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Gabriel Stephen | University of Florida

Cross-Cultural Training Overview


Executive Summary:
Cross-Cultural Conflicts are a common cause of expatriate pre-mature
return (failed assignments), prevalence of ethnocentrism and prejudice
exacerbate this occurrence. Cross-Cultural conflicts are best addressed with
flexibility in performance and knowledge of host countrys culture; this is
reflected in various models of cultural competency.
Although there are no unifying theoretical approaches to CCT, social
learning, cultural shock and intergroup contact theories are all good fits for
further analysis.
Specific methods for CCT are varied and can be tailored to the
personality of the participants and/or the country cluster of home and host
cultures; most important to the training process is focusing on behavior
modification regardless of culture-general or culture specific approaches.
Because expatriates are often in leadership positions, an effective leader
must possess a number of universally desirable leadership attributes, and
incorporate one or a combination of six global leadership behaviors (based on
the preferences of the host country culture).
Definitions & Theories:
Ethnocentrism the tendency for individuals to place their own group (ethnic,
racial, or cultural) at the center of their observations of the world
Prejudice a largely fixed attitude, belief, or emotion held by an individual
about another individual or group that is based on faulty or unsubstantiated
data
Social Learning Theory experience and observed consequences of behavior
shape learning
Cultural Shock Theory a normal process of transition, adaptation, and
adjustment in which an individual who enters a foreign environment for an
extended time period experiences cultural stress
Intergroup Contact Theory reduction in prejudices among different cultural
groups, which comes as a result of intergroup interactions
Cultural Competency (Cross,
1989)
Value Diversity
Conduct Self-Assessment
Manage Dynamics of
Differences
Institutionalization of
Cultural Knowledge
Adaptation to Diversity

Intercultural Competency (Rudd & Lawson,


2007)
Appropriateness
Effectiveness
Anxiety Reduction
Adaptation
Face Honoring & Protection
Sensitivity & Empathy
Mindfulness & Presence
Knowledge

Training Considerations & Methods:


Culture-general Training
1

Culture-specific Training

Gabriel Stephen | University of Florida


Cross-Cultural Training Overview
Attribution Training
Interaction Training
Culture Awareness
Language Training
Didactic Training
Experiential Training
Personality Characteristics
Training Style
Ideal Expatriate
Attribution
Type A Expatriate
Culture, Experiential,
Introvert
Culture, Language, Experiential
Dependent
Culture, Didactic
(Littrell et al., 2006: for more personality characteristics and their training
styles)

Anglo
Confucian Asia
Eastern Europe
Germanic Europe
Latin America

Country Clusters
Latin Europe
Middle East
Nordic Europe
Sub-Saharan Africa

Leadership:

Six Global Leadership Behaviors


Charismatic/Value-based
Humane-oriented
Team-oriented
Autonomous
Participative
Self-Protective

Universally Desirable Leadership


Universally Undesirable Leadership
Attributes
Attributes
Trustworthy
Loner
Honest
Asocial
Coordinator
Dictatorial
Win-win Problem Solver
Ruthless
(Terlutter, Diehl, & Mueller, 2006: for more desirable and undesirable
attributes)

Gabriel Stephen | University of Florida


Cross-Cultural Training Overview
Reference:
Bhawuk, D. P. S. & Brislin, R. W. (2000). Cross-cultural training: A review.
Applied
Psychology: An International Review, 49(1), 162-191.
Chew, J. (n.d.). Cross cultural training for international assignees of Australian
multinational corporations.
Cross, T. L. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care: a
monograph on
effective services for minority children who are severely emotionally
disturbed.
Global Leadership Training. (n.d.). Grovewell LLC. Retrieved March 13, from
http://www.grovewell.com/cross-cultural- training.html
Karthik, K. (2014). Consequence of cross cultural misunderstanding - A
shipboard
perspective. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 7(7), 6-9.
Littrell, L. N., Salas, E., Hess, K. P., Paley, M., & Riedel, S. (2006). Expatriate
preparation: A critical analysis of 25 years of cross- cultural training
research. Human Resource Development Review, 5(3), 355-388.
Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage.Pettigrew, T. F.
(1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49(1),
65-85.
Rudd, J. E. & Lawson, D. R. (2007). The role of intercultural communication
competency in global business negotiations. Communicating in Global
Business Negotiations: A Geocentric Approach. Sage.
Terlutter, R., Diehl, S., & Mueller, B. (2006). The GLOBE studyapplicability of a
new
typology of cultural dimensions for cross-cultural marketing and
advertising research. In International Advertising and Communication
(pp. 419-438). DUV.