You are on page 1of 179

.I.G.CS.

Prof. Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr.rathyADC\el uatuJ

Contents
Ef'~

Topic L

Topic 2.

. To.pic 3.

Topic 4.

Topic 5.

Topic 6

The particulate nature of matter ...............................................


States of matter.......... : ............................................................. .
. partie
. 1e theory ................................................................ .
K.metJc
Diffusion ............................................... , ............................... .
Experimental technique ...........................................................
Laboratory apparatus ................................................................. .
Safety in laboratory .................................................................. ..
Methods of purification ............................................................. ..
Separation of mixtures ............................................................... .
Chromatography ~ .................................................................... ..
Atoms, elements and compounds ...............................................
Atomic structure ..................................................................... .
.Radioactive isotopes ................................................................ ..
. Electron distribution ............................................. :.. ................. .
lons and ionic bonds ................................................................. .
Molecules and covalent bonds ..................................................... .
Macromolecular (giant) structure .................................................. .
Stiochiometry ........................................................... .'.......... ..
Chemical formula .................................................................. .. .
Chemical equations .................................................................. .
Chemical calculations .............................................................. ..
The mole .............................................................................. ..
Empirical formula and molecular formula ........................................ .

2
6
8
8

10
12
12
14

16
17
19
20
22

25
28
30

30
33

35
37
44

46

The periodic table ................................................................. ..


Trends in group I [The alkali metals] ............................................. .
Transitions elements ................................................................. .
Trends in group VII [The halogens] ................. .............................. .
Nobel gases .......................................................................... ..
Test and collection of gases ......................................................... .
Oxidation and reduction ............................................................. .

48
51
52
55
56
58

Electricity and chemistry [Electrochemistry] ................................. .


Electrolysis ............................................................................ .
Applications of electrolysis ........................................................ ..

6D
62
67

Chemistry IGCSE

Topic 7.

Topic 8.

Topic9.

(Dr.FathyAbdel Galil)

Acids, bases and salts .-............................................................. .


Acids ............................................................ , ...................... .
Bases ................................................................................... .
The pH scale .......................................................................... .
1vfaking salts ........................................................................... .
Types of oxides ...................................................................... :.
Identification of ions ................................................................. .

69

69
71
72
73
77
79

Metals and reactivity series ..................................................... ...


Alloys .............. c . : .. ; .........................
R.eacfIVI"ty senes
.
....................................................................... .
Extraction of iron ................................................... .................. .
Steel making .......................................................................... .
Extraction of zinc ..................................................................... .
Rusting ................................................................................. .

90
91

Chemical changes
Production of energy ................................................................ .
Electricity from chemical reactions .............................................. .

95
97

Topic 10. Chemical reactions '


Speed of reactions ...................................................... . :........... .
Reversible reactions ................................................................. .
Chemical equilibrium ............................................................... .

81
81
83
88

89

99
99
106
106

Topic 11. Air and water ..............................


Purification of water supply ...................................................... ..
..
f.
.
ComposttiOn o atr ................................................................. ..
Manufacture of ammonia .......................................................... .
Fertilisers ................................................ : ............................ .
Air pollution .......................................................................... .

108
108
109

Topic 12. Sulphur ............................................................................. .


Making sulphuric acid ............................................................. .

116

Topic 13. Carbonates ........................................................ ,..................

118

Topic 14. Organic chemistry ................................ ..... .... . ..... ..

120

111
ll2
113

117

- -

Topic 1:

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

- 1-

Chemistry IGCSE

. THEPARTICULATENATUREOFMATIER

All matter is made .up of tiny particles, These may be atoms, mole_cules
or ions. Using the idea of parti?les, we can explain the way matter behaves.

States of-Matter
All matter can exist in three states- solid, liquid or gas. Solids have a
fixed shape. Liquids have no fixed shape, but their volume is fixed. Gases
have no fixed shape or volume. They spread out (diffuse) to fill all the
available space. Unlike solids ang liq~ids, gases are easy to compress into
smaller size.
The state of a substance can be changed by heating or cooling.
6Jt.eez.i.ttg

c.onde.Jt6.Wg

me..Wng

so LID

f
W.r

)-

f"i

bo-U-Wg

0
0

.JDI

0
0

LIQUID

0..
GAS

iodina
cry<tal$
reform

. on cool
test~tube

Sublimation
This is the change of state from solid to
vapour and back from vapour to solid
without passing through the liquid state.
Iodine, for instance, behaves like this

purple
Iodine
vapour.

lodine
crytal ---.JS''fK.I

gentle

heat

heat

solid iodine
[dark grey solid]

allow to cool
iodine gas ------+solid iodine
[purple vapour]

Solid carbon dioxide behaves similarly.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-2-

Chemistry IGCSE

:.':

Arrangement and Movement Particles

SOLIDS
-

LIQUIDS

GASES

')( )()J )(

T)ll
'l. X

!()"(

;-.... ..:=:
>--(-' :>--<
--'.r"[

( )[ " J: "'[_ J:

J[

0
0
0

..

.'

Arrangement
of Particles

close together
in a regular
arrangement

still close tog ether


in an irregular
arrangement

particles far
apart

Movement
of Particles

only vibrate
in their places

can move around


slowly

free moving
rapidly

Kinetic Particle Theory


1. All matter is made up of very small invisible particles (atoms, ions or molecules).
2. The particles move all the time. The higher the temperature, the faster they move.
3. Lighter particles move faster than heavier ones .

.J

4. In a gas, there is relatively large distance between the particles. They are free to
move anywhere [i.e. a gas can fill any v.olume].

Using the idea of particles and kinetic theory, we can explain the changes
of states of matter and diffusion .

...

;..

- 3 -

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Cali!)

Chemistry IGCSE

Changes of State

Mel.:thtg
When a sol~d ~s heated, ~ts part~cles ge~more ene,gy and
v~brate more. Th~s makes the sol~d

expand.

At the melt~g po~nt

the part~cles v~brate so much that they oreak-aYay from the~r


pos~t~ons. The sol~d becomes a liquid.

nrraana
o'
" ........ ".,

'offifi8.

heat

heat at

O:ffil..DOG
DQO:

"0'0' .

:a.:
'G '
.........

melting point

........

!he partici!"S vibcate.~~T~

a liquid is formed

Mel.:thtg Po.zn.t
~s
~nto

the temperature at

wh~ch

the

sol~d

melts,

~.e.

changes

l~quid.

Bo.<.Ung
When a

liqu~d

move faster.the

part~cles

Th~s

is heated, its particles get more energy and


makes the

liqu~d

expand. At the boiling

get enough energy to overcome the forces

them together. They break away from the

liqu~d

po~nt,

hold~ng

and form a

heat

boilino point

slow-moving particles
in liquid

the particles
move faster

the particles get enough


energy to escape

Bo.<.Ung Po.ln.t
is the temperature at which

the

l~uids

bo~l,

i.e. changes

into a gas.

Pure substances have fixed and definite melting points and


boiling points, e.g. pure water boils at 100C and freezes at 0C.

- 4 -

Chemistry l GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

Evaporation
When left open to the atmosphere, even
b~W

when a

~quid ~

Well

the boLtng poLnt, some particles of a liquid escape into

the gas state. -This is called evaporation.


The rate of evaporation increases vith
o
c

increasing temperature
increasing surface area.

A poht.t to Jr.emembVt ~ .tlw.t evapo~on oc.c.u.Jti. <.pon.:ta_neou&./'.q a_t


anq i:.empeJr.a..:tuAe-, bu;t boiling oc.cJLM lli:. c.elr.i:.a-Ut tempeJr.a..:tuAe wfti__cJt .U.
the boiling poht.t.

Compressing a Gas

plunoer pushed in

0
oas particles

0
0

lL_

0
0

o o

ThVte ~ a !_at a 6 .6 pa_c.e


between the p/Vr..t{_cl.u bt
a_ gil<.. You c.a_n 6oJr.c.e .the
pa_ll..U_c..tu elM Vt

0 0 0 0

of-, gas compressed

0 0 0 0 0

inlo a smaller

I'Oiume

bq ptUhlng bt the
p./'.ung Vt. The gM g ei:..6
<.queezed oJr. c.omplr.e<..6ed
.into a_ <.maUVt vo./'.ume.

If enough force is applied to the plunger, the particles get


so close together that the gas turns into a liquid. But liquids
and solids can not be compressed. because their particles ara
already close together.

:.

....

- 5 -

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gali!)

Temperature changes when a solid is heated


I
I
I
I

t
'Temperature
boiling _
point

}i____________
}!

~
boiling

melting
point

T
I. "3 -- -

'------y----'
melting

I
I

'

Time~

Qu.e.ction
Look at the table.

substance

state at room
. temperature

carbon dioxide

gas

iron

solid

w.ater

liquid

From the table, choose:


(i}

one substance which can be easily ccmpressed at room.temperature,

\\

q('

.1:"\:. ~;?. :.: .Y.,;.?.6.lE.. :......................... ~--- .............................................. [1 J


(ii)

one substance which consists of particles which are far apart at room temperature,

(iii)' one substance which has a fixed shape at room temperature .

... i!'(tJ .....................................................................................................................[1]

Chemistry IGCSE

- 6 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Diffusion
This is J,piteac:Ung oat and m.Lxhtg pMeeM, seen mainly in gases
and liquids. The particles of one substance mix with and move
through the particles of another. Diffusion goes until the mixture
is uniform.

In otheJt. WoJtciJ,, i.;t i.A .the movemen.t an pcvd-{.de;, nJLOm JtegioM o6


/U.gheJt. c.oncen:tJtatiort .(.n.to Jteg.<.oM On loWelL c.onc.e.n.t;luztion.
Diffusion is fastest in gases. The particles in gases are moving
faster than in liquids.
The rate of diffusion depends on the molecular mass. The smaller
the molecular mass the faster the rate of diffusion.

I. The bromine diffusion experiment:


Bromine is a red-brown liquid
which vaporises easily at room
bromine
temperature. Some of the liquid is
liquid '\
placed at the bottom of a sealed gas
~
jar. The red-brown bromine vapour
spreads out to fill the gas jar.

bromine
vapour

. 2. Diffusion of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

a) Co.t.ton wool .60a.ked .<.n ammon.<.a. 4olu.t!-on


a .tong .tube. I.t g.{.ve;, o66 ammon.<.a. ga.;,.

.U, pu.t

.<.n.to one end o6

b) A.t exactly .the <lame .tUne, c.ofton woo.t ;,oa.k.ed bt hyd!toeh.to!Uc.

aud .u, pu.t .{.n.to .the o.theJL end


hydlt.ogen c.hlo!Ude ga.;,.

06

the .tube. I.t g.{.ve;,

c.) The g. e6 d.{.6tju.;, e a..tong .the .tube. Whi.;te

0 66

solid o6 ammonium

chlo!Ude 6ai!Jn,l wheJLe they meet.

calion wool
soaked In

glass
tubing

eolian wool
soaked In

ammonia

hydrochloric

solution

acid

Mr

white solid
forms here

17

HCI(g)

->

NH CI (s)
4

36.5

Ammonia deffuses faster than hydrogen chloride. Why? . :~'.' ;': '..... ' ...

- 7 -

3UOI V1HJ3.T .JA T~~3Mi9.39X3

li

I!

3. Iffew dro~s of potassium manganat!:_.(Y.:q) solutio),! .(p,urple) are


carefully ~ded to a beaker cdfit!Jifu'W~Ate~;ftli>~&pl.!fei:oloration
will be eq#tlly distribute~ throughout the solution.
~~

U
~.

:;

i;,. . ~

lI

t\O/

It is difficult?p explain t4~ above aiasetvations with,ouf using the


t'"'tes.
r ;'
zdea o1,.{'par~
i.. ,t
>:"'
,1 \,
~he observa#:ns _give a~ r/;Nidence~or {he movem(:nt oj:farticles 1
m gases andHzquzds.
!!
k,
!,
/
,\
I
t
:
r
,
1
-ll
!

1-.

- 1-t
u;

1
!
'-~--.-'

l'-------~--)

"-----'

,f

::.:<~t:.A

f
1

The dia~ilaiiV':T'hows the diffusion of the exhau~ ..t gases from a car~ol!~;/
~

;\!Lt'JJ..~-!:l..B~!:>

when they meet the ~I;:~J:q

.L~D.tOO:)

)/a!LL1

.,a.SaJiv,::

;.:.'.; (l'lJJd

i . - -. r~.-----./

t..~~.j\>J Q...~!;l';i .".1-~!--!!~~J.i.~>-':..Th

i\) ~

,,:,:, up:0rr\8is'2or#s'ih 'air

/~.
'

q:n:;!~:r

.,,...~~,

.,,,

.....

-~,;..,

;~~

(j

,.. -%:l[e __ some other_ examples of diffusion.

\= / '' ;/.

"~t- ~~~"f""'t

.. , .OJfo~o
. G]/.(1,:, 1{:-,
ct~s i:of f!"" r:><h"">i
<i.V
* " *
* t\ "j-*<'
..

,_, Jo

".'

""oro o

''

bOtJhl

ll

/;'!I.f

'

. ;/

. . //. .........

'.'/

,'If

'I

....Ji!

'<--....._

;;;li 9

o o

"" o

.,,_~

1_,-~- -~--.

;..;:.:...:

o o

'-,. ' ..

h),
;~.e;!,a~!ll
"'-":"''1
;l l
.
""'lUI!!O?.
.
......~
~
iQ! 1\ 1'~ri:f;:<.i
.
'.!.--~.-:---.. ...,........................... .

-----

-~

_)

= --"

1-<"

-.:-----~

i!t

-..l

\1

-----

1liiW blcpil--V!ii!neb. uhvc!

riJiw biup-:1
'-!iizn!}b ;srlairi
.c-~r--

/-

4.

( \---Ll \
1,___,__ _ _ _ _ _.

o o

Topic 2.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 8 -

Chemistry fGCSE

EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE

Laboratory apparatus

:.

tap

beaker

conicnl flask

measuring
cylinder

pipet to
~rette

6oiL a.cClll<iLte mvw wUn9


o 6 vo.lume.o o6Uo.u.J.d&

mo~Lta.~L

~
watch glass
evaporating

baa in

~'"'""

funnei

6
6

crucibla and lid

.bunae.n

burner

thermometer
--li<luld with

Iowa: density
liquid with

. hlohor density

{Oi!QS

balance

Chemisty IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galill

Dissolving solids in water


~a. goo<(SO"lve!}Dror many solids. Im3.gine stirring spatulas full of
copper sulphate crystals into water. At first it is easy to dissolve the solid in
the water to make a solution. Eventually, as more crystals are stirred in to
the solution, no more will dissolve, The solutionis saturated. A saturated
solution is one in which no more solute can dissolve at that temperature.
Making a solution
saturated
copper sulphate
ro!ution

water Is a

more
copper.

ulphate
cry :;tal,
~

copper

sulphate
Is a solute

solvent

A solvent is the

solute

saturated
solution

solution

liquid that docs

A solute IS the
substance that

the dissolving.

is dissolved.

A saturated

A $Oiution is
fonned when a
rolute is
dissolved by
a solvent.

:rolution "is one


that will
dissolvt no more
wlutc at that
temperature.

Chemists often need to know exactly how much solu.te is dissolved in a


saturated solution. This is called the solubility. The solubility of a solid in
water is the number of grams of that solid that. will dissolve in 100 g of
water. If the saturated copper sulphate solution were heated, much inore
solid could be dissolved in it. Most cqmpounds dissolve inore in hot water
than in cold. Their solubility increases wjth increasing temperature. A
graph can be plotted to show how the solubility of a compound changes ..
with increasing temperature. This is called a: solub!Iity curve.
Solubility curves for various compounds

D1

~/- 1 -Jute

'.

,(

25 0

.g' 200

2m

;:
0>

/ .............

150

"

!)

ll

trate
~\UI1'\~

100

r,;..

50

'-

)f:-'' '

..--e / /
<..(0'\J

f. \\\
?'<$9\1}~.,.......,!'V~'

l:l
m

::;:

---:;

...:

...
20

40

60

Temperature/"C

80

100

~~-p""!v:"

,h?::-4

I' /1

D~~<"t:>I~~.L

L.-

c.cf_

,'--'. ,._,), : ,,.,,-\

L)

Chemistry IGCSE

- 10 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Dissolving is an example of a phy.i.c.rtl c.!:ange.. Other physical chan:;;es


include boiling, melting, evaporation.
If the solvent is water, thesolution is called aqueous solution (aq).
A concentrated solution is one which contains a high proportion of
solute.
A dilute solution is one which contains only a small proportion of
solute.

How would you make a sample of sea water more concentrated 7

. .16: d... ;?!: ~ ... r.'?f: ... ~. ';'~\ ....................................... ..

.............

safety in the Laboratory


Some chemicals are

~articularly

hazardous. These are pointed out

by standard tiazard labels.

{a)

:tauc.

chlorine, bromine,
carbon monoxide

{b)

C.OIVW.f.V e

concentrated solutions
of acids ~nd alkalis such as
concentrated sulphuric acid

{c)

oucU.o.i.ng
agent

potassium dichromate~
potassium manganate.:

{d)

..i'.ammable

ethanol, petrol , .. hydrogen

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

- 11 -

Laboratory Rules for Working in a Laboratory

DON'T

DO

e run in the laboratory


o eat or drink in the
lzbt:re.::ory
ill> piay with fire, electrical
switches or chemicals
look down a test tube that is
being heated, or point it
at anyone

e keep bags and coat safely out of


the way
e tie up long hair and tuck
in ties and loose clothing
e wear goggles or safety glasses
when doing experiments
o keep your place tidy and
wipe up spills of chemicals
o ask if you are unsure about
anything

....

,
~~~-~~i~El_EE~~~~E~~~~-~
1- Carrying out the experiments which involve toxic gases and strong
smelling gases in fume cupboard or' in we'fl-ve'rlfilated laboratory.

2-

Wear gloves when doing experiments with corrosive substances

3-

For heating a flammable liquid use a hot water bath.

This diagram shows a student working in a laboratory.

Identify two safety problems In this scene.


I
....,V\_

,?~

! - ,

~-,.

\.

S arety pro bl em 1 .................... ,............................................................................ ,;; .. ................................. .


.'I!... I"~

l_

\_

urr>.

'C'.'k\0

.................................................................................................................................................................... [1 1
'

Safety problem z .....

.'

-"

?.:::.::.......... ..l.R:?.!L"f..:..........::o:.......:................~..~'............ :::-~.:::::..............................

..................................................................................................................................................................... [ 1]

- lZ -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Methods of Purification

17'--filter paper
fimnel
residue.

a) To .5epaJta..te a.
6Mm a. Uqr.Ud

Mild (J.n.6 o.tub.te)

Filtration
The solid is left on the
filter paper as the residue
while the liquid passes
through.

Just by pouring the liquid


insoluble

off from the solid,

b)

To

ob~

substance

a. .5o.Ud 6Aom a. .5o.f.utLon

t:===::J-..J-salt solution

A solution consists of a
solut.e dissolved in a solvent, Sea water is a solution

solution~-_____ evop oratlng


:- .. -~_....
ba.s: 1n

/
gauze

---

of salt (sodium chloride) in

K~~r

water. By heating the solution,


water evaporates and solid
salt is left,

! -----

c ..... -

'%?~~~-

:C,c;eifc!c"(

I
~

__.- ~'~ I

tripou

.f1__/
/
,

The solution is evaporated to the crystallization point; i.e, the


point at which crystals of solute will form on cooling the solution
to room temperature and can then be f"iltered out, and dried.

What method could be used to show the crystallising point had been reached

'I'

'""' -'r ,) ~,- t I_ ' -::,.::-,,_i \ - ) v


'-r:f
v

'

........... t

- 13 -

Chemistry IGCSE

c)

To

a 6olvent

4epaAaXe

6~om

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Gal!!)

a 4otution

Distillation
------------

tharmometor

When the solution ia boiled, the


solvent changes to vapour, the
vapour passes down a condenser
where it is converted back to
liquid and is collected as the
distillate.

sea
water

d}

To

6 epaAaXe

cold W;ttcr in
pun distilled

HEAt

:iJJJo .Uqu).cL6

water

Fractional distillation
----------------------Miscible liquids (i.e. ones that
mix together completely) may be
separated by fractional

distil~

thermometer

lation provided that their boiling points are different, e.g.

Cr;Jolest paQ:

of column---

mixture of ethanol and water,


The mixture in the flask is
heated so that it boils. Both

cold water In
fractionating ---W~

column
filled with
tilc:ss rods

go up the fractionating column.


Ethanol has a lower boiling point

Frt~ctlons

collected at

(78C) than water (i.e, is more

lower
temperatures.

volatile), The liquid with the


lOI<er boiling point (ethanol)
and distils over and is collected

~8

ethanol vapour and water vapour

reaches the top of the column

broka_n Porcelain

HEAT

first.

Ant-bump.i.ng gMnui.e6 [alL bMk.en polLc.eta.i.n} alLe. added .to .the. m!.xJwc.e.
.to acfU..eve 6.teady bo-UJ..ng.
Important appli<;:ations of fractional distillation :
a)

The separation of liquid air into oxygen and nitrogen

b)

The separation of crude oil [petroleum] into useful fractions.

- 14 -

{Dr. Fathy .Abdel Galil)

Chemistry lGCSE

e.)

Clvr.omCLtogJutphq

Paper chromatozraphy is used to separate a

'

mixture of similar solids dissolved in a

0
:

solvent, e.g. it can be used to_separate

the dyes in ink. It can also be used to


identify additives in foods such as
flavouring and. colouring;;.

- Filter paper

small .spot

of the solution containing the mixture

The. 6po.t nuu.t be. ab.ove


.the .tevel o 6 .the bofvent

is placed near the end of the filter

Solvcnl

paper. The end of the paper is dipped


into a solvent (e.g. water, ethanol). As the solvent rises up,
spots of various consti.tuents of the mixture will be collected at
di{ferent distances above the original spot. The finished paper is
called clvr.om~og~. A single p~e. substance will produce.only

one. .opa.t.
Chromatography can also be used to separate calaunle46 substances,
but .in this case the paper must be sprayed with another chemical

[tac.atilig ILge.nt) so that the position. of the s.pots. can be seen.

Example. a 6 LL!.l.Wg clvr.ama;togJutphy

A dye used in food colouring

f--- ---"----.--- ~- --------f

can be ide:ntified by chromategraphing it alongside some pure,


known dyes. In this way,-a public

movement

of solvent

1---------------f

analyst can firid out whether a dy_e


used iri .food is a permitted one

or an 'illegal' one. The figure


shows that dye: 'A' is a mixture,
and it contains dyes

C1 and

D'.

ED

samples -of dye A. and pure chemicals B, C, 0, E.


added along !his line as shown

I 6 a. ,o po.t Jt.e.ma...i.M on. .the. ,o.ta.Jt.,ti.ng -Une., .U me.ILM ~ .the .o ub.o.ta.nce.

;_;, .{.n.Miubie. .W .the. <> otve.n.t

Why mU!.l.t .the. .o;taJLt.{.n.g

U!.l e.d .

., e. be. dlurWn.
V<-"

.w

pe.n.cM:. iLn.d nat w.Uh ink ?

~--~--

........................................ ~ ................................... .

15 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Chemistry IGCSE

The diagram shows a chromatogram used to find out which colourings are in a fruit drink.

'

'

fruit drink

f
2 3 4
colourings

Which two colourings are in the fruit drink?

1 and4

1 andS

2 and3

2and5

Testing the purity of a substance


A

puJLe substance has nothing else mixed with it. A substance is not

pure when it has other things mixed with it; these are called irup~e6.
Chemists often need to know if a substance is pure. For example, drugs
must be tested for purity before they are sold. Impurities might harm the
patient.

7. Chlr.omatog1taphy c.an be Ul>ed :to .6ee

8'--~>

\:;u_\::\::::"<>"

J.o \'__

~'y.,

az

~o\__

eo'"

-to

a. .6!Lb.>.ta.nc.e -L.6 puJte. How

\\c-.~

0"-fl"'--'

'l. . . . . . ~ ~--u::.tI

<2Y'-

\\.:::

, ",

~ v.'\"

',\. , < \_ o~\;;, <:>'0.


.............
\.j'""""'""

2. Ano.:the1t wa.y o 6 :te<>:ti.ng puJLUy i;, :to meMuJte :the .>ub.6:ta.nc.e' .6 me-tUng
po-i.n:t otr_ ba.i..Ung po.i.11-t. PuJLe .6ub.6:ta.n,c.e<> have de6-Lnile me.Uhtg po~
a.nd bo.LU.ng po~. I o a. .>ub.6.ta.nc.e -i..6 no:t puJte, m me..U.Utg po.ill:t otr_
bo.LUng po-Ln:t w.U.t be d.i.o oe1len:t 6Jtam :the known.
Impurities make melting points lower and boiling points higher.

The WCLte1t .ta.R.en 6Jtom ;the .6ea. 6Meze<> at a.bou:t -2'C a.nd boili at 70 1"C.
I.6 U pWLe ? No 1

..................................................................

Why ?

Gu:."-'-'S':

-,~

s"""'"\.1\ : ~f'~::ze

:C,L

c- ) ".

~--~

.......... .

- 16 ..

Chemist1y I GCSE

Topic 3.

(D1. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

ATOMS, ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures


Element : is a substance which cannot be split up, e.g. aluminium or
sulphur. It contains atoms of only one type. There are
over 100 elements which are grouped into two main classes
metals and n'on-me tals.
Most of elemen ts are metals. There are only 22 non-metals.

There are a few elements which are d.ifficult to classify


Because they have some metallic and some non-metallic pro-

perties.

A comparison of the properties of metals and non-metals


Property

Metal

Non-metal

state at room
temperature

solid except
mercury (liqu1.d)

solids, gases and


one liquid (bromine)

melting point

high except alkali


metals

low except carbon


and silicon

appearance

shiny

dull
.

Compound

effect of hamme ring

easily shaped

electrical and
heat conductivity

good

brittle - break into


pieces
poor or none, except

graphite

is a substance made up of two or more elements chemically


combined together. A compound has properties different
from those of its elements, e.g. water or carbon dioxide.

Mixture

consists of two or more elements or compounds which have not

been chemically combined, e.g. air or sea water. A mixture


has the properties of the substances in it and can be separated by the methods described in Topic 2.

- 17 -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Atomic Structure
Atoms consist of a minute nucleus, where allthe positive charge
and most of the mass of the atom is concentrated, surrounded by
electrons.
The nucleus is made up of two types of particles

p.li.o.tono and neubr.ono.

A pJto.ton is a positively charged particle.


A.neut.li.on is a neutral.particle (uncharged), with mass equal to that
of a proton.
An elec.t.li.on is a negatively charged particle; the mass of the electron

is so small that it can often be ignored,

Atoms are electrically


neutral because:
number of +ve protons =
number of -Ne electrons.

Ato~e (p.~to.ton) nu.mbeJt :

auiL-a:LomLc.

Rela.ti.v e. Ma.M

Pa.Jt.tic.te.

Cha.Jr.g e.
+1

1
1

PILO.tort
Neu.bwn

-1

1/1810

Etec.tJton

(Z)

is the number of protons in the nucleus.

Ma..6c, (IU.Lcteon)

nu.mbe.~t : (A)

is the total number of protons and neutrons in ari atom.


Mas~

No.
(p + n)

Atomic No.
(p)

(symbol of

the element)

Ato~e nu.mbe.~t =

nu.mbeJt

on

pM.tono

MM<l numbe.~t

.=

nu.mbeJt

p!W.tono

nu.mbe.li.

o6
o6

neu..t.li.ono

No. of neutrons = Mass no. - Atomic no.

Question ;

Work out the numbers of sub-atomic particles [protons, neutrons and electron J
of the atoms of the following element.i.

12c

6 ,

56
26Fe,

......................................... .

e =

.......... .......................... .

n =

" ........... ..... .....

- 18 -

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

Isotopes

I<> o:to p eo aJt.e a.tom<> o6 the <1 am.e. el-ement, ULU:h the <. ame numb eM

pM:to IU bu.X. cU {, Vtent numb eM 0 6, neu:tJr.o IU ,


_
.in o.thvr. wo.tc.do i..oo:topu h.aue .the <.ame a.tom.Z.c. nwnbvr. bu.X. cU66vr.ent
0 {,

nutM

numb Vt6

I<>o:topeo o6 hydJwgen
Hydrogen has 3 isotopes

()
Most hydrogen atoms are like
this, l H. It is an orcl.inarj
hydrogen atom with no
neutron.

But a few' are like this. It has


one neutron. It is called
deuterium, 1 H. [2D]
1

,.

And some are like this, with


two neutrons. It is-called
tritium, ~H. [fT]

Isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.

IM:topu o6 c.a.Jtbon
Carbon has 3 isotopes

f.!a..66 nwnbvr.

Nwnbvr. o6 plto.toJU

Nwnbvr. o6 dec.bta JU =
Nwnbvr. o6 neu:tJr.o JU
[AJ

is called

[A]

( B]

....... ... .....


... ... ... . ... .
. .. . . . . . . . . .
. ..... .. . .... . .

..............
................
..... . .. ..... ..
. .... . . . ... ...

"

[C]

.............. .
. ........... .
..

"

..................

...............

carbon~l2.

What do you think

[BJ and

[CJ

are called ?

.......... ................................................................................ .
.,

.. . . ....................................................... " ............................. .


,:. ..

- 19 -

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abde! Galli)

Relative atomic masses

Host elements contain a mixture of isot<>pes . This explains why


their relative atomic masses arenoz whole numbers.

The relativ.e.atomic mass. of the etement[f.u] is theaverage:ma&oEits,iS@toges takiug


into ace0unt their proporticms.

For example, chlorine consists.-of i:wo isotol'es with mass numbers


of 35 and 37. Their proportions a~e--75% of: ~fCJ: an.<! 25! of 37c1.
17

The relative atomic mass of chlorine will be: 35-~- 75/1@0

Radioactive Isotopes

37 X 25/100'= '--

. ..

. Sem.e is0tepes (such a5.tri~um ami car!D0n-14].haye tmstable nuclei;


they emit certain types of radiatl&n [alJ!lha a, "fueta ~, anti! gamma r] in @faer
to Ille mere .staDle.

Some us.es ~of r:ad.i@a.etive ;iso.t!;p,e_s :


Me.cU..c.aL

1M e.A :
--------------.
1-

e.. g.

Cance-r treatment :

Tumors can be. destroyed- using controlled

doses of gamma radiation from cobalt-60.

2-

Sterilising medical equipments

I!1~~~-~~ ' e..g.


1- Detecting leaks in water pipes.

2- Checking the thickness of paper during manufacture.

Nuc Iear Power

.. )
( 235u as a source of_ ener!iJ)'

Nuclear fission

Some radioactive isotepes are used as nuclear fuels e.g. Uranium-235.


When they are bombarded by neutrons, they s-f)llt =!Jtto sutaller atoms.
The splitting of an at<Jm is called nuclear fission. Fissiori. of
uraniuni-235 atom produces a

fw{Je. am<Junt of heat energi (nuclear

energy) wich can be used f<Jr generatio_:il ef electricity [nuclear


pewer stations] Nu"clear fission b

done in a rw.dea.Jt lr.eitc.:toJr..

;.

(Dr, Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 20 -

Chemistry IGCSE

a. ;;e}()_eo o6 ;;he.U aAOW1d .the nucte.u..b.


2) Ea.c.h llheU c.a.n only c.onto:i.n. a. Li.mUed 1tW11bVT- ofJ e.t.ec.t1Wn.6.
3J The .6heU ne.aJr.e.ll.t :t6 ..the nu.cl.eu.ll 6.il.L5 6JM:t . When U .W t]u.U,
.the e.t.ec..tMn.6 go J..n:to .the nex:t llheU, a.nd .flo on.
4 J The fJ.iJr.b:t .6 heU c.a.n onty hold :two e.t.ecto n.6 , .the uc.o nd 8 and
.the :t/Wui 8 04 7. 8.
7J

Uec..tMn.6 Me IVUl.anged i.n.

The first twenty eLements in the Periodic Table and their electronic structures

~~e

H
I

Li

Be

B:

Ne

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

Na

Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

2,8,1

2,8,2

2,8,3.

2,8,5

2,8,6

2,8,7

2,8,8

Ca

2,8,8,1

2,8,8,2

.. ,:2,.8,4

The outer shell is called the valency shell and the electrons of the outer shel! are the
valency electrons.
Elements of the same group in the periodic table contZin the same number ofelectrons iii
their outer shelL For example; Jithiunl; sodium and potassium-(group I) have one electron
in their outer shell. Fluorine, chlorine and bromine (group VII) have 7 electrons in their
outer shell.

_.
What is special about the- nobel gases 7

The nobel gMeo Me; ve:Jty (Uillea.c.tl.ve. They w.i.U not joht up wi..tft ea.clt
o.theJr. ;to 6oJUn mo.tec.ul.eo NoJt wLU .they Jtea.d ea..ll.U.y w.U:h . o.theJr. e.temen..to
to {,oJUn c.ompound.o. The nobel gM eo Me .6.ta.b.te (ullltea.c.tl.ve) bec.auJ, e
.they ha.v e n uU ou.:teJr. .6 heW.
We c.oul.cl' c.onctude .tha..t o.theJr. e.t.eme.n.U Me Jtea.c:Uve bec.a.u.!Je .they do not
ha.ve {,u.tt llheUb. 'Lt <1 eemb .tha.::t e.f.!'llleJJb, Jtea.d :to f:.Jty a.nd get onf.y
6uU <>hellll.
.

:.: ~ .: :

The arrangement of electrons in the first twenty elements


. Hydrogen
atomic no. 1

"'

l)

Helium

He

atomic no. 2

<11

1J

.0

-<

>-

.c
....

"'
u.

'0

Lithium
a10mic no. 3

Li

2,1

Sodium
atomic no. 11

\.U

N'

Nitrogen
atomic no. 7

atomic no. 6

N Oxygen

atomic no. 8

Fluorine
atomic no. 9

atomic no. 10

@ @ @ @ @ @
I
Mg

2,3
Aluminium
atomic no. 13

AI

2,4

Silicon
atomic no; 14

j
Si

Phosphorus
atomic no, 15

. 2, 7

2,6

2,5

Sulphur

atomiC no. 16

Chlorine
atomic no. 17

2,8

Cl

....'-V\

Ar

Argon

atomic no, 18

2,B,2

2, 8, 1

2,8,3

2, B, 4

2,8,5

2,8,6

2, 8, 7

l)

>-

Ne

Neon

(@ ~ (@). (@) (@)(@)@J@

(/)

Carbon

atomic no. 5

2,2
Magnesium
atomic no. 12

Boron

@
.....

Be

BeryJlium

atomic no. 4

Potassium
atomic no. 19

Calcium
.1tomic no, 20

Ca

The numbers under each atom show the way the electrons are orranged for that element.
This is called its electronic connguratlon.

E
Q)

.c

The electronic coftfigura!ion of aluminium is 2, 8, 3. This means it has two electrons in the
first shell, eight electrons In the second shell and lhree electrons In the th'~rd shell.

2,

o. n. 1

2, 0, 0, 2

2, 8, 8

22

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Chemical Bonding
Ions and Ionic Bonds
An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons is transferred from

an atom of a metal to an atom of a non-metal.


Ionic compounds are made up of ions.

Sodium chloride .(NaCl)


Na

.+

(atom)

Cl

(a tom)

2' 8' 7

2' 8' 1

sodium atom

chlorine atom

{Na)

{q)

+
Cl- (ion)
2' 8' 8

11 protons

11 +
electrons u 1 aOverall charge = + 1
10

17 protons
18 electrons

- 17+

180verall charge -1
chloride ion
{CI-)

sodium ion
{Na)

Be.c.a!Ue :the ;,odJ..wn a:tom lw..o LoU:. one. ne.ga..t<.ve. de.c.:t!ton, U be.c.ome.;, a.

po<..<.tive. .<.on.
Be.c.aLU e. .the c.h'-o!Une. a:tom lw..o ga.J..ne.d one de.c..tJwn. J...t ga.J..n;, a. ne.ga.Uve.
c.hM.ge a.nd be.c.ome.;, a. ne.ga..Uve. .Lon .
SodJ..wn c.h'-oJt.l.de. .(.;, ma.de. ofJ IJodJ..wn .<.on;, a.nd c.hloJt.l.de. .Lon;, held .toge:theJL
b!f a.n e.!_e.c.Vto.;.ta..t<.c. a.:t.:Ow.c..t.Lon be..tvJe.e.n oppa.;Ue.'-!f chM.ge.d .Lon;,.
Ion :

is an electrically charged particle formed from an atom by


the loss or gain of one or more electrons.

The. a.Ma.nge.men.t o6 .the. va.J..e.nc.q e.!_e.c..tJt.on;, [.L. e. e!_ecVwn;, o 6 :the ou.teJL.;he.U) i.n :the. .<.o!Uc. compound .;od.f.wn ch'-oJt.l.de. ca.n be Jr.e.pl(.e.;,e.n.te.d a..; 6oUow.;

X X.
(2.8.1)

Sodium atom

(2,8, 7)

(2,8)

Chlorine atom

Sodium ion

(2,8, 8)

Chloride ion

- 23 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Chemistry IGCSE

Magn.el>-Wm oxide (Mg 0)

XX

Mg:~o~
~ -xx
(2,8,2)

(2,6)

. (2,8)

(2,8)

x)(
K

FX

~('

Mg:

(2, 7)

[Mg] 2+

<:x

~ ~F~

(2,8,2)

Magnesium
atom

(2, 7)

(2, 8)

2 Fluorine

Magnesium

atoms .

ion

(2, 8)
2 Fluoride
ions

Giant Ionic Structure: [Giant Ionic lattice]


This is a regular arrangement of alternating +ve and -ve ions .in ionic crystals, giving
strong interionic forces, in other words, ions held together by an electrostatic attraction
between oppositely charged ions

This explains the high melting points of ionic compounds.


e.g. sodium chloride lattice:

Cl

~~~
- ++- +

Properties Of Ionic Compounds:

1. They are s.olids and have high m~Iting poi~ts ~nd b~gng points,
e.g. the melting point of pure sodium chlonde rs 8 0 .
2 . Solid compounds do not conduct electricity. They[' conducfrt t
electricity when melted or dissolved in water, wns are ee o
move and carry the electric current].
3. They are usually soluble in water.

- 24 -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Molecules and Covalent Bonds


A single covalent bond is formed when a pair of electrons is shared
between two atoms (non-metals).
Covalent compounds are made up of molecules.

H- H

Hydrogen (Hzl

a hydrogen molecule, H2

two hydrogen atoms

a shared pair of electrons

Cl

two chlorine atoms

- Cl

a chlorine molecule, Cl 2

88

Similarly,

. Br2'

12,

Fz
Hydrogen chloride (HCI)
XX

H-0-H

H- Cl

xx

H
\

Similarly,

PC1

I
H

- 25 -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

H
I

H-C-H
-

)> Draw a d.iagram which shows the arrangement of valency electrons

iJ;I tetrachloromethane [CC4J

H
I

H-C-0-H

Methanol ( CH 0H)
3

A double covalent bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are


shared between twoatoms.

0=0

Oxygen (0 2 )

Carbon dioxide ( C0 )
2

O=C=O

H
Ethene (C H )
2 ~

c=c

Chemistry lGCSE

- 26 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

A triple covalent bond is formed when three pairs of electrons


are

sha:red~

Ethyne [Acetylene}

H-C==C-H

c2 Hz

PMpeJ!.tieb a6 Caval.en.t CampoWJ.cU [simple molecular]


1.

Made up of molecules and contains no ions

2.

Do not conduct electricity

3.

Most covalent compounds are gasesandliquids,fewareso[ids.

4.

Covalent compounds are less soluble in water than ionic compo.unds

5.

Usually have lower melting points and boiling points than


ionic compounds.

Diatomic Molecules
The molecule consists of 2 atoms such as H ,
2

o2 ,

N21 Cl , Br ,
2
2

rz, Fz.

Allotropes of Carbon
Carbon occuts in tw0 solid forms, diamond and graphite. These
are very different, even though they both contain carbon atoms.
Pure diamond is a l1ard, colourless solid, that sparkles in the
light, while graphite is a dark grey greasy solid with a dull
shine,
When an element has more than one form, it shows allotropy. The
different forms are called allotropes of carbon.

Allotropes: Different structures of the same element

Chemistr:y IGCSE

- 27 -

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Macromolecular (Giant) Structure


Diamond

...
the centre atom
forms lour bonds

V-UJ.mond .U, a. giant structure o[ caJtbon a.to111<1. Ea.ch caJtbon a.tom


).], joi.ned :to 6oUJt o.theJt. a.tom~ ..1i a. :t~hedJw.l. aNtangemen.t.
Diamond has these properties :
1.

It is yery hard, the hardest substance known. This because


each atom is heldin place by four strong bonds. This is
vhy diamond is used in drilling and cutting.

2.

It cannot conduct electricity because there are no ions or


free electrons in it to carry charge.

Graphite
I

1-weak
forces

CaJtbon a.to111<1 aJte aiWl:nge.d J.n hex.a.gonb J.n pa.JrJul..(_el. .lay eM. The
.layeM ctl!-e hel.d :toge;thur. by wea.k 6oJtc.u.

- 28 -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr~

Fathy Abdel Ga!il)

Graphite has these properties :


1.

It is soft: and slippery vhich feels greasy. This is because


the layers can easily-slid over each other. This is why
graphite is used as a lubricant.

2.

It is good conductor of electricity. This is because each


atom has four electrons, but forms only three bonds. The
fourth electron is free to move through the graphite, carrying charge,

Bo-th d.i.amond a.nd gJta.ph.Ue. have. veJr.y IU.gh meLUng po.w..t. ThM
be.c.a.u.6e. bo-th eoitOJJ,.:t o6 g.la.n.t <>bw.e.twr.e. o6 a..:tom4.
Silicon (IV) Oxide

}J,

(Silicon Dioxide}

Silicon dioxide (Si0 ) has a giant


2
structure in which each silicon atom
is bonded to four oxygen atoms and
each oxygen atom to two silicon atoms.

This structure is similar to the giant .covalent structure of diamond.

u.ke d.i.amond, <>ilieon d..i.ox.i.de .U, luvuf., Ita<> a. IU.gh me..tti..ng po.I.n.:t
a.nd dau no-t c.ond!Le.:t e..te.c..tJr.lc.Uy.

properties ofMacromolecules:
1. High m.p. and b.p.
2. Hard [graphite is exception which is soft 1
3. Do not conduct electricity [graphite is exception 1
4. Insoluble in wat~r

Chemistry IGCSE

(Prof. Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

-29-

Metallic Bond
Giant metallic lattice - (In metals)

+ nucleus

electron

Giant metallic lattice consisting of the positive ions surrounded by. a


"sea" of free (mobile) electrons (i.e. the etectrons ofthe outer shells).
>Metals are good conductors for electricity, the current is carried by the
free t;lectrons.
> Metallic bonding is very strong in some metals like iron and copper (transition
elements) and is much, w~aker as in sodium and potassium (group I).

Summary of Bonding
Ionic
(be-tween metals
and no~-metals)

Bonding

1'------

Structures

Giant ionic

Melting point
Conduct
electricity ?

Examples

Covalent
(between non-metals)

High
Not when solid, but
they do when m:o!ten
! or dissolved in water
I
I (when i'ons are free
I
I
to move)
:'

\.

.,

..

T~

Simple molecular I Giant-covalent


'(macromolecular)
Low
'No

'

Very high

Usually high

No

Yes
(has free
.electrons)

8CB8

~~~
8+8+

Ch, h, NH3, C}L,


C02, H20

~-J:

>~
Water

I
f

Giant metallic

. NaCI; MgO, CaC1 2

Metallic
(in metals)

diamond,
graphite, Si0 2
I

~I
!.C ~

~~~
"v~
v'l,
Diamond

Fe, Cu, Mg

( irr
XX

- 30 -

Chemistry. IGCSE

Topic 4.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

STIOCHIOMETRY [Formulae, Equations and Calculations]

.Valency or Combining Power


The valency of an element is the .numper which shows its ability
to combine with other elements.
In molecules (covalent compounds) it gives the number. of covalent
bonds which the atoms can form.
In ionic compounds the valency gives the charge on the ions of the
element.

Valency can be used to predict the formulae of' compounds.

1)

The. Fol!mula.e. o 6 Cova1.en.t Mo.le.c.LLte!>


Electron diagram~ ( 1 dot and cross 1 type diagrams) or just a
knowledge of the number of shared electrons in the outer shell
can be used to work our formulae.

Complete 'the following table

Symbol

Va1.enc'y

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Sulphur.

Hydrogen

'H

Chlorine

Cl

Bromine

Br

Ee.emen.t

What are the formulae of the follwing molecules :


Ammonia
Methane

Hydrogen chlorid.e

........ ......... .
~

Bromine

...................

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 31 -

._;_;

2)

The. FolUnu.C.a.e. o o 1on.i.c Compound&


We cannot talk about molecule!! ofionic compounds. In ionic
crystals we have an alternating arrangement of p_ositive and
. negative ions.

More about ions :

----------------Some elements can lose or gain electrons and change into atoms
with positive. or negative charges. These atoms are called ions.
Some examples are :
Na+
Ca

2+

Cl.,..

..

sodium ion

)(+

potassium ion

calcium ion

A13+

aluminium ion

02-

oxide ion

. cnlorid~. ion

Spmetimes, groups of atoms can have charges too~ and beh,ave

as ions. The sulphate ion, SO

2-

is made of one sulphur atom


4
and four oxygen atoms, bonded t.oge'ther; The whole group-of
atoms has two nega.tive charges.
The nitrate ion,

No 3 - ,

the carbonate ion,

co 3 2- ,

and the

ammonium ion, NH +, are other examples


4
.Here is a lis't of most of the ions that you are likely to meet
and will need to know :

Valency

Positive ions

Negative ions

H+.
u+
Na+
K+
Ag+
NH 4.+
Ca 2+
" .. 2+
Mg.
Bal+
Pb2+
Cu-7~.
Zn2+
Fea

hydrogen ion
lithium ion
sodium ion
potassium ion
silver lqn
ammonium ion

hydroxide ion
chlo'ride ior,
bromide ion
iodide ion
F- fluoride ion
Nol- nitrate ion

calcium ion
magnesium ion
barium ion
iead,,ion
copper(II) ion
zinc ion
irori(II) ion

S2~

FeH
Al 3+

iron(III) ion
aluminium ion

oHcrBrI-

o2-

so/-

sulphide ion
oxide ion
sulphate ion

..

col2- carbonate ion

PO/- phosphate ion

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Ga!il}

- 32 -

Chemlstr)' IGCSE

Predicting the formula of ionic corr Jounds


In an ionic cempound, th

ions are attracted to each other

by their opposite charges. The number of

+ charg.es

is alYays

equal to the number of -charges. Knowing this, the formulae of


ionic compounds can be written down.
Look at these examples in which the.numbers of positive ions
and negative ions are balanced to make the charges the same.

ammonium sulphate

aluminium oxide

magnesium oxide

this is then written


&l .12-l_
Mg ~
Mg~0 2 - - - - - MgO

Remember
i) Compounds ending in 1 ide 1 are made of just 2 elements only.
ii) Compounds ending in 'ate' have a third element, 'oxygen'.

Question:
Write down the formula for each ofthese ionic compounds:
1. sodium chloride
2. aluminium nitrate
3. zinc chloride
4. sodium sulphate
5: copper (II) sulphate
6. zirlc carbonate
7. alllrniniurn carbonate
8. pctassium iodide

9 Cll!ciurn oxide

... ... .. .. ..

10. amrnonium.carbOnate

............

.............
... ... ... ...

11. calcium hydroxide


12. ammonium phosphate

.............
...............

.. ..........
............
... ... ... ...

1Liron (JII)..oxide.

...............

............
... -.........
.............

16. iron (JII) chloride

.............
.:. ...........

17. aluminium hydroxide

.... - - .....

18.. silver nitrate

.............

14~ potassiUI\1 carbonate

15. zinc sulphide

............

(Dr. Fathy Abde! Galli)

Chemistry IGCSE
- 33 -

When a che'mical reaction occurs, substances react together.


These reacting substances are called tne reactants. They form
new chemicals called the products.
How to write the equation for a reaction

These are the steps to follow when writing an equation


l-

Write the equation in words (word equation).

z~

Now write the equation using symbols. Make sure the all
correct~

formulae are

3-

th~

Check that the equation is balanced, for each atom in turn;

Make

b~e

you do

no~

change any 6okmulae.

Example l.
When hydrogen burns in oxygen or air, it forms water

oxygen

H2

02

2 H

02

hydrogen

water

>
2

H
H

~V!!g111~0 :tha.:t .the c.ommon ga.<>eb (n.Ultogen, oxygen, hydMgenJ and


~lie MlogeM Me dULtom.i.c. Th.U, mean.b .:tlra.t .they .ex..U..:t a.<> motec.ul.eb
c.ol1.:ta-i.JU.ng wo <Uomb. T/UU, oxygen .i...6 02, n.o.:t 0, and c,htoJU.ne .i...6
ct , n.o.:t CL

Example 2.

IVfaoonesium burns brightly in oxygen or air, it forms magnesium oxide [white powder}:
magnesium

Mg

2Mg

Ol)'gen ---7 magnesium oxide

2Mg0

- 34.-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abde! Galil)

Some chemical equations include extra symbols after the formula.


They show if the surrstance is a solid (s), liquid (1), a gas (g),
or dissolved in water (aq), [aqueous]

sodium

water

sodium
hydroxide

hydrogen

2Na(~

2H 2 0(1)

2NaOH(aq).

Hz(g)

1. Balance the fo!lowing equations :

Na

C[z

-----'?- Na C!

COz

-----'?- CO

A1

Clz

-----'?- .. A!CI,

NO

Oz

-----'?- N.Oz

AI

Oz

-----'?- .. Alz O,
-----'?-. ... KC!

Mg

SOz

C!!t

2.

COz

Ca(OH)

+ ... 0z

+ ... HzO

Complete the word equation for the above reaction :

. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . . . ... . .. .. . .. . . . .

---'.;>-

+ ........... +

.. .. ..

..................... -........................ .
water

[Dr. Fathy 'Abdel Cali!)

- 35 -

Chemistry IGCSE

Chemical Calculations

Relative Molecular Mass [Mrl


Each element has its own relative atomic mass [Ar ]. This is the average mass of its isotopes compared with the mass of- a
standard atom of carbon, l~c.
Compounds have a relative molecular mass (sometimes called formula

mass). The relative molecular mass (formula mass) of a compound is


founq by adding up the relative atomic masses of the elements in
the compound according to the number of each element's atoms.

Look at these examples:


1 Sodium chloride, NaC!
1 X 23
1 atom of Na
1 atom of Cl
1 X 35.5
relative molecular mass

2 Calcium chloride, CaC1 2


I X 40
I atom ofCa
2 X 35.5
2 atoms of Cl
relative molecular mass
3 Zinc nitrate, Zn(N0 3)z
1 atom of Zn
1 X 65
2 atoms of N
2 X 14
2 X 3 X 16
6 atoms of 0
relative molecular mass

23
35.5
58.5

40
7I
111

.65
28
96
189

Calculate the relative molecular masses of the following compounds :


l.

3.

Carbon dio:cide,

co 2

Sodium carbonate, Na C0
2 3

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Gali!)

- 36 -

Percentage Composition by Mass

Sometimes it is important to know the exact composition of a compound.


For example, all bags of fertilizer must show the percentage of the
clements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium they contain on the outside.

The % of an element by

Ar of the element x no. of its atoms

mass a compound in

Mr of the compound

Look at these examples:

1 The % mass of calcium in calcium carbonate, CaC0 3"


Ca
40
100 = 40 + 12 + 48. X IOO
= C~ + C + 3XO X

40 %

40% of the mass of calcium carbonate is calcium.

2 The % mass of nitrogen in ammonium nitrate, NH.N0 3


2X N
28
=
X 100 =
ZXN + 4XH + 3XO
28 + 4 + 48 X 100

---==---

35 % of the mass of ammonium niuate is nitrogen.

35%

X 100

........ .... ,, ..
~

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 37-

Chemistry !GCSE

THE MOLE

A mo.e.e. (mo.tM. ma.o.6

r o6

any .6Ub.6.ta.nc.e. )_;,

Jr.e-

.f.a.:Uve a.tom.Lc. ma.o.6 [Air.) OJt Jtel.a.tive. mo.tec.u..ta.lr.


ma.6.6 [MltJ {.<.6 i l .i..6 a. compound) mea.oUJte.d .<.n glUJJn!>.

For Elements :

1.

1 mole of sulphur the relative atomic mass in grams 32 g

.2.

1 mole of calcium = the relative atomic mass in grams = 40 g

For Compounds
1.

1 mole of water = the relative molecular mass of water in grams


=2XH+O

- 2 + 16
2.

1 mole of Caco

- 18 g

Ca + C + 3 X 0
= 40 + 12 +'48

= 100

mass

No. of

Ar

moles

Mr

or

Questions:

1. What is the mass of one mole of each of the following:


a) magnesium

Mg

.................... .

b) copper(II) oxide

CuO

..............

c) sodium chloride

NaCl

............... .

.--. .---. . --.

- 38 -

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

2. What is the mass of

a)

0.1 mole of carbon dioxide (C02)? .......... -

b)

4 moles of oxygen (02 ) ? ................ -

c)

2 moles of water (H20)? ....... ...

3. How many moles are there

in:

a)

9 g of water (HzO)? ........ ..

b)

1.6 g of copper (II) oxide (CuO) ? ............ - - .

c)

117 g.qf sodium chloride (NaCI)? .. : ............ .

d)

9.8 g of sulphuric aci-d (HzS04 ) ? .... - ..

e)

20 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ? ............. - .

Avogadro constant [ LJ

. is the number of

part~cles

(atoms, molEcules) per mole of any

subs tan.ce The v:alue of the constant is

A mole of iron (56 g) contains 6 X 10


A mole of
A mole of
A mole of
A mole of
A mole of
A mole of

23

iron atoms.
23
carbon (12 g) contains 6 X 10
carbon atoms.
~
23
sulphur (32 g) tontains 6 X 10
sulphur atoms.
23
oxygen atoms (16 g) contains 6 X 10
oxygen atoms.
.
23
oxygen mole~ules (32 g) contains 6 X 10
oxygen molecules.
23
carbon dioxide (44 g) contains 6 X 10
carbon dioxide molecules.
23 ..
water (18 g) contains 6 X 10
water molecules.

' " ' .'

..... . --..

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 39 -

Chemistry IGCSE

Moles and chemical equations


Not only do equations tell you what substances are reacting and being
formed in a chemical reaction, but they tell you the amounts of the
substances reacting.
The equationshows how many moles of each substance are reactipg.

Example I

magnesiUm

+ hydrochloric

.magnesium
_...,.. chloride

acid

+h

d
y regen

Mg(s)

2HCI(aq)

MgCiz(aq).

H2(g)

this means
1 mole

2 moles

1 mole

1 mole

and in grams
24g

73 g

95 g

2g

the total mass on the left-hand side of the equation is equal to


the total mass on the right-hand side of the equation.

Equations can be used to predict the amount of a substanc,e that will be


used up or made in a ch~mical reaction. Look at the examples:

Example2,
Consider the reaction between magnesium and oxygen.
magnesmm
2Mg (s)

+ oxygen
+

02 (g)

-7

magnesium oxide .

2Mg0 (s)

This shows that 2 moles of magnesium react with l mole of


oxygen to give 2 moles of magnesium oxide.
Using the ideas of moles and masses we can use this information
to calculate the quantities of the different chemicals involved.
2Mg (s)
2 moles

2x24
=48g

2Mg0 (s)
1 mole

lx (16x2)
=32g

2 moles

2x (24+16)
=80crh

...

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

40

Example 3
Lime (calcium oxide) is formed by strongly heating limestone
(calcium carbonate) until it is completely decomposed.
The equation for the process is:

CaC03 (s)

CaO (s)

1 mole

I mole

=IOOg

1 mole

40 + 16
=56g

[40 + 12 + (3x16)]

)>

12 + (2x16)
=44g

Calculate the mass of calcium oxide formed when 5 g of calcium carbonate


are strongly heated.

Pick out the substances involved in the question


CaC03 (s)
7
CaO (s)
molar ratio:

1 mole

1 mole

mass

The number of moles of CaC0 3 reacted

= -

The number of moles ofCaO formed= 0.05

Mass of CaO formed

0.05

100

Mr

why?

= number of moles x Mr

0 o.,:05
=2.8 g
=

56

. .. ..

. . : .

41

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Percentage Yield
Some reactions do not go to completion, i.e. not all of the reactants are converted
to products.
The amount of product formed in a non-complete reaction is known as the actual
yield of the reaction. The amount of product that would be formed if the reaction
goes to completion is known as the theoretical yield.

actual yield (given)


percentage yield .. -

100

theoretical yield
(calculated)

Example:
On heating 5 g of calcium carbonate, 2.1 g of calcium oxide are formed.
Using the information in example 3; what is the percentage yield of the
reaction?

>- Sodium reacts with sulphur to form sodium sulphide.


2Na + S -7 NazS
An 11.5 g sample of sodium is reacted with 10 g of sulphur. All of the sodium reacted but
there was an excess of sulphur.
Calculate the mass of sulphur left unreacted.
(i)

Number of moles of sodium atoms reacted = .................... .


[2 moles of Na react with 1 mole of SJ

(ii)

Number of moles of sulphur atoms that reacted = ..................

= ................... g

(iii)

Mass of sulphur reacted

(iv)

Mass of sulphur left unreacted == ................. g

[4]

, ..

. .- '/

Chemistry IGCSE

42

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Molar Gas Volume


The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm 3 (litres) at room temperature and pressure
(r.t.p.). This is known as the molar gas volume.
This rule applies to all gases. This makes it easy to convert moles of gas to volumes, and
volumes to moles.
Calculate the number of moles a[ ammonia
gas, NH3, in a volume of7.2 dm of the gas
_.measured at r.t.p.

Volume
of gas (dml)

No. of

moles
(of gas)

24 dm 3

If the reaction involves only gases,_ then:

The ratio of volumes =the ratio of moles

The equaiion for the complete combustion of propane is given below. Insert the two

missing volumes.

volume of gas/cm 3

1o

.l> An excess of hydrochloric acid was added to 1.23 g of impure barium carbonate. The
volume of carbon dioxide collected at r.t.p. was 0.120dm 3 . The impurities did not reactwith the acid. Calculate the percentage purity of the barium carbonate.
BaC0 3 + 2HCl

---i-

Baetz + C0 2 + H2 0

Molar gas volume at r.t.p. is 24 dm 3


(i)

The number of moles of C0 2 collected

...................

[1)

(ii)

The number of moles of BaC0 3 reacted

...................

[1)

(iii)

Mass of one mole of BaC0 3

................... g

[ 1)

(iv)

Mass of barium carbonate

................... g

[1]

(v)

Percentage purity of the barium carbonate

...................

[ 1)

percentage purity

mass of pure substance


mass of Impure substance

1oo

...

- ....

------~---

......

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

43

Concentration of solutions
The term concentration means the mass of solute dissolved in a certain volume of the solvent.
The concentration of solutions is expressed in g I dm 3 or mol I dm 3
For example, the concentration of a solution prepared by dissolving 58.5 g ofNaCl (1 mole) in
3
water to give a total volume of 1 dm3 is 1 mol I dm
On dissolving 2 x 58.5 g (i.e. 2 moles), the concentration is 2 mol I dm3
On dissolving 5.85 g (i.e. 0.1 mole), the concentration is 0.1 mol I dm3
Remember that 1 dm3 = I litre = 1000 cm3
. )>

No. of
moles

Knowing the concentration ,


The number of moles solute
in any volume ofsolution
can be calculated:

Cone.
(mol I dml)

Volume
tdm 3 J

Questions:
3

1. How many moles are present in 25 cm3 of 0.1 mol I dm sulphuric acid (H2S04)?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
[0.0025 moles I
2. What is the concentrations of a solutio~ which contains 0.1 mole of solute in 102 cm of
solution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[1 mol I dm I
3

)>.

25.0 emS of a solution of lithium hydroxide, concentration 1. 00 mo!ldrrf3 was placed


in a beaker. A few drops of the indicator; methyl orange, were added and the
mixture turned yellow. Hydrochloric acid was added from a burette until the mixture
just turned red. 20.0 crrf3 of the acid. was needed to neutralise the alkali.
Calculate the concentration of the h)'drochloric acid.
UOH + HCt ---+ UC[ + H2 0
Number of moles of UOH in 25 cm 3 of a i .00 mol/dm3 solution

- ...........................
Therefore number of moles of HCt in 20 cm 3 = ...........................
Concentration of HCL = .......................... .

= ........................... mol/dm 3

[4]

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-44-

Chemistry IGCSE

Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula

The empirical (ormula of a compound shows the simplest ratio of the


number of atoms of the different elements in it, while its molecular
formula shows the actual number of atoms of the different elements in it.
compound
ethane
Ethanoic acid

!fiOlecularformula empirical formula .

C2H,;
C2H402

..

CH3
CH20

_ICH3C02Hl
methane

CH4

CH4

Finding the empirical and molecular formula:


Example:
A hydrocarbon was found to contain 80% carbon and 20% hydrogen by
mass. Its relative molecular mass was 30. Find the empirical formula and
the molecular formula.
Symbols:

80

20 .

80

20

1. 0.-i.v.<.de.

biJ .the.

a.to mJ..c. mew.; u.

2. Divide by the sma!ler

number

12

6.67

2o

6.67
6.67

20

to get the ratio:

empirical formula (simplest ratio):


Find mass of
empirical formula:
Compare with M,:
Molecular formula must
be twice empirical formula;

molecular formula ts:

6.67

CH3

12 + 3

15 } M, is twice mass of
30 empirical formula

""

;._;__

. .. ... .. : .

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

- .4-5-

Questions __:
c:::--...:c;_..,...,

1, The M, of oxalic acid is 90 and ifs composition by mass is:


carbon= 26.7%
(i)

hydrogen =2.2%

oxygen= 71.1%

Calculate the empirical formula of oxalic acid.

'

................. -. -. - .............................. - ....... - .............................

.......................................... ........ [3]

(ii) What is the molecular formula of the acid?

-~:-[1]

2.

The hydrocarbon benzene has an empirical formula CH and Its relative molecular.
mass Is 78. What Is its molecular formula?

.....................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................:....................................................[2]

-46-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abde! Gal if)


..

Topic 5.

THE PERIODIC TABLE

The periodic table is obtained by arraneing the elements in order


o increasing atomic number and piacing them in rnws so that similar
elements fall into vertical columns. The horizontal raws are called
periods and the vertical columns are called groups.

GrCKlp1

11;

Ill

en

""'
""'
''

VI!

0
,----,

f'

Ne

AI

Sl

C!

Ar

Zn

Gt

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Xc

""

Hg

T!

Pb

Bl

Po

"'

Rn.

Be

Mg

G.

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Nl

Cu

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nh

Mo

,.

Ru

Rh

Pd

c.

n.

u.

Hf

T,

Re

Os

lr

Pt

f'r

R2

Ac

,,

VI

Ll

l!e

tundtlon ttit.tlh

"d

_.,;

IV

Metals take up tlte part of the periodic table to the left of the hefiVJ' line.
1.

The periodic table showing the division into metals and non-metals.
The clnsa of eiernents whi"ch lies on the borderline batween me!=als
and non-metals is often classified as .o_em.(.-me;ta.t6 or me;tallo.{.dh 1
e.g. silicon, arsenic, germanium.

Fait examp.te,

aJr..~>e!U.c. {M l

.too/u, .Uk.e a. me.ta..t, .{..e . .oiU.ny bu;t

doe.o no.t belutve a..o a. me.ta..t.


He

"_:It,._,_

.,.<.'1 o.z

Non - > -

~~ o-'0::: melols
o r
'a;q.. q.~ ~

~------c--Melols---------1>-

.t~

?J,..:

'>j.. ".>0
\
~01.

~oy.. :.r

2.

Elements of the same group have similar properties (the same no.
of electrons in the o.utershell).

-47-

Chemistry IGCSE

3.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

The valency (combining power) increases with_the group till


eroup -4, then decreases.

4.

Group number

Valency

The reactivity of metals increases down a group


Rb

5.

> K > Na

The reactivity.of non-metals decreases down a group

'

> Br > I

F > Cl
6.

> Li

Metals react with non-metals to form ionic compounds.


Non-metals either join with other non-metals. to make

:C{)I!.!I.te:n;t.

C:am)'JoWttll. or with metals to make .0J11ic. c.ompaund6.

Relation between group number and number of valency electrons.

II

Be

0
,.---

N M~

c.'

Fe1+

He

III

IV

VI

VII

o'-

p-

Ne

!Jl+

Si

s'- a-

Ar

Br-

Kr

.Cu2+ Znl+

I-

Ag

Ba 2 +

Pbl+

-~

Group I elc:mcnt5. all h:ave


l electron to lo$e from
their outer shells.
They form + ions.

Group '\_'II elements h1ve 1 electrons


in their outer 'hells.
They need to gain one
electron to.fill their outer Shell
and form 1 ne&:uive ion.

Group II dement' lll h:rve 2 electrons; in the:


outer .dlell. They form 2'*' iOJ'lt..

Group VI dements hne 6 elcciron11 in their outer


s:hcl!s..They need' to gi.in 2 dcctron~> to

Group lll dementt have 3


dectroos to lose.
They (arm 3 ~ ions:.

fUI their

shell~. They

form 2- ions:.

'

-48-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

Group I elements: the 'alkali metals'


Density

Melting point

Name

Symbol

Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Caesium

Li
Na

1.

Rb
Cs

rc

fgcm-J

180

0.53

98

Group lions
Lithium ion

u+

0.97

Sodium ion

Na+

64

0.86

Potassium ion

K+

39

!.53

29

1.90

Rubidium ion

Rb+

Caesium ion

cs+

They are called th!'. alkali metals because they react with water
to form alkaline solutions.

2.

The outermost shell contains one electron.

Where are Group I metals found?


The. me..ta.to .thi!Jil!>e..tvu do na.t ac.c.wr. .<.n na..twr.e.. The.{ Me. .tao Jr.e.a.c.tive..
The.Jr.e. Me. Ve.lt.IJ many c.ompouncU a6 GJr.aup I me..ta.to
Sodillm c.htoJr..{.de., NaC.t, ~ .the. mo~.t c.ommon GJr.aup I compound.
The. MWLc.U o 6 NaC.t Me. : a) S e.a wa.te.Jr.
6)
GJr.aund '.Jr.Oc.k: ~aLt de.po.oill.

Properties of Group I elements

PhysiCal Properties

The metals .are easily cut with a


knife. Metals further down the
group are softer.

Soft and shiny


when cut

Conduct
electricity

rodium.

Low density

The metals are ail very good ciectrical conductors.

'

r
The metals all have low densities.
Lithium is the lightest metal known.
Lithium,. sodium and potassium. all float on
water. This is because tliey are less - dense than water.

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gall!)

-49-

Chemistry l GCSE

Chemical properties : very reactive metals


Reaction
with air:

The metals are stored under oil. This is because they


react with air.

The metals are only shiny when freshly cut. They


quickly tf!rnish as they react with air.

Metals all burn easily in air


e.g:

ssdium

4Na(s)

+ 0 2 (g)

potassium

Reaction
\vith water

OJeygen

sodium oxide

oxygen

--->-potassium oxide

Metals all react easily with cold water


to form alkaline solutions.

The heat from the reaction melts the metal


as it reacts:

sodium

water

-+

sodium
hydroxide

hydrogen

2Na(s)

2H 2 0(!)

-+

2NaH(aq)

Hz(g)

potassium

water

-+

potassium
hyclraxide

hydrogen

2K(s)

2H 2 8(!)

--+

2K@H(a<'J)

H2(g)

The ob<. vr.va.:t.i.ort.O .tha/: c.a.n be ma.de when a. <>mill )!li.ec.e o 6 .the a.tka..U. meta.t i.<>
a.dded .to a. :t:Jta U!J h 0 n wa:;{:eJt :
1. UthWm fi.tow a.nd a. ga.<> 6/-zze<> Mound d.
Z. SocLWm 6.tow, meW 1J..!> d ;,hoot<> a.c.Jr.OM .the wa;tvr. a.nd a. ga.<> (i.zzu 6a.<>.t.
3. Po.tM<.i.um Jtea.W v.<.o.ten:Uy .tha/: d me.t.t<> .<.mmedi.a..te.ty a.nd c.a..tc.hu 6.0te.

-50-

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. FathY Abde! Cal ill

Reaction with chlorine:


metal

~
chlorlne---->-gas

1"'~~'--~_,\.:>.~-CQ-";...n_..,..IL._ __...,l$j~
~

_,_tofume
cupboard

..

Reactivity of Group. I metals

heat

Lithium

The metals react easily to form chlorid"'>:

Sodium
Potassium

lithium
2Li(s)

+
+

chlorine
Cl 2 (g)

-+
-+

lithium chloride
2LiCI(s)

sodium
2Na(s)

+
+

chlorine

-+

Cl 2 (g)

-+

sodiuni chloride
2NaCI(s)

potassium
2K(s)

+
+

chlorine
Cl 2 (g)

-+

Rubidium

Caesium

potassium chloride
-+
2KCI(s)

So you can see these Group I metals have similar properties.


Lithium is said to be the, least reactive of them, because it reacts
the most slowly". Potassium is the most reactive of the three.

Why they. ha.ve. ~.i.mliaJI. pltopeJt.;U~ ?


In the elements of Group I, all the atoms have.! electron in the
outer shell. That is why the elements hehave"in a similar way.

Elements behave in a similar way if" their atoms


have the same number of outer-shell electrons.

Group I compounds
Metal

Chloride

Bromide

Nitrate

Sulphate

Carbonate

Lithium

LiCI

LiBr

LiN0 3

Li 2 S0 4

Li2 C03

Sodium

NaO

NaBr

NaN0 3

Na 2 S0 4

Na 2 C0 3

Potassium

KC)

KBr

KN0 3

K2 S0 4

K2 C03

GJtoup r ~a.Lt6 {c.he.o:Ud~ I n..UJr.n.;t~ I c.aJtbona.te..o 1 e..tc.. J ivte. w!U.te.,


.<.o n..Lc ~ o.Udo, M.f.u.b.C.e. .i.n wate.Jt. [giving a colourless solution]

metals
get
more
reactive

Chemistry IGCSE

- 51 -

Transition Elements

e.g.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Cu, Fe, Cr, 1'-!i., V., Co.

Typical characteristics of transitipn metals ;


1.

They

.~re

metals of high melting points (exceP.t Hg) and densities

(hard, strong).

2.

They.form colou_red compounds, e.g. copper (II) ions,Cu


iron (II) ions, FP.

:;,

4.

2+

2+

(aq) are blue,

(aq), are green.

Host of them have more than one valency,


2
3
different charges,
e.B. Fe +, Fe +.

i.e. forming ions with

The metals and their compounds can act as .catalysts


a)

Iron .is used in the m<i.nufacture of ammonia.

b)

V~nadium

(V) oxide is used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

Compa:tr.e. .the. .phy-i.c.a.l a.nd c.he.mi.c.a.l p!topeJU;{.eo bU:ween. pa.tM.t,.{.um (gJtOap I

me.tall a.nd va.na.d.wm

(bw.tt.~>.uion

Potassium

me.ta.e.l.

Vanadium

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Ga!H)

- 52-

Chemistry IGCSE

Group VII Non-Metals


the Halogens

D
c.o.e.oUJr.
bec.ome..t.
daltkvc.

Halogen Molecule State at

Colour

room
temperature
Pale yellow

Symbol of
Halide ion

CI

Fluorine Fz

Gas

Chlorine Cl 2

Gas

Green

Cl

Bromine .Br2

Liquid

Red-brown

Br

Iodine

12

Solid

Dark gr.ey

Astatine

At

...

...

Br
I

. ..

+
'=fry
mcreaszng

>-Bromine is very volatile [has low b;p. 59C}. This means ihat it easily
turns into a gas.
>-

Iodine is a dark grey solid, when warmed, it turns into a purple vapour
[it sublimes]-

>-

Aqueous solution of iodine is brown.


The halogens all exist as diatomic molecules. The tWo atoms in the
molecule are joined by a covalent bond.
Cl

- Cl

. a chlorine molecule, Cf2

Uses of Chlorine:
Making bleach
.. In water purification [kills bacteria]
"' Maldn;; PVC (insulation for electric wires)

..

-53-

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)


::

Chemical Properties
.

Reaction with .metals:

Halogens react wi~h. most metals to make salts:

+
+

sodium
2Na(s)

Reaction with.indicators:

-+
-+

sodium chloride
2NaCJ(s)

Chlorine gas dissolves in wa\er to make a powerful bleach. Damp indicator


paper is quicldy bleached with chloiine., .
-Test for Cl

Displacement reactions:

chlorine
Cl 2 (g)

gas :

Chlorine bleaches damp litmus paper.

Chlorine can displace bromine and iodine from a solution of their salts:
chlorine gas-===\\

v ~I>Otassium Iodide solution


1oame belng forroed

chlorine

Clz(g)

potassium -+
iodide
2KI(aq) __,.

[colourless]

Ionic equation:

Clz

. chlorine

Cl 2 (g)

zr

In o:thvr.

WOJtd.l,,

Clz

potassium -+
bromide
2KBr(aq). -+

[colourless]

ionic equation:

->

2 Br

->
7

iodine

I,(aq)

potassium
chloride
2KCI(aq)

[.brown]

Iz

zcr

bromine

Br,(aq)

potassium
chloride
2KCl(aq)

[red]

Brz

zcr

a. mOJte Jtea.c:Uve hai.ogen w.Ut dUp.f.a.c.e a. leo<> Jtea.c:Uve ha..e.ogen

t)Jtom ffi compound;,.

Halogens have similar properties because their atoms all have 7 electrons in. the
outer shell.

-54-

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Gs!il)

Nobel Gases :

Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon


1.

The nobel gases in group 0 are very unreactive (inert), they


have complete outershell of electrons.

2.

They do not usually form compounds and exist as isolated single


atoms (i.e. monoatomic).

neon etomi"::\\\

~((G

hollum atocn -<--__.


He

Uses of Nobel Gases


1.
Helium is very light and. does not burn, so it is used in ballons
and air ships.

HqdJtogen
hqdJtogen

WCL6

601t

L6ed .Ut .the pa..o.t in ba.Uo/1..6, now hel..Wm Mpl.ac.ed


6-UUng ba.Uo/1..6. Whq ?

v ..

2.

Argon

i~

for

fil1~ng_electric

light bulbs as an.inert atmosphere

It is very unreactive and-helps protect the filamenc,

tung5ten

filament

3.

argon

Neon : When an electric current is passed through neon gas, it


gives out a bright light and is used in lamps and advertisement
signs.

-55-

Chel)listry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Test for Gases

Test

Result

Hydrogen

Lighted splint

Burns with a pop

Oxygen

Glowing splint

Relight:s

Carbon dioxide

Limewater

Turns milky

Chlorine

Colour

Yellow-g'reen

Damp litmus paper

Bleached

Ammonia

Smell

Pungent

[ttlkq.Une gcw l

Damp red litmus

Turns blue

Formula

Gas

paper

Collection of Gases
gas
l.

-l-i>'

Upward delivery over water :


For gases which are insoluble
!n water such as H ,
2

2.

o2 and N2

Downward delivery :
For gases which are soluble
in water and denser than air

3.

Upward delivery
For gases which are soluble
in water and less dense than
air such as NH .

H [Ughte;c than Wr.) Mn be


2
a-Uo c.oUec.ted bif up.wJtd deUveJty.

gas __,.._

gcw-jM

-56-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Drying of Gases
1.

Gases that do not react with acids such as

co 2 , so 2

by pasa_ing it through concentrated sulphuric acid

may be dried

[dAy.i.ng agent].

11uestion :

~-""""'""'""'""'-=--

W/Uch o6 .the. 6o.UoW-Wg cuur.angeme.n.tl> 6oiL dJty,~ng a. gaJ, w.Uh concen:tJur;te.d a.cJ.d )!, co!LILe.c.t f
2

~===:;, r;=='d=r=y==~

concentrated
sulphuric acid

concentrated
sulphuric acid

2. Ammonia gas is dried by passing it over solid calcium oxide [drying agent]

>- [Conce./Lt!ta.te.d .sul.phU)()_c a.c<.d

ca.nno.t be.

tt<1 rid

be.ca.W, e. U 1r.e.aw

wUh a.mmoiUa. gaJ, .]


ammonia

+ sulphuric add

-----+-

nmmonlum sulphate

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-57-

Chemistry IGCSE

Oxidation and Reduction


copper(II) oxide

excess hydrogen
burning in air

[black]

ice
water
When hydrogen is passed over black copper(II) oxide in the apparatus
above, the blnck powder turns pink~brown (copper)

,.._ . What is the purpose of the ice?

reduced.

oxidised.

copper( II) oxide + hydrogen

CuO(s)

-7-

copper + water
Cu(s)

H (g)
2

H .0(g)
2

Re.due-Utg ,a.ge.n.t

The copper(II) oxide is losing oxygen. It is being reduced.


The hydrogen is gaining oxygen. It is being oxidised.
In other words:

> Oxidation is defined as the addition of oxygen.


)>

Reduction is defined as the removal of oxygen.


Reduction and oxidation always take place together in a reacticn.
So the reaction is called redox reaction.

Question: Which substance is oxidised and which is reduced in the following


. reactions, mention the reducing and oxidising agents.

----7 2Fe

Common reducing agents

hydrogen, carbon,

+ 3CC)z

carbon monoxide,

reactive metals

-58-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Ga!i!)

)> Since hydrogen is a common reducing agent, the addition of hydrogen


is a reduction reaction, and the opposite, i.e; removal of hydrogen
is oxidation.
In which change shown has nitrogen been reduced?

B
nitrogen, N2

~----------~

N02

)> Redox in terms of electron transfer


[01 L]

[RIG]

Oxidation

Reduction

Is

Is

Leiss of electrons

Gain of electrons

From the definitions above, it follows that:

Reducing agents give electrons.


Oxidising agents accept electrons.

Consider the reaction of magnesium with oxygen :


magnesium

oxygen

--+

magnesium oxide

2 Mg

02

2 MgO

The ma.gne;,.I.wn ).), oudA.ud a.nd .the axyge.n ).), Jte.du.cvi. Vwring .tw
Jt.e.a.Ul.ott, .two el.ecbw 111> a.Jt.e. .til.aiU 6e.Med filtom ma.g lteJ>.i.wn .to oxyg e.n.
Ma.gne;,.f.wn I.on a.nd oude ion aM 6oJtmed.

0 +

Mg

2+
Mg.

2 e

oz-

+ 2 e

Ma.gne;,.f.wn, w/U.c.h ).), oufued, .to~>e;, el.ectJto111>;


oxygen, w/U.ch ).), Jte.duc.ed, ga.i..1u el.ectltoJ1-6.

-59-

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

Oxidation States [Oxidation Numbers]


The oxidation state of iron in iron(II) oxide is 2 and in iron(III) oxide is 3.
The oxidation state of manganese in manganese(IV) oxide is 4 and in
potassium manganate(Vll) is -7.
The oxidation state of chromium in chromium(III) oxide is 3 and in potassium
dichromate(VI) is 6.

Change in oxidation state


)>

Oxidation involves an increase in oxidation state,


e.g.

)>

Reduction involves a decrease in oxidation state,


e.g.

Oxidation and Reduction [summary]


with respect to:
O!fgen
hydrogen
electrons
oxidation state

oxidation
addition of oxygen
removal of hydrogen
I loss of electrons [OILJ .
increase in oxidation state

reduction
removal of oXygen
addition of hydrogen
gain of electrons [RIG] .
decrease in oxidation state
-

Tests for oxidising and reducing agents


a) Oxidising agent (oxidant) + potassium iodide solution
The colour changes from colourless to brown [h].
b) i. Reducing agent (reductant) +.acidified potassium magnate (yii)
solution :
The colour changes from purple to colourless.
ii. Reducing agent (reductant) + acidified potassium dichromate (VI)
solution :
The colour changes from orange to green.

- 60-

Chemistry IGCSE

Topic 6.

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

ELECTRICITY AND CHEMISTRY [ELECTROCHEMISTRY]

Conductors and Non-Conductor:;


Solid substances that allow electricity to flow through them nre

called conductors, All metalo are good conductors of electricity. why.,


Substances that do not allow electricity to flow through them are
called non-conductors or insulators. All non-metal aubatancea such
as glass, plastic, wood, and-rubber

ar~

insulators. There is, how-

ever, one very important exception, Carbon, in the form of graphHe,


is non-metal, but a very good conductor of ele.ctricity. why ?
Semi-Conductors,

They are substances which contain no "free electrons" and no


"ions" but allow very small cunerit ~O'pass through them, i.e.
they conduct weakly e.g.

c,Wc.on.

. Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes :

. Liquids that conduct an ele.ctric cun:ent are called electrolytes.


Those that do not conduct are called non-electrolytes.
Electrolytes are substances that contain ions which are fi:ee to
move about, so they are ionic compounds that are molten or are
dissolved in water,
Covalent compounds such as ethanol, pure water.or sugar solution
are non-electrolytes. The following figure shows the apparatus that
could be used to see if a liquid is an electrolyte .

.-----1

a battery
A lamp. If it glows,
electricity must be
flowing through the liquid.

electrode called cathode 8

electrodes. Generally
made of graphite or :::::::H-+--1
unreactive metal like
platinum

<) electrode called anode

.:.

liquid under test


::'

-61-

Chemistry IGCSE

Typ~:

free
moving
wns

)>

of su~srtmce _

(Dr. Fa thy Ab<.lel Galil)

Electrolyte

solutions of acids
and alkalis in water

,J

solutions of salts
in water

,J

molten salts

,J

Non-electrolyte

ethanol
petrol
sugar solution
pure water

,J
,J
,J

oil

,J

,J

Electrolysis :

Electrolysis is the decomposition [breakdown] of a substance by electricity.


':

During electrolysis, ions migrate towards the opposite electrodes.


)>-

Can you suggest why -ve ions are called anions and +ve ions are
called cations? ........................................... .

.. ! .

'

....

Chemical changes take place at the electrodes. At the cathode, +ve ions gain electrons and become -atoms or molecules. At the anode,. -ve :!:ons
lose electrons and become atoms or molecules.

The electrons flow in the external circuit from the anode into the cathode.
a battery

r-~--t'I t------,
electron
flow

electron
flow

cathode .

:_anode

()

negative
ions lose
electrons
at tho"
anode

electrolyte

.,

-62-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr.FathyAbdel Gali!)

Electrolysis of Molten Substances using Carbon Electrodes


The compounds are decomposed into their elements. The rules for the
. electrolysis of molten compounds are :
Molten Compound
::

At the anode +
Non-metal

At the cathode Metal

> Electrolysis of molten lead bromide [PbBr2]


+

a battery
;.

carbon anode +

carbon cathode -

bubbles ~F
brown gas
{bromine)

dlr.ap.5 a 6 moLten lead


(gJte.y}
.

~.

molten lead bromide

heat

>:Explain. why the lead bromide needs to be melted for electrolysis to


.

:take place ........................... .................... .

> The. electrode reactions are summarized as follows :


Electrolyte
Lead bromide,
PbBr2

At the cathode Pbt+ + 2e- ~ Pb

At the anode +
2Br- ~ Brz + 2e

> Complete the following table:


molten electrolyte.
lead bromide
sodium chloride
. magnesium fluoride
aluminium oXIde

Product at cathode lead


.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .... . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Product at anode
bromine

t-

...................
..................

...................

-63-

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]


..-._

Electrolysis of Concentrated Uydrochloric Acid:


At the anode +

At the cathode -

Electrolyte

2W (aq) +

Hydrochloric acid,
HCI (aq)

2 e- -7 H2 (g) 2Cr (aq) -7 Ch(g) + 2e..

Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions:


The products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions are difficult to predict than
molten compounds. This is because as well as there is a cation and a anion
from the salt, there is a cation (H") and a anion (OH) from the water.

Electrolysis of Concentrated Aqueous Sodim Chloride :[Brine} :


At cathode. ~

Atanode +

,___

__.---,

LNa+ - - - - - _ --- \ __
d-;

FromNaCL

-- oH_.,
/

-~

1r
'

~-,--

..-.+ ' ,
~

-- --

---

--"
Only F takes part in
electrolysis [H being
lower in the reactivity
series than Naj

I2 F

(aq) + 2 e -7 H 2 (g)

-- --J
Only Cr takes part in
electrolysis because it
is present in much greater
concentration than OH

jz Cr{aq) -7 Cl2 (g)'+ 2 e

This leaves a solution containing sodium and hydroxide ions (a solution of


sodiwn hydroxide, NaOH). The solution is alkaline (i.e. turns red .litmus
paper blue).
Compare the products of e./ectrolysis of:
(i)
Molten sodium chloride
(ii)
Concentrated aqueous sodi!fm chloride
)>

-64-

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

Manufacture of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide :


The method is based on the electrolysis of concentrated aqueous
sodium chloride (brine).
brine

chlorine

lui~_____;

...

..... ...

...
~

pos!Uve
eleclrodo

aqueous sodium hydroxide

neg alive

elec[rode

Predicting the Products o[Electrolysis o[Aqueous Solutions :

)>

)>

At the cathode If the metal is higher than


hydrogen in the reactivity series,
then hydrogen gas is produced
If the metal is lower than hydrogen
in the reactivity series, then the
metal is deposited (formeq}.

The reactivity series

Na
Ca
Mg
AI
Zn

above hydrogen,
so hydrogen gas
is evolved at the
cathode

Fe
Pb
Cu

Ag
least reactive

Au

below hydrogen so
metal deposited
at the cathode

)>

)>

At the anode +
For concentrated
solutions of chlorides,
chlorine gas is produced
For sulphates and nitrates,
oxygen gas is produced

-65-

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

Electrolysis of Aqueous Copper(ll)sulphate :


Using carbon electrodes (i.e. inert)

-{ Cu +)
....

--so
- -- ----'

- ..:- 1

....

--
-
-

FromCuS04

Atanode +

Atcathode

... -

2- I

\.-- /

1-

....

,rr\--

FromHzO

/
10Ir'
'r

-----

Onlythe copper ions take


part in the electrolysis.

Only the OH ions take


part in the electrolysis.

Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e -7 Cu (s)
Copper deposited on the
cathode (as brown deposit)

Oxygen gas is given off

The solution left is dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO_J.


)>

The solution changes from blue to colourless


I
I

2)
-

cathode

anode

..
b~r.own
0

de.po.oU

6 c.o ppe.IC.

'

'

bubbles of
oxygen

6Oc_
c.oppe.IC. (II) .;ul..pha..te.
M.fu:ti..o n

Summary:
Electrolysis of :;:tqueous copper-(II) sulphate:

atcathode copper

The solution left is dilute sulphur~ acid (H2 S04).

atanode +
oxygen

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

-66-

Chemistry IGCSE

';

Types of electrodes :
. Inert electrodes: Carbon (graphite) or platinum,.
They do not take part in the electrolysis..
Active electrodes: e.g. copper, silver, zinc, nickel.
They take part in the electrolysis and the active metal anode dissolves,
(i.e. passes into solution as ions. In other words, the mass of the active
metal anode decreases).

Electrolysis of Aqueous Copper(II)sulphate :


. Using copper electrodes (i.e. active) .

I,

ll

~
copp er
caih ode -

copper
anode +

1...

-7 Cu2+

-7

-7 Cu 2;-

vaqueo us copper(II)sulpltate
"""~........
(blue)

Atanode +

Atcathode -

Copper passes into solution as


ions (i.e. the anode dissolves)
[anode: decreases in mass]
[ Cu (s)

Cu + (aq) + k

Copper deposited
[cathode: increases in mass]

I Cu2+ (aq) + 2e-

The aqueous copper(ii) sulphate remains unchanged.

Cu (s)

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

-67-

Chemistry IGCSE

Application of Electrolysis:
1} Refining of Copper:
Copper can be refined by electrolysis
using a block of impure copper as the
anode and thin sheet of the pure copper
as the cathode. The electrolyte is aqueous
copper(II)sulphate. Impurities sink to the
bottom of the container as anode sludge.
The overall result is the transfer of
copper atoms from the impure copper
to the cathode.
);>

EB

an. ode.

cathode.
pU/tl!.
CO(I(Il!./t

cop.fll!./t( I I ).out.phai.e.
.oot.uil.on.

Zinc can be refined by electrolysis. The method is similar to that used to


refine copper. Complete the following statements. about refining of zinc.
The cathode is made from ................................. .
The anode is made from .................................. .
The electrolyte is aqueous ................................. .

2) Electroplating:
Many metal objects are electroplated for:
a) Protecting them from corrosion and rust
b) Making them look attractive

anode: _ _:::,-

cathode:
(object to
be plated)

(metal used to
plate the ::>bject)

='='""='!-electrolyte:-

aqueous solr.{tion
contairzing.ions of
the plating metal

if the object is to

be plated with
copper
silver
.nickel

the anode will be


made fro in
copper
silver
nickel

the electrolyte will be


aqueous copper(II)sulphate
aqueous silver_nitrate
aqueous nickel sulphate
.

Chemistry IGCSE

-68-

[I?r. Fathy Abdel Galil]

3) Extraction of metals
Reactive metals above Zn in the reactivity series such as Na, Mg,
Ca, AI can be. extracted only by electrolysis.

Extraction of Aluminium
Ore: Bauxite.
The purified bauxite (aluminium oxide, Al 20 3) is electrolysed in
molten cryolite (Na3A1F6).
Aluminium oxide has too high melting point to be used on its
own, so it dissolves in molten cryolite at 900C (i.e. cryolite is
used to lower the m.p. ofAl1 0J)

....

Carbon
anodes
(";),
--~,;,.,o."'l"""___ 1/

Molten electrolyte -HI-(aluminium oxide

fil!.-l~carbon

lining
.ofccll(cathodc)

dissolved in
cryolite)

At cathode-

The aluminium sinks to the


bottom.

8.

..

AI

At anode +

Oxygen gas is produced.

.> As the hot oxygen escc.pes, it burns away the graphite anode
( C + 0 2 7 C0 2), ard so they have to be replaced from time to time.
.> Making aluminium is an expensive process because large amounts of
electricity are needed.

(Dr.FathyAbdel Galil)

-69-

Chemistry IGCSE

Topic 7.

. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

Acids:
An acid is a substance giving hydrogen ions, II'" (aq), in aqueous solutions.
Aqueous solutions of acids tUrn the colour of litmus red.
It is the hydrogen ions that cause the change of colour.
Remember that the hydrogen ion is simply a proton.
. In other w.ords, an acid is a proton donor.
.. common acids:

strong

Acid

Formula

Hydrochloric acid

HCl

Nitric acid

HN0

Sul.phur:Lc acid

{
weak <-- Ethanoic acid
(Ace tic acid)

Ions present in the acid

--

[ehto.!UdeJ

H+

Cl

H+

NO;

[ JU.:tJut.te l

H so
2 4

2H+

so 2 -

[.o ul.p fta.te J

CH COOH
3

H+

CH COO
3

[ e..t!ta.noa.te J-

Basicity of acids:

Monobasic such as HCI, HN03 , CH3COOH


such as H2S04
Dibasic.

Reaction of acids
l.

f:cids reac_t. .with reactive metals to give a salt and hydrogen

acid

metal

salt

'+

hydrogen

dilute
sulphUiic acid

magne>lum ribbon

magnesium
Mg (s)

+ ,sulphuric acid
+

H2SO.~

(aq)

--r.

magnesium sulphate

___,. MgSO.~ (aq) + Hz (g)

ionic equation:

Mg (s)

+ 2H+ (aq)

------'Jr

Mg+Z (aq) + Hz (g)

+ -hydrogen

- ro-

Chemistry IGCSE

2.

(Dr. Fathy Abde! Galil)

Acids react with bases (metal oxides and hydroxides) to give


a salt and water [neutralization]

Acid

Salt

Base

Water

dilute
rulphuric acid

:.

heat

sulphuric
acid
H 2 SO,(aq)

ccpper(ll)

--+-

oxide

CuO(s)

--+-

b.t.a.ck

b.fue

Sulphuric acid + sodium hydroxide


H

3.

so 4 (aq)

copper(ll)
sulphate
CuSO,(aq)

+ 2 NaOH(aq)

Na

water

H2 0 (I)

sodium sulphate + water

so 4 (aq)

+ 2 H 0 (.f)
2

Acids react with metal carbonates to form a salt, carbon dioxide


and water
acid

carbonate

--+

salt

water

carbon
dioxide

calcium
carbonate
CaCO,(s)

--+

calcium
chloride
CaCl 2 (aq)

water

H 2 0(!)

carbon
dioxide
C0 2 (g)

dilute

hydrochloric
acid
2HC!(aq)

>-

'

--+

Thing to remember about hydrochloric acid:


Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water.
water
HCl (aq)
HCl (g)
[covalent]
[ionic]

:':

-71-

Chem_istry JGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Bases
A base is a substance that can accept hydrogen ions, i.e. a proton acceptor.

Ox..i..du, and hydJr.ox..i..deh of metals are bases.


Properties of bases :

1.

Bases react ,;ith acids to form a salt and ,;ater only (see properties of acids), This reaction is called neutralization reaction.

2.

If a base is soluble in ,;ater, the solution is called an alkatl.

An aiH;ali is a base that is soluble in water

'

Common alkalis :
Alka-li

,crong {
weak

Formula

Ions present in the alkali

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

Na+

'"'"'''= "''""""'

KOH

K+

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)

NH (aq) or
3
NH 0H

f-- Aqueous ammonia

(often called
ammonium hydroxide)

3.

OH

20H OH

Ca 2 +
NH+

OH

Solutions of alkali turn the colour of lit"mus ~~~It is the hydJr.ox..i..de. ~OM that cause the chang.e of colour.

Weak and strong acids and bases


Acids
strong
Completely ionized in solution,
!.e. the solution wi!! contain
a high concentration of hydrogen ions,
e.g. hydrochloric acid
sulphuric acid
nitric acid

we k

Partially ionized In solution,

l ...e. some of the .. molecules


.remain un-Ionized In the
solution
e.g. ethanoic acid
citric acid [in citrus fruits]

Similar-ly;_ if an alkali completely ionizes on dissolving in water,


a ..;.tJwng

alkatl

is produced;

e.g. sodium hydroxide, potassium .. hydroxide, calcium hydroxide.


If an alkali does not. complet.ely ionize in water, a
is formed;

e.g.

ammonium hydroxide (aqueous ammonia).

we.a.k.

(Dr. Falhy Abdel Galil)

-72~

Chemlstiy IGCSE

nre pH scale
The strength of an acid or an alkali Is shown using a scale of numbers called the pH scale.
On this scale :

an acidic solution has a pH number less than 7


an alkalic solution has a pH number greater than 7
a neutral solution has a pH number of exactly 7

The pH can be measured by using universal indicator.


Unlversallnd!cator Is a mixture of dyes. Uke litmus, it can be used as a solution or as
universal Indicator paper; it goes a different colour at different pH value as shown In this
diagram:
yellow
violet
blue
orange
red
...__
/
/
/
/

~r~;n

'

'

'

unlversal!ndlcator colours

pH numbers

2...___

.....

...___

e.g. hydro-

o.g. otha-

chlol1c acid

nolc acid

11\

g 10 11 12 13 14

-"""'<trona alkall,

MUiral,

'-...
weak alkali.

a.g.water

e.g.aq.l.!TliTlOllla

The pH can be measured more accurately using

pH meter.

o.g.&Od!um

hydro>:ida

Salts
A salt is a compound made from ari acid when
a metal takes the place of the hydrogen in the acid

The salt made depends on the acid :


Hydrochloric acid gives a chloride
Nitric acid gives a nitrate
Sulphuric acid gives a sulphate
" Ethanoic acid gives ethanoate.

Soluble and insoluble salts


Some salts dtssolveln water easily. They are said to be soluble. Other salts do not dtssolve
at all. They are said to be Insoluble.

Soluhle

Insoluble

All sodium, potassium,


and ammonium salts

All nitrates

except

Sliver and lead chloride

Chlorides

except

Calcium, barium and

Sulphates ...

lead sulphate

Sodluin, potassium, and


ammonium carbonates

But all other carbonates


are Insoluble

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 73-

Making Soluble Salts


1. A metal, a base or a carbonate can be added to a dilute acid. The

solution formed is then evaporated.

1.
. 2.

Excess zinc is added to dilute sulphuric acid in a beaker until


the reaction stops fizzing and some zinc is left
The mixture is filtered, What

wil~

be left in the filter paper 7

....................~.~'"
3.

The filtrate, zinc sulphate solution, is evaporated in an


evaporating basin to crystallizing point.

4.

Allow the solution to cool, crystals of zinc sulphate are formed.

5.

Separate the crystals by filtration and dry them between filter


papers (or in a warm oven).

dilute
sulphuric- -111/
acid
"-=Cd=_,

'

~zinc sulphate
solution

/,zinc sulphate
/

crystals of

, solution

~~2~;;;----e:Vaporating

'i

basin

zi:!:

Zinc sulphate-. could also have been made using zinc carbonate instead
. of zinc. The sam>;! method and apparatus would. be use<;!, but the gas given
off would be carbon dioxide and not hydrogen.

Similarly, zinc oxide could have been used instead of zinc. No gas .would
be given off and warming is necessary,

- 74 -

Chemistry IGCSE

2.

(Dr. Fathy Abde! Cali!)

.Making sal!s from acids and alkalis [the titration method]


Making sodium nitrate NaN0
HN0 (aq)
3

N.a OH (aq)

-->

d.Uu:te.
n.U!Uc.
Cl.c).d
- - - p.{.pe.tie.

<.ocU.wn
/--'---\/ hyd.JW x.J..de.
&oWtion

bwr.e.tie.

'-----"Z.

phena.tph:dut.te..&!

<.odW.m
rU..i::Jr.JLt e.

<.olu.:Uan

Cl.ci.d.

ph. ph. j w,;t

c.hCI.ng e.6 p{.nk :to c.o.tou.!rl.e.o<>

l.

A burette is filled to the zero mark with dilute nitric acid.

2.

25 cm 3 of dilute sodium hydroxide is put into a conical flask


with a pipette.

3.

3 drops of suitable indicator such as phenolphthalein (ph.ph.)


are put into the alkali.
What. colour will it turn Z..........

4.

Acid is run from the burette into the alkali.


When the indicator just changes colour (from pink to colourless),
the solution is' neutral.

When me:thyi. 01r.a.ng e. (M. 0. ) .U


6Jtam yellow to red

u. eel C1.6

i.ncU.c.CI.:taJt, :the. c.a.towr. c.hCI.ng e.c,

5. The experiment is now repeated, using the same volume of alkali and the same
volume of acid, that has been added, but without indicator.
6. Finally, the salt solution is evaporated to the crystallising point, allowed to cool

- 75 -

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

Making insoluble salts

Salts which do not dissolve in water have to be made by the process ofprecipitation.
Precipitation is the formation of it solid when two solutions
)>

are mixed together.

Making the insoluble salt lead sulphate [pb SO.]


1 soluble lead salt+soluble sulphate
sodiurTI sulphate

scilution
Je3d nitrate
solution

The two solutions are mixed


together. An insoluble precipitate
of lead sulphate is formed.

sodium

nitrate
solution - - - I t
precipitate of
lead sulphate-----.;:;_,_:_"'-'-~'-'

General
reaction:

soluble
salt

Word

lead .. + .. .-"sodium
.
,
ul h
rntrate s p ate

equation:

soluble
salt

-+

-+

insoluble . +
salt

soluble
salt

lead
sulphate

sodium
nitrate

Symbol
equation: Pb(N0 3 ),(aq) + Na 2 S0 4 (aq)-+ PbSO,(s)

+ 2NaN0 3 (aq)

i
(aq) means in aqueous
solution
(aq)

(aq)

(s) means an
insoluble solid
-+

(s)

(aq)

These state symbols show that a precipitation reaction has happened.


2

lead sulphate is filtered off


arid washed with distilled
water and then allowed to dry.

}>

Making the insoluble salt silver chloride [AgClj


AgN03 (aq)

ionic equation:

Ag+

NaCI (aq)

-7

AgCI (s)

cr

-7

AgCI

. . .
~

NaN03 (aq)

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 76 -

Water of cryst:z!lisation
Some salts contain water molecules in their crystal lattice. These salts which
contain water of crystallization are called hydrated salt.
Here are some exampl~s of hydrated salts :

Name

EalUE~

Magnesium sulphate

HgS0 4 7 H2o
CoClz 6 H20

c~so~:s-H;o

carr~~<rr)~~irh;t~

Cobalt chloride

_____ _

If the water is removed by heatipg, the crystals often change in


appearance and the anhydrous salt is. fo-rmed;'
Heating copper( 11) sulphate crystals (hydrated)

1 /~'
I r: ,..

--

.1/1' - - - 7.----

3.

S~eam ~ g~ven

2. Canden.;atian a.t

a6
copper(II)sulphate
crystals (hydrated},_~~::_-

a66
~he ~ap

~e ~ube

I. Ca.tawr. c.ha.ng <U 61Wm b.tue --> wiU:te

de.hydnttion
CuS0 5 H 0(s)
4

hydrated copper( II) sulphate


(blue]

hydnttion

anhydrous copper( II) sulphate


[white]

Wh_-n

these. blue- crystals are heated, steam is given off and the
crystals change to a white powder called anhydrous copper(II)sulphate.
If water is added to the anhydrous powder, it gets very hot and
changes back into blue copper(II)sulphate (hydrated}.
This is a reversible. reaction. Anhydrous copper(II)sulphate can be
used in this way to test for water.
Test for Water [chemical testJ

Add anhydrous .copper(II)sulphate, the colour changes from white into blue.

Physical test for water


Pure water boils at 1oooc and freezes at

ooc

Heating cobalt( I I) chloride crystals (hydrated)


CoC! 6 H 0(s)
2
~k.

.-

Chemistry lGCSE

{Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

- 77

TYPES OF OXIDES
1.

~he

Acidic oxides are usually

oxides of non-metals

Ac.l.d.ic. oxide.

. co 2
so 2

(arbon dioxide
Sulphur .d__ioxide

Sulphur trioxide

S0

Phosphorus(III) oxide

P203
NQ
2
Si0
2

Nitrogen

qxide.

I~:>

dioxid~

Silicon dioxide

~e4-l:>otuble

yes

pH 6

yes

p~ l

yes

pH l

yes

pH l

-..PH l .

yes
no

1.)

Acidic oxides dissolve in water to form acidic solutions.

2.)

Acidic oxides react with bases to form salts and water.

(vu~rbon
-y co

dioxide + Calcium hydroxide

-7

. .
...

Calcium carbonate

+ Ca(OH) 2 (aq)

(g)

(lime water)

Explain why carbon dioxide turns lime water milky 7

o..

... .b. ~s-AJ..t$..~.. t~ .LJ'n.S. ..+~ . ~~.Ql~te. ~r't~.p.p. h,.c.a


2.

Basic oxides are the oxides of metals

I..s a~~ ~~ Joluble f


Potassium oxide

K 0
2

Sodium oxide

Na

yes

pH 14

yes

pH 14
pH. 12

Calcium oxide

2
CaO

Magnesium oxid e

MgO

no

Copper(II) oxide

CuO

no

Iron(III) oxide

Fe

1.)

nci

2 3

They react with acids to form salt and water

CuO + .H2S04
2.)

yes

-) C)lS0 4

+ H20

If they dissolve in wat er they form


Na 20(s)

H20(l)

alkalin~

2 NaOH (aq)

solutions

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Cali!)

- 78 -

;.

3.

Amphoteric oxides are the oxides of certain me tals .

e.e.

aluminium, zinc

\e.c:J

They have the properties o f both acidic and basic oxides,


i.e. they react vith both_alkalis and acids to form salts and .'Wa ter,

Ampho.tvr.J..c. oudu

'a.Jte.

.<.n.oo.tub.f.e .<.n. u.u.t.Vt.

Aluminium oxide + hydrochloric acid

Aluminium chloride + water

6HCI

2 AJCh

Aluminium oxide + Sodium hydroxide


4.

Sodium aluminate

+ water

Neutral oxid e s are the oxides. which do not dissolve in acids or

:.::

alkalis. e.g. NO_, CO ,

basic. oxides
(oxides of metals)

acidic oxides
(oxides of-non-metals)

alka~~--r-~
salt+ water
'r"-

acid

or alkali

amphoteric oxides
(Ah0 3 and ZnO)

Question: Complete the table that shows the reaction, if any, of the oxides with acid and
alkali. Indicate a reaction with "R" and no reaction with "NR".

oxide

type of oxide

magnesium oxide

basic

aluminium oxide

amphoteric

silicon(IV) oxide

acidic

reaction with acid

reaction with alkali

-(3)

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil]

- 79 -

:-

Identification of Ions
Test for Anions
Anion

Test

Carbonate

Add dilute acid

ceo;

Result
-

Effervescence, co

produced
2
(turns limewater milky).

(e g. dil. hydro-

chloric acid)

Chloride (CI-)
[In sol.ut!on]

Acidify, then -add


. aq. silver nitrate

White ppt... of .1\gCl

Acidify, then add

White ppt. of PbCl

Ag+ + Cl- -+

AgCl
2

aq. lead nitrate

Iodide ( I )

Acidify, then add

Yellow ppt, of Agi

[In solution]

aq. silver nitrate

(or Pbi )
2

(or lead nitrate)


.

Sulphate (S0

2-

[In solution]

Acidify, then add

White ppt. of Baso

aq. barium chloride

Ba 2+ + S0 2"4

(or barium nitrate)

-+

naso4

..

Nitrate (NO;)
Tin solution]

Add <J.q. sodium


hydroxide, then little

Ammonia produced

aluminium powder),

paper blue).

(t;urns damp i:ed litmus

warm carefully

)> Complete the following table to differentiate between hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid

and nitric acid


Test
Add aq. silver hitrate
. Add aq. barium chloride

HCI (aq)

H 2S04 (aq)

HN03 (aq)

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

- 80 -

~:.

Test for Cations

Result ofadding
aqueous ammonia

Result of adding
aq: sodium hydroxide

'

Cation

.
Copper (II) [ Cu

Blue ppt. of Cu(OH) 2 ,


insoluble in excess

'

[Fe 2 +J

'

Fe(OH)

excess

insoluble in

{tuAno

--

.
- - .. ------ - . -

in excess

-~ed-b~own

on the .OWt.6a.c.e due ;to


axJ..da.tio n)
Iron (Ill)

[Fe 3+]

Red-brown ppt. insoluble

Red-brown ppt. of Fe(OH) 3


insoluble in excess
Fe3+ + 3 OH ---+ Fe(OHh

in excess

2
Zinc [ Zn +J

. ----- - -- -

3
Alumlnlum [A! +]

'

White ppt. of Zn(OH) 2 '


I'
'
I
soluble in excess {g.iv.Wg

\ a. c.o.towU'.e.o.o .o o.e.u.ti.o n J
...
- - - -----_....

--

---- of

White ppt.

, t
I

-Al(OH) 3

I
I

'

a. c.o.towU'.e.o.o 6otuton)

'

- ---

- -

- - -- -White
ppt.

- -

soluble '
\

in excess {g-iving
I
I
( a. c.a.to u4e.e.o.o .o o.e.u..ti.o n) ,
'
... /
- - - - -

White ppt. insoluble in

soluble in excess {g-iv-ing,'

excess

-- /

[A.t{OHJ 3 and Zn{OHJ 2 ~e

0111photeM.c. hyd.Ao xJ..de.o l

Calcium [ ca2+]

White ppt. of Ca(OH)

No ppt.

insoluble in excess

Ammonium [NH:]

Ammonia is produced
on warming with uq.
sodiu1u hydroxide

-'

excess~

Dirty-green. ppt ,__ inso.luble

Dirty-ereen ppt. of

'

' giving dark blue solution


' .

Cu2+ + 20H- -7 Cu(OH)z

Iron ( II l

--- ---. . :Blue ppt. soluble in


~

2+

...

..

- 81 -

Chemistry I GCSE

Topic 8.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Metals and Reactivity Series

Physical Properties of Metals _


1,

Metals are shiny (lustrous) Yhen freshly cut and polished.

2.

Hetals conduct electricity because the electrons can move about


inside the structure,
They have usually high densities

3,

because the atoms are packed


closely together in a giant
structure,

They usually have high melt'ing

4.

points and boiling points.

5.

They are

malt~bte

(can be ham-

mered and rolled into shape)


and du.ctU.e (can be stretched
into wira). This is because
when force is applied to metals,
the

la~Jars

of a toms can slide.

over each other.


6.

Hetals are good conductor.s of heat

...............................
.
. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . ..... .. ... ... . . . .." ......................................... .
~--y~~

Alloys
1.

An alloy is usually a mixture of two or more metals or of metal


and a non-metal.

2.

Alloys are formed by mixing molten metals together and allowing


them to cool.

Ex.ampleo on rllo y~o . :


B4aoo ~ an aLLoy on eopp~ and ~e.
&.onze ~ an aLLoy on c.opp~ and .tin.
S.teeL ~ an aLLoy o6 .UC.on and c.oJr.bon;

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy M. Abdel Galil

- 8 2-

Alloying often results in metal which is

stronger. than any one

of its eomponents. For example, b~L>, which is an alloy of copper


and zinc is stronger and harder than the pure metals.
The following is a diagram showing the structure of an a.lloy
.

me,.ta. a.to m6
o;thvr. metal dom6

Uses of Metals related to their Properties

Aluminium
high electrieal

conducllimy

yens;cy
(ov/

overhead
C<l.b!es

aircraft
(aeroplanes)
carengihes

Ov e.Jthea.d a1.wrU.iU.wn
el.ec..tlr)_c.al. c.a.b.te6
ha.ve a. L>.tee1. co11.e.

window frames

cans
Food containers

aluminium

The L>.teel. c.o11.e


L>.t11.eng.then6 ;the
c.a.b.f..e.

gEE0_.:
I.t L6 u.oed e.g. : 1. In el.ec:tiUc w.Ute6 bec.a.u.oe c.oppeJr. L6 du.c.t.Ue, a: good .c.andu.c.tolt
o6 el.ec;tJUcA.:ty, on .tow Jtea.di..vU!f a:nd haL> a. IU.gh m.p.
2. In c.oo!U.ng u;tert.6ili beCJJ.LL6e c.oppvr. L6 a. good c.ondu.c.tolt o6 hea-t.
3.

Making brass which is an alloy of copper and zinc

- 83 -

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Reactivity series

.l

::;

extracted by
electrolysis

a..tta.c.k
Lll:lteJL --r hy d!to :Ude.
+

Hz
Jtea.c.t.

Mg

C-+

A.t

Zn

.....-.._,. ->a..U + Hz

a.tta.ck ;,.te.a.m ---'7 o:Ude


+

..

Hz

Fe

o:Udu
a.Jte. Jte.duc ed
w.Uh c.Mbo rt

w.Uh

d.Uu..te. a.cJ.do

Pb
(H)

Cu

Ag
Au
Action of Water on Metals

a)

Potassium, Sodium, Calcium

--------------------------

Reactive Metal + Water ----7 Metal Hydroxide + Hydrogen

Potassium and sodium react violently

+----+-Hydrogen

with cold water, ( see page-49 J


Calcium reacts raadily but not violently

Water

with cold water to form hydrogen and


calcium hydroxide solution, the alkali
-U.me wct.te.Jt.

Calcium reacts
steadily wi!h walet.

calcium + water ----7 calcium hydroxide + hydrogen

Ca (s) +2H20 Q) --'-+

Ca(O~

(aq)

+ H2 (g)

St~te two observations you could make when a small piece_ ofcalciu~ Is added to cold' water.
Observation 1 ---------.--........... - ................- ................................................ ..
Observation 2 -----------................................................................................................................... [2]

- 84-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

Magnesium

Reacts very slowly with cold


water to form hydrogen and
magnesium hydroxide.

rI

When heated in steam, magnesium


turns to a white powder (magnesium.
oxide)

Heal

Magnesium

+ _Steam

Magnesium oxide

Hydrogen

Mg(s)

. . ( s)

(g)

-->
H O(g) ->
2

Hydrogen
burn1ng

React only with steam to form hydrogen


and the oxide.

Reaction with Dilute Acids


Metals above hydrogen in the series react with dilute acids and
hydrogen is produced. This is a displacement reaction in which the
metal displaced the hydrogen of_ the acid.

ri nc

Zn(s) +
zinc

+ hydrogen

hydrochloric add ....-...;:. rinc chlor-ide

- - 7 .......... ..

sulphuric acid

--->- rlnc sulphate

hydrogen

Zn(s) +

)>

)>

)>

It is too dangerous to react the very reactive metals potassium and


sodium with acids and would caitse aplosion.
Aluminium seems to be unreactive due to the protective layer of
Al203
.
Remember that Cu, Ag and Au do not react with ,vater, steam and
dilute acids.

-(Dr. Fathy-Abdel calif)

- 85-

Cherr:lstry IGCSE

Making hydrogen in laboratory:

Hydrogen is _prepared in laboratory by reacting zinc or magnesium with


-dilute hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid.
acid

hydrogen

water

zinc

Reaction of Metal Oxides with Carbon


Carbon, on heating, will reduce the oxides of zinc and of metals below it
in the reactivity series.

iron (Ill) oxide _+


Fe 0 2 3

carbon

.; c

---~

iron

~Fe_

+ carbon dioxide
+ .. co

Competition for Oxygen :


[Reduction of metal oxides by a more reactive_ metal]

A metal oxide can be reduced tr:_ .:he metal by heating it with another
metal which is above it ir, <.:i)e reactivity series, i.e. more reactive.

iron( Ill) oxide

+ aluminium-+ Iron
+2 AI

i.-e. Aluminium is more

r~active

-------7 2 Fe

+ aluminium oxide
+ A! 2 0
3

metal than iron.

It combines with oxygen more strongly, so it can reduce iron oxide.

:;.:

- 86 -

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Gali!)

:.

Displacement Reactions

Any metal will displace one lower in che reactivity series from aqueous
solutions containing its ions.
If a piece of iron is placed in copper(II) sulphate solution (blue), a
reddish-brown deposit of copper forms on the"iron and the blue colour of
che solution fades.
This is a Jr.edox reaction in which iron atoms are oxidised by loosing
2+
2+
two electrons and going into solution as Fe
ions; Cu
ions are reduced by gaining tWO electrons and forming a solid deposit of Cu atoms.

Fe(s)

CuS0 (aq) ----7 FeS0 (aq)


4
4

ionic equation: Fe ( s)

Cu

2+

(aq)

----7 Fe

2+

(aq)

Cu(s)

Cu(s)

A metal cannot displace another above it in the reactivity series. Thus,


if a piece of Cu was placed in iron(II) sulphate solution, no reaction
occurs.

Similarly, copper does not displace magnesium. from magnesium sulphate


solution, but copper displaces silver from silver nitrate solution
(silver is below copper in the series).

Finding the order of reactivity of metals :


Ey placing a metal in an aqueous salt solution of the other metal
and observing if displacement takes place or not.

aqueous solution

Iron

zinc

copper

sliver

zinc sulphate
Iron (II) sulphate

__,_______

-p~~~~ry/.07/,ry~--------4

copper( II) sulphate


silver nitrate

r.eaction occurred

no reaction

Arrange the above elements in order of their reactivity (the most


reactive metal first)
l.

.. .

...... ..

2.

3.

. ......... .

4.

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 87 -

Chemistry IGCSE

..:

Things to remember about the reactivity series :


1. The tnore reactive the metal, the more it 'likes' to form compounds.

S~ only copper, silver and gold. are ever found as elements, i.e.

uncombined in the-earth's crust The other metals are always found as


compounds : oxides, carbonates, sulphides and chlorides.
2. The more reactive the metal, the more stable its cr.'mpounds. A stable
compound is difficult to break down or decompose.
Compare what happens when these hydroxides and nitrates are heated.
Action of Heat on Metal Hydroxides and Metal Nitrates
/Metal

II

Hydroxide

Nitrate

II

do not decompose
K

KOH

Na

NaOH

Ca
Mg
AI
Zn
Fe

heat

heat
heat

Ca(OHh

heat
.

I no reactwn

ZKN03(s)

1 metal nitrite+ oxygen

heat I ZKN02(s) + 02(g)

i no reaction

metal oxide + water


heat ) CaO+H20

decomposition gets easier down the series

heat

metal oxide,' nitrogen dioxide


(brown gas),+ oxygen
heat
2Ca(N03)2
I 2Ca0 + 4N0 2 + 0 2
decomposition gets easier down the seri ~s
)

Pb

Cu

Cu(OH)2
blue

heat

CuO+ H2 0
black

2Cu(N03)2
blue

heat ' 2Cu0+4N0 2 + 02


black

The breakdown of the compound by action of heat is called thermal decomposition.

Extraction of Metals:
Metal

Ore

Compound

Formula

Method of Extraction

A!

Bauxite

Aluminium oxide

Al203

Electrolysis of molten Al203

Fe

Haematite

Iron(III)oxide

Fe203

Reduction of the metal


oxide by coke (carbon) in a
blast furnace

Zn

Zinc blende

Zinc sulphide

ZnS

Ore: minenil found in the earth's crust from which metal is extracted

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Ga!ll)

- 88-

Extraction of Iron
iron(III)oxide; fe 2 o ; in
3
large quantities, by reduction in a blast furnace.
Iron is extracted from iron ore, haematite;

1.

Iron ore, coke and limestone are added at the top of the blast
furnace. A blnst of hot air causes the coke to burn.

2.

carbon

oxygen

carb.on dioxide

C(s)

o 2 (g)

C0 (g)
2

The carbon dioxide rising up thefurnace reacts with more coke


to form carbon monoxide which reduces the iron oxide to iron.

carbon dioxide

+
+

irori oxide

.;.

carbon
C(s)

carbon monoxide
2 CO(g)

----;>->-

carbon monoxide

Iron
2 Fe

+ carbon dioxide

+ 3 Co

As iron reaches the lower part of the furnace it melts and runs

to the bottom of the furnace.

3.

The purpmse of limestone is Co remove the

s~ndy

impurities,

mainly silicon(IV) oxide [Si0 ).


2

a)

Limestone is decomposed by heat

calcium carbonate

____,..

calcium oxide
CaO

b)

Th~
!1

+ carbon dioxide

co .
2

basic oxide, CaO reacts with Si0 , an acidic oxide to form


2

liquid slag which runs down to the bottom and floats on top

of iron.
..

calcium oxide+ silicon dioxide

--,.~)

----;>

Ca')

SI0

calcium silicate (slag)

CaSJo

- 89 Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Cast Iron
The iron produced in a blast furnace is .called cast iron. It is brittle
and impure [contains about 3 -

4~

carbon]. l1ost cast iron is converted

into steel.
Making Steel
Oxyg~n

is passed tl:ir.ough the molten .rron [ containing .


3.:4% carbon], where carbon is oxidised into carbon
dioxide and pure iron remains. The required amounts
of carbon are added.

molten iron
containing
. imr:>urities

/,

~~-~~~~-1~~-~2~-~~~~lL-l~~q-~~2~1
contains about 0.25;1; carbon, used for car
bodies and machinery.

As the carbon content is increased, the steel


becomes stronger and harder. In o.ther words,
steel has a range of hardness depending on the

car body

percentage of carbon.

z.

!i~a!!-_!.E2!!_~~g.!?:f
contains about 1% carbon, used for railwey lines and _bridges and building construction

3.
e.g.

stainless steel [doe.> no.t IU(h.t},


contains nickel and chromium,

~.

and is used for cutlery and surgical instruments.

and chemical plants

cutlery

- 90-

Chemistry lGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Cali!)

.,.
Extraction of Zinc
Zinc occurs as the sulphide, zinc blende; ZnS.
l.

The blende is roasted in air to the oxide


':.

zinc sulphide + oxygen (air) ---7 zinc oxide + sulphur dioxide


2 ZnS(s)

2;

----') 2 ZnO(s)

Zinc oxide is then reduced with carbon (coke) 'in a blast furnace.
zinc oxide + carbon - - - 7 zinc
2 ZnO(s)

+ C(s)

+ carbon dio;x:ide

2 Zn(s) +

co 2 (g)

Uses of Zinc
l.

~~!~~~!~!~g-~

The metal is used to protect steel objects from rusting; the


zinc. coating (galvanising) corrodes instead of steel.

.2.

..

~~!~~-~E~~~-~
Brass is an alloy of copper (60%) and zinc (40%).
~

RecyCling Metals
All metal'S can be recycled, that is, to melt down used metals and
use them again rather thac throw them nway.

R~cycling

makes sense

because :

l.

It saves money and energy for extraction.

2.,

It saves mineral resources since resources of or.es are limited


and cannot last forever.

3.

<.:.

It solves the problem of waste disposal. Re.cycling metals stops


them causing pollution and spoiling the environment.

Re.cye.U.ng o:the.Jt ma.teJUaLs :


G!a..6.6, pa.pe.Jt, cl.o.th a.nd p!.a.olie.6 ca.n a.U be. Jr.e.cyc.f.e.d. Foli. e.xa.mp.C..e.,

o.e.d g!.a.o.6 bo.tte.u can be. meLted dawn :to ma.k.e. neW bo:t:Uu. T!Uo
-"a.ve.-0 Jr.e.haUJi_ce.-6 a.nd .oo.tvu paUu.tion pltob.te.m-6.

.,:

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

- 91 -

Chemistry IGCSE

Rusting
The. corrosion of iron and steel is .called IULbWrg ,

l.
-2..

Rust is the red-brown flaky nolid which forms ons iron and steel.

3.

Rusting is the. slow oxidation of' iron to for.rt hydrated iron(III)


oxide. This is the. chemical name. for rust.

4.

Both

nnd

waXe4

are needed for. rusting to occur.

Iron + oxygen + water --;.-hydrated iron(lll) oxide


5.

(rust)

Rusting occurs .rnrticularly quickly in water containing dissolved ionic impurities - such as sea water.

);> Suggest what elements rust contains.


oooooo~.~.<oooooooooouoooouooooooooouooooooooouoooooooooooooooo.oooooooooooouooOO!''"''uoonoooooooo

What happens when rust is heated 7

.........................................
~ . ~ . ,. ........ .

Z. _conde.Ma..Uon

Name the solid-left :

Air and water


TUBE A

TUBES

Boiled water

Dry air

TUBEC .

TUBED

oil to slop
air dissolving
In the water

distilled
water

sea
water

boiled

nails

heavily
rusted

naUs
rusted

no

no

rusting

rusting

An e.xperimenc co investigate the conditions needed for roscing.

'

Chemistry IGCSE

-92-

[Dr .. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Methods of Rust Preven-tion


1.

Iron and.ateel can be protected from rusting_ by preventing air


and water from reaching the surface. This can be done by painting,
oiling, galvanising or electroplating the iron surface.

2,

s~~6icial p4ote~on

: Block of

magnes~um ~r zinc are attached

to the iron, e.g. ships' hull or underground pipes. The magnesium or zinc (being !!lOre reactive than iron) ar~ oxidised in
preference to the iron.

,..

zinc blocks fixed to hull

)> Zinc blocks are attached to the steel legs of oil platforms (oil rigs)

. -

sea

(i.) Explain why the zinc blocks prote.ct the steel legs
from rusting.
[2]
(ii) From the reactivity series name ariother metal that
could be used for the blocks in place of zinc: [1]

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

-93-

Chemistry IGCSE
Topic 9. CHEMICAL CHANGES
ENERGETICS OF A REACTION

All chemical reactions involve an energy change (ll. H). This energy is
in the form of heat.
An exothermic reaction is a reaction, which releases energy to the
surrounding, i.e. heat is given out (the reaction mixture becomes hot).
An endothermic reaction is a reaction, which absorbs energy from the
surrounding, i.e. heat is taken in (the reaction mixture becomes cold ).
exothermic reaction:

endothermic reaction:

HEAT

/
t

HEAT

HEAT

where does the energy change (ll. H) come ..from ? :


In chemical reactions bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.

Breaking bonds requires energy. It is endothermic.


Making new bonds gives out energy. It is exothermic.
If the energy given out is greater than the energy taken in, the reaction will
be exothermic.

>- the following is equation for the combustion of methane (natural gas)
CH 4
H

I
I

2 02

o=o

H-C-H
H

.->-

and 2 x 0=0

o=c=o

o=o

We need to break these bonds:

4xC-H

We need to make these bonds:


2 X C=O . . . .

and 4 x H-0

- - -

Explain using the idea of bonds forming and breaking, why the above reaction
is exothermic .................................................................. . ...... -.---........................................................................................................

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-94-

Chemistry IGCSE

Examples (or exothermic reactions:


'

1. All neutralisation reactions are exothermic.


When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydroxide
solution, a neutalisation reaction happens.
hydrochloric acid
HCl(aq)

+ sodium hydroxide-+ sodium chloride +

water

HiO(l)

NaOH(aqj

--+

NaCl(aq)

fmal
temperature= 34C

initial
temperature = 21 C

temperature rises by (34.,.. 21) = 13C

> Why a polystyrene (plastic cup) is used instead of a beaker?


....................................................
)>

Predict what the temperature of the reaction mixture in the


experiment would be after 1 hour. Explain your answer.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. All displacement reactions are exothermic:

MgS04 (aq) + H 2 (g)

ZnS04 (aq)

+ H 2 (g)

By measuring the rise in temperature we can find mit the order of


reactivity of metals.

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

- 95-

Examples (or endothermic reactions:


2 NO(g]

1.

This means that energy is

2.

needed for the reaction to take place

Thermal decomposition..
Melting of ice and evaporation of water.

3.

PRODUCTION OF ENERGY
,,>1

Burning Fuels
Fuels release heat energy when they burn in air or oxygen.

burning reactions are exothermic.


Natural gas

i~

largely methane,. When it burns,

methane + oxygen
CH

z 02.

~carbon

------1-

diox1de + water

J
)
)

co 2

he.a..t .{;,
given 'ocU

Ethanol (used in cars in Brazil). When i t burns,

ethanol

+ oxygen --7 carbon dioxide + water


+30

--72C0 .
2

+3H 0
2

) he.a..t .{;,
J given aU-t
)

What is needed for a fire ?

Hydrogen as a Fuel
Hydrogen is a possible energy source of the future. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for cars.
It causes no pollution because the only product of combustion is water.

Nuclear Energy
Uranium- 235 as a source of energy [see page !9].

-.----~----

~-

,_

- ..

..

Chemistry IGCSE

-96-

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Comparing the amount of energy produced by the burning of different liquid fuels:
The apparatus below could be used. The same mass of each fuel is burnt in turn.
The initial and final temperature of the same v-;iume of water is recorded

metal

container

f--

thermometer

clam p
:.

water

i)
wick

draught
shield

0:,

:~:~
......"r.

r----

-----

spi rit
bu mer

l iquid

.:.-

fuel

Questions:
Suggest how you could work out which fuel produced more energy .

. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

What are the sources of errors in the above experiment?

............................................ ; ................ _- ............ .


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ... ' .

I.

-97-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-.-.

Electricity from Chemical Reactions :


Cell :

a device to produce electrical energy from a chemical reaction

This is the reverse of what happens during electrolysis, where chemical


reactions are brought about by the use of electrical energy.
Electrolysis (endothermic)

Electrical energy

----------__:~

Cell (exothermic)

Chemical reaction

Simple cells
Two metals

that are far apart from one another in the reactivity

series are placed in an electrolyte. The more reactive metal becomes


the negative pole from which electrons flow.

The amount of electricity produced (voltage) depends on the position of


the metals in the reactivity series, The rule is :
The further apart the metals are in the reactivity series
the more electricity is produced.

voltmeter

Mg
AI

copper - - - l l l

Zn
Fe
Pb
H
Cu
Ag

Au
dilute acid

:>

The voltage of an -ironicoppercell is about 0.8 volis.


Predict whether the voltage of a zinc/copper cell would be less; the same ar
bigger. Explain your an?Wer.

.,-.,-.-.-- "''"'"~'-.-..----,-----:-..-.-;-

--

-- -- ....

Chemistry !GCSE

(Or. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

- 98-

The simple cell can be used to compare the reactivity of two metals
l.

The more reactive metal is the one which loses electrons and
i~e.

passes as ions in the solution,

2.

becomes thinner;

The direction of flow of e- is from the more reactive metal


to the less reactive one.

Question :
:::::=========
How could the simple cell shown below be used to find out if zinc
is more reactive than cadmium ?

voltmeter

zinc

cadmium
electrode

electrod.:;

-=1--- dilute sulphuric


acid

...............................................................................

..

.......................................

....................

..............

The Zinc Carbon Dry Cells: [Batteries]


Batteries are convenient source of energy because they are portable and
small, and are used in toys, radios, torches and many other things.

-99-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)


..

Topic 10.

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

-Rate of Reaction
The rate
l.

of a chemical reaction can be increased by :

l/,_a_king the size of reacting particles smaller, i.e. increasing


the surface area of the reactants.

2.

Increasing the. concentration.

j:

Iricreaaing the temperature..

4.

Adding a suitable catalyst.

5.

Light (applied to a few re.actions).

Plotting Graphs of Reaction Rates


FoUow.i.ng

IUJ.;te

o6 1r.eac.tion by mea..&UJU.ng ga..& vo.twne :

Take for example the reaction between magnesium and excess dilute
hydrochloric acid :

magnesium + hydrochloric acid--+ magnesium chloride +


Mg(s)

2 HCI(aq)

Measurements made are

---+

MgCI (aq)
2

gas volume and time.

__,.. the plunger can move out

gas s.yringe

stop clock

The volume of gas in the ayrin;e is noted at intervals, for exal'lple


at the end of each half-minute,
How would you know when the reaction is complete ?

...........................................................................

- 100-

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Here are some typical results:


Time/minutes

ll

2!

3!

4!

5!

6!

Volume of hydrogen/em'

14

20

25

29

33

36

38

39

40

40

4D

40

These results can be plotted on a graph, as shown

'.

Shape a 6 .the GJtir.ph


I.

The 6a..o.tvr. .the II.e.ac..Uon,

curve llal,
raacllon over

.the. <>.teepvr. .the. cWLve.

curve loss sleep,


reaction slower

, 2.

When .the II.e.a.mon ;_;, ovvr.,


.the cwr.ve goe.<> u.f.a..t.

curve steepesl,
teacllon fastest

The reaction is which a gas given off, e.g. an acid and Ciirbonate, the rate of reaction
can be followed up by measuring the decrease in mass of reactants .with time.
i.e. the balance reading decrease as the reaction takes place.

fast

add

, ..

ca.f.uwn

cMbona..te.
slow

time (s)

Chemistry IGCSE

Investigating the Rate

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- !Ol -

of a Reaction

Effect of particle size


This effect can be examined by reacting equal masses of calcium
carbonate with different particle sizes (e.g. chalk powder and
marble chips) with equal volumes of the same hydrochloric acid.

The volume

~f.

th; _produced

co 2

can be measured using

a_~as

syringe

and is plotted against time.

U<Sing c.ha...11.

powde;t

U<Sing maJtb.te.

chip~

gas syringe

2
3
Time/minutes

Curve A is steeper than curve B; this shows immediately that the


reaction is faster for the powder calcium carbonate.
The result shows :

The rate of a reaction increases when the surface area of a solid


reactant is Increased.

The danger of explosive combustion with fine powders and gases


[e.g. flour mills and mines] :

F.toW!. ht a. ba.g -L6 di 6-{.c.uU :to bW!.l1.. A m.ix.twr.e. o6 {toW!.-duo:t a.rid


a.Lt ma.y e.xp.tode. i6 ~paJtk.e.d.
Why 1A th-U ?
'

...... .....

................................................................... .

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 102-

,.'.
Effect of concentration
A reaction can be made to go faster by increasing the concentration
of a reactant.

T/U.6 if, 6ec.aJ.L6e -<.ncJtl211ll-<.ng .the c.onc.en.tM.:t<.on on .the Jtea.cta.n:U -<-ncJteJUV>


the numbeJT. on c.oUJ.l..(.otW between pCl.ll.ti.c.tec, and, .theJT.enoJte, .(.ncJteMe6
.the tu:Lte 0 n JU!.ac.tio n.
T/U.6 a.tbo exp.taJ.iU Whlj .the gJtea.;tec,t Jta.te on Jtea.c.tion if, u.Wa.U.lj CU. Man
cu. the uacta.n:U Me nU.xed,- i.e. thelj Me both at thUJT._ JU-g hut c.one:ert.Vc.a.tio r>. M the Jtea.c.tio n pJr.oc.eed6 the c.o nc.en.tM.:t<.o IU an the h.ea.c.t-<.ng .o u.b.ota.nc.u decJtea..o e and the tu:Lte o6 Jtea.c.tio n decJteJU e6 .
( i)

(ii)

The effect of "concentration can be shown by doing several experiments using equal masses of magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric
acid of different concentrations.
The effect of concentration can be also shown by investigating
the rate of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid :

add dilute acid


and start timing

view from
above the
flask

sodium
thiosulphate
solution

....

cross drawn --f._;~_.--,


. on paper
'-- - .:

...........

'

........'.

At first the cross could be seen clearly. When the solution


became cloudy and the cross was no longer visible, the clock was
stopped and the time recorded.

The c.tou.fuec,.o

if, due

to the

pJr.eup~on

on .wlphu.Jr., (yellow)

A series of experiments can be carried out using a solution of


sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid of different concentration.
The results show that the more concentrated the solution, the
faster the rate of reaction.

\'

t=.

Chemistry IGCSE

- 103-

(D.r. Fathy Abdel Galli)

Effect of catalyst
A catalyst is a substance vhich speeds up the reaction but remaitls
.chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts. [protein innnturc

At room temperature, hydrogen peroxide decomposes very slowly.

If a cacalyst called manganese(IV) oxide is added, decomposition takes


place very rapidly.
If the manganese (IV) oxid-e J.s ;filtered off at the end of the reaction,

washed, dried, and reweighed, it will be found that its miss has not
changed.
ifuy 1

9tw;~'OOOOOOOPO'oooot

gas syringe
with catalyst

without
catalyst
hydrogen peroxide

lr---solution
manganese (b.Utck )

time

(IV) oxide

nuestion :

daa=-="a.::

The speed of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is investigated using


different catalysts.
State the precautions which should be taken to make this a fair test :

........ ........................................................................ .
... ... .. .. ..... .......... . ... .... . ... ..... " ........... ' .. ' ............... .
...-

" "

........................................................................ , ................. .
.. " ................................................................................... .

Chemistry I GCSE

Dr. Fathy Al:""'el Cali!)

- 104-

Effect of temperature :
A reaction goes faster when the temperature is raised. When the
temperature increases by

1oc,-

the rate approximately doubles.

Explaining the factors affecting reaction rates:


The collision theory
The reason for an increase in the rate of a chemical
reaction can be explained by the collision theory. In
order for particles to react,.they must collide, and they
must have sufficient energy to react.
92;~S!~.,:.

Uu. .the .Ldea. o6 .the c.o.U.U.Lon :theoJty :to ex.p.&Un .the e06 ec.t; o6 <>uJL6a.c.e
Mea., c.onc.ell-tlt.a.-Uon, a.nd :tempeJta.:tu!te on .the ;w;te o6 !tea.c.tion ... .
0

o 0

o 0

o o 0 0

o o o o o o

~ 0

o 0

o o o o o 0 o o o o o o o 0 o 0 o o o

o o o o

o o o o o o o 0

o 0 o o o o

.. o 0

. Effect of pressure : (for gaseous reactions only)


Increasing the pressure makes the mo-lecules of the gases close to
each other and the

fre~uency

of.

collis~Qn

increases and the reaction

_goes faster.

Investigating the effect of light


~-

The <.peed<. of, <.ome !tea.c.tion<>


lnc.!tea.<. ed by expo<. uJLe :to
.Ugh:t.
When a silver salt is exposed
containing white

to light, silver is formed. The

;Uver chlorid~.t

.suspension.

figure shows an _experiment with


silver chloride. Light has the

Exposed to light
REMOVE

FOil

effect of decomposition of
silver chloride.
2 AgCI

>2

Ag + CI

Such reactions which are


affected by light are called
photochemical reactions.

TUBE A:
still while when
foil removed

TUBES:
darkens

Tne effecc of light" on che decomposicion of Silver chloride.

Chemistry IGCSE

-105-

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Photography
The deco"mposition of silver bromide (AgBr) to silver is the basis of
photography. The film is covered with silver bromide. When light shines
on the film, silver is formea. This is the black part of the negative.
The unexposed silver bromide stays white.

>

2 AgBr

2 Ag

white

Br

black

unexposed

Jt

photographic film

grey

black

remains white

Photosynthesis:
Photo.synthesis is one of the most important reactions involving light.
Chlorophyll is the catalyst. The; ,green chlorophyll in the leaves absorbs
light energy from the. sun and uses it to make(synthesise) sugars from.
carbon.dioxide and water..

sunlight
carbon dioxide + water

glucose + oxygen
chlorophyll

i.e. the process of photosynthesis is endothermic and the energy required


comes from the sun
Respiration:
Respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis and is an exothermic process.
The process of respiration
can be represented as:
..

glucose + oxygen --7

carbon dioxide

+ water +

energy

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gal ill

- 106-

Chemistry l GCSE

Reversible Reactions
A Jtevvu.i.b.t~ Jtea.c:Uon, is one which can proc~ed in either direction
depending on the conditions under which it is carried out.
A

reactants

o/W!a)td Jte.a.c:Uon ,

ba.dwxvr.d Jtea.c:Uo n

products

For example

ammonium chlaride

:;;::::=:::: ammonia

+ hydrogen chloride

NH3 (g) _+

NH4Cl (s)
( w:tiite solid)

HCl (g)

.. {cptilourless gases).

Energy change in reversible reactions:


If a reversible reaction is exothc1mic in one ditection it will he
endothermic in the other.
For example, hydrated copper (II) sulphate (CuS.04> SH:iO) needs energy supplied
in the forni of heat to give i!nhydrqus copper(II). sulphate. and water~ When -viater is
ad<ie<Lto anhydrous copper(1I) stilphate(CuSO~). energy in form of heat"is produced.

Hydrated
copper(.(!) sUlphate

(+ heat energy ]

-7
f-

anhydrous
copper(m sulphate

+water

chemical Equilibrium __ _
When the rate offorward reaction = rate of backward reaction, the reaction is said be
at equilibrium.

.
At equilibrium, the concentration of reactants and products does not change, - tn fact,
both the forward and backward reactions are stilhaking place.

Factors affecting the position of equilibrium

Effect 'on "equilibrium &fthe.reailon:

Change In concentration

.A +

ofsubstano/

'

+ D

''Proportion o(b!uid Dincreased,

1ncrease in concentration
of AorB

I.e. equilibrium shifts to right

Increase In concentration

Proportion of A and B Increased,

of

Cor 0

Le. equilibrium shifts

to left
,,
i

Chemistry !GCSE

-107-

(Dr. Fathy Abde! Galli)

Increasing the temperature makes the reaction !!lOVe in the direction


that takes in heat (.the err.do.theJun.i..c cUJr:e.c.tion).
In other woras,
a) For exothermic reactions, an increase in temperature favours
the reactants,. i.-e. ma:kes the reaction move to the ];eft.
b) For ~ndothermic reactions, an increase in temperature favours
the products, i.e. makes the reaction move to the right.

N2
2 502

3 H

02

<-T
2

so 3

T-=:==j">

2 NO

3,

.. 2 N.H 3

The effect of chanee in gressure r for <>'aseous reactions l

a:::z:::z:::=m:a=:a::JZJ;:;::.:u::;::::c=a:~at====c.-:Sit.c-=e=-===*'!'.*"':::.:;:a:::;J:..t;:ia;::c;;r:xi2~=~~::t=ti=:Q::=az::.;=x:=o:::.:a:J::=c:

Increasing the pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction


in which there is decJI.e.4Ue in vohwre, i.e. th.e direction which
produces fewer gas moles.

;;:==z

NH (g)

2mol
)> .Predict how the position of equilibrimii might change i f there were

an increaseinthe pressure on the f61lowin:g e-quilibria

CO (g)
)>

__ 02

+ 2 H2 (g)

Why an increase in pressure does not affeCt the position of fhe following

equilibrium :
2NO(g)
~-~~- .. ~

;::'.

.-.

Ch~mistry

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-108-

IGCSE

Topic

11.

AIR AND WATER

PuM..QJ_c.atio n a 6 wa.:teJL Mppty :


The water from rivers is. first. stored in reservoirs where the process of purification starts.

The water is still, so the larger

particles of dirt can settle out.

At the su:toface, oxygen and sun-

light break down other impurities and kill some bacteria.


The water from the storage rese:z::.voirs. is treated in two stages
1-

Filtration :
===:;::========
It is filtered through heds of fine sands to remove suspended (insoluble)

solids.
2-

Chlorination :
:ell:====-=-======
Then it is treated with chlorine to kill bacteria.

PUJte wa.:te.Jt c.a.n be ab.t.abted Mom


.U, cut

U.6eo

.6e1t

wa.:teJL by liU.:tUJ..a:tWn, bu:t .:tJW,

expe.JU.<.ve p!toc.eo.6.

o6 wa.:teJL

Household tap water is free from

har~ful

bacteria and insoluble dirt,

but it is not pure in the chemist's sense because it contains gases


and salts' in

solu~ion,,

In the. home . :

===.==========

1- Drinking
2- Washing
3- Cooking

Industry uses water in many ways, e.g.


1-

Much water is used for cooling. Power stations are built near
i:ivers or coasts so that they cart. have continuous supplies of.
water for the cooling. towers;

2-

As a solvent: in many industries, e.g. paper industry;

3~

Manufacture of hydrogen and oxygen by ~lectroiysis of water.

Electrolysis of water
Pure. water is a very poor conductor ofelectricity. To enqble water to
conduct eiectricity better, some dilute sulphuric acid is added
Hydrogen gas is fonned at the cathode and oxygen gas is collected at
the anode.
l :.
i":

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil}

-109-

Chemistry 'IGCSE

Composition of air

Air is a mixture of gases :

nitrogen 78%
(nearly 'A)

oxygen 21%
Gust over \1;)

----=====:;;;:tt----the remainidg 1%

I_s~n.e~.riY:.?iu:ugon (a,.8~ble gc

+ a tittle carbon'diqxid.$and.Water vapour


+ sma!l~r amounts ofh~Jium;neon, krypton
and xe~on (the oth~r-6~blel'gases). : i

..

Sepalr'a..t.{_on a 6 oxygen a.nd /UX!wgen f/wm Uq!Ud lwr.


Fractional distillation is used to separate the pure gases from one
another ..

1-

Air is liquefied by compression._

2-

The liquid air is allowed to boil.

3-

The different components have. different boiling 'points, so they


can be collected in turn as they boil aff,

(1) nitrogen .
. (b.p. -: 196"C)
(2). argon
(b.p. -186"C)
(3)

oxygen
. (b.p. -183"C)

U<> e.6
l-

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 110-

Chemistry IGCSE

o 6 o x_ygen :
Pure, 'medical grade' oxygen is used in oxygen tents in hospitals
for persons having difficu+ty in breathing normally because of
illness or unconsciousness.

2- In welding :
.
. .
Acetylene (which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon) burns m oxygen to
give a very hot flame "oxyacetylene flame"
welding torch

c:
Q)
.i

--'

UJ

z
w
__J

Ol

>-

r::w

--'

3-

()
<{

In making steel

FoJr.ma..:Uon o6 c.aJtbon d.{.oxJ..de :


1-

As a product of complete combustion of carbon-containing substances

CH

+ 2

o2 ,

~ C0

+2 H 20

methane
(natural gas)
C H 0H
2 5

+ 3 0 .
2

- 7 2 C0

+ 3 H2 0

(ethanol) .

Some 6uw, e.g. c.a.ndte w.:L:.:, aL6o pll:oduc.e a. depo.6.U o6 c.aJtbon


(<>oo.t). TIUA p!tove.6 ..tha-t :the at l>!Lpply wa.o J.nllu66.f.cl.ent .to
oxJ..d.{.ze aU. .the c.a.Jtbon .tn. :the hydJr.oc.aJtbon 6ue.t ;td c.aJtbon d;_oxJ..de.
rco 2 1.
TheJLe .iJ, a.no.theJL p!toduc.;t a6 -i.nc.omplde c.ombUl>tion w!U.c.h you c.a.nno.t
ue olt .~>me.tl. Th.iJ, .iJ, :the po.LbonoU1> :9a..6 c.a.Jtbon monoude [CO].
When pebt.ol .{..6 b!Litnt bi :the c.aJt wgine, ;the exllO.ll..il.t ga.<>e-6 c.on:tain
.~>orne c.aJcbon monoude, <>orne !Litbwr.n:t hydltoc.a.Jtbonll a.nd .iome .6oo.t
-i.n a.drUtion ;to .:the ha.Jtmle-6.6 pJtod!.tU!> c.a.Jtbon d.toude and Wll.teJL.

2-

As a product of respiration :
During breathing, some of the oxygen in the air is used up, and

C0 2 , water and heat energy are produced.

-111-

Chemistry I GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process :


. Ammonia is made by

~yn.theo.U,

i.e. nitrogen and hydrogenare

combined together.

1.

Nitrogen is obtained from the air.

2.

Hydrogen in now obtained from methane (natural gas).


Hethane is heated with steam over a nickel catalysc

CO(g)

3 H (g)
2

> The following is the equation of formation of ammonia from Its


elements, nitrogen and hydrogen:

+
i.

1NH3 (g)

The reaction is exothermic.

ii. The reaction is reversible.

)>

Conditions:
temperature: 450C
pressure: 200 atmosphere
catalyst: .iron

Ammonia is liquified by cooling. The unreacted gases are recycled.

:>
1.
11.

Uses of ammonia
Making fertilizers
Making nitric aCid

. Chemistry IGCSE

- 112-

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)


=:

Ammonia in the Laboratory


l.

Ammonia is a colourless; choking gas, which is. formed whenever


an ammonium salt is warmed with an alkali.
For example :

NH,Cl(s) . + NaOH(aq) ____,.. NH 3(g)


ammonium
sodium
ammonia
chloride
hydro:x:ide

+ NaCl(aq) + H 20(1)

~p

sodium
chloride

water

red litmus paper

:unmonium _ _____:~,.y
chloride

warm

2.

Ammonia is very soluble in water and aqueous ammonia is .formed,.


which is a weak alkali.

NH (g) +
3
>-

~---these

H 0(!) ---+NH 08(aq)


2
4

ions make the


solutionalkaline

Since ammonia is an alkali, it will neutralise adds to make ammonium salts.


Ammonia +

nitric acid

---+

ammonium nitrate

Fertilisers

1. Fertilisers are substances, which added to soil to promote plant growth.


2. .The major plant nutrients include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and
potassium (K).
3. Nitrogen is the most important of the three elements because plants use it to
make oroteins.
Nitrogenous fertilizers:
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium sulphate
Ammonium phosphate
Urea

NB4N03
(NB4)2S04
(NB4)3P04
CO(NH2)2

4. Many fertilisers contain phosphorous and


potassium compounds as well as nitrogen
compounds. These mixed fertilizers are
called 'NPK' fertilisers.

16.8.24

NPK
FERTILIZER

- 113-

Chemistry .!GCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

AIR. POLLUTION

Apart from the gases normally _found in air, other gases such as
sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide can be present. These gases can cause air pollution and are called po~.

Common pollutants in the air


1.

Carbon monoxide, CO :
Carbon monoxide is produced by the .incomplete combustion of carbon
con~aining

fuels. Much of carbon monoxide comes from the in-

complete combustion of petrol in car engines.

CaJLbon monoxide .U po.UonolLb ga.;, :thtLt pll.even;U ha.emogtobbt .<.n _.the


btood t)Jtom c.b.oo:r.bbtg oxygen. A:t a. tevet ot) H, c.aJtbon monoxide
w.Ut k..U..e.- qc:U.c.kl.y; a..t toweJt levw J.;t c.a.Mu hen.da.c.hu a.nd d.<.zz.<.nu.o. Bebtg c.oloi11!1.U.6 a.nd odoUJLteM, c.Mbon monoxide g.<.vu no
wa.Jr.nhtg

2.

on

-U:.-6 pJtUenc.e~

Sulphur- dioxide,

so 2

Fossil fuels (coal and oil) always contain sulphur. When burned,
sulphur dioxide is formed. Factories and power stations burn coal,
which contains sulphur. They send sulphur dioxide int-o the air.

Sutphwt d.<.o xide. c.a.Ub u bJr.a nc.hd.u a.nd .tung d.<.<> ea.<> u In .the. uppeJt
a..tmo.opheJte., i l -Jtea.W wd.h. wa.teJt :to 6oJun a.dd JuU.n.

3.

Oxides of nitrogen :
When fuels are burned in the oxygen of the air, nitrogen is also
present. At high temper-ature, the result_, some nitrogen
with oxygen.

Nitrogen + oxygen

--l>-

nitrogen monoxide

2 NO(g)

Nitrogen monoxide + oxygen -nitrogen dioxide


2 NO(g)

combines

(Dr. Fathy Abde[ Galil)

- I 14-

Chemistry IGCSE

About 30 - 407. of the oxides of nitrogen in the air come from


car exhausts. Other sources of nitrogen oxide pollution are
factories and fires.

NO .i..6 hJ.g hty c.aM.o~>.i.v e and ;to x.J..c..


2
Ox.J..dv, a6 n..{.;t!togen. fuM.tve .i.n. wa:te.Jt ;to 6oJUn n.J..t;Uc. ac..i.d
lead.i.n.g :to ac..i.d /W.{_n..

Catalytic removal of oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts :


Catalytic convertors are now being fitted in the exhaust of cars,

where the toxic gases are converted in the presencR of a catalySt

into carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

exhaust
from

of car

eng ina
' ..

~\

catalytic
converter
Nitrogen
monoxide

2 NO(g)

carbo~ ~nitrogen +
monoxide

carbO:n
dioxide

Ca:ta.e.y:Ue eon.ve.Jt:toM !Le.qt.Wte.d :the. Me o6 l11'11.eade.d pe;t:Jtol.

4.

Lead compounds
A lead compound called tetraethyl leadis added in small quantities
to petrol to increase the octane numberof petrol. When the-petrol

burns in the engine, lead compounds are released from car exhaust.

Lead c.ompou.nd!.. Me. n.Vtve. po.Won.~>. In. pa!L:Uc.ulM., :the.y c.an. eaMe.
b/W.{_n. damage .i.n. young c.hild!r.e.n..
The main way of preventing pollution from compounds of lead is
the use of lead-free petrol (unleaded petrol).

Chemistry I GCSE

- 115-

(Dr:. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Acid Rain

Acid
roln 1
I

Harmful effects of acid rain


l.

Acid rain (pll

2.

It removes minerals from the soil and increases the acidity of

4) makes lakes too ncidic or fish to live in.

the soil.
3.

Acid rain attacks construction materials such f!S limestone and

4.

Acid rain can speed ujJ corrosion-of metals.

It is important to control the acidity in soil. Lime [CaOJ or


slaked lime [Ca(OH) J are used for neutralizirt(l acidic soils.
2

Finding the acidity of the soli :

I.
2.
3.
4.

A !te.p!Le..;e.n.ta.Uve. .6a111pte. o6 :the. .bOil ll. e., 6Jtont cU66e.Jte.I'Lt hl:tu


o 6 .tfte 6le..tdl l.6 :tah.w.
Wa.te.Jt .U a.dc(e.d :to .tlte <lcunpte. o 6 :tlte. <1o.U. ln a. be.a:k.e.Jt O:ftd .6:t.Ut!Led.
Some. baJtlwn .6ttipfta.te (llt.6o.ttbte ".tn wa.te.Jt) .U, a.dde:'ll J:.o .tlte nr.i.x..ttLJte.
:to fte..tp p!Le.cA.pl:ta.tlo 11 and .to cte.M .tlte .U.q ttld.
Tlte c.i'.e.M .U.qttld l.6 :tu:te.d w.U:ft .tfte UttlveJL?a.t I ndlc.a.:to!L :to 6-Lnd
:tlte. pll.

- ll6-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

!;

[:

Topic 12.

SULPHUR

A non-metallic element, yellol" solid, .. with low m.p., ll9C.


Large

amoun~s

are produced each year by mining as it is used to

produce sulphur dioxide.

Sources :

a-

Large amounts found in certain volcanic regions of the world.

b-

From sulphide ores [e.g. zinc blende]

c-

Under ground deposits in the United States extracted as. liquid


by pumping heated water into the sulphur depos.it.

Sulphurdioxide, S0

2
=======a==============
Acidic :gas. produced by burning sulphur in air
S(s)

1-

As a. food presecvative

2-

B'leaching wood pulp

3-

Making sulphuric acid, H so


2 4

Food passed through an atmosphere of sulphur dioxide. The gas


kills bacteria that could spoil the food or be a danger to
human health.

When wood has been broken down to a pulp it has a brown colour.
In order to make. white. paper from the pulp it has to be bleached
by passing sulphur dioxide through it.

'

-117-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galli)

Sulphuric . acid is mad'e by the Con.ta.c.-t PMce6.6. This has 3 stages


a)

Sulphur is burnt in air_ to make sulphur dioxide

I
b)

S(s)

Sulphur dioxide and.more air are reacted together.


);>

Conditions : temperature: 450C ,, catalyst: vanadium(V) oxide ;


pressure: 2 atm. (for circulation ofgases),.
(no need for high pressure]
2 S0 .(g)
2

i>ul.phwr.
cU..ox.J..de
. c)

o2 (g)

01(g)

so

(g).

;,Ul.phliJr. .

.oxygen
6iWm tWt.

ruo x.J..de

1/t :tfieblly, 46 i>ul.phwr. :tJ;;;l_ux.J..de 6 rUbi>ol.ved .:l.ll. Wod:eJL, L>u1.plu.vc.tc. a.c:id .U pJwduced. Ba:t .thU .U. no.t dime in p}(O.c.tic.e .

:toa ex.o.the)!Jn)_e a.nd

on a. .ta.Jtge .6.c.al.e beaa.u.6e .:the Jt:e.a:c.tioir M


boili :the <.ul.phwrJ.c. a.cU pMdU;c.ed.

. ....

.{.- The <.iLtplit.vr. ruo:dde -M rUb.ool.v-e:d fi.i.Mt. in c.anc.e.n..tJUl:ted


;,Ul.phwUc. a.dd :to 6ollm ol.e.um.
S0 (gJ
3

.6 u.tphwr.

..tliJ..o x.J..d.e
..U-

H:zSb4 (IJ - -.> H2SzLl 7 (1)


.6 u.tphwrJ.e

a.eld

-.- .->

0-<.-eunl

1he ol.eum .U then d.U.t.cted wUh the eoJUr.:ic:t. amoiut:t o6 wa.teJL


:to pJwduc.e ecmc.e:J1:tlu;(;te.d.L>u1.phwr..i,e a.ci.d.
H s o (1) . +
2 2 7

ol.eum

H 0(0
2

wa.teJL.

-~>

2 H so (!}
2 4
.6 ul.phwr..Le a.c.f..d

Since all three of these reaC:tiona are. exothermic, the whole process

prod~ces heat
en.e.rgy, The fact that enetgy is produced rather than
. '
;

'

needed means that sulphuric acid can be produced cheaply.

i- in-making :t~rtilisers (!'.g. ammonium sulphate)


ii- iri making detergents
iii- in making_paint;s
i.:iii- iii. car batteries.
Conc~e.d .6u1.p/w.JUe a.Ud .U paJ~y da.ngelloll.<l :to hamil.e
becO.iJ.M!. U .U a. powvr..6u1. dehydJr.a:t.Utg agen:t. I:t w.i.U Jcemove wa..teJL
6Jtom otheJc. .6ub<.~c.u,.

Chem!.~try

IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abde! Galli)

-11&-

Topic 13

CARBONATES

All carbonates a~e. insoluble in water exce~t-aodium, potassium and

l.

ammonium

carbon~te.

All cubonates .react wfth dilute aciqs, they all fizz and dissolve,

2.

giving off carbon dioxide and leaving a solut'ion of a .salt.

Carbonate

+ acid

salt;+- .water

+ 2 HCI(aq)

CaC0 3(s)

+ Cl!rbon.dioxide

. CaCI,;(-ilq). + HzO(lY.+ COi(g)


. .. - ., ...

3 . They decompose upon heating to f_orm_-llieta'J:._.oxide .. i:md:.-;:,ar)>,on dioxide.

--......,-.;:.

+ cbtfg}'

C\iO(s}

bia.c.li.
Sodium and potassiurrt carbonate, however,~aretoo st<>bf~ to decompose ..

i.e. they.haye.high thermal stability.


Suggest what is meant by th~
tenn thermal stability.
.
.
.

............................ +...... .. _.. ;; ....... ~---

Limestone'.lime and- slaked


lime :
..
..

....

Name

Fonn!Jl?

'.

caco
3

Limes. tone
Lime [Quick Lime.]

.
Ca{CF!l
. ,. . 2

Slaked Lime

A solution of

CaO

..

'

Chemical
.. . .

Colour

Nam_e.~

Ca.rbOh~te
.(alcium
...
.
.. Calc(um OXid~

Wh!~e

--

..

.ca:icium

..

Hy'droiddet
.. . . ..

calcit~m hyd'r<ixi,d~' i~ .c,all,)<{i{:.:);im;~t~i":.~::w!;!n

Co 2 gas it; bubbled

..

White

i:hrou~h 1i1!),i::.<'w~~~;~~-:ti\:~_-~@i'iihi~J.b;,;.~(;&um

carbo~S:te_ appears as a.-l{hi.c~ sifs{;-e~Ji~o~;::~~ 'i#i(!, ~$i~\l'i;':~(les


1
mi11W',

..-. .-

WJ:tlte
..

'.

Chemistry I GCSE

Calcium carbonate (Limestone)


Formt.!la :

Usee :

~1

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

- 119-

An. important car:-bonate.

CaC0 3
M~nu6Q~~

o6

cement.

Cement is made by heating together limestone and clay.

b) - Ma.nu.6a.c..tWL~ o 6 .<Mit. (.to JLemov~ .sa.nd hnpu.Jt.U;{.~ I.

c). neutralises acidity in the -soil

d)

Ma!1u.6a:~~ o{Um~ (C!CLtcWm ox.U!c).

Limestone is heated to a high temperature. It decomposes to


calcium ol<ide and carbon dioxide. The symbol equation for
the. reaction- is

.......... .
Calciuin oxide has important

to calcium hydrol<ide, Ca(OH)


calcium oxide +
(quicklime)
CaO

u~ea.

water

.. ...... .
,

It can be readily converted

(slaked lime],. by adding vater

---+
"---'-'r
. .

calcium hydroXide
(slaked lime)
Ca ( 0 H) 2

As both [lime and slaked lime.] form in water alkaline solutions,

they are used to : -

- Neutralize acidity in the soil


- Neutralize aciqic gases and industrial acidic wastes.
Question
-:;:::======
The diagram shows a lime kiln.

What are X and Y?


y

X
A

.lime

lime

slaked lime

limestone

lime

slaked lime

lime

limestone

heat

heat

heat

i:.

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gal ill

- 120-

Topic 14.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Org;mic chemistry includes the study of all carbon compoim.ds except


the very simple ones such as

co 2 ,co

and carbonates.

The term 'organic' means.'living'. At first; organic chemistry was

the study of carbon chemicals from_planta and animals. Now it is "known


that complex carbon compounds can be made artificially.
Organic compounds are grouped into classes [families) such as
hydrocarbons, alcohols, organic acids, ....

HYDROCARBONS
Hydrocarbons are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon and no
other elements. They are classified into alkanes

[saturated] and

alkenes [unsaturated).
ALKANES
They have single bonds between their carbon atoms, i.e. 6~ed

Name

N!-imberof
Mol<C!!LUVL
carbon aroms 6o1Umlltz.

methane

H
I

CH,

.s.cw.o.tuJuiL !P;ynul.a.

H-C-H

H
H
ethane

C,H,

propane

butane

pentane
hexane
heptane
octane ...

Gen eJ!a1.

6oJUnul.a

6
7

H
H H H

c,H,

.I I
H-C-C-H
I I
I

B-c-c~c-H

I I I

H H H
H H H H
I. I . I I
H-c~c-c-c-H
I I I I
H H H H

C,HIO

. ..
[n

= no,

of carbon atoms]

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gallll

- l2l-

Chemistry IGCSE

::.

ALKENES

Alkenes are IJY!4a.:tulrLLted _hydrocarbons, Le. they have a double bond


between two carbon atoms. The simplest alkene. has only two carbon
atoms. It is called ethene.

No. o6 c.Mban. Malec.ulM


a.to/Jk\
6aJUnula

Name

e,thene

. C2H4

StJw.ctWLa.

H-C=C-H

propene

C3H6

6Ollmula

.I

H- C- C=C-H

I
H

but-1-ene

but-2-ene

C4H8

C4H8

I!

I
H

!I

H- C-C-C=C.,- H

H-C-C=C-C-H

I!

[ n = no. of carbon atoms]

Alkenes are characterized by. the presence of the double bond, which
is called the 6un.c.:ti.pna. g/f.oup.

ISOMERISM
The alkene

c4a 8

.has two structures, but-1-ene and but-2-ene.

The different structures are called .i..bomeM.

Isomers are compounds having the same molecular formula


but. different structures

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

-122-

ALKANOLS

[ALCOHOLS}

Alkanols can be.regardedas. alkanes, in which one hydrogen atom


is replaced by a hy~oxyi g~up

[OHJ,

This is called the

6unctidnal

g4oup. They are named after the alkane (with the same number of carbon
atoms) [AN. -> 0 L].

No. o6 caJrbon
a;tonu,

Name.

FoJrmul.a.

Sbw.e:tu!r.e.
H

methanol

CH 0H
3

H-C-0-H
I

ethanol

C H 0H
2 5

H H
I
I
H-y-y-Cl--H
H H
H

propan-1-ol

c3H70H

H-C-C-"-C-0-H
I f I
!l H H
H .0-H

propan-2-ol

c3H70H

H
I

H-C-C-C-H
f
H

f . I
H R

[n = no. of carbon atoms}

Propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol are

ihom~.

The alcohols butall-1-ol and butan-2-ol .whi"h have the mol1>cular


formula c H 0H are isomers. Write down their structural formulae.
4 9

...................................

. .................................... .

butan-1-ol

butan-2-ol

- 123-

Chemistry IGCSE

ALKANOIC ACIDS

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galill

[CARBOXYLIC ACIDS]

They are organic acids and characterized by the presence'of the


carboxyl group,

II

[ -G-0-H]

which is the functional group.


They are named after the alkane (with the same number of carbon
atoms) [A N

X -->

0 I C

ACID].

---'---------------------------Name

No. o6 c.aJLbon

a..tom6

methanoic acid

0
II
H-C-0-H

H
I

ethimo:i.c. acid
[acetic acid]

propanoic acid

II

H-,C- C-O__:_H

I'

H H 0
I
1 II
H-C-C-C-0-H
. j

H li

Question :

==:.:::======
Draw the structure of

butanoic. acid

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .... . . . .. . .. . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . .... .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . ., ...


Homologous Series

A 6a.m.Uy o 6 .shn.ilalt OJtganic. c.ompou.n.do wLth .s.i.m.W.vr. p!WpeJL.t)_ru due :to


.the piLIUence o6 .the .sameJanc.tiona.t bu:p. AU membe!Lb Me ILepiLruen:ted
by .the .same gene!La.t 6o.IUll
, e.g. Cit
ru, a.tk.enru,. a.t/Urno.U .
A.s we go aLong a. homol.ogou.s .s rvr.J..ru :the bo.U'..<.ng a.nd me..Uhtg po-i.n:t.s o6

c.ompou.n.d.s :gM,du:a.tl.y A.nc.ILe.M e.

-124-

Chem!s_try IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS

These are compounds formed when hydrogen atoms in an alkane are


replaced by halogen atoms.

chloromethane
chloroethane

'I 7

8 8

H
I

Br

H-f-C-C-Br

H
I

H-f-9-y-H
H H H

1-bromopropane

2 -bromopropane

1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane are isomers; they have the same


molecular formula c H Br.
3 7

FOSSIL FUELS

'

Fossil fuels [coal, crude oil, natural gas] have be,;n formed as
a result of the decay of plants and animals that lived long time ago.

Fossil fuel

Appearance

What it contains

Natural gas

Colourless gas

Mainly methane (CH4 )

Crude oil [petroleum]

Dark brown liquid

A miXture of hydrocarbons,
mostly alkanes

Coal

Black solid

Mainly carbon

Fossil fuels contain sulphur compounds, which formacidic sulphur dioxide


[S0 2 l when the fuel is burned (leading to

ac~d rain).

Coal, crude oil and natural gas are -vu1~-U..e


''-'~ d Jteoowr.c.eo, 1. e. nonrenewable source of energy.
Fossil fuels and CO, emission:

co, is produced from burning fossil fuels, co, is a green house gas leading to

global warming.

- 125-

Chemistry lGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil


Crude oil (sometimes called petroleum) is a mixture of alkanes.
To make best use of oil, it is separated by fractional distillation
into useful fractions according to the boiling range of the fractions._
The main fractions are :

fraction used as fuel


in cars
(C

(Kerosine)

c 10 J

fraction for oil stoves


and aircraft.
(Cg - c16l
fraction as a fuel for
the engines of lorries,
trucks and some cars
(CJS - Czsl

crude
oil

__...,_

fraction for making


waxes and polishes
(over c 25 J

heater
Bitumen

fraction for making roads

In 6act, the demand on ughteJ~ oiUJ.moru, (pe;t;wl, piLIU1.66-i.nJ .U. gJtea.t~


.tha.n the .ou.pply fiJtam the fuWf..xti_on a6 CJw.de a.U.; . 6aJttuna.te.ty, .they
ean be made 6Jtom .the hea.vi~ 6Mc..Uaru, by ci piweu;, CaU.ed eiUJ.c.IWtg.

Cracking
The process of breaking longchained hydrocarbon molecules into
shorter ones is called

c.Jt~Leking.

The reaction needs high tempeJtatulte


and a

e~Lt~L./'.y;,t.

Al.kenes are

always formed as one of the products of cracking.

Chemistry IGCSE

long hydrocarbon
molecule

Octane

-126-

~.temp. >
c
y;,J; .

_CJUl~-'-cl"-u'-"'"ng-->

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

shorter alkane
molecules

hexane

ethene

------>

Cracking is very Useful:


1. It' converts larger molecules from heavier, less useful fractions
into smaller molecules that are useful as petrol [more benefit]
2. It also produces alkenes, which are very useful for making plastics.
3. Hydrogen gas could be also obtained during the cracking of alkanes.
Cracking a liquid alkane:
The following figure shows a simple laboratory cracking experiment.
.The vapour of a liquid alkane is passed over a heated catalyst to make
ethene.
liquid alkane +
ceramic wool

catalyst

delivery
tube

ethene

heal

heat

water

)>

Suggest the function ofthe ceramic wool_. .......... : ........ .

)>

The delivery tube is removed from the water before stop of heating.
Suggest why this is done? ................................. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .............. - ... - .... - -

- 127-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Cali!)

ALKANES

Properties of Alkanes

1.

The first four alkanes are gases, the next fifteen are colourless
liquids and the rest are solids.

2.

Like all hydrocarbons,, alkanes burn in air .giving co , H o and


2
2
heat energy is given out, so alkanes are useful as fuels.

CH (g)
4

o 2 (g)

(methane)

--)

C H (g) + 5 0 (g)
3 8
2

(propane)

3.

Alkanes are generally unreactive.

4.

Simple alkanes react with

ehta~e

gab

in presence of

!Lght.

Thus, when methane is mixed with chlorine gas in bright light,


ehto4am~hane is slowly formed.

I
H-c-H + Cl 2
I .

LL h't.
g

>

H-C-Cl

[,{

mc:thanc

chloromethane

Similarly,

+
ethane

Cl

<.ght
2

HCl

hydrogen chloride gas

) C H CI
2 5

HCI

chloroethane

This is called. s.ubstitution reaction because the hydrogen atom


in methane molecule is replaced by chlorine atom.

Saturated hydrocarbons undergo substitution reactions.

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

- 128-

f:~;

ALKENES
Alkenes (e.g. ethene, propene) are produced in large quantities
in industry from the larger molecules in oil fractions by the process of cna~g.

Properties of Alkenes
Alkanes are members of a homologous series, so they all show
similar che"in.ical properties ..

They burn with bmok.IJ.. yel-t_oW flame

l.

-->

:: ..

The double bond in alkenes make them Ve.JUj Jte.a.c.:ti.ve. They undergo

2.

a.dcU..:Uan Jte.a.c.:ti..!J no

Unsaturate.d hydrocarbons undergo additior\ reactions:

[A]

Addition of hydrogen (hydrogenation)


If ethene gas (unsaturated) in mixed with hydrogen and is

heated over a catalyst (nickel), ethane (sa.tuni.ted) is formed .

+
ethene ,

H;

Nl

"'"'"' H-C-C-H

c2 H 11

ethane ,

unsaturated
(double bonds present)

c 2 H6

saturated
(all singie bonds present)

Similarly,

+
propene

propane.

Generally,

Alkene
(unsaturated)

hydrogen

Alkane
(saturated)

-129-

Chemistry !GCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Making Margarine
The molecules of the vegetable oils contain several double
bonds; L e. they are poiywua..:tww..ted~ By reacting them
with hydrogen and a catalyst (nickel), they are made

saturated. This raises the melting point, so the liquid


oil becomes a solid fat - m~ga4Ute. The process is called
~dening

o6 oilh.

Vegetable oil

Ni

hydrogen

catalyst

>

margarine

Large amounts of hydrogen are used in industry for making margarine.


State another large scale use of hydrogen : . _;_ .. _... _.. ____ .. ____ _
[B]

Addition of bromine (Br 2)

J\lkenes reactwith a solution of bromine in water (~q~eoub


bll.oin.Lne) , the red-orange colour of bromine goes colourless.

ethene -

H
C=C-/

""'

H/

bromine

1,2-dibromoethane

--+

H H
I I
H-C-C-H
I I

Br-Br

""'H

Br Br

red,--orange

colourless

colour

)
C 3 ~Br 2

1,2-dibromopropane
Similarly, ethane adds chlorine to form dichluroethane.
Aqueous bromine (bromine ~ater) is used to test for a do~bf.e

bond. It works

~ith

any uMatukated moteeuf.e.

lzo- Row would you show by a chemical test that olive oil is
unsaturated 1

........................... ,. ............................... -....................................... .

-130-

Chem.istry lGCSE

(C]

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Ga!il)

Reaction with steam [Addition of water]

EthanoL is formed in the reaction between.~!en~ nnd bt~m


at high temperature (250C]. A catalyst is used (phosphoric acid].
ethene +

H..._

c.a.:ta.tyb;t )

water
(steam)

/H

C= C
/
'-...

H H

H-0-H

C2H4

ethanol

->

I I
H-C-G-0-H
l l

HH

H 0
2

>

>

C H 0H
2 5

Similarly,
i

C3H6

'

-,

ptop<mol

steam

propene

C H 0H
3 7

Generally,

catalyst

Alkene

water

Alcohol

(steam)

);;. Shtc~ a wcd:e.ll ritaL~cu.t~ hM .b~w add~d to th~ doubL~ bond bt


ill~n~, th~ Jtwc.:Uon .U. caLLed hyciM.:t[on,
The. Jt~v_e.M ~. Jt~c.:Uon, L ~. e.l.-Zm-ln.ation a 6 wcd:e.ll moLe.cu.t~
6Mm illanof. to 6o1Ull dhe.n~ .U. caf.f.~d de.hyciJw.:t.lon.

---::> c 2H 4 +

H 20

ethene
Dehydration can be achieved by :
(a-)

Heating the ethanol with excUb concen:tluLt~d <>u.tphwU..c

acJ.d [dehydrating agent].


{b)

[D]

Passing ethanol vapour over hot ~ o~de.

Reaction with hydrogen chloride gas-

H H
+

HCI

------,)

H -'-C--C- Cl

H H
chloroetnane

ethene

HCt

. ..

-131-

Chemistry I GCSE

E]

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Gatil)

Addition polymerisation [Making plastics)

F'o.tymvt-lb!Ltiott

is the -process in vhich many small molecules

(manam~) join together to ~ake a large molecule

molecule)

(macro-

which is called-pa.tym~.

The polymerisation is done at high-temp~e and pressure


in presence of a

cata!.yJt.

C=C

C=C

-->- ...

C=C

~-~-t-6-d-d ...
I

H- Pi H H H H

ethene
[monomer]
11.6

Pa.ty (ethene)

H H H

poly(ethene)
[polymer]

b-~iI

is used to make plas.tic bags and plastic sheets.

HCIHCIHCl

H,
n

H/

c=c

_,...CI
'H

_____,. .. c-c-c-c-c-c .
H H H H H H

chloroethene
(vinyl chloride)

poly( chloroethene)
(PVC)

Polykh.taJtae.thene) known as PVC is used to make. plastic bottles,


floor tiles, raincoa-ts and electrical wire insulators.

I -Ht
l
CHJ
c_:_c

I. I

propene

H.

poly (propene)

Paly(plwpenel is used to make plastic sheets, electric insulators


and bottles.

Monomer: A small molecule which =n be polymerised (joined together) to make a


polymer.
Poiymer:

A macromolecule (large molecule) made by polymerising (joining


together) ofmonomers.

-132-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Ab9el Galil)

.Examples o{ other addition polymers

Polymer

Monomer
formula/Name
H

I
c=c
I
. \

Name

C 6H 5

poly(phenylethene)
(polystyrene)

formula

f "t
I

..

STYRENE
(PHENYLETHENE)
CN

\
I
c=c
I
\

Poly(acrylonitrile)

+r 'tt
c-c

pacKaging

c-c

c!H5

Uses

Synthetic fibre

ACRYLONITRILE
F

\
I
c=c
\
I

poly{tetrafluroethene)
or PTFE

tf-11
F

non-stick coating
in frying pans

mRAFLUOROETHENE

P.ta.L>.UC-6 :

good

oJi

bad ?

i]QQ!!_t!Q{~
1 Qu.de cheap 1 and eM ;i.y made

2
3.

4.

s.

Ug hte.Jt than me.ta.l


Uwr.ea.c..Uve, . They do no.~ :coMo de .W c0t oiL wa.teJt. Many Me
not a.66ected by .a.cJ:.dl, olr.. a.eJw.Ul,
Vo not conduct hea..t olt dec:tJU.cfty 1 ;,o c.a.n be Med a.o

-Utbu1a.tolt.6

Can be mou:tded.1n.to any .;ha.pe and c.a.n be cowwr.ed.

~!!_t!Q~
P.ta.L>tie-6 ca.lL6e pou.u.ti.on pJr..Ob.tem.; beC1UL6e: 1

2.

They Me d1661c.u1.t .to d1opo1>e o6. P.la..!tic bag!> and Ca.JL.tonl>


do not Jtpt wh.en they Me .tlvr.own a.wa.y 1 1n o.tlvt woJull, 1 they
Me non-:b1odegJUUia.b.te1 1. e. c..a.J1J!.ot .be degltaded by rri..cJtooJt.ga.n-Winl>1 1>owey pau.u.-te the env1Mnment;
When they bwr.n, they aMen pltodu.ce ha.!tm6u.t gMel>: e.g. PVC
give~> o66 6wne.~> o6 hydltogen ch.toJU.de when 1t buJ!Ji6.

. i.'
;.

- 133-

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Gaiil)

.ETHANOL
Making Ethanol for Industry
-1- Hydration ofethene
_
Addition of steam to ethene [obtained by the process of cracking]
at'high temperature in pr~sence of a catalyst [see page 130]
2- Makin<>
ethanol by fermentation:
.
b
FeJutre.IU:ation

~s

the process where sugars (e.g.

vei:ted to ethanol and carbon

d~ox~de

gluco~_e)

by enzymes present

~n

a.re con-:'

yeast:.

-::

The process works best at

Sugar solution
(e.g. glucose)
C6Hli 0 6

37~C.

---,) . ethanol

+ carbon dioxide.

I.t .U, hlrpolda.nt :to plte;.ve.nt aA.Jt 6Jtom. e.n:teJU.ng .the. Ji.~d.t.or~- vv,,; eL,
e.:tlutno.i.c. add wUJ. be. 6oJtme.d.
Ye.a.i>:t -c.an ortl..if pl(.odu.c.e. a .6o.tu.tion c.o~g I 0% e.tfutno.f... k6:teJt :tha:t,
:the. ife.M:t d.i.v, 6Jtom atc.aho.f. po.i.,;ort.{.ng.

o:th~e.

The apparatus below can be used 1:0 ferment glucose

. Air lock allows carbon dioxide


to escape, butpre~ents air getting
in, i.e. allows fermentation under
anaerobic conditions
jar

yeast

glucose.

--1~::;:::::::;::::::~

+
.water

>

What technique is used to concentrate the aqueous ethanol? ... _.. __

Dur~ng
s~nce

a fermentation process,

the reaction is

are also observed.

exotherm~c.

r~se

in temperature is observed

Bubbles of a colourless. gas (C0 )


2

(Dr.FathyAbdel Galil)

- 134-

Chemistry IGCSE

A laboratory experiment to
demonstrate the fermentation:
sugar solution
andyeast -~

limewater

Wine (contains about 10% ethanol) is made by fermenting grape juice.


Beer is made by fermenting malt. Spirits (whisky, brandy, ..} contain about
30% alcohol.
Biotechnology
Microorganisms have been used in some methods of food-making fcit .many
centuries. Today these methods are often referred to as examples of
'biotechnology'. One of the oldest kriown biotechnologies isferm(mtation.
Properties of Ethanol
1. Colourless liq11id. b.p. 78Cjrteutral to litmus.

2. Ethanol burns in air with a blue flame to form C02 and H 2 0 and heat
is given out.

3. Ethanol undergoes dehydra:tion and is converted into ethene when


heated with. concentrated sulphuric acid.

Uses of Ethanol

1. As a: solvent

2. As a fuel

3. In alcoholic drinks

Uses of methanol (toxic)

1. As a solvent

2. As a: fuel

- 135-

Chemistry IGCSE

Ethanoic acid

>

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

H Q'
I II
H-C-C-0-H
I

H
Ethano-ic acid is usually called acetic acid . (from the Latin word for
vinegar -

'acetum'). Vinegar is a 5% solui:;Lon of --.eth~noic acid.

Formation of. Ethanoic Acid from Ethanol


a)

L~xi~~!::!:~:;-~:!,_t:!!_~tmosEheric ~?.'X~:;__:

Vinegar is made by exposing ethanol to the air in the presence of'


bacteria. Ethanol is o~ed to ethanoic acid.

~ ~

H-C-C-0-H
I
I
H H
Wta.noi.

0
II

H-C-C-0-H

e.tha.no.i.c. o.c..i..d

This is another example of 'biotechnolo'gy'.

~~g~1=~g=,;,
Suggest a reasonwhy wine goes 'sour' when .left open in air?

..................................................... .............. ............................................ .


.. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . ........................ ,. ....................... ........................... .
~

b)

Ethanol can b~ ox..Ui..U,ed.much more quickly-iri the laboratory by


_heating it with an.o~.i.ng

agent

such as potah~ium

d.i.c.hAomo.te{VT}

(adllified with sulphuric acid). On heating the colour changes


from

o.lta.n.ge

to. gltee:n.. In other words, when aqueous potassium

dichromate (VI) is

Jteduc.ed,

the colour changes from ..

to ................... .

Generally:
alcohol
[alkanol]'

oxidation
carboxylic ac~d

Oxidation of methanol gives _........... .


Oxidation of propanol gives ............ .

Chemist1y IGCSE

- 136-

(Dr. Fa thy Abdel Galil)

.. :

Et}w.no.i..c. a.c.i..d .i..b a. wea.k. a.c.i..d.


Ethanoic acid (and all carboA-ylic acids) is a weak acid, i.e. partially
ionized in aqueous solution.

~~~~;!;-liH~=,;
The pH value of ethanoic acid is .... ; .
What is the colour produced on adding drop of universal indicator to
ethanoic acid ?

.................... ..................................................... .

Ethano.i..c. a.c.i..d .i..b juJ.:t Uke_ MCJ o.theJt a.c.i..d. It reacts with
* Metals to form a salt + hydrogen

*
*

Bases and alkalis to form a salt


Carbonates to form a salt

+ water

+ water + carbon dioxide

In each case the salt is:c.alled ethanoate.

Examples_:

1>- ethanoic add

+ sodium hydroxide --* sodium ethanoate + water

1>- ethanokacid

+ sodium carbonate --* sodium ethanoate + water + carbon dioxide

However, the reaction of ethanoic acid is slower than of other acids such as hydrochloric acid or
sulphuric acid.
Why? ...... ............................................................................................
);>

Differentiation between ethanol and ethanoic acid

test
);>litmus paper
);> sodium carbo-nate
>potassium dichromate
);>lighted splint

ethanol

ethanoic acid

no colour change
no reaction .
orange -7 green
catches fire

turns red
effervescence -7 C02
no colour change
does not catch fire

Chemistry IGCSE

[Dr. Fathy Abdel Gaiil)

- 137-

Esters:
Organic acids like ethanoic.acid react with alcohols to form
compounds called eh~ in a reaction co~~only called an

organic acid
+
[carboxylic acid]

'

alcohol

ehte4i6ieation.

ester

water

e.tha.no.t is heated with e.tha.no.Lc. a.c..Ld in the presence of .Ou.tphuh.Lc. a.c..Ld as a catalyst, the ester ethy.t etha.noa.e is formed.

When

ethanoic acid +

ethyl ethanoate + water

ethanol

1;0

~ ~

.. -.

+: H;O-C-C-H
\~ .. " .......
I I.
;oH::
H
H

H-C-C

....

0 ,--the ester linkage

1/

H-C+C
I
\

H\

'

H
I

I
'o-+c-c-H + H2o
\..........J I
I

Similarly:
ethanoic acid + methanol

methyl ethanoate + water

Ethylethanoate has a characteristic pleasant smell. Many fruits' smells are


caused by esters. Artificial flavouring are usually mixtures of esters.
The reverse reaction of esterification is called hydroly~is.

j ester + water

--:t

carboxylic acid + alcohol

Fats and Vegetable Oils


Fats and oils are important constituents"of our food. They are
e..6te.Jr..6 ,. i.e contain the ester linkage [::-CQQ;..]

Making Soap (Saponification)

Soa.p

is produced by heating vegetable oils or animal fats with

sodium hydroxide solution (i.e.

alka.tine

Fats I oils +sodium hydroxide

-.-

hy~d.tybib).

soap + glycerol

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

- !38-

Carbohydrates

1-

A family of energy foods including starch and sugars.

2-

These compounds consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen,_ the


hydroge~

and oxygen atoms are present in the sariie ratio as in

wa.ter.

3-

Sugars are carbohydrates which are soluble in water and taste


sweet.

The chemical name for ordinary sugar is .6UCJl0.6e..

LQcto.6e. is the sugar found in milk, and fructose occurs, with

other sugars, in fruit juices. and honey.

CaJtboh!JdN:t;te.6 a.o po.tymeM : [ complex carbohydrates

Starch molecule consists of a long chain of g;Lucose molecules .


Glucose HO--Q-OH (a monomer) can be j6ined by in a l.ong chain
to form starch (a polyl!ler) by condensad.on ]>o.lymerisation.

glucose rolecules .

li

(monomers)

condensation
polymerisation

hydrolyh

-o -c=J- o -c:::J- o --c=J- o- + H2o


starch (polymer)

Ac.JJJ. hyd.Jw.tif.6.U

o6 c.a.JWohydJw.;tu,,

e.g. starch :

.Starch can be hydrolysed into gl.ucose molecul.es by boiling with


dilute hydrochloric acid
starch

hydrochloric acid
boiling

I> glucose (simple sugars)

Chemistry lGCSE

- 139-

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galil)

Proteins
Proteins are natural macromolecules. Amino acids are the monomers from which proteins
are made.
Formation of a p;lrt of protein chain :
When proteins are formed, an amino group from one amino add reacts Vlith the carboxyl
group from another (VIith elimination of water). This-process can continue repeatedly tc
produce long chain (i.e. macromolecule).

II

Ii.

.. .:- ... \
II
H-N-i=t-c<oH.: + ~-H~N-~C-OH
.

..

..

....

amino acid

condensation
polyrner!satlon

protein.

amino ac~d

l1

hydrolysis

II

H-N-c::J-C-N---~- C~OH

~~
amide linkage

The linkage between the amino acids in a protein is called amide (peptide) linkage.
Proteins are broken down by hydrolysis into their ?mino acids. This process. occurs VI hen
protein foods are digested. This needs enzymes (biological catalysts).
)> In laboratory,- proteins can be hydrolysed into their amino acids by heating with dilute
acids (e.g; HCL or HiS04).
!>-- The products of the hydrolysis of proteins and carbohydrates can be separated
and identified by chromatography. The products. are colourless so need
spraying a locating agent to be seen on the chromatogram.
)>
)>

These constituents of food can all be hydrolysed by boiling with acid or alkali.
linkage

consliluent of food
protein

product of hydrolysis

fat
complex
carbohydrate

Complete the table.

[5]

Chemistry IGCSE

(Dr. Fathy Abdel Galli)

- 140-

CONDENSATION POLYMERISATION
Occurs when a small molecule such as ><ate.r is eliminated <1hen
the monomer unlts link together . .

syuthetit Macromolecule~
Polyesters
Polyesters (e.g.

~~ylene,

a man-made

fibre.) are polymers which

contain ester linkages.


Polyesters are formed when

HO-

)(

? ..--c.---....--.
c----[B- c-:mr
+
: .H.P
OH
. ..
. -Q.
.

nylon.,
a.m{.de UnfW.g V>.

Polyamides (e.g.
contain

r:Uo-cl..dl. and cUa.tcofto.U combine together.

Polyamides. are formed when

man~ made

fibre) are polymers which

clia.cl..dl. and cU.am.{_nu, combine together.

H .

........~. I

. .

H
i

(H-;- N-0~N- II

--

H
I _l_
.
c~I22Ld:....C-N-: 0 -N)"

~ II

..

Nylon a.nd i:.eJtyi.R;n.e


Pi!.a.te.<.n a.nd <>i:aJc.c.h

P:W::l

.
CUte

Me

0
.11

. .

H
I

. .

examplV> of, syn.the.ilc ma.c.Jwmotecu.LV>.


na.tu!utt ma.cJr.omo!.ecu.e.u.

ll> What is the difference between addition polymerisq:tlon and condensation


polymerisation?

---------------------------------------------------------------:.--------~; ................... [2]

Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry


Syllabus code 0620

1. Introduction ..................................................................................... 2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Why choose Cambridge?


Why choose Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry?
Cambridge International Certificate of Education (ICE)
How can I find out more?

2. Assessment at a glance .................................................................. 5


3. Syllabus aims and assessment ....................................................... 6
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3. 5
3.6

Aims
Assessment objectives
Scheme of assessment
Weightings
Exam combinations
Conventions

4. Curriculum content ........................................................................ 12


5. Practical assessment. .................................................................... 28
5.1 Paper 4: Coursework
5.2 Paper 5: Practical test
5.3 Paper 6: Alternative to Practical

6. Appendix ....................................................................................... 36
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6. 7
6.8

Grade descriptions
Periodic Table
Notes for use in qualitative analysis
Safety in the laboratory
Glossary of terms
Mathematical requirements
Resource list
Forms

----------------------------------

1.1 Why choose Cambridge?


University of Cambridge International Examinations ICIEJ is the world's largest provider of international
qualifications. Around 1.5 million students from 150 countries enter Cambridge examinations every year.
What makes educators around the world choose Cambridge?

Recognition
Cambridge IGCSE is internationally recognised by schools, universities and employers as equivalent to UK
GCSE. Cambridge IGCSE is excellent preparation for A/AS Level, the Advanced International Certificate of
Education IAICEJ, US Advanced Placement Programme and the International Baccalaureate (I B) Diploma.
Learn more at www.cie.org.ul</recognition.

Support
CIE provides a world-class support service for teachers and exams officers. We offer a wide range of
teacher materials to Centres, plus teacher training (online and face-to-face) and student support materials.
Exams officers can trust in reliable, efficient administration of exams entry and excellent, personal support
from CIE Customer Services. Learn more at www.cie.org.uk/teachers.

Excellence in education
Cambridge qualifications develop successful students. They not only build understanding and knowledge
required for progression, but also learning and thinking skills that help students become independent
learners and equip them for life.

Not-for-profit, part of the University of Cambridge


CIE is part of Cambridge Assessment, a not-for-profit organisation and part of the University of Cambridge.
The needs of teachers and learners are at the core of what we do. CIE invests constantly in improving its
qualifications and services. We draw upon education research in developing our qualifications.

1.2 Why choose Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry?


Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry is accepted by universities and employers as proof of essential chemistry
knowledge and ability. As well as a subject focus, the Chemistry syllabus enables students to:

better understand the technological world in which they live, and take an informed interest in science
and scientific developments

learn about the basic principles of Chemistry through a mix of theoretical and practical studies

develop an understanding of the scientific skills essential for further study at A Level, skills which are
useful in everyday life

learn how science is studied and practised, and become aware that the results of scientific research can
have both good and bad effects on individuals, communities and the environment.

1.3 Cambridge International Certificate of Education (ICE)


Cambridge ICE is the group award of the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSEI.
It requires the study of subjects drawn from the five different IGCSE subject groups. It gives schools the
opportunity to benefit from offering a broad and balanced curriculum by recognising the achievements of
students who pass examinations in at least seven subjects, including two languages, and one subject from
each of the other subject groups.
The Cambridge portfolio of IGCSE qualifications provides a solid foundation for higher level courses such
as GCE A and AS Levels and the International Baccalaureate Diploma as well as excellent preparation for
employment.
A wide range of IGCSE subjects is available and these are grouped into five curriculum areas. Chemistry
falls into Group Ill, Science.

Learn more about ICE at www.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/middlesec/ice.

1.4 How can I find out more?


If you are already a Cambridge Centre
You can make entries for this qualification through your usual channels, e.g. CIE Direct. If you have any
queries, please contact us at international@cie.org.uk.

If you are not a Cambridge Centre


You can find out how your organisation can become a Cambridge Centre. Email us at
international@cie.org.uk. Learn more about the benefits of becoming a Cambridge Centre at
www.cie.org.uk.

Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry


Syllabus code 0620
Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry candidates are awarded grades ranging from A* to G.
Candidates expected to achieve grades D, E, F or G, study the Core Curriculum only and are eligible for
grades C to G.
Candidates expected to achieve grade Cor higher should study the Extended Curriculum, which comprises
the Core and Supplement Curriculums; these candidates are eligible for all grades from A,. to G.
All candidates must enter for three papers.

Paper 4
Coursework
weighted at 20% of total
available marks

Paper 5
1 hour 15 minutes
Practical test
weighted at 20% of total
available marks

1 hour
Paper 6
Alternative to Practical paper
weighted at 20% of total
available marks

Alterations in the syllabus assessment. content and practical assessment sections for 2011 are indicated by
black vertical lines on either side of the text.

3.1 Aims
The aims of the syllabus listed below describe the educational purposes of this examination. The aims of
the syllabus are the same for all students and are not listed in order of priority.
The aims are:

1.

to provide a worthwhile educational experience for all candidates, through well-designed studies of
experimental and practical science, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level

2.

to enable candidates to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to

3.

become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take an informed interest in scientific
matters

recognise both the usefulness and the limitations of scientific method, and appreciate its applicability
in other disciplines and in everyday life

be suitably prepared for studies beyond IGCSE in pure sciences, in applied sciences or in sciencedependent vocational courses

to develop abilities and skills that

are relevant to the study and practice of Chemistry

are useful in everyday life

encourage efficient and safe practice

encourage effective communication

4. to develop attitudes relevant to Chemistry such as

concern for accuracy and precision

objectivity

integrity

enquiry

initiative

inventiveness

5. to stimulate interest in the environment and caring for it


6.

to promote an awareness that

scientific theories and methods have developed, and continue to do so. as a result of co-operative
activities of groups and individuals

the study and practice of science are subject to social. economic. technological, ethical and cultural
influences and limitations

the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community
and the environment

science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously
applied, is universal.

3.2 Assessment objectives


The three assessment objectives in Cambridge lGCSE Chemistry are:

--

Knowledge with understanding

Handling information and problem solving

G Experimental skills and investigations


A description of each assessment objective follows.

A:

Knowledge with understanding

Students should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to


1.

scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts and theories

2.

scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions (including symbols, quantities and units)

3. scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety
4. scientific quantities and their determination
5. scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.
Curriculum content defines the factual material that candidates may be required to recall and explain.
Candidates will also be asked questions which require them to apply this material to unfamiliar contexts and
to apply knowledge from one area of the syllabus to knowledge of a different syllabus area.
Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define. state, describe,
explain or outline (see Glossary ofTerms).

B:

Handling information and problem solving

Students should be able, in words or using other written forms of presentation (i.e. symbolic, graphical and
numerical), to
1.

locate, select. organise and present information from a variety of sources

2.

translate information from one form to another

3.

manipulate numerical and other data

4.

use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences

5.

present reasoned explanations for phenomena, patterns and relationships

6.

make predictions and hypotheses

7.

solve problems, including some of a quantitative nature.

Questions testing these skills may be based on information that is unfamiliar to candidates, requiring them
to apply the principles and concepts from the syllabus to a new situation, in a logical, deductive way.
Questions testing these skills will often begin with one of the following words: predict, suggest, calculate or
determine. (See the Glossary o!Terms.)

C:

Experimental skills and investigations

Students should be able to


1.

know how to use techniques, apparatus and materials (including following a sequence of instructions
where appropriate)

2.

make and record observations, measurements and estimates

3.

interpret and evaluate experimental observations and data

4.

plan investigations, evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements (including the selection of
techniques, apparatus and materials).

3.3 Scheme of assessment


All candidates must enter for three papers: Paper 1; either Paper 2 or Paper 3; and one from Papers 4, 5 or 6.
Candidates who have only studied the Core curriculum, or who are expected to achieve a grade D or below,
should normally be entered for Paper 2.
Candidates who have studied the Extended curriculum, and who are expected to achieve a grade C or
above, should be entered for Paper 3.
All candidates must take a practical paper, chosen from: Paper 4 (Coursework), Paper 5 (Practical Test), or
Paper 6 (Alternative to Practical).

Paper 1

45 minutes
A multiple-choice paper consisting of 40 items of the four-choice type.
This paper will test skills mainly in Assessment objectives A and B.
Questiolrs will be based on the Core curriculum and will be of a difficulty appropriate to grades C to G.
This paper will be weighted at 30% of the final total available marks.

Paper 2

1 hour 15 minutes

Paper 3

1 hour 15 minutes

Written paper consisting of short-answer


and structured questions.

Written paper consisting of short-answer and


structured questions.

Questions will be based on the Core


curriculum and will be of a difficulty
appropriate to grades C to G.

Questions will be based on the Extended curriculum


and will be of a difficulty appropriate to the higher
grades.

Questions will test skills mainly in


Assessment objectives A and B.

Questions will test skills mainly in Assessment


objectives A and B.
A quarter of the marks available will be based on Core
material and the remainder on the Supplement.

80 marks

80 marks

This paper will be weighted at 50% of


the final total available marks.

This paper will be weighted at 50% of the final total


available ~1arks.

1 hour 15 minutes

Paper 4*

Paper 5*

Coursework

Practical Test

Alternative to Practical

School-based
assessment of practical
skills.**

Questions covering
experimental and
observational skills.

Written paper designed to test


familiarity with laboratory based
procedures.

weighted at 20% of the


final total available marks

weighted at 20% of the final


total available marks

weighted at 20% of the final total


available marks

Paper 6*

1 hour

This component tests appropriate skills in assessment Objective C. Candidates will not be required to
use knowledge outside the Core curriculum.

** Teachers may not undertake school-based assessment without the written approval of CIE. This is only
given to teachers who satisfy CIE requirements concerning moderation and who have to undergone
special training in assessment. CIE offers schools in-service training in the form of occasional faceto-face courses held in.countries where there is a need, and also through the CourseworkTraining
Handbook, avail~ble from CIE Publications.

3.4 Weightings
A: Knowledge with understanding

50% (not more than 25% recall}

B: Handling information and problem solving

30%

C: Experimental skills and investigations

20%

Teachers should take note that there is an equal weighting of 50% for skills (including handling information,
problem solving, practical, experimental and investigative skills} and for knowledge and understanding.
Teachers' schemes of work and the sequence of learning activities should reflect this balance, so that the
aims of the syllabus may be met, and the candidates fully prepared for the assessment.

A: Knowledge with understanding

25-30

48-52

47-54

B: Handling information and problem solving

10-15

27-32

26-33

40

20

C: Experimental skills and investigations

10

3.5 Exam combinations


Candidates can combine this syllabus in an exam session with any other CIE syllabus. except:

syllabuses with the same title at the same level

0652 IGCSE Physical Science

0653 IGCSE Combined Sde.nce:

0654 IGCSE Co-ordinated Sciences (Double Award)

5124 0 Level Science (Physics. Chemistry)

5126 0 Level Science (Chemistry, Biology)

5129 0 Level Combined Science

5130 0 Level Additional Combined Science

Please note that IGCSE, Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificates and 0 Level syllabuses are at
the same level.

3.6 Conventions (e.g. signs, symbols, terminology


and nomenclature)
Syllabuses and question papers conform with generally accepted international practice. In particular, the
following documents, published in the UK, should be used as guidelines:
Reports produced by the Association for Science Education lASE):
51 Units, Signs, Symbols and Abbreviations (1981)
Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for use in School Science (1985)
Signs, Symbols and Systematics: The ASE Companion to 16-19 Science (2000).

Litre/dm'
To avoid any confusion concerning the symbol for litre, dm' will be used in place of I or litre.

11

The Curriculum content below is a guide to the areas on which candidates are assessed.
It is important that, throughout this course, teachers should make candidates aware of the relevance of the
concepts studied to everyday life, and to the natural and man-made worlds.
In particular, attention should be drawn to:

the finite life of the world's resources and the need for recycling and conservation

economic considerations in the chemical industry, such as the availability and cost of raw materials and
..
energy

the importance of chemicals in both industry and everyday life.

Specific content has been limited in order to encourage this approach, and to allow flexibility in the design
of teaching programmes. CIE provides schemes of work, which can be found on the CIETeacher Support
website.
Candidates may follow the Core curriculum only or they may follow the Extended curriculum, which includes
both the Core and the Supplement.

Core

Supplement

Describe the states of matter and explain their


interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory

Describe and explain diffusion

Describe evidence for the movement of particles in


gases and liquids (a treatment of Brownian motion is
not required)

Describe dependence of ra<e of diffusion


on molecular mass (treated qualitatively)

2.1 Measurement
Core

Name appropriate apparatus for the measurement


of time, temperature, mass and volume, including
burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders

2.2 (a) Criteria of purity


Core

Supplement

Describe paper chromatography

Interpret simple chromatograms

Interpret simple chromatograms,


including the use of R, values

Identify substances and assess their purity from


melting point and boiling point information

Understand the importance of purity in substances


in everyday life, e.g. foodstuffs and drugs

Outline how chromatography techniques


can be applied to colourless substances
by exposing chromatograms to
substances called locating agents
(knowledge of specific locating agents is
not required)

12

2.2 (b) Methods of purification


Core

Describe methods of purification by the use of a


suitable solvent. filtration. crystallisation, distillation
(including use of fractionating column). (Refer to the
fractional distillation of crude oil in sectioo 14.2 flnd
products of fermentation in section 14.6.)

Suggest suitable purification techniques, given


information about the substances involved

3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table


Core

State the relative charges and approximate relative


masses of protons. neutrons and electrons

Define proton number and nucleon number

Use proton number and the simple structure of


atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table (see
section 9), with special reference to the elements of
proton number 1 to 20

Define isotopes

State the two types of isotopes as being radioactive


and non-radioactive

State one medical and one industrial use of


radioactive isotopes

Describe the build-up of electrons in 'shells' and


understand the significance of the noble gas
electronic structures and of valency electrons (the
ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p
orbitals and in d block elements are not required.)
Note: a copy of the Periodic Table. as shown in the
Appendix, will be available in Papers 1, 2 and 3)

13

3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter


Core

Describe the differences between elements .


mixtures and compounds, and between metals and
non-metals

Describe an alloy, such as brass, as a mixture of


metal with other elements

a-

3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds


Core

Describe the formation of ions by electron loss


or gain
Describe the formation of ionic bonds between
elements from Groups I and VII

3.2 (b) lvlolecules and covalent bonds


Core

Supple.ment

Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in


H,. C~ . H,O, CH, and HC1 as the sharing of pairs of
electrons leading to the noble gas configuration

Describe the formation of ionic bonds


between metallic and non-metallic
elements

Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and


electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent
compounds

Describe the lattice structure of ionic


compounds as a regular arrangement of
alternating positive and negative ions

3.2 (c) lvlacromolecules


Core

Supplement

Describe the giant covalent structures of graphite and


diamond

Relate their structures to the use of graphite as a


lubricant and of diamond in cutting

Describe the electron arrangement in


more complex covalent molecules such
as N 2, C,H,. CH,OH and CO,

Describe the macromolecular structure of


silicon(JV) oxide (silicon dioxide)

3.2 (d) lvletallic bonding

Supplement

-------------- -------------------

14

Describe the similarity in properties


between diamond and silicon(IV) oxide.
related to their structures

Describe metallic bonding as a lattice


of positive ions in a 'sea of electrons'
and use this to describe the electrical
conductivity and malleability of metals

--~--~--------------

Core

Supplement

Use the symbols of the elements and write the


formulae of simple compounds

Deduce the formula of a simple compound from the


relative numbers of atoms present

Determine the formula of an ionic


compound from the charges on the ions
.. present

Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a


model or a diagrammatic representation

Construct equations with state symbols,


including ionic equations

Deduce the balanced equation for


a chemical reaction, given relevant
information

Construct word equations and simple balanced


chemical equations

Define relative atomic mass, A,

Define relative molecular mass, M,, as the sum of


the relative atomic masses (relative formula mass or
M, will be used for ionic compounds)
(Calculations involving reacting masses in simple
proportions may be set. Calculations will not involve
the mole concept.)

4.1 The mole concept

Supplement

Define the mole and the Avogadro

constant

15

Use the molar gas volume, taken as


24 dm 3 at room temperature and pressure

Calculate stoichiometric reacting masses


and volumes of gases and solutions,
solution concentrations expressed
in g/dm' and mol/dm'. (Calculations
involving the idea of limiting reactants
may be set. Questions on the gas laws
and the conversion of gaseous volumes to
different temperatures and pressures will
not be set.)

Calculate empirical formulae and


molecular formulae

Calculate % yield and % purity

Core

Supplement

Relate the products of electrolysis to


the electrolyte and electrodes used,
exempJified by the specific examples in
the Core together with aqueous copper(ll)
sulfate using carbon electrodes and using
copper electrodes (as used in the refining
of copper)

Describe the electrode products in the


electrolysis of:
molten lead(! I) bromide
concentrated hydrochloric acid
concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
between inert electrodes (platinum or carbon)

State the general principle that metals or hydrogen


are formed at the negative electrode (cathode). and
that non-metals (other than hydrogen) are formed at
the positive electrode (anode)

Describe electrolysis in terms of the ions


present and reactions at the electrodes in
the examples given

Predict the products of the electrolysis of a specified


binary compound in the molten state

Describe the electroplating of metals

Predict the products of electrolysis of a


specified halide in dilute or concentrated
aqueous solution

Name the uses of electroplating

Describe, in outline, the manufacture of

Describe the reasons for the use of copper and


(steel-cored) aluminium in cables, and why plastics
and ceramics are used as insulators

aluminium from pure aluminium oxide


in molten cryolite
chlorine and sodium hydroxide from
concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
(Starting materials and essential conditions
should be given but not technical details or
diagrams.)

6. 1 Energetics of a reaction
Core

Supplement

Describe the meaning of exothermic and

endothermic reactions

16

Describe bond breaking as endothermic


and bond forming as exothermic

6.2 Production of energy


Core

Supplement

Describe the production of electrical


energy from simple cells, i.e. two
electrodes in an electrolyte. (This should
be linked with tbereactivity series in
section 10.2 and redox in section 7.3.)

Describe the use of hydrogen as a


potential fuel reacting with oxygen to
generate electricity in a fuel cell (details
of the construction and operation of a fuel
cell are not required)

Describe the production of heat energy by burning


fuels

Describe hydrogen as a fuel

Describe radioactive isotopes, such as


source of energy

235

U, as a

7.1 Speed of reaction


Core

Supplement

Describe the effect of concentration, particle size,


catalysts (including enzymes) and temperature on
the speeds of reactions

Devise a suitable method for investigating


the effect of a given variable on the speed
of a reaction

Describe a practical method for investigating the


speed of a reaction involving gas evolution

Interpret data obtained from experiments


concerned with speed of reaction

Describe the application of the above factors to the


danger of explosive combustion with fine powders
(e.g. flour mills) and gases (e.g. mines)

17

Describe and explain the effects of


temperature and concentration in terms of

collisions between reacting particles

Describe the effect of light on the speed


of reactions

Describe the use of silver salts in


photography as a process of reduction of
silver ions to silver; and photosynthesis as
the reaction between carbon dioxide and
water in the presence of chlorophyll and
sunlight (energy) to produce glucose

'
7.2 Reversible reactions
Core

Supplement

Describe the idea that some chemical reactions can


be reversed by changing the reaction conditions

Predict the effect of changing the


conditions (temperature and pressure) on
other reversible reactions

(Limited to the effects of heat on hydrated salts.


Concept of equilibrium is not required.)

Concept of equilibrium-

7.3 Redox

Supplement

Core
Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen

loss/gain. (Oxidation state limited to its use to name


ions, e.g. iron(! I), iron(III), copper([]), manganate(VIl),
dichromate(Vl) .)

Define redox in terms of electron


transfer

Identify redox reactions by changes


in oxidation state and by the colour
changes involved when using acidified
potassium manganate(VIl), and
potassium iodide. (Recall of equations
involving KMnO, is not required.)

8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases


Core

Supplement

Describe the characteristic properties of acids as


reactions with metals, bases, carbonates and effect

proton transfer, limited to aqueous


solutions

on litmus

Describe the characteristic properties of bases as

Define ac1ds and bases in terms of

reactions with acids and with ammonium salts and

Describe the meaning of weak and


strong acids and bases

effect on litmus

Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity


in terms of pH (whole numbers only) measured using
Universal Indicator paper

Describe and explain the importance of controlling


acidity in soil

8.2 Types of oxides


Core

Supplement

Classify oxides as either acidic or basic, related to

Further classify other oxides as neutral or


amphoteric

metallic and non-metallic character

18

8.3 Preparation of salts


Core

Supplement

Describe the preparation of insoluble


salts by precipitation

Suggest a method of making a given


salt from suitable starting material. given
appropriate information

Describe the preparation, separation and purification


of salts as examples of some of the techniques
specified in section 2.2(b) and the reactions specified
in section 8.1

8.4 Identification of ions and gases


Core

Describe the following tests to identify:

aqueous cations:
aluminium. ammonium. calcium, copper(!!), iron(fl),
iron(lll) and zinc (using aqueous sodium hydroxide
and aqueous ammonia as appropriate) (Formulae of
complex ions are not required.)

anions:
carbonate (by reaction with dilute acid and then
limewater). chloride (by reaction under acidic
conditions with aqueous silver nitrate), iodide (by
reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous silver
nitrate), nitrate (by reduction with aluminium), sulfate
(by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous
barium ions)
gases:

ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon


dioxide (using limewater), chlorine (using damp litmus
paper), hydrogen (using lighted splint). oxygen (using a
glowing splint).

19

Core

Describe the Periodic Table as a method of


classifying elements and its use to predict properties
of elements

9.1 Periodic trends


Core

Supplement

Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic


character across a period

Describe the relationship between Group


number, number of valency electrons and
metallic/non-metallic character

9.2 Group properties


Supplement

Core

Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group


I as a collection of relatively soft metals showing
a trend in melting point, density and reaction with
water

Predict the properties of other elements in Group I,


given data, where appropriate

Describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII as


a collection of diatomic non-metals showing a trend in
colour, and state their reaction with other halide ions
Predict the properties of other elements in Group
VII, given data where appropriate

Identify trends in other Groups, given


information about the elements concerned

9.3 Transition elements


Core

Describe the transition elements as a collection of


metals having high densities, high melting points
and forming coloured compounds, and which, as
elements and compounds, often act as catalysts

fi.4 Noble gases


Core

Describe the noble gases as being unreactive


Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing
an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon in lamps, helium for
filling balloons

---~------

20

10.1 Properties of metals


Core

Describe the general physical and chemical properties of


metals
Explain why metals are often used in the form of alloys
Identify representations of alloys from diagrams of
structure

10.2. Reactivity series


Core

Supplement

Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium,


magnesium, zinc, iron, (hydrogen) and copper, by
reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with

water or steam

Describe the reactivity series as


related to the tendency of a metal to
form its positive ion, illustrated by its
reaction, if any, with
the aqueous ions

dilute hydrochloric acid

the oxides

and the reduction of their oxides with carbon

of the other listed metals

Describe the action of heat on the


hydroxides and nitrates of the listed
metals

Account for the apparent unreactivity


of aluminium in terms of the oxide
layer which adheres to the metal

Deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of


experimental results

10.3 (a) Extraction of metals


Core

Supplement

Describe the ease in obtaining metals from their ores by


relating the elements to the reactivity series

Name the main ore of aluminium as bauxite (see


section 5)
Describe the essential reactions in the extraction of iron
from hematite

Describe the conversion of iron into steel using basic


oxides and oxygen

21

describe in outline, the extraction of


zinc from zinc blende

10.3 (b) Uses of metals


Core

Supplement

Name the uses of aluminium:


in the manufacture of aircraft because of its strength

and for making brass

and low density

in food containers because of its resistance to


corrosion

Describe the idea of changing the properties of iron by


the controlled use of additives to form steel alloys

Name the uses of mild steel (car bodies and machinery)


and stainless steel (chemical plant and cutlery)

Name the uses of zinc for galvanising


Name the uses of copper related to
its properties (electrical wiring and in
cooking utensils)

Supplement

Core

Describe a chemical test for water

Describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply


in terms of filtration and chlorination

Name some of the uses of water in industry and in


the home

Describe'the composition of clean air as being


approximately 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and the
remainder as being a mixture of noble gases, water
vapour and carbon dioxide

Name the common pollutants in the air as being carbon


monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and lead
compounds

State the source of each of these pollutants:


carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion
of carbon-containing substances
sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels
which contain sulfur compounds (leading to 'acid
rain'- see section 13)
oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts

Describe and explain the presence of


oxides of nitrogen in car exhausts and
their catalytic removal

Describe the separation of oxygen and


nitrogen from liquid air by fractional

State the adverse effect of common pollutants on


buildings and on health

distillation

22

Describe methods of rust prevention, specifically paint


and other coatings to exclude oxygen

Describe the need for nitrogen-, phosphorus- and


potassium-containing fertilisers

Describe the displacement of ammonia from its salts

State that carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse


gases and may contribute to climate change

Describe the formation of carbon dioxide:

Describe sacrificial protection in terms


of the reactivity series of metals
and galvanising as a method of rust
prevention

Describe the essential conditions for


the manufacture of ammonia by the
Haber process including the sources
of the hydrogen and nitrogen, i.e.
hydrocarbons or steam and air

Describe the carbon cycle, in simple


terms, to include the processes
of combustion, respiration and
photosynthesis

as a product of complete combustion of carboncontaining substances


as a product of respiration
as a product of the reaction between an acid and a
carbonate

State the sources of methane, including decomposition


of vegetation and waste gases from digestion in animals

Supplement

23

Name some sources of sulfur

Name the use of sulfur in the


manufacture of sulfuric acid

Name the uses of sulfur dioxide


as a bleach in the manufacture of
wood pulp for paper and as a food
preservative (by killing bacteria)

Describe the manufacture of sulfuric


acid by the Contact process, including
essential conditions

Describe the properties of dilute


sulfuric acid as a typical acid

Core

Describe the manufacture of lime (calcium oxide) from


calcium carbonate (limestone) in terms of the chemical
reactions involved

Name some uses of lime and slaked lime as in treating


acidic soil and neutral ising acidic industrial waste
products, e.g. flue gas desulfurisation

Name the uses of calcium carbonate in the manufacture


of iron and of cement

14.1 Names of compounds


Supplement

Core

Name and draw the structures of methane, ethane,


ethanol, ethanoic acid and the products of the reactions
stated in sections 14.4-14.6

State the type of compound present. given a chemical


name ending in -ane. -ene, -ol, or -oic acid, or a molecular
structure

14.2 Fuels
Core

Name the fuels coal, natural gas and petroleum


Name methane as the main constituent of natural gas

Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its


separation into useful fractions by fractional distillation
Name the uses of the fractions as:
refinery gas for bottled gas for heating and cooking
gasoline fraction for fuel (petrol) in cars
naphtha fraction for making chemicals
kerosene/paraffin fraction for jet fuel
diesel oil/gas oil for fuel in diesel engines
fuel oil fraction for fuel for ships and home heating
systems
lubricating fraction for lubricants, waxes and polishes
bitumen for making roads

24

Name and draw the structures of the


unbranched alkanes. alkenes (not cistrans), alcohols and acids containing
up to four carbon atoms per molecule

14.3 Homologous series


Core

Supplement

Describe the general characteristics of


an homologous series

Describe and identify structural

Describe the concept of homologous series as a 'family'


of similar compounds with similar properties due to the
presence of the same functional group

isomerism

14.4 Alkanes
Core

Supplement

Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by


methane) as being generally unreactive, except in terms
of burning

Describe the bonding in alkanes

Describe substitution reactions of


alkanes with chlorine

14.5 Alkenes
Core

Supplement

Describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by


cracking

Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated


hydrocarbons

from molecular structures

by reaction with aqueous bromine

Describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of


addition polymerisation of monomer units

14.6 Alcohols
Core

Describe the formation of ethanol by fermentation and


by the catalytic addition of steam to ethene

Describe the properties of ethanol in terms of burning

Name the uses of ethanol as a solvent and as a fuel

25

Describe the properties of alkenes


in terms of addition reactions with
bromine, hydrogen and steam

14.7 Acids

14.8 Macromolecules

Supplement

Describe the formation of ethanoic acid by the oxidation


of ethanol by fermentation and with acidified potassium
manganate(VII)

Describe ethanoic acid as a typical weak acid

Describe the reaction of ethanoic acid with ethanol to give an


ester (ethyl ethanoatel

Supplement

14.8 (al Synthetic polymers

.,

Describe macromolecules in terms of large molecules built


up from small units (mononomers), different macromolecules
having different units and/or different linkages

Supplement

Name some typical uses of plastics and of man-made fibres

Describe the pollution problems caused by non-biodegradable


plastics

Deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given


alkene and vice versa

Describe the formation of nylon (a polyamide) and Terylene (a


polyester) by condensation polymerisation, the structure of nylon
being represented as:
0

I .

-c~c-~-[]-~-c~c-~-[]-~-c~
H

and the structure of Terylene as:


0

-~~~-o-[]-o-~~~-o-[]-o(Details of manufacture and mechanisms of these


polymerisations are not required.)

26

14.8 (b) Natural macromolecules

Supplement

Name proteins, fats and carbohydrates as the main constituents


of food

Describe proteins as possessing the same (amide) linkages as


nylon but with different units
Describe the structure of proteins as:
H

I
I
I
I
I
-N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C1
I
I
I
R
H
0
R

Describe the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids (Structures


and names are not required.)

Describe fats as esters possessing the same linkage as Tery!ene


but with different units

Describe soap as a product of hydrolysis of fats

Describe complex carbohydrates in terms of a large number of


sugar units, considered as Ho-D-oH, joined together by
condensation polymerisation,
e.g.

---~-

-o-D-o-D-o-D-o-

Describe the acid hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates (e.g.


starch) to give simple sugars

Describe the fermentation of simple sugars to produce ethanol


(and carbon dioxide) (Candidates will not be expected to give
the molecular formulae of sugars.)

Describe, in outline, the usefulness of chromatography


in separating and identifying the product of hydrolysis of
carbohydrates and proteins

-----~

27

6.1 Grade descriptions

The scheme of assessment is intended to encourage positive achievement by all candidates.

relate facts to principles and theories and vice versa

state why particular techniques are preferred for a procedure or operation

select and collate information from a number of sources and present it in a


clear logical form

solve problems in situations which may involve a wide range of variables

process data from a number of sources to identify any patterns or trends

generate a hypothesis to explain facts, or find facts to support a hypothesis

link facts to situations not specified in the syllabus

describe the correct procedure(s) for a multi-stage operation

select a range of information frorn a given source and present it in a clear


logical form

identify patterns or trends in given information

solve a problem involving more than one step, but with a limited range of
variables

generate a hypothesis to explain a given set of facts or data

recall facts contained in the syllabus

indicate the correct procedure for a single operation

select and present a single piece of information from a given source

solve a problem involving one step, or more than one step if structured help is
given

identify a pattern or trend where only minor manipulation of data is needed

recognise which of two given hypotheses explains a set of facts or data

A Grade A
candidate
will be able
to:

A Grade C
candidate
will be able
to:

A Grade F
candidate
will be able

to:

36

6.1 Grade descriptions


The scheme of assessment is intended to encourage positive achievement by all candidates.

relate facts to principles and theories and vice versa

state why particular techniques are preferred for a procedure or operation

select and collate information from a number of sources and present it in a


clear logical form

solve problems in situations which may involve a wide range of variables

process data from a number of sources to identify any patterns or trends

generate a hypothesis to explain facts, or find facts to support a hypothesis

link facts to situations not specified in the syllabus

A Grade A
candidate
will be able
to:

.,
A Grade C
candidate
will be able
to:

A Grade F
candidate
will be able
to:

describe the correct procedure(s) for a multi-stage operation


select a range of information from a given source and present it in a clear
logical form

identify patterns or trends in given information

solve a problem involving more than one step, but with a limited range of
variables

generate a hypothesis to explain a given set of facts or data

recall facts contained in the syllabus

indicate the correct procedure for a single operation


select and present a single piece of information from a given source
solve a problem involving one step, or more than one step if structured help is
given
identify a pattern or trend where only minor manipulation of data is needed
recognise which of two given hypotheses explains a set of facts or data

~-~-----------~----------~-----------

36

---

6.3 Notes for use in qualitative analysis


Tests for anions

carbonate (C0 3''1

add dilute acid

effervescence, carbon dioxide


produced

chloride (CrJ
(in solution}

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add


aqueous silver nitrate

white ppt.

iodide WI
lin solution}

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add


aqueous silver nitrate

yellow ppt.

nitrate (N0 31
[in solution}

add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then


aluminium foil; warm carefully

ammonia produced

sulfate (SO ,'1


[in solution}

acidify, then add aqueous barium nitrate

white ppt.

Tests for aqueous cations

aluminium IAZ'I

white ppt., soluble in excess giving a


colourless solution

ammonium (NH;J

ammonia produced on warming

calcium (Ca''l

white ppt., insoluble in excess

no ppt. or very slight white ppt.

light blue ppt., insoluble in excess

light blue ppt., solub[e in excess,


giving a dark blue solution

green ppt., insoluble in excess

green ppt., insoluble in excess

red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

white ppt., soluble in excess, giving a


colourless solution

white ppt., soluble in excess,


giving a colourless solution

ammonia (NH 3)

turns damp red litmus paper blue

carbon dioxide (C0 2)

turns limewater milky

chlorine (CI,)

bleaches damp litmus paper

hydrogen

'pops' with a lighted splint

oxygen 10,1

relights a glowing splint

38

white ppt., insoluble in excess

6.4 Safety in the laboratory


Responsibility for safety matters rests with Centres. Further information can be found in the following UK
associations. websites, publications and regulations.

Associations
CLEAPSS is an advisory service providing support in practical science and technology, primarily for UK schools.
International schools and post-16 colleges can apply for associate membership which includes access to the
CLEAPSS publications listed below
http:/ /www.cleapss.org.uk

Websites
http:/ /www.chemsoc.org/networks/learnnet/Safety.htm
http://www. ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NCBE/SAFETYI menu.html
http:/ /www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/safety.html

Publications
Safeguards in the School Laboratory, ASE, 11 <h Edition, 2006
Topics in Safety, ASE, 3" Edition, 2001
CLEAPSS Laboratory Handbook, updated 2005 (available to CLEAPSS members only)
CLEAPSS Hazcards, 2005 update of 1995 edition (available to CLEAPSS members only)
Safety in Science Education. DIES, HMSO, 1996
Hazardous Chemicals Manual, SSERC, 1997
Hazardous Chemicals. An interactive manual for science education, SSERC, 2002 (CD)

Ul< Regulations
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSH H) 2002
http:/ /www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2002/20022677.htm, a brief guide may be found at
http:/ /www.hse.gov.uk{pubns/indg136.pdf

39

6.5 Glossary of terms used in science papers


The glossary (which is relevant only to Science subjects) will prove helpful to candidates as a guide. but it is
neither exhaustive nor definitive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief, not only with respect to the
number of terms included, but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should appreciate that
the meaning of a term must depend, in part, on its context.
1.

Define (the term(s) ... I is intended literally, only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being
required.

2.

What do you understand by/What is meant by (the term lsi .. I normally implies that a definition should
be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned,
especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary
comment intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value.

3.

State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument (e.g. a numerical answer that can
readily be obtained 'by inspection').

4.

List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given
number of points is specified this should not be exceeded.

5.

Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context.

6.

Describe requires the candidate to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points
of the topic. It is often used with reference either to particular phenomena or to particular experiments.
In the former instance, the term usually implies that the answer should include reference to (visual)
observations associated with the phenomena.
In other contexts, describe should be interpreted more generally (i.e. the candidate has greater
discretion about the nature and the organisation of the material to be included in the answer). Describe
and explain may be coupled, as may state and explain.

7.

Discuss requires the candidate to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic.

8.

Outline implies brevity (i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials).

9.

Predict implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by
making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given
in the question or may depend on answers extracted in an earlier part of the question.
Predict also implies a concise answer with no supporting statement required.

10. Deduce is used in a similar way to predict except that some supporting statement is required,
e.g. reference to a law or principle, or the necessary reasoning is to be included in the answer.
11. Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer (e.g. in
Chemistry, two or more substances may satisfy the given conditions describing an 'unknown'), or to
imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge of the subject to a 'novel' situation,
one that may be formally 'not in the syllabus'- rnany data response and problem solving questions are
of this type.
12. Find is a general term that may variously be interpreted as calculate, measure, determine, etc.

40

13. Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown, especially
where two or more steps are involved.
14. Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring
instrument (e.g. length, using a rule, or mass, using a balance).
15. Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained
by, calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula
e.g. relative molecular mass.

16. Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned,
making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about points of principle and about the
values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.
17. Sketch. when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be
qualitatively correct, but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context. some quantitative
aspects may be looked for (e.g. passing through the origin, having an intercept).
In diagrams, sketch implies that simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care should be
taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details.

41

6.6 Mathematical requirements


Calculators may be used in all parts of the examination.
Candidates should be able to:

add .._subtract, multiply and divide


use averages, decimals, fractions, percentages, ratios and reciprocals
recognise and use standard notation
use direct and inverse proportion

use positive, whole number indices

draw charts and graphs from given data


interpret charts and graphs

select suitable scales and axes for graphs

make approximate evaluations of numerical expressions


recognise and use the relationship between length, surface area and volume and their units on metric
scales

use usual mathematical instruments (ruler, compasses, protractor, set square)

understand the meaning of angle, curve, circle, radius, diameter, square, parallelogram, rectangle and
diagonal

solve equations of the form x = yz for any one term when the other two are known.

42

.J

'

'

The Periodic Table of the Elements


Group
I

II

Ill

IV

VI

VII

He
Heiiun1

Hydrogen

1
7

11

Li

Be

Beryllrum

Lrthrunl

,.

Boron

12

14

16

19

20

Ne

Nrtrogen

Carbon

'G

Oxvgcn

No~

fluonnu

10

23

24

27

28

31

32

35.5

40

Na

Mg

A/

Si

C/

Ar

Aluminium

Srflcon

Sod rum

lvld(l<lf!SIUm

11

12

13

"

39

Ca

C~ICrum

Potassrum

19

45

48

51

52

55

56

59

59

64

65

70

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Scandium

20

Titamum

22

21

Vanadrurn

23

Chromium

24

85

88

89

91

93

96

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Mo

Rubrdium

37

Yttrium

Strontium

38

Zircomum

39

Nrobium

41

40

Iron

Manganese

26

25

Tc

Molybdenum Technetium
42
43

I,Jrc~el

Cobalt

28

27

Znc

Copper

29

Gallrurll

31

30

101

103

106

108

112

115

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Ruthenium
44
190

Rhodium

45

Palladium

46

Silver

Cadmium

48

47

"

Sulfur

16

Argcn

Chlounc

18

17

73

75

79

80

84

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Gerrnar.,um
32
119

Arsemc

33

Krypton

36

35

122

128

127

131

Sb

Te

Xe

Antimony

';;n

51

50

Bromme

Selenli.Bll

34

Sn

tndrun1

49

Phosphorus

15

Xenon

lod'na

Teilunum

52

54

53

133

137

139

178

181

184

186

192

195

197

201

204

207

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

lr

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

c~esrum

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

Tantalum

Tun(!sten

Rhenium

Osmum

l<idum

Plahnum

Gold

Mercury

Thallium

Lead

Bsmulh

Polonum

A.stat"'~

Radl>'1

-7

56

55

Fr
froncum

87

ss-71

72

226

227

Ra

Ac

Radum

73

76

75

74

78

77

79

80

81

209

83

82

"

86

85

actmum

88

89

Lanthanoid series

t90-1 03 Actinoid series

Key0

140

141

144

Ce

Pr

Nd

Cerium

PraseO<jy<'ltum

58

a = relat1vei.l tomic rn<.lss

X= atomic symbol
b =proton (atomic) number 90

Neodymium

60

59
232

Pm
Promethum

150

152

157

159

163

165

167

169

173

175

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Samanum

62

61

Europum

63

Tmb<um

GadolllliUm

64

65

Dysp<osium

66

Hoi mourn

Erb1um

68

67

Thuhum

Luleuum

Yumbium

71

70

69

238

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bl<

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Thorium

PrO!OCII!liUffi

Uranum

Neptumum

PlutOnium

Ameutum

Cunum

Berkelium

Calfornoum

Ensteu11um

Ferm1um

Mendelov1um

~lobelium

Lawrencoum

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24 dm 3 at room temperature and pressure {r.t.p.)

101

102

---'--

103

CHEMISTRY 0620 IGC0to ZUlu

NOTES FOR USE IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS


Tests for anions
anion

test

test result

carbonate (CO 3 '-)

add dilute acid

effervescence,
carbon dioxide produced

chloride (CZ-)
[in solution]

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add


aqueous silve~ nitrate

white ppt.

iodide (J)
[in solution]

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add


aqueous silver nitrate

yellow ppt.

nitrate (NO,l
[in solution]

add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then


aluminium foil; warm carefully

ammonia produced

sulfate (SO/l
[in solution]

~cidify,

white ppt.

then add aqueous barium nitrate

Tests for aqueous cations


cation

effect of aqueous sodium hydroxide

effect of aqueous ammonia

aluminium (A1 3')

white ppt., soluble in excess giving a


colourless solution

white ppt., insoluble in excess

ammonium (NH;)

ammonia produced on warming

calcium (Ca2 ')

white ppt., insoluble in excess

no ppt. or very slight white ppt.

copper (Cu')

light blue ppt., insoluble in excess

light blue ppt., soluble in excess,


giving a dark blue solution

green ppt., insoluble in excess

green ppt., insoluble in excess

iron(I!I) (Fe 3)

red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess

zinc (Zn')

white ppt., soluble in excess,


giving a colourless solution

white ppt., soluble in excess,


giving a colourless solution

iron(II) (Fe

')

Tests for gases


gas

test and test result

ammonia (NH3 )

turns damp red litmus paper blue

carbon dioxide (C0 2 )

turns limewater milky

chlorine ( C 12 )

bleaches damp litmus paper

hydrogen (Hz)

'pops' with a lighted splint

oxygen (0 2 )

relights a glowing splint