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UNIT -II RECTIFIERS, FILTERS AND REGULATORS Introduction

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________

Vrms

2
1 V 2d (t )

2 0
3.

Ripple Factor

() :

Vrms = I rms
R

It is defined as ration of R.M.S. value of a.c. component to the d.c.

component in the output is known as Ripple Factor.

'

= V rms
Vdc

here

2
V'rms = Vrms
V2
dc

= rms 1
V
dc
Efficiency () :
It is the ratio

4.

of d.c output power to the a.c. input power.

It

signifies, how efficiently the rectifier circuit converts a.c. power into d.c. power.

It is given by

Pdc
Pac

5.

Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV): It is defined as the maximum reverse voltage that a
diode can withstand without destroying the junction.

6.

Regulation:
The variation of the d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is
called regulation. The percentage regulation is defined as

V
% Regulation =

no load

full load

Vfull load

100%

For an ideal power supply, % Regulation is zero.


Using one or more diodes in the circuit, following rectifier circuits can be designed.
1.
Half - Wave Rectifier
2.
Full Wave Rectifier
3.
Bridge Rectifier
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3.
Bridge Rectifier

HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER:
A Half wave rectifier is one which converts a.c. voltage into a pulsating voltage using only
one half cycle of the applied a.c. voltage. The basic half-wave diode rectifier circuit along with its
input and output waveforms is shown in figure below.

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________

The half-wave rectifier circuit shown in above figure consists of a resistive load; a rectifying
element i.e., p-n junction diode and the source of a.c. voltage, all connected is series. The a.c.
voltage is applied to the rectifier circuit using step-down transformer.
The input to the rectifier circuit,

V = Vm sin t

Where Vm is the peak value of secondary a.c.

voltage
Operation:
For the positive half-cycle of input a.c. voltage, the diode D is forward biased and hence it
conducts. Now a current flows in the circuit and there is a voltage drop across RL. The waveform
of the diode current (or) load current is shown in figure.
For the negative half-cycle of input, the diode D is reverse biased and hence it does not
conduct. Now no current flows in the circuit i.e., i=0 and Vo=0. Thus for the negative half-cycle
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conduct. Now no current flows in the circuit i.e., i=0 and Vo=0. Thus for the negative half-cycle
no power is delivered to the load.

Analysis:
In the analysis of a HWR, the following parameters are to be analyzed.
i)
iii)

DC output current
R.M.S. Current

v)

Rectifier Efficiency

vii)
ix)

Regulation
Peak Factor (P)

ii)
iv)

()

DC Output voltage
R.M.S. voltage

()

vi)

Ripple factor

viii)

Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)

Let a sinusoidal voltage Vibe applied to the input of the rectifier.


Then

V = Vm sin t

Where Vm is the maximum value of the secondary voltage.

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________
Let the diode be idealized to piece-wise linear approximation with resistance Rf in the
forward direction i.e., in the ON state and Rr (=) in the reverse direction i.e., in the OFF state.
Now the current i in the diode (or) in the load resistance RLis given by

i = Im sin t

for

0 t

i=0

for

t 2

where

Vm
Im =
Rf + RL

Average (or) DC Output Current (Iav or Idc):

i)

The average dc current Idcis given by

Idc

1 id (t)
=

1
=
Im sin
td (t) + 0 d (t)

1 I (

m cost)0
2

1 I (+1 (1))
= Info
2,542
m

2
I
= m = 0.318 I
=

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Substituting the value of

Download

DOCX

Im , we get Idc =

Vm

(R f + RL )

V
V
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If RL>>Rf then
ii)

Vm
Vm
= 0.318
RL
RL

Idc =

Average (or) DC Output Voltage (Vav or Vdc):


The average dc voltage is given by

Vdc = I dc
RL =

Im

Vm R L

(R f + RL )

RL =

L
= Vm R
Vdc
(R f + RL )
If RL>>Rf then
iii)

Vdc =

Vm
= 0.318 Im

Vdc =

Vm

R.M.S. Output Current (Irms):

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________
Report Work

The value of the R.M.S. current is given by

2
1
2
Irms = i d (t)
2 0

2
1
1
2
2

I sin
t.d (t) + 0 d (t)
=
2 m

I2 1 cos t
2
m
=

d (t)

2
2 0

1
I2
2
1
m

= (t ) sin t
4
2
0

I2
2
= m 0 sin2 + sin0
4

I2
= m
4

Im
2

= Im Irms =
Vm
Irms
2
2 R + R
(or)

( )

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I2 I

iv)

V
2 (Rf + RL )

R.M.S. Output Voltage (Vrms):


R.M.S. voltage across the load is given by

Vm R L

Vrms = I rms
RL =

If RL >> Rf then

2 Rf + RL

Vrms =

Vm
2

Vm

R
2 1+ f

RL

Rectifier efficiency () :

v)

The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ration of d.c. output power to the a.c. input power i.e.,

P
Pac

= dc

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________

Pdc

2 R
=I dc
L

L
= I R
2

I2
4

2
Pac =I rms
( RL + Rf ) = m ( RL + R f )

P I2R
= dc = m 2L
Pac

( )

Im2 RL + R f

= 42

1
0.406
=
Rf
R
1 + f 1 +
RL
R
L

=
%

40.6
R
1+ f
RL

RL

2 RL + R f

Theoretically the maximum value of rectifier efficiency of a half-wave rectifier is 40.6%


when

vi)

Rf
RL

= 0.

Ripple Factor

() :

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is given by

The ripple factor

= Irms 1
I
dc

(or)

I /2
m
1
I /
m

= 1.21

vii)

= Vrms 1
V
dc

1
2

= 1.21

Regulation:
The variation of d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is called regulation.
The variation of Vdc with Idc for a half-wave rectifier is obtained as follows:

Idc =

Im = Vm/
Rf + RL

103

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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

UNIT-III -EDC

___________________________________________________________________________
But

V = I R
dc

Vdc

dc

V R

= m L
R + RL
f

R f
V

= m 1

R + RL

V
= m IdcR f

V
Vdc = m Idc R f

This result shows that Vdc equals

Vm

at no load and that the dc voltage decreases linearly

with an increase in dc output current. The larger the magnitude of the diode forward resistance,
the greater is this decrease for a given current change.

viii)

Transformer Utilization Factor (UTF):

The d.c. power to be delivered to the load in a rectifier circuit decides the rating of the
transformer used in the circuit. So, transformer utilization factor is defined as

TUF =

Pdc
Pac(rated)

The factor which indicates how much is the utilization of the transformer in the circuit is called
Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).
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Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF).

The a.c. power rating of transformer

= VrmsIrms

The secondary voltage is purely sinusoidal hence its rms value is

1 times maximum while the

2
current is half sinusoidal hence its rms value is

ac(rated)

1
of the maximum.
2

Vm Im
V I

= m m
2 2
2 2

The d.c. power delivered to the load

I
= m RL

=I R

L
dc

Pdc

TUF =

Pac(rated)
2
Im
2 2
= RL =
Vm Im

I2m RL 2 2
= 2 2
I m RL

(QVm Im RL )

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