
airandoftenprecipitation
coldfront
bringscoolerair
andoftenstormsor
precipitation


MovementofEarth,Sun,andMoon
Theearthrotatesorspinsonitsaxisevery
24hourscausingthedayandnightcycle.
Thisalsocausesthesuntoappearto
moveacrosstheskyaswellasthemoon
andstars.
Theearthrevolvesaroundthesunevery
365daysor1year.
Themoonrotatesonitsaxisandrevolves
aroundthesun.

ComparingtheEarth,Sun,andMoon

OrderofthePlanetsfromtheSun

M
y
V
ery
E
ager
M
other
J
upiter
S
erved
U
ranus
N
achos!

PatternsofChangeonEarth
Seasons
Ourearthhasseasonsbecause
theearthsaxisistiltedasitrevolvesaround
thesun.Thenumberofdaylightofhours,
angleofsunlightreceived,andtemperatures
changewiththeseasons.Inthesummer,
whentheearthistiltedtowardthesunthe
daysarelongerandtemperaturesare
warmer.Inthewinter,whentheearthis
tiltedawayfromthesunthedaysareshorter
andtemperaturesarecooler.
Shadows
Duetotheapparentmotionofthe
sunacrossthesky,objectsblockingthe
sunslightcancreateshadows.Shadows
willbelongestinmorningandafternoonand
shortestatnoon.Theshadowisalways
oppositethedirectionofthesun.Shadows
arelongerinthewinterwhenthesun
appearslowerintheskyandhigherinthe
summerwhenthesunappearshigherinthe
sky.

MoonPhases
Themoonappearstochange
shapeintheskyduetotherevolutionofthe
moonaroundtheearth.Theportionofthelit
partweseechanges.Anewmooniswhen
weseenoneofthelitpartandafullmoonis
whenweseeallthelitpart.Aquartermoon
iswhenweseehalfofthelitpart.Acrescent
moonaresmallerthanquartermoonanda
gibbousmoonisbiggerthanaquarter
moon.
WaxOn
withyourrighthandthemoonis
turningonandlitontheright.
WaneOff
withyourlefthandthemoonis
turningoffandlitontheleft.
Tides
Tidesarethenaturalrisingandfallingoftheoceanlevelscausedby
thepullofgravitybetweenthemoonandearth.

Thetideschangeapproximatelyevery6hoursduetotherotationoftheearth
with2hightidesand2lowtideseachday.Thetidesalsochangemonthlyas
themoonrevolvesaroundtheearth.Whentheearth,sun,andmoonarein
lineduringthenewmoonandthefullmoon,thestronggravitationalpull
createsspringtidestwiceamonth.Whentheearth,sun,andmoonforman
Lshapeduringthequartermoons,weakerneaptidesareformedtwicea
month.


ClassifyingMatterbyPhysicalProperties
mass
amountofmatterinanobjectmeasurewithatriplebeambalance
stateofmatter
mattercanbeasolid,liquid,orgas
magnetism
anobjectsabilitytobeattractedtoamagnetsteel,iron,cobalt,
andnickelaremagnetic
relativedensity
ifanobjectfloatsorsinksinwaterorcomparedtoanother
substanceifanobjectfloatsitislessdenseandifitsinksitismoredense
solubilityinwater
abilityofasubstancetodissolvesolubleorinsoluble
abilitytoconductorinsulatethermalorelectricalenergy
metalsaregood
conductorsplastic,rubber,wood,glass,andnonmetalsaregoodinsulators

ConstantPropertiesofWater
o
boilingpoint
100
C,changesfromaliquidtoa
gas
o
meltingpoint
0
C,changesfromasolidtoa
liquid
o
freezingpoint
0
C,changesfromaliquidtoa
solid

*constantregardlessof
theamountofwateror
thecurrenttemperature

MixturesandSolutions

*Mixturesandsolutions
canbeseparatedusing
theirdifferentphysical
properties

Hand

separate
objects
thatare
easyto
pickout

Magnet

separate
objects
thatare
magnetic
steel,iron

sieveor
strainer
separate
objectsof
different
sizes

float/sink
inwater

separate
objectsof
different
densities

filter

separate
solid
from
liquid

evaporation

useto
separate
solutions

TypesofEnergy
mechanical
energy

energyof
motion

thermalenergy

heatenergy
energyof
movementof
particles

lightenergy

energythat
travelsas
wavesand
canbeseen

soundenergy

energythat
travelsas
vibrationsand
canbeheard

electrical
energy

energyof
moving
electrons


ElectricalEnergy
electricity
requiresa
completepathor
circuit
for
electricalenergy
toflowtheflow
ofelectrical
energyiscalled
electriccurrent

anelectricalcircuitrequires:
an
energysource
suchasa
battery
a
conductingmaterial
suchas
metalwiretocarrytheelectric
current
a
receiverorsource
suchasa
lightbulb,motor,orbuzzer
acircuitcanalsohaveaswitchtoturn
itonandoff

LightEnergy
lightenergy
travelsinastraightlineuntilitstrikesanobjectorpassesfrom
onetypeofmattertoanother
Lightcanbe
absorbed
or
takeninbyan
object

Lightcanbe
reflected
or
bounceoffan
object

anyopaque(non
seethrough
objects)most
everydayobjects
absorbsome
light

Lightcanbe
Lightcanbe
refracted
orbent. transmitted
or
passstraight
through

mirrorsandother
shinysurfaces
likemetal,
windows,calm
water

lensesusedin
eyeglasses,
microscopes,
camerasprisms,
water

glassorother
transparent(see
throughobjects)
likeclearglass
orplastic

ForcesandMotion
force
apushorapull
gravity
aforcethatpullsobjectstowardoneanother
friction
aforceofoneobjectrubbingagainstanotherobjectcausingittoslow
down
magnetism
aforcethatcreatesamagneticfieldandpullsironobjects
towardoneanother


InterdependencyinEcosystems
Organisms
interact
and
depend
onotherorganismsandthe
nonlivingelementsinan
ecosystemtosurvive

living+nonliving=ecosystem

a
habitat
istheplacewherean
organismlivesinanecosystem

anorganisms
niche
isitsroleor
jobinitsecosystem

TransferofEnergyinEcosystems
Energyistransferred(or
passedon)throughan
ecosystemfromorganismto
organism

Allthisenergythat
istransferredstarts
fromthesun.

Producers
areusethesuns
energytomakefoodthrough
photosynthesis
plantsincluding
grasses,trees,
flowers,bushes,etc.

foodchain

Plantstaketheenergy
fromthesunandturnit
intoaformthatother
organismscanuse

Consumers
areorganisms
thatconsume(oreat)other
organismstoobtainenergy
foodweb
herbivores
consumers
thateatonlyproducers
(plants)
omnivores
consumers
thateatonlyother
consumers(animals)
omnivores
consumers
thateatbothplants
andanimals

Decomposers
areorganisms
thatbreakdowndead
organisms
fungus,bacteria,andsome
insects

energypyramid


ChangestoEcosystems
ChangesfromNatural
Disasters
fires,
earthquakesfloods,
volcanoes,climate
changesovertime

ChangesbyOrganisms

organismsbuilding
homes(nests,dams,
etc.),overgrazingdueto
overpopulation

ChangesbyHumans

destroyinghabitatsto
build,pollution,
introducingforeign
species,hunting

Effects
organismsovercomeandsurvive,moveandfindnewhabitats,slowly
adaptovertime,ordie

CarbonDioxideOxygenCycle
PlantsneedCO
2
tomakefood
through
photosynthesis
andgiveoffO
2

AnimalsneedO
2
forrespiration
(breathing)and
giveoffCO
2

Adaptations
adaptation
acharacteristicorbehaviorofanorganismthathelpsitsurvive
Purpose

Examples

Obtainfood,
energyor
water

beaksandtalonsofhawksandeagles
longstickytonguesoffrogstoeat
shallowordeeprootsofplantstogetwater
largeleavesofplantstogetsunshine
herbivoreshavelargeflatteethforchewingplants
carnivoreshavesharpteethfortearingmeat

Protection

thornsonplantstokeeporganismsfromeating
poisonousleavestokeeppredatorsfromeating
odorofskunksandotherorganisms
camouflageormimicrytohidefrompredators
hardshellofturtleorarmadillotoprotectandhide

Water
conservation

scalyskinoflizard
thickwaxyleavesthatpreventlossofwater
thicktrunksandbranchesofcactitostorewater

Movement

birdshavelightbonestofly
waterbirdshavewebbedfeettoswim

Hearingor
Seeing

owlshavesensitiveearstohelpfindprey
eaglesandhawkshaveexcellenteyesighttoseeprey


InheritedTraitsvs.LearnedBehaviors
InheritedTrait
aphysical
characteristicyouarebornwith

LearnedBehavior
abehavioryou
learn

colorofeyes
height
coloroffurorskin
leafshape
colorofflower
typeofseeds

readingorwriting
goingtoacertainlocation
lookingforfood
animaldoingatrick
animallearninghowtohuntor
howtobuildanest

LifeCycles
Lifecycle
thesequenceofstagesorchangesinthelifeofanorganism
plantlifecycle

directdevelopment
developthrough
slowinggrowingbutkeepingthesame
basicfeatures

*adultplantproducesseedsandcycle examplesmostmammals,birds,and
reptiles
repeats
completemetamorphosis
organisms
appearancechangesdrasticallyat
eachofits4growthstages
egg,larva,pupa,adult(ELPA)

incompletemetamorphosis
organism
changesappearanceslightlyateach
ofits3growthstages
egg,nymph,adult(ENA)

examplesbutterflies,beetles,moths

examplesgrasshoppers,dragonflies,
cockroaches