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2015
HSE 3704

Kirstine Buchan
4/24/2015

4809971

ePortfolio

Kirstine Buchan

4809971

Contents
1.2

Definition of a curriculum mindmap

1.8

Perspectives on curriculum development

1.17

Types of curriculum

2.6

Perspectives on curriculum development

3.1

Educational principles

3.2

Professional principles

3.3

Critical path analysis

10

3.5

Objectives / outcomes word cloud

11

3.10

Curriculum development mind map

12

4.1

Situational analysis mind map

13

4.2

Situational analysis evaluation tool

14

5.3

Conceptual framework for R425

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6.3

Competency based design for Emergency nursing

19

7.3

Curriculum evaluation mind map

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1.2 Definition of a curriculum

References
University of South Africa. Department of health studies. 2009. Developing health
sciences curricula: Principles and Process. Only study guide for HSE3704.

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Kirstine Buchan

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1.8 Perspectives on curriculum development


Perspectives on curriculum development / curriculum delivery model
Content
Theorist

Bell

Outcome/Product
Bobbitt; Tyler; Pratt;
Johnson
- A process of
changing peoples
behaviours, series
of intended learning
outcomes,
organised formal
educational
sessions

Process
Praxis
Ornstein, Levin,
Bevis and Watson
Print, Kerr
- A set of planned - The interactions
learning
and transactions
experiences
between students
and teachers.
- Interaction of
What actually
students,
happens as
teachers and
opposed to a
knowledge
written plan
- Learners
experiences of
the world
- Almost any
- Interactive
(planned)
learning
experiences, in
- Collaborative
and out of school learning

Curriculum is:

- A collection of
subject matter.
The offering of
socially valued
knowledge,
skills and
attitudes made
available to
learners.

Consist of

Purpose

- Facts, concepts - Pre-planned


and
educational
generalisations
guideline consisting
of stated purposes,
aims and objectives.
- Subject content Focus on parts, rather - On interactions
than the whole, focus - Helping learners
to learn
on the trivial rather
Life skills such
than the significant.
as problem
solving, critical
thinking and
democratic
leadership
- Subject
- Intended results of
- Judgement and
learning ie stated
meaning making
outcomes
- To equip learners
- Experience
with the necessary
based
skills to function
effectively in society
- Passive and
- Students have a
willing recipient
clear voice /
psychological
and social
beings
- Systematic
- Examination is a
by product
-.
-

Known as

- Traditional

Focus

Emphasize

Education is
seen as:
Learners
expectancies

Evaluation

Dangers

Few
competencies
Independent

- Outcomes based
curriculum
- Reconstructivism
Learners have little or
no voice.
Turns educators into

- Collective well
being and
emancipation of
the human spirit

- Social economic
and political
issues
Issue based

- Role is to question
and challenge the
status quo.

Continuous

- Experimentalism

High degree of
variety in content
Depends on

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learning not
fostered

technicians

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strength of teacher

References
http://infed.org/mobi/curriculum-theory-and-practice/ accessed 22 March 2015
University of South Africa. Department of health studies. 2009. Developing health
sciences curricula: Principles and Process. Only study guide for HSE3704

1.17

Types of curricula

Type of curriculum
Legitimate / Official

Description
The legitimate curriculum is also known as the official curriculum, it is the written
curriculum, and includes objectives, lesson plans etc. This is the document which holds
people accountable for the work to be covered.

Actual / Operational

The operational curriculum is what is actually taught in class, and how the teaching is
accomplished ie what the teacher actually does and says.

Illegitimate

The illegitimate curriculum is taught in the classroom, but not evaluated, This may due
to a lag in the development of the curriculum. For instance new treatment that has
come onto the market, but is not yet included in the curriculum, or new ways of
carrying out procedures, such as the wearing of PPE for EVD.

Hidden

The hidden curriculum includes the norms and values of the society. Eg. In South
Africa, it is generally accepted that the younger people (including nurses) take their
instruction / cues from the older people. If the older students are unsure, or dont
want to take the lead, this may result in indecision amongst the group.
Some of these messages are unintentionally reinforced by the educators.

Null curriculum

The null curriculum refers to what is not taught, but should be taught. It may give the
students the impression that the things that are not taught are not important, for
instance, not using powerpoint during the second year practica for Health education
what is the real reason? The educators are not comfortable / there are no resources /
the educator feels it is unimportant? The generation that we are teaching expects us
to be able to use this technology and in fact entertain them.

References
http://www.hzmre.com/dotty/spintro.htm accessed 22 March 2015
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Kirstine Buchan

4809971

2.6
Perspectives on curriculum development / curriculum delivery model
Content
Theorist

Bell

Outcome/Product
Bobbitt; Tyler; Pratt;
Johnson
- A process of
changing peoples
behaviours, series
of intended learning
outcomes,
organised formal
educational
sessions

Process
Praxis
Ornstein, Levin,
Bevis and Watson
Print, Kerr
- A set of planned - The interactions
learning
and transactions
experiences
between students
and teachers.
- Interaction of
What actually
students,
happens as
teachers and
opposed to a
knowledge
written plan
- Learners
experiences of
the world
- Almost any
- Interactive
(planned)
learning
experiences, in
- Collaborative
and out of school learning

Curriculum is:

- A collection of
subject matter.
The offering of
socially valued
knowledge,
skills and
attitudes made
available to
learners.

Consist of

Purpose

- Facts, concepts - Pre-planned


and
educational
generalisations
guideline consisting
of stated purposes,
aims and objectives.
- Subject content Focus on parts, rather - On interactions
than the whole, focus - Helping learners
to learn
on the trivial rather
- Life skills such
than the significant.
as problem
solving, critical
thinking and
democratic
leadership
- Subject
- Intended results of
- Judgement and
learning ie stated
meaning making
outcomes
- To equip learners
- Experience
with the necessary
based
skills to function
effectively in society
- Passive and
- Students have a
willing recipient
clear voice /
psychological
and social
beings
- Systematic
- Examination is a
by product
-.
-

Known as

- Traditional

Focus

Emphasize

Education is
seen as:
Learners
expectancies

Evaluation

Dangers

Few
competencies
Independent

- Outcomes based
curriculum
- Reconstructivism
Learners have little or
no voice.
Turns educators into

- Collective well
being and
emancipation of
the human spirit

- Social economic
and political
issues
Issue based

- Role is to question
and challenge the
status quo.

Continuous

- Experimentalism

High degree of
variety in content
Depends on

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Kirstine Buchan
learning not
fostered

technicians

4809971
strength of teacher

References
http://infed.org/mobi/curriculum-theory-and-practice/ accessed 22 March 2015
University of South Africa. Department of health studies. 2009. Developing health
sciences curricula: Principles and Process. Only study guide for HSE3704

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3.1

Educational principles

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3.2

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Professional principles of curriculum development

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3.3

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Critical path analysis.


Days:

10

15

20

25

Start

ES

30
Critical

35

40

Flexible

45
Slack

Task A formulate objectives


Task B Identify subjects and topics
Task C compile first draft
Task D send for critical reading
Task E revision
Task F Senate meeting to approve curriculum
Task G Send for printing
Finish Submit to SANC
Weeks:

References
http://www.mindtools.com/critpath.html
http://thecriticalpath.info/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/HUE3-CPM-WS-v2.doc
http://www.vertex42.com/Files/download2/excel.php?file=critical-path-method.xls

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3.5 Criteria of outcomes


All outcomes should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely.

References
http://www.sussex.ac.uk/tldu/ideas/curr/learningoutcomes accessed 22 March 2015
http://reforma.fen.uchile.cl/Papers/Learning%20Outcomes%20in%20HD%20implication
s-Maher.pdf accessed 22 March 2015
http://www.thenationalacademy.org/readings/designing.html accessed 22 March 2015

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3.10 Curriculum development

Perspectives
Outcome
Process

Professional
principles

Content
Praxis

Types of
curriculum

Comprehensiveness

Null

Integration

Hidden

Networking

Legitimate

Problem based learning

Illegitimate

Innovative

Operational

Research

Educational
principles

Curriculum
development

Levels of
curricula

Co-operative effort
Point of departure

Macro
Meso
Micro

Scientific approach
Learner centered
Relevant

Structure
Aims and
objectives
outcomes
activities
evaluation

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4.1 Situational analysis

References: Uys, LR & Gwele, NS. 2005. Curriculum development in nursing: process and innovation. London:
Routledge.
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4.2 Situational analysis evaluation tool.


Situational analysis evaluation
1. GENERAL
Date of evaluation
Name of Institution
Evaluator 1
Evaluator 2

SANC Reg no
SANC Reg no

Person responsible for


institution
Job title
SANC registration number
Contact email address
Physical address
Postal address
Telephone number
Fax number
1.1 PROGRAMMES (tick all that apply)
Nursing auxillary
Enrolled nurse
Bridging I
Bridging II
4 year Diploma course
Intensive care diploma
Operating room technique
Nursing education
Other (specify)

2. RESOURCES
2.1 STAFF
Number of teaching staff
Number of office staff
Number of cleaning staff
Qualifications of teaching staff insert the number of each category
General nursing
Midwifery
Psychiatric nursing
Community health
Nursing education
Nursing administration

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Intensive care nursing


Paediatric nursing
Primary health care
Other (specify)
Human resources
Item
File for each staff member
Signed job description for each
staff member
Evidence of annual performance
appraisal
Evidence of CPD
Organogram in evidence

NC

Comments

2.2. TEACHING RESOURCES


Library
Multimedia sources
Computers
Photocopiers
Projectors
Rest area
Dining area
Sufficient bathrooms
Sufficient handwashing facilities
Sufficient classrooms
Sufficient furniture
2.3 CLINICAL FACILITIES
Name of facility
Address of facility
Number of beds
Average bed occupancy past
3/12
Number of outpatients seen per
month
Number of emergency patients
seen per month
Number of operating rooms
Number of procedures
performed per month
Number of delivery beds
Number of deliveries per month
Number of adult beds
Number of paediatric beds
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Number of ICU beds


Written agreements in place
with clinical facilities
1 Clinical facilitator per 20
students
Clinical facilitators are trained in
nursing education
At least 3 beds / student
Sufficient learning opportunities
Evidence that the facility is
working on Millennium
development goals
Core standards in place
Organogram in place
Orientation programme in place
for students
2.4 STUDENTS
Number of students
a. First year students
b. Second year students
c. Third year students
d. Fourth year students
Each student has a file
Student hours are reflected in
the file for each month
Student marks are reflected in
the file
Each student has a signed
learning contract
There is evidence of a policy
dealing with absenteeism
There is a written policy dealing
with examinations

3. BELIEF SYSTEM / MANAGEMENT


Organisation values are known
to staff
Mission statement is visible
Vision statement is visible
Department philosophy is visible
and congruent with values and
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mission
Copy of all relevant legislation is
available to staff
In-service education programme
in place
Description of the services of
the institution and a description
of the community it serves.
Other (specify)

Comments

Evaluator 1 signature: ______________________________________________


Evaluator 2 signature: ______________________________________________

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5.3 R 425 Conceptual framework

Independent
practice
Scientific
evidence
based

Ethical and
moral codes

Sympathetic /
empathic

Caring

R425
Nurse General
Midwife
Psychiatric
Community
Promotes
community
involvement

Skilled
clinician

Cultural
sensitivity
and respect

Teamworker
Collaborative
Responsible
and
accountable

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6.3

Competency based design for emergency nursing

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7.3

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Curriculum evaluation

References
University of South Africa. Department of health studies. 2009. Developing health sciences curricula: Principles and
Process. Only study guide for HSE3704.
20

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