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-

(--
)
- himanshu.pota@gmail.com
December 27, 2014
Abstract
With a little help from Panini, a method is proposed that makes it easier to remember a couple of
hundred -tables than one simple -table. The process is entirely mechanical and is based on
going through a few simple steps repeatedly. To speak or write in a new language, one needs a small but
sufficiently large subset of the language at ones command. Doing one -table at a time, forgetting it,
and then doing it again, is a never ending process that all the Sanskrit learners know well. This limitation
can be overcome by mastering a large subset of the language rapidly. Sanskrit learners are very fortunate
that Panini has made it possible to bite, chew, swallow, and digest a huge chunk of Sanskrit language in

one go. Please try this method and if you dont succeed, then in the words of ,

,

Introduction
The motivation to write this note has been provided by the small booklet: - ( - . Pundits who know
- ), , , ,
Paninis Ashtadhyayi understand what means and the method of learning Ashtadhayayi. For
someone trying to enter the Panini system on their own, unless the motivation is clear, the entry becomes
difficult. This note is to help students who know a little Sanskrit and want to understand the Panini system.
This note is also helpful if one wants to memorise the -tables quickly with a near perfect recall.
My understanding of Panini is only through the following three excellent books from Sri Aurobindo
Ashrama.
- .
1. , , , ,
-
2. - (-- ), , , ,
.
- , .
3. , , , ,
I am a beginner and this note is to share with other beginners the idea that even with a little effort one can
go very far, and having tasted a bit of Panini one can continue to enjoy the beauty of the Sanskrit language.

This note tries to give a simple description of what Panini was up to. Panini first collected all the Sanskrit
words in use, then prepared three lists of (raw) words, , and (with a few thousand
words)and then made about 4000 rules to derive all the Sanskrit words (numbering in hundred of thousands), starting from the three lists of raw words.

To understand or benefit from - it is crucial that the process followed by Panini is understood
well. First were the millions of Sanskrit words, Panini observed them and then saw some patterns and used

The Beginning

those patterns to formulate the 4000 rules. To learn and appreciate Panini one must observe Sanskrit words
first, try to identify patterns, and make rules to derive the words. These rules can then be compared with the
rules made by Panini to do the same derivation. It is very likely that one would come up with a few rules that
are identical to the rules made by Panini and this will open up the mind to soak in the rest of Panini. This
simple exercise will give an insight into the overall motivation and the philosophy behind -
and from then on the learning journey will be a joy. Let us start on that journey.

Fortunate for us beginners, we dont have to observe millions of Sanskrit words to understand the
philosophy, there are smaller groups of words that have sufficient variety to enable us to develop our observation powers and need only a small subset of the 4000 rules to complete the derivation process. We begin
with a group of noun words which are divided into 25 subgroups. The collection of the -tables of these
25 subgroups is the starting point. We observe the character of these tables and then explore the making of
the rules to derive these -tables starting from raw words. Let the beginner observe the tables, as Panini
would have done, make rules on their own, and then compare it with how Panini has done it. Who knows
some beginners might go on to better Panini!
The -tables in this document are given for one entry in each of the 25 subgroups in the list below. All

the words in a subgroup follow the same set of rules, i.e., to obtain tables for , , , and only
one set of rules is necessary.
, ,
stand for , ,
, respectively. Some links in this
Abbreviations ,
document link to the tables in the document itself (in most pdf browsers, Alt + left-arrow can be used to go
back); there are some links to very helpful external websites as well.
)
Name, , ,
() (
)
Birth, , , , ,
() (

() () Water,
Curd, ,
() ()

Honey, , , , , ,
() ()
World, , , , ,
() ( )
)
Mind, , , , ,
() (

,
,
Light, ,

() ()
Fruit, , ,
, ,

() ()

Victorious, , ,
() ()

Wise, ,
() ( )
, , ,
() ( ) River, , , ,
)
Eating One, , , , ,
() (

()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()
()

)
Wise, , , ,
(
Ram, , , ,
()
() Creeper, , , ,
Sun, , , , ,
()
() Idea, , , , ,
() River, , , , ,
, ,
Saint, , ,
()
() Cow, , ,
() Bride, ,
Father, , ,
()
Doer, , , ,
()
)
Self, , ,
(

The Beginning
Now we will briefly have a look on how to observe -tables and what are the normal patterns. We will
first consider a simple example to concentrate on the elementary process of putting a raw word and suffixes

holds
to form new words.
the same place in learning - as held by hello world in learning

software programming languages. So let us start with

The First Task

3
( )
Good Calculator

eans one who can count well. When we use


m
i n a sentence, we have to use an appropriate form

-table. For example,


(One who counts well goes)
(He is looking at
from the


the one who counts well)
(She is talking with the one who counts well)

(Salutations to the one who counts well)


(Bring a paper from the one who counts well)
(There are many qualities

(This is the paper of the one who counts well)



in the one who counts well) The seven cases used here are called the nominative, accusative, instrumental,
dative, ablative, possessive, and locative respectively. These cases are used in most languages but because
the words dont change their form as they change in Sanskrit, these cases go unobserved. Also prepositions
are used in modern languages to indicate different cases instead of modifying the word itself as is seen in

-table.
the 24 forms in the

The First Task

-table
Let us start as Panini would have started. He had the
(and other tables as we will see as we go) and

-table
his first task was to find the minimum set of rules that will generate the
starting from the raw word
ut of the

. To get started Panini would have taken


o
-table

and made a table of what remains


and given a rule such as: take the raw word, join each of the 24 suffixes shown in the -table to the
raw word, and get the -table for that raw word. From the -table use the suffixes on the right
side of . Please note that a t the end of a word changes to a visarga and no Sanskrit word can have two
b ecomes
b ecomes
+

+
. Panini might have as well
consonants at the end, i.e.,
and
dropped in -, but as we will see, this form of the suffix has many uses.
The terms on the left side of the are the names of the suffixes and the terms of the right side are the
actual suffixes as they are applied. The reason why the name is different from the final form is one of the
interesting contributions of Panini. The purpose of this short write-up is to encourage you to discover this
interesting contribution for yourself.

The Second Task

Three terms are used in describing the application of the 21 in the above table: , , and,

is called a ; the word before the following


| The thing (called ) before the

, , , ,
,
,
, which start with a vowel,

are called and for

are called ; for and the five

and are called .

The terms , , and, are created by Panini because it is easy to identify patterns based on these

groupings of the 21 |
Please keep these groupings in mind as you work through remembering the
-tables.

The Second Task

After the first elegant rule was formed, Panini would have looked at another table, such as the -table
and

wondered how the first-cut -table, as shown below, using the rule proposed above, can be modified to

get the right -table.


(First
Cut)


Before we see Paninis solution let us observe the difference between the table one would obtain by using

the first rule, as shown above, and the actual -table.


There are multiple forms in five cells (1.2, 2.2. 7.1,
8.1, 8.1) and for our initial discussion we will concentrate only on the first form in each of these five cells.
The notation used for each cell is n.m, where n 1, . . . , 7 (corresponding to ... ), and m 1, 2, 3
(corresponding to singular, dual, and plural).

A few differences between the first cut -table


and the correct -table
are:

1. Starting from the 1.1 entry (instead of ), the entries in 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 are very different.
is
missing in 1.2, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.2.
2. The in the of
is
missing in 1.1, 2.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 7.3.
3. The last of
With these observations we form three sets of cells called An , Bn , and Cn , where,
An = {1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3},
Bn = {1.2, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.2}, and
Cn = {1.1, 2.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 7.3}.

Based on our observations we can now make the following rules:

)-table.
1. Modify cells in An of the -table
with the corresponding cells in the
(

2. Drop in the of for cells in Bn and then add the corresponding entries in the -table.
for
cells in Cn and then add the corresponding entries in the -table.

3. Drop of

Apply all the three rules above and see if you can get the correct -table
below.

Your Task

5
)
Name
() (

- -

)
(

()

()





The Third Task

Let us look at the -table


and observe that the only difference between the -table
and the -table

is that the in the of is never dropped. This can be brought in as a simple rule: Do not drop in
, and apply all the other rules that were used to form the -table.

the of
) appears in various cells. Is there someFollowing on, let us look at the -table, and we observe that a (
thing common to the suffixes in those cells? What rule can we make from there?

)
Birth
() (

Your Task

Water
() ()

1. Memorise the -table.


Recite the correct table 2-3 times loudly, if possible in a rhythm.
2. Get a new 64-page exercise book. Reserve two pages for each of the following tables (one from each
item in the following list).

3. Using the raw word and the -table,


write down the First Cut table.
4. Copy the correct table on that page below the First Cut table.
5. Highlight the cell entries that are different between the two tables and identify if there is a pattern
among the entries that differ.

6. Suggest rules to obtain the tables using the raw word + -table.
7. By observing the difference in tables try to memorise all the 25 tables.

Your Task

6
Curd
() ()


-

Honey
() ()


World
() ( )

)
Mind
() (

)
Light
() (

Fruit
() ()

Victorious
() ( )

Intelligent
() ( )

Your Task

7
() ( ) River

The Eating One


() ( )

)
Wise
() (

Ram
() ()

() () Creeper

Sun
() ()





() () Idea


-
-
-





() () River

Your Task

8
Saint
() ()

() () Cow

-
-





() () Bride

Father
() ()

Doer
() ()

)
Self
() (

The sutras used to derive the above tables are given below. The red part in the sutras is the The sutras
below provide only hints on their applicability. After you memorise the above 25 tables use the following
sutras to consolidate the memorised material.

A full derivation normally uses multiple sutras; to see this process please see books like ,
- , or visit http://lanover.com/lan/sanskrit/
, , ,
subanta.html that can be used to obtain a complete derivation of the entire -table. The site http://
avg-sanskrit.org/documents/ has many documents which have complete derivations of many words.
(1)

7-1-23

words for the {1.1} and {2.1} forms.


Sutra (1) is used to derive: , , , , and other
(2)


6-1-68

Sutra (2) is used to derive: , , , , , , , , a nd other words for the {1.1} (


) form.
(3)

1-2-41

called
Sutra (3) says that a with only one letter like is
(4)

6-4-8

words by
Sutra (4) is used to derive: , , , , Once a i s inserted for
sutra (53) in {1.3} and {2.3} positions, sutra (4) instructs to make the of the resulting word long and so
we get , , , , and
(5)

6-4-12

nless the following


Sutra (5) prevents (due to (4)) for words ending in a nd words a nd u

is the for
(6)

6-4-13

hen the following


Sutra (6) instructs to have for words ending in a nd words a nd w
is |
Thus Sutra (6) is used to derive: from +
(7)

7-1-94

Sutra (7) is used to derive: ; sutra (7) brings in as an for and then sutra (4) make the
thus getting the form and
(8)

6-4-11

10

Sutra (8) is used to derive: | Sutra (8) is to make for all the words listed in the
sutra for all the positions while sutra (7) works only for {1.1}.
(9)

6-4-14

), (

Sutra (9) is used to derive: ( -


- ),
it applied to {1.1} only. Remember

that i s both a nd ; i s b ut not so sutra (9) does not apply to t hus but


7-1-70
(10)
Sutra (10) is used to derive: , , , , , , ,
8-2-23
(11)

Sutra (11) is used to derive:

7-1-24

(12)
Sutra (12) is used to derive:
(13) 6-1-107

Sutra (13) is used to derive:
1-3-4

(14)
7-3-110
(15)
Sutra (15) is used to derive:


(16)
8-3-59

Sutra (16) is used to derive:


6-4-134
(17)
Sutra (17) is used to derive:
6-4-137
(18)
, because of b efore
Sutra (18) stops the dropping of in,
(19) 7-3-120

Sutra (19) is used to derive:


(20) 1-4-7

7-1-75
(21)

11

Sutra (21) tells that the final vowel in the words , , , and is replaced by from
{3.1}
onwards when the starts with a vowel. This means that these -words take forms like the

words from {3.1} onwards; remember that the final disappears


for {3.2, 3.3, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 7.3}
(22) 7-1-12
Sutra (22) is used to derive:
7-3-105
(23)
Sutra (23) is used to derive:
7-1-73
(24)





Sutra (24) is used to derive:

7-3-111
(25)
Sutra (25) is used to derive:
(26) 7-3-113
Sutra (26) is used to derive:
(27) 7-3-112
Sutra (27) is used to derive:
(28) 1-4-3
Sutra (28) is a definition () sutra and says that the words that end in either or or are given
, some examples:
(29) 1-4-6
6-1-90
(30)
Sutra (30) is used to derive:
(31) 7-1-13
Sutra (31) is used to derive:
7-3-102
(32)
Sutra (32) is used to derive:
(33) 6-1-110


Sutra (33) is used to derive:
6-1-111
(34)
Sutra (34) is used to derive:

8-2-24
(35)
Sutra (35) is used to derive:
(36) 7-3-116

Sutra (36) is used to derive:

7-3-119
(37)
Sutra (37) is used to derive:
(38) 2-3-47
Sutra (38) that in the sense of , is used.
8-2-8
(39)
Sutra (39) is used to derive: ,
2-3-49
(40)
and it says in , is called
Sutra (40) is the definition of
6-1-69
(41)
Sutra (41) is used to derive:
7-3-108
(42)
Sutra (42) is used to derive:
7-3-106
(43)
Sutra (43) is used to derive:
(44) 7-3-107
Sutra (44) is used to derive: , , , ,
7-1-19

(45)

Sutra (45) is used to derive:


(46) 7-1-18

12

13

Sutra (46) is used to derive:


6-1-102

(47)
Sutra (47) is used to derive:
7-3-104
(48)
Sutra (48) is used to derive:


6-1-105
(49)
Sutra (49) stops the application of sutra (47) and results in says that this is not significant
for as sutra (47) would have given the same final result but there are situations where this sutra (49) is
needed. In the derivation of it is normally included to ensure that the right process is being followed.
7-3-109
(50)
Sutra (50) is used to derive:
7-1-20

(51)
are
replaced by
,
Sutra (51) tells that for
1-1-42
(52)
Sutra 1-1-42 that is also called
7-1-72

(53)
r ) in {1.3} and {2.3}; i ncludes
words (that end in o
It is due to sutra (53) that is seen for all

the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th consonants of each (, , , , and ), and includes
all the vowels.
(54) 6-4-10
Sutra (54) is used to derive:

8-3-58
(55)

here changes

Sutra 8-3-58 is a part of the w


to

6-1-103
(56)

Sutra (56) is used to derive:

8-2-7
(57)



Sutra (57) is used to derive:

(58)
7-1-9

14

Sutra (58) is used to derive:



7-3-103
(59)
Sutra (59) is used to derive:
(60) 7-1-54
Sutra (60) applies to all the words with a vowel ending and makes the effective {6.3} for the vowel
ending words as i nstead Sutra (60) is used to derive: , , , , , ,
| After sutra (60), sutra (61) is applied to the words with the endings to get the final
, ,
form.
(61) 6-4-3

Sutra (61) is used to derive: , , , , ,
8-3-16

(62)
Sutra (62) is used to derive:
(63) 7-1-17
Sutra (63) is used to derive:
(64) 7-1-14
Sutra (64) is used to derive:
(65) 7-1-15


Sutra (65) is used to derive:

7-1-52
(66)
Sutra (66) is used to derive:
(67) 7-3-114
Sutra (67) is used to derive:
7-2-102
(68)
Sutra (68) changes the last letter of , , , , , , and to
(69) 7-2-106
Sutra (69) is used to derive:
1-1-63
(70)


Sutra (70) is used to derive:
(71) 7-2-103
Sutra (71) says that b ecomes for the purposes of obtaining the -tables.
(72) 7-1-53
Sutra (72) is used to derive:
(73) 7-2-99

Sutra (73) is used to derive:
(74) 7-2-100

Sutra (74) is used to derive:
(75) 6-4-4
Sutra (75) is used to derive: ,
(76) 7-1-98
Sutra (76) is used to derive:
7-1-55
(77)



Sutra (77) is used to derive:
(78) 7-1-22
Sutra (78) is used to derive:
(79) 6-4-7


Sutra (79) is used to derive:

15


188 More

16

188 More

Like You
() ()

Protector of the Universe


() ()





Husband
() ()

Friend
() ()

Eye
() ()

Clean
() ()

-

-


-
-

-
-

Great Intelligence
() ()

()
Intelligence
()


188 More

() () Prosperity


-

-

17

() () Woman





Friend
() ()

Many
() ()


-

-

- -
-
-
-

Brahma
() ()

() () Earth




Man
() ()





() () Sister


188 More

18

() () Mother

Giver
() ()

-

-

-

-
-
- -
-

Wealth
() ()

Cow
() ()

Moon
() ()

() () Boat

)
East
() (

)
(
Cloud
()


188 More

19

() ()
Speech


-

)
(
Praiseworthy
()

)
Trader
() (


-
Sovereign
() ( )


-
Priest
() ( )

() ( ) Garland

)
Saffron
() (


() () Lizard

Wind
() ( )


188 More

20

World
() ( )




The Giving One
() ( )

-
-


The Troubling One
() ( )



-
-


The Cooking One
() ( )




Great
() ( )



-
Tooth
() ( )

Great
() ( )

() () Winter

Foot
() ()

Heart
() ()




()
Kind-hearted
()


188 More

21

() ( ) Firewood



-

() ( ) Hunger

)
King
() (



)
Indra
() (



)
Indra
() (




)
Youth
() (

Dog
() ( )

Horse
() ( )


188 More

22

)
Head
() (

)
Smaller
() (

)
Greatness
() (

)
Temporary
() (

With Good Qualities


()
(

)
Traveller
() (

)
Day
() (

)
Imminent
() (


188 More

23

() ()
Water

() ( ) City

() ()
Splendour

() ( ) Sky

Pond
() ( )

() ( ) Voice

() ( ) Direction

House
() ( )


188 More

24

Like You
() ( )

Like You
() ( )



() ( ) Night

-
-

-
-

- -

-
-

-
-

-
-

--
-

Like That
() ( )



-
)

Very Lustrous
()
(

)
Dislike
() (

() ()
Rain

)
Learned
() (



)
Younger
() (


188 More

25

() ()
Fairy

)
Brahma
() (

)
Moon
() (

)
Month
() (

)
Better
() (

)
Person
(
()

)
Arm
() (

() ()
Light


188 More

26

() ()
Wish

)
Oblation
() (



)
(
Body
()




)
Standing
() (


Licking
() ()

() () Shoe

Lotus
() ()

()


()




-
-


188 More

27

That
() ( )




() ( ) That

That
() ( )

This
() ( )

-
-

() ( ) This

- -
-
-

This
() ( )

- -
-


-



-
-

This
() ( )

-
-

-
-

() () This

-
-
-


-
-

This
() ()

- - -

-
)
That
() (


188 More

28

() ()
This

)
This
() (

Who
() ( )




() () Who

Who
() ()

What
() ( )

() ( ) What


What
() ( )

All
() ()

() () All


188 More

29

All
() ()

You
() ( )

() ( ) You



You
() ( )

Another
() ( )

() ( ) Another

Other
() ( )

Before
() ()




-




-

() () Before

Before
() ()


188 More

30

Other
() ( )




() ( ) Other




Other
() ( )

() () Both

Both
() ()

, )

() -- (,




() () One

() () Two




() () Three


188 More
() ( ) Four





-
,

, )
5-6-7
() -
(

,
, )
8-9-10
() -
-
(

() --
( ) 20-30-40

31

() --
() 50-60-70

-
-

- -

- -

-
-

80-90-100
() - (), ( )


-
-

- -

- -

-
-

( 103 ), ( 104 ), ( 105 ), ( 106 ),


() (107 ), ( 108 ), ( 109 ), ( 1010 ),
(1013 ), ()

(1011 ), (1012 ), ()
14
15
16
17
(10 ), ( 10 ), ( 10 ), ( 10 )|
Descendant of Ishvaku
() ()

----
A name
() ()


188 More

32

Descendant of Uduloman
() ()




----

Jackal
() ()

-

-

-

-
-

-
-

Frog
() ()

A Name
() ()

Warrior
() ()

Swift Antelope
() ()

() () Old Age

-
-
-

-

-

-
-
-

-
-

-

--

Ageless
() ()

-
-
-
-
- -

Eastern
() ( )


188 More
)
Western
() (




)
Northern
() (




)
Following
() (




)
Horizontally
() (

)
Bright
() (

33

)
(
Sage
()

)
(
United
()


()
Having Good Feet
()



)
Sun
() (

)
Indra
() (


188 More

34

)
Summer
() (

)
Horse
() (

)
(
Indra
()

)
Shukaacharya
() (

--


)
Time
() (

Sustainer of the Universe


() ()

Indra
() ()

One who Milks


() ()





One who bears hatred
() ()





-
-

-

-



188 More

35

-

Ox
() ()

() ( ) Door

() ()
Flame

() ()
Companion

() () A Metre

)
Eastern
() (




-
)
Western
() (




-
)
Following
() (




-
)
Northern
() (


188 More

36

)
Horizontal
() (




-
)
Eastern
() (




-
)
Western
() (




-
)
Following
() (




-
)
Northern
() (

)
Horizontal
() (




-
One who Milks
() ()





-
One who bears hatred
() ()

-


-
One with a good Ox
() ()

God
() ()

-
-

-
-

-
-
-

-
-

-

-

Word Index

37

Word Index
In the list below the first 25 words are in the order in which they are listed in the --
book. After that words with regular declension are organised in the Devanagari alphabetical order with
respect to their endings; this is followed by pronouns and then words for numbers; finally special words are
listed as per the book. Remember, in most pdf viewers Alt + left-arrow takes back after visiting
a link. The number to the left of the words is its -table number.
The words and comments in the list below are taken from various sources; mainly from the two books:
-
and .
Name, , ,
() ( )

, ,
Birth, , ,
() ()

, , ,

() () Water, except the following four, , , , and


have the
, all
same declension as
Curd, , , and
() ()

Honey, , , ,
() ()
, , , , ,
World
() ( )
Mind, , ,
() ()

, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,


,
Light,
,
() ()

,
-
,

,
Fruit, , ,
() ()
,
, , , , , ,
,

, , , , ,

Victorious
() ( )

Intelligent,
() ()
,
, ,
, , ,

, , , , ,

, ;
,
,

, ,
,
,

() () River, , ,

, ,
The Eating One,
() ()
, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
, ,
Wise,
() ()

, , , , ,
, ,
, , ,

; , ,
,
Ram, , , ,
() ()
,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
,
() () Creeper, , ,

, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
Sun, , , , ,
() ()
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , ,

, , , , ,
, , , ,
,
,
() () Idea, , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , ; ,
, , etc., have two forms in
the singular of , , , and

() () River, , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
Saint, , , ,
() ()
, ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
() () Cow, , , , ,
,
() () Bride, , , , ,

,
Father, , , ,
() ()

Doer, , , , ,
() ()
, , , , , ,


, ,
, , , ,



Self, , ,
() ()

,
, ,
Like You, ,
() ()
, , ,
Protector of the
() ()
Universe, , , , ,
,
Husband; and
() ()
are irregular bases in . The
compound words ending with
however are declined like , e.g.,
, , ,
Friend
() ()
Eye
() ()
Clean, for
() ()
adjectives,
and
the corresponding forms
are used in , , , and

Great Intelligence
() ()
()
,
Intelligence,
()

,
, ,
() () Prosperity;
- - , , ,
, , ,

Word Index

------



() () Woman
Friend
() ()

() () Many, , , ,

Brahma, ,
,
() ()

() () Earth
Man
() ()
() () Sister
() () Mother, ,
Giver; , , ,
() ()
, , etc., are used as adjectives and so they take forms in all

three genders, here the
forms are given.
Wealth
() ()
Cow;
() ()
and words decline
like the () and
() forms, respectively;


Moon
() ()
() () Boat
)
East
() (
()
Cloud,
()
but , , , and
form differently as they are de
rived from the
,
() () Speech, ,

, ;



-
()
, ()
()

)
, ()

()
(
, () ()
()

() ()

() () Praiseworthy
)
Trader
() (

Sovereign, ,
() ()

,
,
,
Priest,
() ( )

() ()
Garland
)
Saffron
() (

38
() () Lizard
Wind, , ,
() ()

, , ,
World; ,
() ()
,
---
,

,
The Giving One,
() ()

, , , , ,
(

;
)

)
The Troubling One,
() (



;







The Cooking One,
() ( )

, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , ;
, ; ,

, , ,
, ;


----


Great
() ( )

() () Great
Tooth
() ( )
() () Winter
Foot
() ()
Heart
() ()
()
Kind-hearted, ,
()
, , , ,
, , ,
() ( ) Firewood, , ,

,

() () Hunger
King;
() ()

)
Indra
() (
)
Indra
() (

Youth;
() ()

)
Dog
() (
)
Horse
() (

Head
() ()

)
Smaller
() (

Greatness,
() ()
(), , , , ,
, , ,

)
Temporary
() (

With Good Quali()


()

ties, , ,
)
Traveller
() (

Day
() ()
)
Imminent
() (

() ()
Water

() ()
Splendour
Pond
() ( )

() () Voice
() ( ) City,
() ( ) Sky
() ( ) Direction
House
() ( )
Like You, ,
() ()
, , , , ;
, ,



Like You
() ( )
() ( ) Night
Like That
() ( )

Very Lustrous
() ()
)
Dislike
() (

() ()
Rain
Learned; ,
() ()
,

, ,

, , ,
Younger, ,
() ( )
, , , ,

, , ,

() () Fairy;

() () Brahma
Moon, ,
() ()

,
, , ,
, , , ,


)
Month
() (
)
Better
() (
)
Person
(
()

Word Index
)
Arm
() (

() () Light

() ()
Wish
)
Oblation, ,
() (

, ,
)
(
Body
()

Standing
() ()
Licking
() ()
() () Shoe
Lotus
() ()
() ; the optional short
and viz., , ,
forms of
, and , , , are never used
at the beginning of a sentence or of
a foot () of a , nor can they be
used immediately before particles
, , , and

()
That
() ( )

() ( ) That
That
() ( )
This
() ( )

() () This
This
() ( )

This; The op() ()


tional forms of and , viz.,
, , etc., are to be used
when there is , i.e., when
their proper forms have already
been used in a previous clause;
(he has studied
grammar), (teach
him ( prosody)), etc.
means the subsequent mention of
a thing already mentioned.
() () This
This
() ()

That
() ()

() ()
This
)
This
() (

() () Who
() () Who
Who
() ()
What; Indefinite
() ()

39
pronouns are formed by the addi to the various
tion of , or
cases of this word in all the genders, e.g.,
, etc.

() ( ) What
What
() ( )
All
() ()
() () All
All
() ()
You
() ( )

() () You
You
() ( )
Another
() ( )

() () Another
Other
() ( )
Before
() ()
() () Before
Before
() ()

Other
() ()
() ( ) Other
Other
() ( )
() () Both
Both
() ()
, )

() -- (,
() () One
() () Two
() () Three
() ( ) Four
-

, )
5() -
( ,
6-7

,
, )
8() -
-
(
9-10

() --
()
20-30-40

() --
() 50-6070

() - (), ()
80-90-100
Descendant of Ish() ()
vaku
A name
() ()
Descendant of
() ()
Uduloman
Warrior, ,
() ()
Swift Antelope
() ()
Jackal
() ()

Frog
() ()
A Name
() ()
() () Old Age
Ageless
() ()

() () Eastern
)
Western
() (

Northern
() ()
)
Following
() (
)
Horizontally
() (

Bright
() ()
)
(
Sage
()
)
(
United
()
()
Having Good Feet
()
)
Sun
() (

Indra
() ()
)
Summer
() (
)
Horse
() (
)
(
Indra
()
)
Shukaacharya
() (

Time
() ()
Sustainer of the
() ()
Universe
Indra
() ()
One who Milks
() ()
One who bears ha() ()
tred
Ox
() ()

() () Door

() ()
Flame

() () Companion
() () A Metre
)
Eastern
() (

Western
() ()
)
Following
() (
)
Northern
() (

Horizontal
() ()
)
Eastern
() (

Western
() ()
)
Following
() (
)
Northern
() (

Horizontal
() ()
One who Milks
() ()
One who bears ha() ()
tred
One with a good
() ( )
Ox
God
() ()

Document Home

40

Useful Resources
1. http://www.tinyurl.com/samskritam (vyakaranam/temolat folder) - , -

2. , , , ,
(http://sabda.sriaurobindoashram.org).
3. Sabda Manjari, K.L.V. Sastri & Pandit L. Anantharam Sastri, Sanskrit Made Easy Series.
(---),

4. -
, ,

5. - ( - ), ,
6. The Tested Easiest Method of Learning and Teaching Sanskrit: the study of Sanskrit by the Ashtadhyayi system in six months without cramming, Brahmadatta Jijsu; Rmalla Kapra rasa,
Sonepat, Haryana : Ram Lal Kapoor Trust, 1982, (Address: 2596 Nai Sarak, Delhi, Phone 0130 3290276, 2100285).
( - -) - ( ),
7. -

, - ()
, ,
( -
-) - ( ),
8. -

, - ()
, ,
9. http://www.advaita-vedanta.org/archives/advaita-l/2006-February/015904.html
List of Sanskrit Grammar Books
10. - (3 Vols) - , , ,
11. , - , -
, , ,
12. The Astadhyayi of Panini (English Commentary in 6 Vols), Rama Nath Sharma, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 2002

13. --
- , ( - ), , , , -,
14. This JNU site can be very useful - http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/index.jsp
15. A Most Useful Site - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/

Document Home
The latest copy of this document can be downloaded from http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_
tools/SubantaRuupaNi.pdf, the LATEX file used to create the pdf is at: http://sanskritdocuments.
org/learning_tools/SubantaRuupaNi.tex. This document is housed with many other wonderful Sanskrit learning documents at: http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tools/.