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EDUC 2241- Educating Children with Special Needs


Noel Vadino
24 September 2014
Subject Area:

Literacy (Grammar Lesson)


o Homonyms and Homophones
Grade Level: Elementary School- 2nd grade
Number of Students: 20 students
Materials Needed: Pencil, Notebook, Art Supplies
*Lesson Plan is equipped for General Education Classroom.
Disability A: A legally blind male student, has entered the general education classroom. The
student has a one-on-one aid at all times and is seated near the teacher and doorwaythis is for
easy access to the exit and to have his materials closer to the educator. The students materials
will include Braille, large-print texts, or recordings to get through each lesson plan. He will have
more time for his lesson plans. His activity will be highlighted in red.
Disability B: A male student who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The
student functions at a level lower than second grade and has mild behavioral problems. The
student is active and personable among classmates. The student needs constant encouragement,
praise, and set goas for each lesson. The students materials will include a constant partner
throughout the lesson, a preview strategy for each assignment, and more time for his lesson
plans. His activity will be highlighted in blue.

1. Anticipatory Set:
Before I begin my daily lesson on the understanding of homonyms, homophones and
their differences, I am going to engage my second grade class into a story-time break. This
transition into a new lesson is an opportunity for children to relax, to get up out of their desks,
and to sit comfortably while I read them a story which sets precedence for the lesson. The story
that I am going to read is If you were a Homonym or a Homophone by Nancy Loewen and
illustrated by Sara Gray. This story is brief but entertaining for the students.

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While reading the story, this activity will only require the students to mentally brainstorm
about common words and I encourage them to listen and to realize the trend that unfolds in the
tale. The text is constructed in a way that gives directions of various terms and how similar
words can create a complete sentence. For instance, the text illustrates clues such as highlighted
words or pictures so that each sentence makes sense. The students will laugh at the sentences
because they are silly and students are not yet familiar with words that sound the same, but have
different meanings. This will ultimately spark curiosity for the lesson. Although this is a listening
activity, it gives the students a break from their daily routine in the classroom. It allows the
students to engage in the story, find humor in the words and illustrations, and to enjoy the
activity that will lead them into the purpose of the lesson. On a separate page, there is an excerpt
from Loewens story which foreshadows the lesson.
Blindness: The legally blind student will take place in the same activity as the general education
classroom. This is not a visual activity, rather an oral activity. Reading a story for the class is
another form of auditory learning media. It will include verbal communication and
environmental sounds from the teacher and the students. To make sure that the child has a full
understanding of the story and the lesson, I will also record the story to be listened to at home.
The student might struggle with active participation going on in the classroom; the conversation
and call-outs among students might be distracting. Therefore, the recording is an appropriate
modification that they can enjoy at their own time at home.
ADHD: Again, the activity for the ADHD student is the same as the students in the general
education classroom. The only difference is that an ADHD student will be partnered up with a
quiet buddy or partner to sit near while the story is being read. The quiet buddy will
demonstrate good behavior and the ADHD student will be rewarded for mimicking the good
behavior of his partner. This will stimulate the student and dissolve his inattention in the
classroom. During the oral activity, I also may allow the student to read some of the story to the
class and involve the student in a lesson presentation. This will involve active participation from
the student and it will reduce the inattention or impulsiveness the student might have. The
student can read the story, involve his classmates, and stay on the task of the assignment.

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2. Objective-Purpose:
The student will be able to understand the differences between a homonym and a
homophone and apply it to their reading ability, enhance their knowledge on constructing
sentences which contains homonyms and homophones and differentiate terms, spelling and their
definitions.
Blindness: The student will be able to understand the differences between a homonym and a
homophone and apply it to their reading ability, using large text prints or Braille formats. They
will enhance their knowledge on constructing sentences orally or on an electronic Braille note
taker for written assignments. With more extra time on assignments, the student will be able to
create sentences which contain homonyms, homophones and differentiate terms and their
definitions. The spelling of homonyms and homophones will be done orally and will be recorded
on instructional technological tools.
ADHD: With accommodations, such as peer assistance or acknowledging the positive
behavior of the student, the student will be able to understand the differences between a
homonym and a homophone and apply it to their reading ability. They will enhance their
knowledge on constructing sentences which contains homonyms and homophones and
differentiate terms, spelling, and their definitions.

3. Teaching: Input:
In this part of instruction, my primary step would be for the students to understand the
definition of a homonym and the definition of a homophone, with examples to follow. As I write
each definition on the board, I want the students to record the meanings in their notebooks. For
example, the students should write:
Homonym: a word that has the same spelling as another word but has a different spelling and a
different meaning.
Example:
Can- to be able to do something
Can- a cylinder shape that holds liquid.
He can drink from that can faster than anyone!
Homophone: a word that has the same sound as another word but is spelled differently and has a
different meaning.
Example:

Blue- a color

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Blew- the past tense of blow: to produce the motion or current of air, to

move along.
Billy blew a blue bubble.

After the students have recorded the two definitions and each example, our discussion
will be based on the various homonyms and homophones that the students have discovered in the
story. Since the story is short, I again will read If you were a Homonym or a Homophone and
allow students to discuss the terms and differentiate each meaning or spelling of the word. In this
step, the students will still enjoy the story, but their attention is focused on actually discovering
the homonyms and homophones in the story. The students can brainstorm their discoveries by
writing down the words that they hear, in their notebook. While I am reading, I will provide
lecture with discussion in order to keep the objective on track. With an even amount of time on
each definition, I will ask the class to think of their own examples after I have read through the
text.
Blindness: Since I will be writing definitions on the board, this activity will be difficult for a
student with visual impairments to record the definitions in their notebook. To multitask, I will
not only write the definitions on the board, but will orally explain the definitions to the student. A
recording will also be provided for the student to take home. The lecture with discussion will
remain the same in order to keep the objective on track. The students technological tools such as
a Braille note taker will help the student record the lecture and even brainstorm their own ideas
on what they hear throughout the lecture.

ADHD: The task for teaching input for a student with ADHD will be the same as the general
education classroom. However, the student will receive less of an oral discussion and more of a
preview strategy. Before the lesson, I will have a typed-up copy of my notes of homonyms and

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homophones to hand to the student. The student will have precise directions for this assignment.
They will be to record the teachers notes directly into his notebook and either myself or a
student partner will check his work as I continue to teach the lesson. If the child needs a break or
needs a quieter place to sit, I will accommodate the student by providing them with a quiet area
or give extra time to complete the assignment. This will relieve their motor activity so the student
will be able to get through the school day. If his academic skills are weak, in this case his writing
skills, I will accept the assignment to be typed up on a word processor so the student will have a
stable set of notes to look at for the remainder of the lesson. If the student is compliant and
follows the assignment, I will praise the appropriate behavior and state that it is another goal that
we have accomplished for the day. The student may even receive a special responsibility, such as
collecting papers, cleaning the boards, checking the mailbox, or whatever keeps the student
involved with some form of responsibility.
4. Teaching: ModelingIn order to demonstrate the lesson after going over the lesson and the story, I am
going to put examples on the board and allow the class to distinguish whether or not the
sentence or picture contains a homonym or a homophone. After the students have
discovered what the sentence contains, it is necessary for the students to give me reason
why it is one term and not the other. This will prepare them for their upcoming classwork
and homework.
Example on the Board:
The yellow duck had to duck from the oncoming rain
-

This is a homonym, duck is spelled the same, but has different meanings.
Duck- a type of bird known to waddle and quack.
Duck- to crouch down or bend.

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Blindness: The modeling input of the lesson will be very similar. However, I will provide notes,
from the board, to the student with visual impairments. Whether it is large print text or I ask the
student to record the information in a Braille word processor, the objective of the modeling
activity is to verbally distinguish whether or not the sentence contains a homonym or
homophone. For the modeling input of the lesson, it is vitally important for the teacher to present
a visual lesson and an oral presentation to accommodate the visually impaired student the same
quality of the material. With an oral presentation, the student will give me a reason whether or
not the oral sentences or a homonym or homophone. This will prepare them for their upcoming
classwork. If it is necessary, a recording of the lesson will be given for further reference. If the
student requires more time for recording notes or listening to the lesson, I will make those
modification for a positive assessment of the lesson. The child can also work in small groups to
keep up with the modeling presentation.

ADHD: After reading the story for the second time, the student with ADHD will have a preview
strategy of the differences between a homonym and homophone. Again, I will provide the
student with notes, but ones that are shorter, simpler, and easier to comprehend. Instead of three
or four examples, I will only have twoa sentence for a homonym and a sentence for a
homophone. I will even prepare written instructions with oral instructions to ensure that the
student has precise directions. The student will probably have a short break after recording the
notes because it will ease his motor activity. After the students have discovered whether the
sentence is a homonym or homophone, it is my obligation to make sure the student with ADHD
has a full understanding of the lesson. To keep his attention stable, I will ask him to work with a
study buddy and work together to figure out the sentences that I write on the board. If his

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attention is maintained, the student will be praised and will be given a private recognition that he
completed his cue to stay on task. This positive exchange will keep the students attention and
catalyze him for the assessment.
5. Teaching: Check for UnderstandingIn this simple assessment, I want to see if students understand the difference between
a homonym and a homophone. In a round the world style I will select a random word and
see if each student can guess if the word can have multiple definitions, different spelling, or
both. Each student will have to identify whether it is a homonym or homophone and describe
the definitions as best they can. This will trigger an individual oral response and will lead us
into the guided practice. Students are more than welcomed to help each other and words will
be fairly easy for the students to configure in a timely manner.
Blindness: Due to the oral activity of a round the world style to distinguish homonyms and
homophones, the check for understanding plan does not really have to be changed. This is a
chance for the student to express language development and sensory development with hearing.
The student will hear the random word that I present, state its definitions, different spelling, and
describe whether it is a homonym or homophone. This oral response is assurance that he will
understand the guided practice and homework.

ADHD: This oral activity for check for understanding will be similar for the oral activity. In
fact, I will encourage cooperative learning tasks with other students to spark socialization and
input in the classroom. When the student is given a word and has to explain whether it is a
homonym or homophone, I want to encourage social interactions with students so that the
students mood is consistently positive and geared toward stating the correct answer. I will pick a

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word that is fairly easy so that the student will have positive oral expression rather than an
intimidating experience speaking in front of his classmates. This will reinforce positive behavior,
the student with be praised for his oral expression, and his classmates have the opportunity to
spark socialization in the classroom that is geared toward the lesson.
6. Guided PracticeI will monitor the students by giving them two activities: a worksheet on
homonyms and a cooperative learning game on homophones known as Concentration.
For instance, in the homonym worksheet I will have five homonym terms and two
sentences for each term. The student will have to fill in the correct definition of each
word in order to make the sentence correct. Before they have to match the definition of
the sentence, the student will be given a homonym and two definitions for that word. The
students objective is to choose an answer that best completes the sentences. There will be
ten sentences, total.
Example: Bark
a. A wooden material that is on a tree.
b. A loud sound that is usually from a dog.
Sentence:
1. The poodles bark scared the cat away. (b)
2. The bark of the tree was sticky with tree sap (a)
This worksheet should take no more than five minutes.
After they have completed the homonym worksheet, I will have students pair up and play
a game of concentration by matching homophone terms and illustrations. After distributing ten
different pairs of homophones the students will take turns trying to match the clip art with the
term and definition. To ensure that the students receive a lot of practice, groups can take turns
switching the deck so that they are exposed to new terms and definitions. To make the activity

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more complex, students can time themselves to see how fast they can guess all ten pairs of
homophones. This game should take no more than ten minutes.
- An illustration of this game is printed on a separate worksheet.
During this guided practice, it is my obligation to walk around the classroom and see if
all of the students are completing the worksheet in a timely manner and enjoying the card game.
It is my duty to praise students and encourage that they all understand the material. If not, offer
some individual help after class or during a free period.
Blindness: While some of this guided practice remains the same, a student with visual
impairments is going to struggle on worksheet that is provided to the general education
classroom. As the students are working on the worksheet that strictly reinforces the notes on
homonyms, I will be the reader assistance for the student with blindness. I will present an oral
presentation of the materials and read aloud the questions and answers. Essentially, this
worksheet will take longer than his classmates because it will be done orally. During this activity,
I will have one-on-one time with the student and will be able to teach the lesson in more detail.
An example of this worksheet is at the end of the lesson plan. This oral lesson will be the
epitome of guided practice because I will be able to spend time with the student and redefine
what he has just learned in class. Secondly, the concentration game will be done orally, but with
a partner. The classmate will read each card that the child flips over, and the partner will read the
answers aloud. This also stimulates a level of comfort because the student with visual
impairments is involved in the same activities as the general education classroom.
ADHD: Before I hand the student the worksheet on homonyms, I will provide a preview strategy
of the lesson beforehand. The preview strategy will be as simple as explaining the definition of
the homonym and providing one example to prove the definition. I will also shorten the
worksheet so that the student will have a shortened amount of required reading. Instead of

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multiple sentences and a lot of information, I will substitute sentences for illustrations of the
sentences so that the student will have a clear understanding of the sentence. It will spark a visual
response from the student. This will avoid stress and will give the student enough time to
complete the tasks. In this guided practice, I want the student to work independently. The goal
for this worksheet is to complete it without any distractions or inattention to the assignment. As I
hand the student the written instructions, I will take the time to explain the worksheet, orally. If it
is completed, I will praise appropriate behavior and even send home a positive progress report of
the student finishing the lesson.
During the concentration game on matching homophone terms and illustrations, the
student will work with a study buddy to complete the lesson. The goal of the student is to
complete three to five concentration cards with a partner. This not only will improve the
students memory, but it will boost oral expression and it will apply creativity to the lesson. This
socialization concept will allow me to monitor social interactions, and it also encourages smallgroup social skills training. The student with ADHD will be comfortable with his peers and it
will allow me to praise the student for completing the game and being compliant with his fellow
peers.
7. Independent Practice:
For homework, students will create one poster that has a homophone and a homonym
in the sentence. Therefore, there should be two words that have the same spelling but
sounds differently and two words that have the same sound but is spelled differently and
has a different meaning. Although it is only one sentence, the complexity of the sentence
lies within the fact that it contains both terms that students just learned in class. In order

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to help them understand the sentence, it is best that students define the four words that are
used. Illustrations are encouraged, so that the poster can be displayed in the classroom.
-

An example of this will be on a separate worksheet.

Blindness: The student with visual impairments with have the same homework assignment, but
it will not be done on a poster board. The student will be provided with assistive technology to
complete the assignment. For instance, the student will record his sentence on a word processing
device. The student will have a printed copy of his sentence that contains a homophone and a
homonym with definitions of each word. This assignment will also be presented orally to the
class, just like his other classmates. This homework will be successful because the student is
communicating through his writingjust in an electronic format. The student will also be
successful when he has to communicate his thoughts and ideas to a desired audiencehis
classmates. There will be equal opportunities for both the student with blindness and the general
education classroom. His work will be displayed just like everyone else and he will have the
same opportunity to access information for his assignment.
ADHD: The student will complete the same assignment as his classmates. He will compose a
sentence with a homophone and homonym, define the words that he chose, and present a creative
illustration to understand the visual components of the sentence. If the students written language
is weak, I will encourage displays of pictures and will encourage an oral presentation. The
student also has the opportunity to type up his assignment and to pick a sentence or an idea that
is fairly easy to talk about. This could be his interest, his family, sports, or even school activities.
If the child feels more comfortable, during his oral presentation, the child will be allowed to have
his study buddy present the lesson with him. Whether it is reading the sentence, holding up the
illustrations, or being there for emotional support, the student with visual impairments will be

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praised because of his achievement to complete the assignment and to give a presentation to the
class. Like his general education class, he will have his work displayed in the classroom.
8. Closure:
At the end of the in-class worksheets and activities, students are going to
complete a five minute Journal free-writing session on the importance of todays lesson.
Students will be given the following prompt: Why are homophones and homonyms
important for reading and writing? Students will be asked to use an example from
todays lesson or to reference what they have learned that they did not known before.
This journal will be looked-at, but not heavily graded. After the journal entry, there will
be a short discussion on why homophones and homonyms are important in literacy. This
will reinstate the objective of the lesson and ensure that there will be an improvement on
the students reading and writing skills.
Blindness: The students journal will be completed in an electronic note-taker. This is the
personal thoughts of the student; therefore, the assignment does not have to be notes taken from
the teacher. Orally, I will go over the lesson and reiterate what was just discussed.
ADHD: The students journal will be conducted the same as his fellow classmates. If he needs to
work with a partner to discuss his own thoughts and ideas about the lesson, I will allow that for
the sake of oral expression. If his written language is weak, I will pull him aside and let him
orally discuss why he thought the lesson was important.