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DENTISTRY

By Stephanie Scott
Advanced Veterinary
Terminology
TSU

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mages/casts/german_shepard_dog_skull_
cast.jpg

DENTAL TERMINOLOGY
Dental Formula: Represents the type of tooth and the number of
each tooth found in different species.
Maxilla: Upper Jaw
Mandible: Lower Jaw
Epiglottis: Covers the larynx while swallowing. Does not allow food
to enter the trachea and go into the lungs.
Frenulum: The tongue is connected to this connective tissue in the
ventral surface.
Hard palate: Bony rostral portion of the palate that is covered by
mucous membrane.
Soft palate: The flexible caudal portion of the palate.

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DENTAL TERMINOLOGY
Facial: Vestibular surface of teeth visible from the front (Incisors).
Lingual: The surface of the mandibular teeth adjacent to the tongue.
Palatal: The surface of maxillary teeth adjacent to the palate.
Labial: Tooth surface facing lips.
Occlusal: Part of the tooth that meets with the teeth of the opposite dental arcade.
Buccal: Inside of cheek or mouth.
Interdental Space: Space between each individual tooth.
Rostral: A structure that is closer to the front of the head in comparison with other
structures.
Caudal: A structure toward the back of the head when compared to another structure.
Vestibular: Tooth surface facing the lips or vestibule.

MOUTH ANATOMY
1
1
1- Maxilla
2- Pre- maxilla
3- Mandible

http://www.nakuspvet.ca/images/dog_teeth.jpg

http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/ClientED/anatomy
/images/cat_teeth.jpg

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my__by_nakumah-d4vm5ea.png

FELINE MOUTH ANATOMY


2

1- Epiglottis
2- Incisors
3- Frenulum (under
tongue)
4- Hard Palate
5- Mandible
6- Maxilla
7- Soft Palate
Deciduous Teeth: 26
Permanent Teeth: 30
Dental Formula: 2x(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/3, M 1/1)

4
7

1
3
5

CANINE MOUTH ANATOMY


1- Epiglottis
2- Incisors
3- Frenulum (under
tongue)
4- Hard Palate
5- Mandible
6- Maxilla
7- Soft Palate
Deciduous teeth: 28
Permanent teeth: 42
Dental Formula: 2x (I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)

4
7
1

3
5

http://www.californiadogowners.org/uploads/Image/canine-teeth.jpg

TRIADAN
SYSTEM
Canines

Triadan system provides a consistent method of


numbering teeth across different animal
species. The system is based on the permanent
dentition.

http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/Dentistry/Shared_Media/BasicsShared/Dog.
gif

Felines

http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/Dentistry/Shared_Media/BasicsSha
red/Cat.gif

INCIS
ORS
Purpose: Are used for cutting
and grooming
Location: Front of the mouth

http://www.mypetsdentist.com/sites/site2442/images/e327be1f-7f00-0001-3027a8ceab0876da.jpg

Canines
Purpose: To grasp and
tear
Location: Between the
incisors and premolars.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commo
ns/5/57/Azawakh_K9.jpg

PREMO
LARS
Purpose: Used for shearing
Location: Between the canine
teeth and molars

Molars
Purpose: Grinding
Location: Distal of the
premolars, most caudal teeth

Other names: Bicuspids

http://www.dentalvet.com/vets/basicdentistry/normalorth.jpg

http://www.dogforums.com/attachments/doghealthquestions/
10282d1248353519-moderate-tartar-back-teeth-

CARNASSIAL TEETH
Is the largest shearing tooth of the upper and lower jaw in
carnivores. In canines and felines they are the maxillary fourth
premolar and the mandibular first molar teeth.
Carnassial means tearing of flesh

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Carnassial_pair.gif

http://loudoun.nvcc.edu/vetonline/vet221/dentistry/image
s/dental%20lesson%201/37wornteeth2MVC-003F.jpg

Enamel: Is the hard white substance covering the


dentin of the crown of the tooth.

TOOTH ANATOMY

Cementum: Is the bonelike connective tissue that


covers the root of the tooth.
Dentin: Is the connective tissue surrounding the tooth
pulp.
Pulp: Consists of nerves, blood vessels, and loose
connective tissue.
Gingival Sulcus: Is located between the tooth and
gingival margin
Gingiva: Is the mucous membrane that surrounds the
teeth and forms the mouth lining.
Alveolar bone: The thin layer of compact bone that
forms the tooth socket.
Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous structure that holds
the tooth in the alveolus.

OCCLUSION
The normal position of the teeth when the jaws are closed. In normal
occlusion, the length and width of the jaws and the position of the teeth
in the respective jaws are in harmony
Mesocephalic Breeds:
Well proportioned skull
width and maxillary
length

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nail/645x380/quality/90/?url=http%3A%2F
%2Fs3.amazonaws.com
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4f%2Ffile%2FDalmatian-1-645mk062311.jpg

Dolichocephalic: Narrow
skull and long maxilla

Brachycephalic: Wide
skull with a short maxilla

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ns/0/03/Kufa_charta_-_borzoja.jpg
http://www.wyndcreste.com/images/extra2yrs
400.jpg

MALOCCLUSION
An abnormality in the position of the teeth. It is more common in
brachycephalic breeds and canines.
Skeletal malocclusion: results from jaw length and/or width
discrepancy (usually inherited).
Dental malocclusion: results from tooth malpositioning.
Mandibular Prognathism:
Lower jaw is of normal length
but the upper jaw is too short.

http://en.academic.ru/pictu
res/enwiki/66/Bulldogunder

Mandibular Brachygnathism:
Mandible is shorter than normal
and has an overbite.

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nection.s3.ama
zonaws.com/66
0/flashcards/23
89660/jpg/maxil
lary_prognathis
m14128940F0C5

ANATOMICAL DISORDERS
Wry Mouth: Each
upper and lower right
and left quadrant of
the mouth is
independent of the
other, resulting in
uneven growth which
produces a wry
occlusion.

http://o.quizl
et.com/i/mY
swlP7uGZJ_GKDDcIY6Q
_m.jpg

Anterior Crossbite:
Upper incisor teeth are
caudal to the lower.
May affect one,
several, or all of the
incisors.

http://fce-study.netdnassl.com/images/uploadflashcards/back/0/7/51270267_m.jpg

Posterior Crossbite:
Mandible is wider
than the maxilla in
the carnassial tooth
area.

http://www.mypetsdentist.com/sites/site2442/images/Canines/0827d2bf-7f00-000156d4-9d3dbe999119.jpg

ANATOMICAL DISORDERS
Retained Deciduous
Teeth: Permanent teeth
erupt lingually to
deciduous teeth.

http://www.lifelearncliented.com/cms/resources
/body/2248/5-rsz.jpg

Polydontia: More
teeth erupted
than normal.

Oligodontia: Less
teeth has erupted
than normal.

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Zxw_m.jpg

PERIODONTAL DISEASE
Plaque-induced inflammation of the gums. The inflammation can become
progressive which includes gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, periodontitis, with a final
outcome of loosing teeth.
Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gingiva. It is the earliest sign of periodontal disease.
Gingivitis occurs with a build up of plaque in the gingival sulcus.
Clinical Signs:
Halitosis
Reluctance to chew hard food, bones and toys
Pawing at the mouth
Head shyness
Oral pain
Personality changes
Sneezing, nasal discharge
Increased salivation, bloody saliva
Facial swelling
Tooth Loss

http://houndstoothpetdental.com/images/ginger.jpg

http://suncookrivervet.com/img/dental
_ba.jpg

GINGIVITIS
Inflammation of the gingiva. It is the earliest sign of periodontal disease.
Gingivitis occurs with a build up of plaque in the gingival sulcus.

Clinical Signs:

Halitosis
Reluctance to chew
hard food, bones
and toys
Pawing at the mouth
Head shyness
Oral pain
Personality changes
Sneezing, nasal
discharge
Increased salivation,
bloody saliva
Facial swelling

Diagnoses:

Complete Oral Examination


Increased depth of the gingival sulcus
Presence of tartar and inflammation

Treatment:

Dental scaling, extraction of all loose teeth


http://www.familyvet.com/Dogs/04
Gingival curettage
8.JPG
Sublingual lavage
Antibiotics such as Clavamox, Baytral, and Amoxicillin

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rces/body/1255/1-rsz.jpg

GINGIVITIS
Information for clients:
Good oral hygiene is a necessity for all animals and it should begin around 2
years of age.
Brush teeth daily to help remove tartar and plaque.
Have routine dental cleanings performed by a veterinarian.
Treat gingivitis early!
Tooth extraction may be required to remove the source of infection.
Hard, crunchy food will promote dental health.

http://loudoun.nvcc.edu/vetonline/vet2
21/dentistry/images/dental%20lesson
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%20images/2occlusionpermolarrightP
101.jpg

TEETH
GRADING
Stage 1:
Gingivitis without attachment loss.
There are signs of inflamed and
swollen gums and plaque covers the
teeth.

http://animaldentalclinic.com/clients/15951/images/Stg_1_ging
ivitis.JPG

Stage 2
Early periodontitis - less than
25% of attachment loss. All gums
are inflamed and swollen.
Halitosis (bad breath) and sore
mouth is present.

http://www.vcaspecialtyvets.com/cms/img/9122021/display/CE69D7280E7E-4542-1A92-E35C33EFFE7D.jpg

TEETH
GRADING
Stage 3:
Moderate periodontitis - 25-50% of
attachment loss. Infection and
calculus is destroying the gums.
Mouth is sore and can affect eating.

http://www.animalmedical.net/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/dog-12.png

Stage 4:
Advanced periodontitis - more than
50% of attachment loss. Chronic
bacterial infection that is destroying the
gums and teeth. Bacteria can enter the
bloodstream and cause problems with
internal organs.

http://www.asdablog.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/MO-3.jpg

TEETH GRADING
Stage 5: Periodontal disease has destroyed a significant portion of the

alveolar bone and periodontal ligament of these incisor teeth.

This is an irreversible
stage of periodontal
disease!!

http://www.brooklynvetgroup.com/public/monthlycase/Pe
riodontal.jpg

http://www.mypetsdentist.com/sites/site2442/images/Periodontal%20disease/c8131f2d-7f000001-2e52-742df8931234.JPG

FURCATIONS
Are areas between the roots of multi-rooted teeth and are
indicative of periodontal disease.
Gum tissue recedes with advanced periodontal disease (grades III
and IV) and bone supporting the tooth is eaten away, exposing
the area where the roots come together.
Exposed section appears as a hole at the gingival margin.
Food and debris can build up in the lesion and lead to progression
of periodontitis.

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DOw/mvIAgyVsChE/s1600/1-photo+
%252819%2529.JPG

http://www.mypetsdoctor.com/wpcontent/upLoads/oronasalfistula1.jpg

ORONASAL FISTULAS
Holes formed between mouth and nasal cavity, usually secondary
to periodontal ligament destruction.
Maxillary canines commonly affected.
Clinical Signs: sneezing, and persistent, usually single sided, nasal
discharge with or without bleeding.
Treatment: surgery and antibiotics

http://www.kongyuensing.com/
pic/20090807Carnaissal_Tooth_
Abscess_Poodle_9years_ToaPay

GINGIVAL
HYPERPL
ASIA
Thickening of gum tissue in an
area.

Stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouths
soft tissues. Includes inside of
cheeks, tongue, and gingiva.
Can occur from many local
and systemic causes such as
viral, fungal, and bacterial
infections.

http://commons.wikivet.net/images/thumb/7/7a/Gingiv
al_hyperplasia.jpg/250px-Gingival_hyperplasia.jpg

http://www.merckmanuals.com/media/vet/photos/med
ia/photos/digms903.jpg

COMMON DENTAL
INSTRUMENTS
Magnetostrictive
Ultrasonic Scaler:
Removes calculus, plaque
and stains from the tooth
surface using a water-cooled
ultrasonic tip that vibrates
https://www.allfordentist.com/images/produ
cts/c406af4fa878932541c3f22e7e781593S
calex%20800%20Ultrasonic.jpg

High-Speed Hand Pieces:


To drill and cut teeth using a
variety of burs and tips

http://img.tradeindia.com/fp/
1/647/282.jpg

Sickle Scalers:
Removes calculus
from the crown of
the tooth.
http://www.kavousa.com/img_cpm/009_KaVoUS
A/images/produkte/comfort-drivexdr/CD_bullets.jpg

COMMON DENTAL
INSTRUMENTS
Universal Curettes:
Removes light,
subgingival calculus and
stains from teeth, root
planning, and gingival
and subgingival curettage
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og/product/cache/1/image/800x8
00/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d
27136e95/S/4/S411_412_h1_rgb.
jpg

Calculus removal Forceps:


Removes heavy calculus
from the tooth surface
http://www.instconcept.co.uk/image/ca
che/data/Small%20Animal%20Dental
%20/Forceps%20Small%20Animal
%20dental%20/tartar%20removal
%20forceps%20for%20cats%20and
%20dogs-700x700.jpg

COMMON DENTAL
INSTRUMENTS
Extraction
Forceps:
Grasps and extracts
a tooth from its
socket after it is
loosened.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikip
edia/commons/d/d7/Dental_extrac
ting_forceps_no18_01.jpg

Pigtail Explorer:
Helps exam teeth for
abnormalities, such as
decay, calculus, and
furcations.
http://www.hufriedy.com/products/me
dia/catalog/product/cac
he/1/image/800x800/9d
f78eab33525d08d6e5fb
8d27136e95/E/X/EXD2A
6_h1_rgb.jpg

Periodontal Probe:
Measures the depth of periodontal pockets to
assess the degree of periodontal disease and
identify any loss in gingival attachments
http://www.simplestepsdental.com/i/P/ProbePockets.jpg

COMMON DENTAL
INSTRUMENT'S

http://www.dispomed.com/fr/images/produit/gr
ande/215-MED7-304_big.jpg

http://site.ambercity.com/images/miltex/luxator
-straight-tip-5mm-delluxs5-miltex.jpg

Dental Winged
Elevators:

Luxating Dental
Elevators:

Loosens and cuts


periodontal ligaments
before a dental extraction.

Cuts periodontal ligaments


while preserving bone
anatomy.

http://socialize.lifel
earn.com/p/user/a
_1291/media/dent
al_ba.jpg

DENTAL CLEANING
Step 1: Setup
Technician sets up the dental equipment and supplies and puts on
appropriate personal protective equipment such as goggles, gloves
and face masks. The technician will then:
Place an IV catheter and start fluids if needed.
Follow the pain management protocol.
Follow the anesthesia protocol such as monitoring vitals.
Place gauze in the back of the throat to absorb excess water and debris.

http://www.blumvet.com/images/pho
to-pet-dental-care.jpg

http://anchoranimalhospital.c
om/wpcontent/uploads/dentistry003.jpg

DENTAL CLEANING
Step 2: Oral Examination
The technician will perform a thorough examination of
the patients mouth, charting all abnormalities such
as halitosis, swelling, problems with the occlusion and
more. The technician will then perform dental
radiograph's.
Step 3: Remove Gross Calculus
The technician will use forceps to remove large
amount of calculus. The technician will also use a
hand scalar.
http://www.dentalvet.com/ImageDBPub/TN
25000/TN_IMC20202_450X0Y.jpg

http://media.merchantcircle.com/40386426/15%20Ultrasonic
%20Cleaning%20of%20the%20teeth_full.jpeg

DENTAL CLEANING
Step 4: Ultrasonic Cleaning
Scale off any left over debris on the tooth surface.
Step 5: Subginival cleaning and Root Planning
The Technician will use a scalar along the gum line to remove bacteria
and debris. Then will place a probe around each tooth to look for
pockets and tooth mobility.
Step 6: Polish Teeth
The technician will polish the teeth with paste.

DENTAL CLEANING
Step 7: Extractions
If a tooth needs to be extracted the technician will set up the
tooth removal for the veterinarian to perform.
Step 8: Fluoride Treatment
The technician will apply the fluoride of the teeth.
Step 9: Clean Up Animal and Anesthesia Recovery
The technician will inspect the mouth one last time, remove
the gauze that will placed in the back of the mouth and dry
the patients head.

https://smediacacheak0.pinimg.com/236
x/a0/f3/7f/a0f37fb8c4f39541e3f7a326a6
4f67ca.jpg

ORAL
TRAUMA

Oral trauma can often result in in fracture of the


mandibular symphysis, maxillary dysfunction, and
separation of the hard palate.

Causes:
Falls (High-rise Syndrome)
Fights
Burns (chewing on electric cords or
unusual tasting liquids)
Blunt Trauma
Penetration of foreign bodies
(splinters, needles, and bullets)
Automobile accidents
Self trauma (biting own tongue,
strangulation by stringlike materials,
chewing on things patients shouldnt)

Clinical Signs:
History of signs of head trauma.
Increased salivation
Inability to close the mouth
Reluctance or inability to eat
Presence of a foreign body

http://tuftsvets.org/img/dental_f
racture.jpg

http://files.dvm360.
com/alfresco_image
s/DVM360/2014/10/
27/2c55b52a-e4f74661-9ddc029546ca5a61/vete
rinary_Bellows_oral_

http://www.thepetdentist.com/im
ages/oral_surgery_3.jpg

ORAL
TRAUMA
Diagnoses:
Physical examination of the oral cavity
Radiographs

Clients information:
Young animal should never be alone.
Keep animals fenced or on a leash.
Limit felines access to thread and needles
Avoid feeding bones to canines and felines

Treatment (depends on the damage):


Control bleeding
Provide supportive treatment such
as fluids and pain relief.
Maintain an adequate airway
Repair/extract damaged tooth
Surgical repair

CONCLUSION
In summary, to provide good dental hygiene and to help prevent most
dental diseases, is to provide good client education. It is important to
inform the owner that it is recommended to do annual dental cleanings
after 3-5 years of age. Technicians can also recommended owners to
brush the animals teeth once a day, provide objects to chew on such as
rawhides, greenies and CET chews. There are also products to put in
animals drinking water to help freshen the animals breath. It is important
to discuss the importance of trying to take good care of the teeth to
prevent the animal losing any teeth and discomfort for the animal.

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RESOURCES
Bassert, J., & McCurnin, D. (2010). Dentistry and Oral Surgery. InMcCurnin's Clinical
Textbook for Veterinary Technicians(7th ed., pp. 1093-1148). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier
Saunders.
Bellows, J. (2000, October 31). Dental Anatomy. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://
www.dentalvet.com/vets/basicdentistry/dental_anatomy.htm
Marshall, G., & Peter, K. (2011). Dental Instruments. InCompanion-Animal Dental
and Surgical Instruments: A Reference for Veterinary Technicians and Assistants(pp.
261-319). Lakewood, Colo.: American Animal Hospital Association Press
Modified Triadan System: Tooth Numbering in the Dog. (2002, January 1). Retrieved
March 1, 2015, from http://www.rvc.ac.uk/review/Dentistry/Basics/triadan/dog.html
Romich, J. (2009). Gut Instincts. InAn illustrated Guide to Veterinary Medical
Terminology(3rd ed., pp. 106-111). Australia: Thomson Delmar Learning.

RESOURCES
Summers, A. (2007). Diseases of the Digestive System. InCommon
Diseases of Companion Animals(2nd ed., pp. 38-41). St. Louis, Mo.:
Mosby.
Veterinary Dental Basics. (2002, January 1). Retrieved March 1,
2015, from http://
www.rvc.ac.uk/review/Dentistry/Shared_Media/pdfs/Basics_print.pdf
Watson, P., & Jack, C. (2009). Dentistry. In M. Donovan
(Ed.),Veterinary Technician's Daily Reference Guide Canine and
Feline.(2nd ed., pp. 497-517). Ames: John Wiley & Sons.