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The safety of food produced, served & consumed is of utmost importance to
everyone, more so to those who habitually eat outside their homes and are
unaware of the intrinsic quality of food that is served to them, even though
their taste buds approve it.

Food production centers or kitchens provide all conditions necessary for

growth of micro organisms, such as food, humidity & right temperature. All
of which are conducive to the spread of infection, disease & infestation if not
controlled & monitored through strict regimens with respect to hygiene &
sanitation practices.

The relationship of safe food & wealth is well established & has been linked
to the cultural practices of the country. The problem of getting safe food is
more severe in public eating places where large quantity of food are pre-
prepared, held & finished on demand for service.

Food safety problems can be tackled at various levels in different ways with
training in safety being organized. Training in safety can be organized under
3 distinct categories usually abbreviated as the 3E’s, namely safety
education; safety engineering and enforcement of safety.

Safety programs and policies can only be effective if the staffs are trained to
think and act safety at work for this, educating them in the following areas is

(i) Teaching safe methods, with particular emphasis on areas of

potential dangers, & how these can be guarded against.
(ii) Demonstrating the use of safety equipment installed in the
established and location and use of first aid material.
(iii) In culcating in people the ability to recognize the signs of hazard
around them, in colleagues and equipment e.g. – unwell person or
an unusual sound from an equipment.
(iv) Teaching staff the legal implication of non-adherence to safety
 Should start during induction of the employee to the establishment.
 Is effective by formation of safety committees in the establishment.
 Should include giving info. about legal and financial implication of
 Should be done using audio-visual aids discussion, bulletin board,
weekly safety theme.
This involves the building in of safety features in the structure of the
establishment in the equipment, furniture and fittings, and their proper
arrangements within the spaces equipment should be selected with care to
ensure safety in design that can make it possible to maintain sanitation of
parts that come in contact with food.

That means implementation or practice safety rules need to be enforced
by rule, law or custom and practice. Also by

i. Discipline at work
ii. Close supervision of all activities in vulnerable areas and at peak
iii. Closing all switches for fuel supply and water taps when not in use.
iv. Immediate attention to repair of leaks and regular maintenance and
servicing of equipments to ensure optimum operation

Defination: - food safety is defined as keeping food safe to eat at every stage
of (purchasing, receiving, storage, preparing, cooking, holding, cooling,
reheating, and serving) handling as it passes through the flow of food from
farm to table.

Thus food safety is the protection of food product from unintentional

contamination (means cross contamination)

According to 2005 FDA food code, a hazard is a biological, chemical or
physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human
1. Biological hazard include bacterial viral and parasitic microorganisms
bacteria: e.g. bacillus cereus, campylobacter jejuni, clostridium
botulinum, E. coli, salmonella spp, shigella spp.

The majority of biological hazards are bacteria that can be controlled

through time, temperature, acidity and water activity. Some bacteria from
spores that and highly assistant and may not be destroyed by cooking
and drying.

Viruses can exist in food without growing, but they can rapidly reproduce
once they are on a living host, most typically a human being. Viruses can
best be controlled by good personal hygiene, because that limits the
transmission of viruses via human contact or common food contact e.g.
hepatitis A and E, rotavirus, nor virus, reo virus.

Parasites also need a host. They are mostly animals – host specific. What
the can survive in humans. Adequate cooking or freezing destroys
parasites. Special attention to foods such as pork, fish and bear, the are
known to carry parasites. E.g. taenia spp, trichinella spiralis.

chemical hazards also cause food borne illness. Chemical hazards may
occur naturally or may be introduced during any stage of food production.
Natural occurring chemicals can be found in some species of fish or shell
fish some plant foods and mushrooms e.g. some chemicals added to food
also make them unsafe. These include sulfites, sodium nitrates, mono
sodium glutamate or lead, copper environmental additives (fertilizers
pesticides) and cleaning agents (sanitizers, lubricants)

Tetrodoxim (fish), mycotoxin like aflatoxim (corn), patulin (appejuice)

paralytic shellfish poisoning (psp).

Any physical material or foreign object not normally found in a food that
can cause illness and injury it may result from contamination
carelessness, mishandling and implementing poor procedures at many
points. From harvest to consumers. e.g. Glass, wood, stone, metal,
fragments, bone, plastic.

Food hygiene
Food hygiene may be defined as the sanitary science which aims to
produce food that is safe for the consumer and of good keeping quality. It
covers a wide field and includes the rearing, feeding, marketing and
slaughter of animals as well as the sanitation procedures designed to
prevent bacteria of human origin reaching foodstuffs.
General characteristics
1. Bacteria are minute unicellular plant like micro organisms. The length
of bacterial cell is about 1um and smaller than this in diameter.
Bacteria are classified according to the shapes of their shells. Looci
are spherical in shape, vacilli, elongated cylindrical forms, spiral, they
can pass through natural pores of foods. Bacterial spores are seed like
and they are more resistant to most processing conditions than yeast
or mold spores.
Bacteria with few exceptions, cannot grew in media as acid as
those in which yeast and mold thrive. They multiply by cell division.
Under favorable conditions bacteria can double their number every 30
min. Some bacteria cannot tolerate oxygen (anaerobes) and some
require oxygen for growth (aerobes). Some can grow in an atmosphere
devoid of oxygen but manage also in air (facultative anaerobes)

Yeast are unicellular plants(fungi) widely distributed In nature and they
grow well in slightly acid medium in the presence of sugar and water
they are found in fruits, cereals and other food containing sugar. They
are also found in soil, air, on the skins and in the intestine of animals.
They are larger than bacteria. The individual cell length is about 10um
and the diameter is about 1/3rd of this size. Most yeast is spherical and
ellipsoidal. They have been used for centuries for leavening of bread
and to bring about fermentation of food usage they can be harmful to
foods if they bring about undesired fermentation.

Moulds are multicellular filamentous fungi having a fuzzy or cottony
appearance Cohen they grow in foods. They are larger than yeast.
They are strictly aerobes and require oxygen for growth and
multiplication. They grow slowly than bacteria. Moulds frequently threw
under conditions of acidity or of osmotic pressure. Those are inhibitory
to most bacteria. That is why they are found on jams and jellies moulds
require less free moisture for growth than yeast and bacteria the
absence of bright light and presence of stagnant air favour there rapid

The viruses are extremely small ranging from 25-250um in size.
although they share some characteristics with living organisms, they
are not truly alive. They replicate inside a living cell using its host cells
There are no of ways by which viruses may be transmitted most
common of this is via direct or distance contact i.e. from host to host
by touching or through short distance in air. Indirect transmission may
occur. Also via contact with inanimate objects (formites), by the bite of
certain infected insects (vector) by water and food (vehicles)
There are variety of ways in which viruses May entre foods.
i. Primary when the food product already contain virus at the time
of slaughter or harvest or
ii. Secondary when it occurs during processing, storage or
distribution of a food.

Ingestion of raw or semi-cooked food by humans can lead to
infection by parasites. Food like pork, beef, lamb, shellfish,
vegetables act as vehicles for infection.

The organism contaminated food when raw human excreta are used
as for crops. Infected water poor hygiene also spread parasite.
Cooking kills most of these parasites.


Microorganisms have optimum growth temperature .They do not
grow above or below a specific range of temperature. Bacteria
can grow and survive under more extreme conditions than those
tolerated by any of the molds or yeasts. Bacteria’s are classified

Psychrophiles – 68o-77oF (45oF) (0-20oC)

Mesophiles – 98oF (20-45oC)
Thermophiles – 110oF (45-60oC)

Moulds can grow and can survive under more extreme

conditions than can the yeasts.

Microorganisms grow in aqueous solutions. A term, “water activity (aw)”
express the degree of availability of water in foods. Foods with high water
content deteriorate fast. Leafy vegetables, fruits, meat, milk deteriorate
rapidly. Fruits & vegetables can give of moisture from respiration &
transpiration even when packed in a moisture free package. This moisture is
enough for microorganisms to grow.

2. PH(hydrogen ion concentration)

Moulds, yeast grow best at PH on the acidic side of neutrality as do some
bacteria. Many species of bacteria grow at PH which are at neutrality or
slightly on alkaline side. Extreme PH for bacteria (PH 4 – PH 11)


Microorganisms especially bacteria vary greatly from species to
species. In the presence of some inorganic salts some bacteria can
utilize the nitrogen in air to form proteins and carbon dioxide in air to
obtain energy they also use lactates as source of energy. Moulds and
yeast like bacteria require basic elements – carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, sulphur etc. as well as vitamins & other
organic compounds.
Some bacteria are aerobic that is they require oxygen for growth.
Some both presence and absence (facultative aerobes/ anaerobes)
bacteria that do not require oxygen – anaerobes. Moulds & yeast

Foods undergo deterioration or spoilage from the time they are harvested,
slaughtered or manufactured. Foods undergo physiological, chemical and
biological changes & make them unfit for human consumption.

Numbers of causes are responsible for food deterioration. These include:

i. Micro-organisms
ii. Activities of enzymes present in food
iii. Insects
iv. parasites
v. rodents
vi. temperature
viii.Oxygen, light and time.

These factors are not isolated In nature. At any one time, many forms of
spoilage may take place depending upon the food and environmental

i. Micro-organism: bacteria, yeasts & molds spoil food after

harvesting, during handling, processing & storage. The micro-
organisms are found everywhere & are always present to invade the
flesh of animas & plants. When there is a cut in their skin or if the skin
is weakened by disease or death.
ii. Food enzymes: enzymes present in plant & animal foods continue
to be present and are even intensified after harvest & slaughter.
Enzymes are responsible for facilitating many changes during storage
such as changes in colour, texture and flavor e.g. ripening of tomatoes,
tenderizing of meat on ageing are desirable, but if proceeded too far
can result in food spoilage if not halted at the appropriate time. The
enzymes need to be inactivated by suitable method at appropriate
time to prevent food spoilage.
iii. Insects, parasites & rodents: insects are destructive to
cereals grains, fruits & vegetables. The loss of food due to insects
destruction varies from 5-50% depending upon the care taken in the
field & storage. Insects are generally controlled by fumigation with
ethylene oxide & propylene oxide.

Parasitic food spoilage occurs in some foods. Pigs eat

uncooked food waste, the parasitic nematode penetrates the pig’s intestine
& finds its way into pork. The live worms can infect man if the pork is not
thoroughly cooked.

Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for amoebic dysentery. This

organization contaminates food when raw human excreta is used as
fertilizers for crops. Infected water and poor hygiene also spread the
parasites. Cooking kills most of these parasites. Rodents contribute
substantially to food spoilage rats cockroaches rodents urine and drippings
harbor several kinds of disease producing bacteria and rats spreads such
human disease as typhus fever, plague, typhoid fever etc.

iv. Temperature: - Heat and cold contribute to food spoilage if not

controlled. The rate of chemical reaction doubles itself for every 10o C
rise in temperature. Excessive heat brings about protein denaturation,
destroy vitamins, break emulsions and dries out food by removing
moisture. Freezing and thawing of fruits and vegetables destroy their
v. Moisture: - Foods with high % water spoil fast. Perishable foods
have a high water content. Control of moisture in foods is thus very
important. From the point of view of their preservation.
vi. Oxygen, Light and Time: - air and oxygen bring about a
number of changes in food components such as destruction of food
colour, flavor vitamin A & C and other food constituents. Oxygen is to
be excluded from in the course of processing while deareation, vacuum
packing or flushing containers with nitrogen or carbon dioxide. Light
destroys vitamin B2, A and C. it also deteriorates many food colours.
Foods may be protected from light by impervious packing or keeping
them in containers that screen out specific wavelengths. Foods
spoilage is time dependent. The larger the time, the greater the
destructive influences.
vii. Food Safety In The Home: - in order to avoid food
spoilage in the home, standards of hygiene should be maintained.
Personal hygiene & kitchen sanitation practice should be maintained.

Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products

The exterior of harvested grains retain some of the natural flora plus
contamination from soil, insects & other sources e.g.

 Of bacteria that infestaie pseudonuenadaceae, micrococcaceae,

 Washing & milling reduces microorganisms.
 Blending & conditioning increases contamination.

Cereal products
 Wheat flour – bacteria – bacillus, sarcina, micrococeus, molds –
aspergillus, penicillium.
 Corn meal – molds – fusarum, penicillum.
 Bread – a freshly baked loaf is practically free of viable
microorganisms, but mold spores contaminate during cooking & before
wrapping slicing by knives also contaminates.


• Milk contains few bacteria when it leaves the udder of healthy cow.
• Contamination starts from the animal especially the exterior of the
adjacent areas. Bacteria found in manure, soil & water may entre from
this source.
• Microorganisms from milking machine, when milking by hand.
• Contamination from dairy utensils & milk contact surfaces like milk oil
or milking machines, bulk milk cooler.
• Hands & arms of the milker, flies, the air around milk parlor.
• Other sources tanker-truck, transfer pipes, sampling utensils,
separators, homogenizers, coolers, glass bottles.


• BUTTER: - microorganisms from churner, from water used in its

washing, old cream & packaging material.
• Dry milk, evaporated milk & sweetened condensed milk may be
contaminated from special equipments used in their preparation.
• Cheese – it is contaminated from air, brine, tanks, shelves & packaging
• Ice cream – organisms may be added to ice cream in the ingredients.

The healthy inner flesh meat contains few or no microorganisms although
they have been found in lymph nodes, bone marrow & even flesh. Normal
slaughtering practices would remove the lymph nodes from edible parts.
Contamination comes from external sources during bleeding, handling and
processing. During bleeding, skinning and cutting the main sources of
microbes is the exterior of the animals (hide, hoofs and hair) and the
intestinal tract.

• Knives, clothes, air, hands and clothing of the workers can serve as
intermediate source of containments.
• During handling contamination comes from cart, boxes, and
contaminated meat, from air and from personals.
• Grinders, sausages stuffers, slicing, casing and ingredients are the
• In home refrigerators, containers used previously to store meats act as
a source.

E.G. molds – cladosporium, geotrichium, panicillium.

Bacteria – pseudomonas, bacillus, clostridium.

EGGS: - Most freshly laid eggs are sterile but the shells of some
become contaminated by faecal material from the hen, by the lining of
the nest, by wash water, by handling the materials in which eggs are


• Spoilage occur during storage, transportation while waiting to be
processed, washing, mechanical damage, processes such as
trimming, peeling, cutting, coring add to contamination.

Spoilage occurs by chemical, biological or both.

CHEMICAL: - by hydrogen swell resulting from the pressure of

hydrogen gas released by action of acid of goods on the iron of the
cane, time, temperature of storage, tinning imperfection, poor
exhaust etc.

BIOLOGICAL: - by microorganisms, survival of organisms after

administration of the heat treatment, leakage of the container after
the process permitting the entrance of microorganisms.

Methods of food preservations
1. Asepsis or keeping out microorganisms.
2. Removal of microorganisms.
3. Maintenance of anaerobic conditions.
4. Use of high temperature.
5. Use of low temperature.
6. Drying
7. Use of chemical preservatives
8. Irradiation
9. Mechanical destruction of microorganisms by grinding or high
10.Combination of two or more of above methods.

Principle of food preservation

In accomplishing the preservation of foods by the various methods the
following principles are involved: -

1. Prevention or delay of microbial decomposition.

a. By keeping out microorganisms.
b. By removal of microorganisms.
c. By hindering growth & activities of microorganisms.
d. By killing of microorganisms i.e. by heat or radiation.

1. Prevention or delay of self decomposition of the food: -

a. By destruction or inactivation of food enzymes e.g. by blanching
b. By prevention or delay of chemical reactions

1. Prevention of damage because of insects animals and mechanical

causes: -

The methods used to control the activities of microbes usually are effective
against enzymatic activities. A summary of the major preservation factor and
their mode of action and achievement presented in the graph.

Logarithm of
numbers of


The curve is divided into phase as indicated in the fig:

(1) The initial lag phase (A to B), during which there is no growth or even a
decline in numbers.
(2)The phase of positive acceleration the rate of growth is continuously
(3)The log or exponential phase of growth (C to D), during which the rate
of multiplication is most rapid and is constant.
(4)The phase of negative acceleration (D to E), during which the rate of
multiplication is decreasing.
(5)The maximal stationary phase (E to F), where numbers remain
(6)The accelerated death phase (F to G).
(7)The death phase or phase of decline (G to H), during which numbers
decrease at a faster rates then new cells are formed and
(8)The survival phase (H to I) during which no cell division occur but
remaining cells survive on endogenous nutrients.

Microorganisms do not decrease at a fixed rate to zero but taper of very

gradually as law numbers.


Foods preservation is best by lengthening lag phase & the phase of positive
acceleration. This can be done by: -

i. By introducing as few spoilage organisms as possible i.e. by reducing

the amount of contamination, the fewer organisms present, the longer
the lag phase.
ii. By avoiding the addition of activity growing organisms.
iii. By one or more unfavorable environmental conditions.
iv. By actual damage to organism by processing methods such as heating
or irradiation.

1) ASEPSIS: - keeping out the microorganisms by adopting good
hygienic practices and sanitized environment.
filtration, centrifugation (sedimentation or clarification) washing or
complete fill, evacuation of unfilled space or replacement of air by
carbon dioxide and by inert gas nitrogen.
TEMPERATURES: - high temperatures denature proteins and
inactivate enzymes required for metabolisms of the microorganisms.
That treatment varies with microorganisms. Depending on the heat
treatment employed some of the vegetative cells, most of the cells are
part of bacterial spores, or all of them may be killed.
Yeast and yeast spores: ascospores are killed at 600C for 10 to 15
Yeast and yeast spores: 62.80C for 30 minutes, 71.70C for 15 seconds.
Mold & mold spores: Are killed at 600C in 5 to 10 minutes e.g.
Bacteria: salmonella typhe - 600C for 4 minute E.coli – 57.30C for 20 to
30 minutes, streptococcus thermophiles – 700C to 750C for 15 minutes,
clostridium botulinium - 1000C for 100 to 330 minutes.
- low temperatures are used to retard chemical reactions and action of
food enzymes and to slow down or stop the growth and activity of
microorganisms in foods. The lower the temperature the slower the
chemical reaction, enzyme action and microbial growth, a low enough
temperature will prevent the growth of any microorganisms.
Commercial refrigeration temperatures i.e. lower than 50C to 70C
effectively retard growth of many borne pathogens.

Cold storage: - most commercial storage freezers are at or below – 18


Common or cellar storage lower than 150C (for root crops, potatoes,
cabbage, apples)

CHILLING STORAGE: - it involves cooling by ice or by mechanical

refrigeration. Most perishable foods including eggs, dairy products, meat, sea
fodd, vegetables & fruits are kept at chilling storage. Temperature varies
from – o.50C to 100C.

• Sharp freezing: - -150C to 290C & may take 3 – 72 hours.
• Quick freezing: -
a) Direct immersion of the food or the package food in a refrigerant as in
the freezing of fish in brine.
b) Indirect contact with the refrigerant at -17.80C to -45.60C.
c) Air blast freezing where air at -17.80C to -34.40C is blown across the
materials being frozen.
6) PRESEVATION BY DRYING: - drying usually is
accomplished by the removal of water but any method that reduces
the amount of available moisture in a food is a form of drying, method
of drying includes
• Solar drying ( raisins, figs, pears, fish, rice)
• Mechanical dryers – it involves passage of heated air with controlled
relative humidity over the food to be dried or the passage of the food
through such air. E.g. evaporator or kiln, drum dry, spray drying, freeze
dryers & vacuum dryers.
additive is a substance or mixture of substances, other than the basic
food stuff, which is present in food as a result of any aspect of
production, processing, storage or packaging. Those food additives
which are specifically added to prevent the deterioration or
decomposition of a food are referred as chemical preservatives, their
enzymes activity or their genetic mechanisms. E.g. propeonic acid,
sodium or calcium propionates, sorbic acid, nitrite & nitrates, salt,
sugar, wood smoke, spices, spices like cinnamon & cloves.
7) PRESERVATIO BY RADIATION: -Use of U.V radiation,
ionizing radiation which include x rays, gamma rays, beta rays and
cathod rays and microwave heating which have electromagnetic waves
between infrared and radio waves.

Microbial floras associated with foods have a broad complement of enzymes

that bring about fermentative proteolytic and lipolytic changes. Proteolytic
organisms break down proteins and other nitrogenous compounds resulting
in putrid & rotten odour & flavor. Lipolytic organisms hydrolyze lipids giving
rise to free fatty acids resulting in rancidity. These changes are undesirable
in foods.

On the other hand fermentative organisms converting carbohydrates &

related compounds to alcohols, acids & carbon dioxide are not offensive to
food tastes. Fermentation produces flavor & textural changes also increases
its nutritional quality.

Fermentation by certain molds, break down the indigestible protective

coating as they are rich in cellulose splitting enzymes. These enzymes
convert cellulose simple sugars thereby increasing NV.

The term fermentation means breakdown of carbohydrates material by

microorganisms under anaerobic condition. The list of foods produced by
fermentation is extremely long and includes cheese, curd, butter, all
alcoholic beverages, pickles, vinegar, bread, idli, soya sauce, coffee, tea &
cocoa. Fermentation by: -

Yeast: bread, beer, wine, distilled liquors.

Yeast + bacteria – vinegar

Bacteria – fermented milk

1. BREAD: Microorganisms are useful in 2 ways

(i) They may produce gas to leaven or raise the dough, giving the
bread the desered loose, porous texture.
(ii) They may produce desirable flavouring substances. E.g.
saccharomyces cerevisiae.
1. DAIRY PRODUCTS: Mixture of strains strepto coccus lactis & S.
cremores for production of acid and leuconostoc dextranicum & L.
citrovorum for the production of flavor & aroma.
• CHEESE – Lucconotoc strains, streptococcus thermophilus, lactobacillus
• FERMENTED SAUSAGES – Pediococcus orevisiae.
• MINE – Special yeast. Apecial strain of S. cerevisiae vai. Ellipsoideus.
• BLUE CHEESE – penicillum roqueforti
• SOYA SOUCE – Aspergillus oryzae together with lactobacillus delbruckii.
• MISO – A oryzae + sacchoromyces rouxii + cattic acid bacteria +
• IDLI – Idli a fermented food of india when the batter has risen enough,
it is cooked by steaming & served hot leuconostoc mesenteroides
grows first in the batter, leavening it, and is followed by streptococcus
faecalis & finally pediococcus cerevisiae which contribute to the
Food borne illnesses are conditions of distress following the ingestion of food
or drink. Such illnesses may strike one person or hundreds of persons in a
single outbreak, and may be only mildly and temporarily unpleasant, or fatal.
They are microbial and non – microbial in origin.

There are 11 major types of food borne illnesses: -

1) Indigestion
2) Food intolerance or food sensitivity
3) Algae toxins
4) Metal poisons
5) Phyllotoxins
6) Manufactured agricultural & household chemicals
7) Zootoxins
8) Protozoan disease
9) Infestation
10)Microbial infections
11)Bacterial & fungal food intoxications.

1. INDIGESTION: - is acute food borne distress which follows

willful neglect or violation of good eating habits. Symptoms of distress,
acute abdominal pains and vomiting.
sensitivities are the food related reactions termed allergy,
immunological hypersensitivity – i.e. manifestation of the antigen –
antibody reactions following ingestion or contact with food
hypersensitivity to milk, wheat flour & eggs is common.
3. ALGAE TOXINS: - Three divisions of algae namely: -
(i) Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) e.g. Gonyaulax Catanella, G.
(ii) Cyanophyta (blue – green algae) e.g. anabaena flos – aquae,
microcystis aeruginosa.
(iii) Chrysophyta (golden brown algae) e.g. prymnesium parvum. All
the organisms occur both in fresh & marme waters, but almost
invariably incidents of shellfish poisoning occur in seawater.
4) METAL POISONS: - Both mineral and organic material toxic to
man & animals are widespread in environment. They occur in foods,
often as normal constituents. The prominent intoxicating mineral
elements are arsenic, lead, mercury and selenium
5) PHYLLOTOXINS: - many plants produce substances with
farmacological and toxic effects on humans and animals e.g.
(i) ANTIENZYMES: - plant - soya beans, legumes, potato. Action – trypsin.
(ii) CARCINOGENS: - plant – senecio. Action – liver damage.
(iii)GOITROGENS: - plant – cabbage and some fruits. Action – enlargement
of thyroid.
6) Manufactured agricultural & household
chemicals: - insecticides, pesticides, growth regulators,
fungicides, and growth simulators e.g. cryolite, lead arsenate,
DDT( dichloride – diphenyl – tri – chloroethane). Most chemicals are
looked upon as adulterants of food. Regulatory control dictates the
care that must be exercised in theirhandling & use, time of application
& residues permitted.
7) ZOOTOXINS: - Zootoxins are associated only with freshwater &
marine foods. It is microbial deterioration of the fish after capture.
8) PROTAZOAN DISEASE: - e.g. Amebiasis – or amebic
dysentery. Its prevalauce is influenced by cultural practicesi.e. by
disposal of human waste in such a ways that food & water are
contaminated. Effective sanitation is necessary to control amebiasis.
9) INFESTATIONS: - Helminthic infestations are illness caused by
cestodes( parasitic, highly segmented flat – worms),
trematodes( parasitic, unsegmented flatworms) and nematodes( long,
cylindrical, unsegmented worms). Many infestations are associated
with foods characteristic of specific geographic areas.all food borne
infestations entre the human through food & water, it is also
transferred during the handling of the meat. E.g. Ascariasis,
enterobiases, taeniaises.

(i) streptococci : - it is caused by, strepto – coccus phyogenes. It is

responsible for acute, pus forming infections. Common vehicles for
spreading the disease are raw milk & cream contaminated by infected

(ii) Salmonella: - caused by Salmonela. Salmonella, or enteric fever lies

affected humans for centuries. The symptoms are fever, septicemia and
gastroenteritis. The agent of thypoid is Salmonella thyphi. Symptoms –
high fever incidence occur through contamination of well water, milk &

(iii) Shigellosis: - shigellosis of bacillary dysentery is caused by

organism belonging to genus shigella. Commonly associated with
milk & ice cream.
(iv) Cholera: - it is transmitted by contaminated water, fruits,
vegetables, raw/ half cooked fish. Caused by vibrio cholera


1. Tuberculosis: caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosae. Sputum, nasal

exudates, unpasteurized milk, uninspected meat & poultry. Food
related TB is less often respiratory than gastrointestinal, skeletal, and
glandular. & muscular.
2. Listeriosis: - caused by listeria, monocytogenes.
3. Q fever: - caused by coxiella burnetti. Out breaks seen in meat
packaging plants. Causes fever, severe pneumonia.
INTOXICATION: - Although many different organisms can grow
in foods, only few produce toxins that make the food dangerous to eat
among bacteria e.g’s are staphylococcus aureus, clostridium
perfringens, c. botutinum & bacillus cereus. Among fungi e.’s.
ceaviceps purpurea fusarium, asperigullus penicillum.
(i) S.aureus – it resides in the mucous of nose & throat region. The
bacteria leave the nose & month in nasal secretions.During
coughing & sneezing. It causes oimoles, boils, abscesses,
meningitis, and pneumonia. S.A. produces enterotoxims (toxins). It
causes irritation of intestinal tract, cramps, coma, and death.
(ii) Botulism: - It is neuroparalytic disease causes by consuming foods
contaminating toxin of clostridium botulinum. Faulty vegetable
processing , fish & FP, fruits, milk & MP.
(iii) Ergotism: - Caused by claviceps purpurea, a fungal pathogen of rye,
barley, wheat and produces a toxic product called ergot. Fungal
tissue grows on the grains having alkaloids which have toxic
(iv) Aflatoxins: - Caused by mold aspergillus flowers. A wide variety of
commodities. Like almonds, bakery products, millet, peanuts, wheat
flour etc. symptoms are jaundice, hepatitis, hypertension,
carcinogenic in nature.

Food additives is any substance not naturally present in a food but added
during its preparation and remaining in the finished product. Food additives
are all substances added to basic food products. They include anything
added during the production, processing, treatment, packaging, transport &
storage of a food. Food additives are used to decrease the risk of
contamination by certain microbes, maintain and improve nutritional quality,
enhance appearance, increase self life, reduce waste or contribute to
convenience. The PFA gives the definition and list of permissible additives
along with the amount permitted. The substance to be used as food additive
should be of good grade and must meet the PFA or B-S specifications. With
the present degree of urbanization it would be impossible to maintain food
distribution without the processing and packaging with which many additives
are involved. The convenience food revolution would not be possible without
food additives.
Food adulteration of food stuff is commonly practiced in India by the trader.
Adulteration defined as the process by which the quality or the nature of a
given substance is reduced to

1. The addition of a foreign or an inferior substance.

2. The removal of vital element.


Adulterants may be intentional or unintentional. The former is a willful act

on the part of the adulterator intended to increase the margin of profit.
Incidental contamination is usually due to ignorance negligence or lack of
proper facilities.


Intentional adulterants are sand, marble, drip, stone, mud, chalk powder,
water, mineral oil and coal tar, die the adulterants cause harmful effects
on the body.
Food laws came in existence for a number of reasons: -

1. To maintain the quality of food produced in the country.

2. To prevent exploitation of the consumer by sellers. This could only be
done by making consumers aware of what to expect in terms of quality
when they buy food.
3. To safeguard the health of consumers.
4. To establish criteria for quality of food products.
1) SALE OF GOODS ACT, 1930: - this act is important to those catering
establishments which are involved with the sale of prepared food and
drink. Some of the conditions which are implied in a contract of sale of
goods are: -
(i) Condition as to title: for the trade mark safety
(ii) Sale by description: just as selling meals from a menu card.
(iii) Sale by sample: this implies that any bulk food shall correspond in
quality to the sample approved.
(iv) Sale of description & sample: the conditions in this case should
correspond to those under sale by both description & sample.
(v) Conditions as to quality & fitness: the responsibility of examining
the product & satisfying himself according to its suitability for a
particular use rest on the buyer.
(vi) Condition of merchantability: this implies that the goods are of
salable quality, an average person acting reasonably would accept
them after a through examination.
(vii) Condition of wholesomeness: in case of eatable and provisions
wholesomeness is implied.
(viii) Condition implied by customer: this also covers quality or fitness for
a particular purpose

The sale of goods act is based on the rule of justice, equity and good
conscience. it provides a legal solution in case of breach of contract or
warranty between and seller, virtue of which damages can be claimed
against a defaulting party in a court of law


enactment often referred to as AGMARK act, and cater amended and
called APCM act, 1986. This was the result of efforts by the govt. to
standardize and control the quality of agricultural produce. The salient
features of the act are: -
(1)Consumer protection measures.
(2)Authorized packers.
(3)Laboratory for analysis.
(5)Power to obtain information.
(6) Supply of unAGMARKed goods.
this was enacted to safeguard consumers from exploitative
manufacturers and traders who stamped substandard products and its
packing with emblems resembling well known brands and their
packaging design. The provision of this act is now covered under VIS
act 1986.
2) INDIAN STANDARDS INSTITUTION ACT 1952 (ISI): - an amendment act
was passed in 1961 to extend the scope of Indian standards of various
quality control for various raw materials, products, practices and
1976 act was the result of governmental effort to introduce standards
for weighing measuring commodities to protect consumer’s interest.

The act provides for:

(i) Use of metric system for weighing and measuring.

(ii) Formulation of specification for weights, measures and equipment
use for the purpose.
(iii) Approval of equipment model prior to manufacture.
directly concerned with the protection of the health of consumers, and
the quality of food products marketed. PFA states that article of food
shall be deemed to be adulterated: -
(a) If the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or
quality demanded by the purchaser & is to his prejudice or is not of
the nature, substance or quality which it should be.
(b) If the article contains any other substance which affects, or if the
article is so processed as to affect injuriously the nature, substance
or quality thereof.
(c) If any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or
in part for the article so as to affect injuriously the nature,
substance or quality thereof.
(d) If any constituent of the article has wholly or in part been
abstracted so as to affect injuriously the nature, substance or
quality thereof.
(e) If the article has been prepared, baked or kept under insanitary
conditions where by it has become contaminated or injurious to
(f) If the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrid,
disgusting, rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable
substance or is insect infested or otherwise unfit for human
(g) If the article is obtained from a diseased animal.
(h) If the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which
renders it injurious to health.
(i) If the container of the article is composed, whether wholly or in part,
of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders the
contents injurious to health.
(j) If any colouring matter other than that prescribed in respect thereof
and in amounts not within the prescribed limits of variability is
present in the article.
(k) If the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted
preservative in excess of the prescribed limits.
(l) If the quality or purity of the article fall below the prescribed
standards or its constituents are present in quantities which are in
excess of the prescribed limits of variability.

The PFA act, 1954 thus lays down the guidelines for setting up standards for
various food items like cereals & cereal products, pulses, ghee etc. All
processed items which are mass produced for public use expected to
conform to these standards. The penalty for adulteration that is injurious to
health involves a minimum punishment of 1 year in jail and fine of 2000/-
extendable to 6 years and a higher fine as fixed by the court. Adulteration
which is not injurious to health is punishable by 6 months in jail and a fine of
1000/- extendable to 3 years and a minimum fine of as decided by the court.
Some food standards have been formulated and some rules laid down to be
followed under the act, the most of which are the: -

1) PFA standards
2) FPO standards
3) AGMARK standards
4) INDIAN standards

1) THE PFA STANDARDS: - These lay down the minimum

standards for all types of foods and are revised periodically to meet the
requirements of the manufacturer and the consumer from time to
time. The PFA standard were formulated in 1955 were subsequently
revised in 1968, 1973 & 1981. Any food not conforming to these
standards is said to be adulterated.
2) FPO STANDARDS: -The FPO passed in 1946, under the defense of
Indian rules, was revised under the essential commodities act, 1955.
The FPO standards are mainly concerned with the standards required
for maintaining the quality of fruits & vegetables & products
manufactured from them. The FPO also specifies the conditions of
hygiene & sanitation required to be maintained by manufacturer of F &
V products. The specification for the labeling & packaging of these
products have been laid down. Under the FPO it is necessary for
manufactures to get a licence is only issued if the conditions of
manufacture & the quality of the products conforms to the standards
laid down by the order.
3) THE AGMARK STANDARDS: - These standards are formulated
on the physical & chemical characteristics of food, both the natural as
well as those acquired during processing. Products graded under
AGMARK include vegetable oils, ghee, cream, butter, rice, gur, eggs,
groundnuts, potatoes, fruits, pulses & spices. These standards ensure
accurate weights & correct selling practices.
4) INDIAN STANDARDS: -These standards cover vegetable and
food products, spices, meat products, condiments & processed food
like biscuits, sweets, flour, texturised soya products, tea, coffee &
other beverages and so on. The standards are set up by the ISI, who
certification mark is ISI, seen on all products indicating conformity to
lay down standards the ISI (now BIS) is the national organization for
standardization and lays down criteria for standardization of products,
materials, practices & processes. It is also involved with the
standardization of items like building materials, safety standards for
equipments etc. which the caterer must be aware of when decision
regarding premises an equipment are required to be taken.

VEGETABLE OIL CONTROL ORDER (VOCO): - This specifies the standards

desired for edible oil and hydrogenated fat to be marketed.

THE MEAT PRODUCT ORDER (MPO): - relates to quality of meat products

manufactured for sale. Quality refers to the health of the animal being
slaughtered hygienic condition of slaughter houses and microbial quality of

MILK AND MILK PRODUCT ORDER (MMPO): - This was passed by the
government in 1992 the MMPO provides for setting up of an advisory board
to advise the government on the production, sale, purchase and distribution
of milk.

ECOMARK: - this system launched by the BIS was introduced to preserve the
environment from pollutants. The mark ensures the consumer that products
do not produce hazardous waste materials, are biodegradable and can be
recycled. Food item covered includes edible oil, tea, coffee, beverages, infant
food, processed foods along with food additives, preservatives and
packaging materials as well.

CODEX ELIMENTARIOUS: - FAO/WHO food standards program is called

CODEX elimentarious it is a combine set of standards, codes or practices and
other model regulations available for countries to use and apply to food
industry in international trade. The dual objective of CODEX elimentarious
commission is to protect the health of consumers to facilitate international
trade. CODEX commodity standards cover food as fruit juices cereals meat
products etc. general standard cover areas applicable to most food hygiene
and technological aspects such as food hygiene and technological practices.
They are used by processor to insure that foods are microbiologically safe
and are fit for human consumption. Maximum residue limits (MRLS) have
been setup for pesticides specification for food grade quality of additives
form an important part of CODEX work.


safety system which is recognized world wide. HACCP is a food safety risk
management tool that is applied to determine significant hazards pertaining
to specific products and process and to control the occurrence of such
hazard. HACCP is preventing in its approach, in that, it aims to prevent rather
than detect problem. Many of the benefits of HACCP are of a long term
nature such as reduced wastage through improve process control, more
efficient use of resources which will provide a financial rewards for the
company, additional foods surely stands to benefit on this.


world wide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140
countries, one from each country. ISO is a non government organization
established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of
standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating
the international exchange of goods and services and to develop cooperation
in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economical activity.
The ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 are most widely known and successful
standards ever. ISO 9000 has become an international reference for quality
requirements in business and ISO 14000 looks set to achieve as much in
helping organization to meet there environmental challenges thus ISO 9000
is concerned with quality management, ISO 14000 is concerned with
environmental management.