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CHAPTER 2

Class

Date

The Cell in Action

2 Cell Energy

SECTION

National Science
Education Standards

BEFORE YOU READ


After you read this section, you should be able to answer
these questions:

LS 1c, 4c

How do plant cells make food?


How do plant and animal cells get energy from food?

How Does a Plant Make Food?


The sun is the major source of energy for life on Earth.
Plants use carbon dioxide, water, and the suns energy to
make food in a process called photosynthesis. The food
that plants make gives them energy. When animals eat
plants, the plants become sources of energy for the animals.
Plant cells have molecules called pigments that absorb
light energy. Chlorophyll is the main pigment used in
photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts.
The food plants make is a simple sugar called glucose.
Photosynthesis also produces oxygen.

READING CHECK
1. Identify In which cell
structures does photosynthesis
take place?

Photosynthesis
6CO2 6H2O light energy
Carbon
Water
dioxide

STUDY TIP
Compare As you read
this section, make a Venn
Diagram to compare cellular
respiration and fermentation.

C6H12O6 6O2
Glucose Oxygen

Plant cell

Chloroplast

TAKE A LOOK

2. Identify What two


materials are produced
during photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are
found inside plant cells.

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23

The Cell in Action

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SECTION 2

Class

Date

Cell Energy continued

How Do Organisms Get Energy from Food?

STANDARDS CHECK
LS 1c Cells carry on the many
functions needed to sustain life.
They grow and divide, thereby
producing more cells. This
requires that they take in
nutrients, which they use to
provide energy for the work that
cells do and to make the materials
a cell or an organism needs.

Word Help: function


to work
Word Help: energy
the capacity to do work
3. Identify Name two
ways cells can get energy
from food.

TAKE A LOOK

4. Identify What two


materials are needed for
cellular respiration?

Both plant and animal cells must break down food


molecules to get energy from them. There are two ways
cells get energy: cellular respiration and fermentation.
During cellular respiration, cells use oxygen to
break down food. During fermentation, food is broken
down without oxygen. Cellular respiration releases more
energy from food than fermentation. Most eukaryotes,
such as plants and animals, use cellular respiration.

What Happens During Cellular Respiration?


When you hear the word respiration, you might think
of breathing. However, cellular respiration is different
from breathing. Cellular respiration is a chemical process
that happens in cells. In eukaryotic cells, such as plant
and animal cells, cellular respiration takes place in structures called mitochondria.
Recall that to get energy, cells must break down glucose. During cellular respiration, glucose is broken down
into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), and energy is
released. This energy is stored in a molecule called ATP
(adenosine triphosphate). The figure below shows how
energy is released when a cow eats grass.

C6H12O6 6O2
Glucose

Cellular respiration
6CO2 6H2O energy (ATP)

Oxygen

Carbon
dioxide

Water

Mitochondria

5. List What three things


are produced during cellular
respiration?
Animal cell

The mitochondria in the cells of this cow will use cellular respiration to release
the energy stored in the grass.

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24

The Cell in Action

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Class

SECTION 2

Date

Cell Energy continued

The Connection Between Photosynthesis


and Cellular Respiration

Critical Thinking

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration releases


carbon dioxide and water.
These are used by plant cells
in photosynthesis.

(ATP)

Light
energy

6. Apply Concepts What


would happen if oxygen
were not produced during
photosynthesis?

CO2 H2O

Mitochondrion

Chloroplast

C6H12O6 O2

Photosynthesis

Plant cell

TAKE A LOOK

Photosynthesis uses
carbon dioxide and water
and produces glucose and
oxygen. Plant and animal
cells use glucose and
oxygen to make ATP in
cellular respiration.

Animal cell

7. Complete Plant and


animal cells use glucose
and oxygen to make
.

How Is Fermentation Different from


Cellular Respiration?
During fermentation, cells break down glucose without
oxygen. Some bacteria and fungi rely only on fermentation to
release energy from food. However, cells in other organisms
may use fermentation when there is not enough oxygen for
cellular respiration.
When you exercise, your muscles use up oxygen very
quickly. When cells dont have enough oxygen, they must
use fermentation to get energy. Fermentation creates a
byproduct called lactic acid. This is what makes your
muscles ache if you exercise too hard or too long.

Say It
Research Use the school
library or the Internet to
research an organism that
uses fermentation. What kind
of organism is it? Where is it
found? Is this organism useful to humans? Present your
ndings to the class.

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25

The Cell in Action

Name

Class

Section 2 Review

Date

NSES

LS 1c, 4c

SECTION VOCABULARY
cellular respiration the process by which cells
use oxygen to produce energy from food
fermentation the breakdown of food without
the use of oxygen

photosynthesis the process by which plants,


algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon
dioxide, and water to make food.

1. Identify What kind of cells have chloroplasts?

2. Explain How do plant cells make food?

3. Explain Why do plant cells need both chloroplasts and mitochondria?

4. Apply Concepts How do the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration

work together?

5. Compare What is one difference between cellular respiration and fermentation?

6. Explain Do your body cells always use cellular respiration to break down

glucose? Explain your answer.

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26

The Cell in Action

Cells, Heredity, and Classification Answer Key continued


SECTION 2 CELL ENERGY

2. No. Organs are made of tissues, so to have


3.

4.

5.

6.

organs, an organism must have tissues.


Function is the purpose of a part, or the job
the part does. Structure is the arrangement
of parts in an organism.
Specialization of cells means that, in
multicellular organisms, different cells
perform different functions to help keep
the organism alive.
An organ has to have two or more tissues.
Tissues have to work together for an organ
to do a job.
The life span of a multicellular organism is not
limited to the life span of any one of its cells.

chloroplasts
glucose and oxygen
cellular respiration, fermentation
glucose and oxygen
carbon dioxide, water, energy (ATP)
Plants and animals wouldnt have oxygen for
cellular respiration. They couldnt use cellular respiration to get energy.
7. ATP

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Review
1. plant cells
2. Plant cells use carbon dioxide, water, and energy

Chapter 2 The Cell in Action

3.

SECTION 1 EXCHANGE WITH THE


ENVIRONMENT

4.

1. the movement of particles from areas of high

concentration to areas of low concentration

2. by diffusion
3. The 200 molecules of water have a higher

4.
5.
6.
7.

concentration of water because 100% of the


molecules are water.
Water moves into it by osmosis.
by osmosis
energy
The vesicle in the third picture should be
labeled.

5.

6.

Review
1. Both involve moving large particles across

2.
3.

4.
5.

the cell membrane. In endocytosis, particles


move into the cell. In exocytosis, particles
move out of the cell.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a
semipermeable membrane.
During passive transport, particles move
from areas of high concentration to areas of
low concentration. During active transport,
particles move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration. Active
transport uses energy from the cell, and passive transport does not.
channels
An arrow should point from the pure water
to the water mixed with sugar.

from the sun to make food by photosynthesis.


Chloroplasts make food for the plant, and
mitochondria break down the food to
release energy.
Each process gives the other the materials
it needs. Cellular respiration uses oxygen
and glucose and produces carbon dioxide,
water, and ATP. Photosynthesis uses carbon
dioxide, water, and sunlight and produces
glucose and oxygen.
Cellular respiration uses oxygen to break
down food. Fermentation does not. Cellular
respiration produces more energy than fermentation.
No, if cells dont have enough oxygen, they
break down glucose using fermentation.
When you exercise, for example, your muscle cells use up oxygen quickly. When there
is not enough oxygen left, the muscle cells
use fermentation.

SECTION 3 THE CELL CYCLE


1. The cell must make a copy of its DNA.
2. binary fission
3. Chromatids are copies of chromosomes that
4.
5.
6.
7.

are held together at the centromere.


interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
eight more
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
cell plate

Review
1. In prokaryotic cells, the DNA is on a single,

circular chromosome. The DNA of eukaryotes is stored on many chromosomes.

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14

Cells, Heredity, and Classification