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Laboratory report: Identifying Chemical and Physical changes

Jiriberi Bucanayandi

ENGL 2100-Sp15

February 6, 2015

Differentiating Chemical and Physical Changes Through Lab Experiment

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Abstract

This laboratory report presents four out of seven lab reports designed by the science depart of

Salt Lake Community College. The four experiments chosen are only significant for this

laboratory report sample. The objective is to determine whether changes occurring following the

mixing of two chemicals are due to physical changes or chemical changes. This is a non-

qualitative sample. Lastly, the applicability of this report was demonstrated at Salt Lake

Community college science of engineering by scholars taking general chemistry 1.

Keywords: Chemical changes, physical changes, matter properties, Salt Lake Community

Chemistry lab, reactions, general chemistry

Differentiating Chemical and Physical Changes Through Lab Experiment

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Introduction

In the chemistry experimentations realm there are two sorts of observations, chemical and

physical changes. In general, chemical changes occur when there is a formation of a precipitant,

bubbles, and a gas. Change in temperature signify a chemical change also. There are additional

signs that indicate chemical changes. Furthermore, chemical changes involves the reaction

between two substances resulting in changing their identity. This can simply be observed if the

substance reacts in the presence of air, acid, water, a base and other chemicals 5 .

On the other hand, physical changes may include phase transformations such as liquid

changing into a vapor like the evaporation of water. Solid turning to a vapor, and liquid turning

into a solid or solid turning to liquid. The dissolving of minerals in water to form a solution is

also a physical process. In comparison, physical changes do not change the identity of

substances.

Instruments and Methods

Instruments: 1 test tube rack, 1 test tube clamp, 1 medicine dropper or

Four ten mL test

tubes, they should be washed and dried between experiments.

Chemicals: 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), 2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), phenolphthalein,

baking soda, 3 M HCl, 0.1M copper sulfate (CuSO4), magnesium turnings, solid ammonium

chloride (NH4Cl), distilled water.

Safety tips: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and hydrochloric acid (HCl)

solutions are corrosive and toxic. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) solution is toxic and an irritant.

Prevent contact of these materials with eyes, skin, and clothing. It is never a good idea to smell

toxic materials.

Equipment: The tools of your senses of sight, smell and touch.

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All procedures were performed under the supervision of a chemistry lab professor on

January 26, 2015. Anybody attempting to perform these procedures is advised to take general

chemistry lecture simultaneously with general chemistry lab. Hence, the education institution

should provide you with all the necessarily materials and equipment required.

1. A. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and phenolphthalein

Place 10 drops of 2 M NaOH in a clean, dry test tube. Add a drop of phenolphthalein. Observe

the contents of the test and record your observations.

B. NaOH and hydrochloric acid (HCl) Add 13 drops of 2 M HCl to the test tube in part A.

Observe the contents of the test tube and record your observations.

2. Baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3) and HCl

Obtain about one spoon measure of baking soda and place it in a small, clean, and dry 10 ml test

tube. Slowly add 10 drops of 3 M HCl. observe the contents of the test tube and record your

observations.

3. Copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide

Place 5 drops of 0.1 M CuSO4solution into a small, clean, and dry 10 mL test tube. Add 5 drops

of 2 M NaOH. Shake the tube to mix the contents. Observe the contents of the test tube. Record

your observations.

4. Magnesium and hydrochloric acid

Place several pieces of magnesium turnings into a small, clean, and dry 10 mL test tube. Add 10

drops of 3 M HCl and observe the contents of the test tube. Record your observations.

Results

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Table 1.1

 

Reactions

 

Precipitate

Gas

Bubbles

Temperature

1.

a.

(NaOH) +

X

X

X

X

phenolphthalein

b.

NaOH+

X

X

X

X

(HCl)

2.

Baking soda

X

X

and HCl

3.

Copper sulfate

X

X

X

X

and sodium

hydroxide

4.

Magnesium and

X

hydrochloric

acid

There were two parts for experiment one. First, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and

phenolphthalein (C₂₀H₁₄O) will produce a dark pink-ish color 1 . Starting with 10 drops of

NaOH in the 10 mL test tube, as soon as the one drop of phenolphthalein (C₂₀H₁₄O) got into

contact with the NaOH liquid the color change appeared. Second, adding HCL to the same test

tube changed the pink-ish solution to a colorless solution 1, 6 . No temperature or odor change was

observed.

In experiment two, one spoon measurement of baking soda was carefully added to the

10mL test tube. After the first initial drop of hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added to the test tube,

the baking soda violently produced a vapor, bubbles, and a gas. The escalation of the bubbles

intensified as the rest of the HCl drops were dropped into the test tube 4 . After fifteen seconds, the

reaction ceased to react.

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In experiment three, copper sulfate reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce a blue

liquid 2 . Ten seconds after the five drops of 2 M NaOH were dropped into the CuSO4 solution,

the test tube was shaken and the color change was present. Again, the test tube was felt, and

smelt, no apparent odder or temperature change was observed.

In experiment four, starting with several pieces of magnesium turnings in a 10 mL test

tube. Right after the third drop of HCl into the tube, there was a formation of bubbles and the

evolution of a gas, and an increase in temperature 3 . These changes fluctuated for about fifteen

seconds and ceased to react. Lastly, the contents remained stable.

Discussion

As already stated in the introduction, few signs that indicate chemical changes are

formations of a gas, precipitate, and change in temperature. Using table 1.1, it is obvious which

chemical reactions are due to chemical or physical changes. For experiment one, the change was

a physical one because none of the signs were present. Although, there was a color change.

There are some occasion where a color change can signify a chemical change. However, the

chemicals used for this experiments are not one of those occasions. Experiment 3 is also like

experiment one, there was a color change, nothing else happened. Therefore, it’s a physical

change.

In experiments two and four the change was due to a chemical change because all of the

signs were present. In experiments 2, HCl reacted with baking soda to form a gas and bubbles.

Experiment 4, like experiment 2, all of the signs that indicate a chemical change were present

including an increase in temperature.

Conclusion

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It is not always easy to distinguish between chemical and physical transformations, but

careful observation may facilitate the detection of a chemical change. Some clues that may

indicate that a chemical change has occurred are formations of a gas, a precipitate, and an abrupt

color change, or a spontaneous temperature change. Therefore, we use our five senses to detect

those signs. Additionally, chemical changes alter the identity of substances. In comparison,

physical changes are the ones that do not change the identity of a substance. Substances may

change their physical properties like, coming from a gas to a liquid. Like rain. Or when liquids

evaporate to a gas. These are the signs of physical changes.

.

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Cited References

1. Blah. NaOH reaction with Phenolphthalein [Video on Internet]: YouTube; 2011 [Cited 2015

2. Chen, Victor. Copper Sulfate and Sodium Hydroxide [Video on Internet]: You tube; 2013

[Cited 2015 Feb 13]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08tpipzynxc

3. Huggard, Aaron. Hydrochloric Acid + Magnesium [Video on Internet]: You tube; 2012 [Cited

2015 Feb 13]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpy_Zh-8sKA

4. NCSSMDistanceEd. Double Displacement Sodium Bicarbonate and HCl [Video on

Internet]:YouTube;2011[Cited2015Feb13].Availablefrom:https://www.youtube.com/wat

ch?v=xRfPvDEs2gM

5. Spellman F. 2006. Chemistry for Nonchemists: Principles and Applications for Environmental

Practitioners. Lanham (MD): The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.;

2006.Chapter 1. Atoms and Elements; P. 1-13.

6. Xperiments, Science. Titration (using phenolphthalein) [Video on Internet]: YouTube; 2011

[Cited 2015 Feb 13]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UiuE7Xx5l8